The Case for Emotional Literacy: The influence of emotional intelligence on problem behaviours in Malaysian secondary school students

ArticleinJournal of Moral Education 32(1):51-66 · March 2003with 308 Reads 
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Abstract
There has been a recent renaissance in civics and moral education in the Asia-Pacific region. The need to incorporate the notion of emotional literacy into such programmes is discussed and results from the analysis of the influence that emotional literacy has on problem behaviours in Malaysian secondary school students are presented. Results indicated that emotional literacy, measured in terms of emotional intelligence, was linked to internalising and externalising problem behaviours. Emotional literacy also served as a moderating factor between parental monitoring and externalising problem behaviours. The need for developing emotional literacy programmes utilising the pedagogy of multiliteracies is discussed.

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  • ... Several past studies pointed out adolescents who showed lower level of emotional intelligence may have higher level of aggression. The results of these studies indicated a negative and significant association between aggression traits and emotional intelligence (Asl, 2018;Liau, Liau, Teoh, & Liau, 2003;Masoumeh, Mansor, Yaacob, Talib, & Sara, 2014;Shahzad, Begum, & Khan, 2013). It is also believed that higher levels of emotional intelligence, which is observable via the ability to manage stress and intrapersonal development, tend to lower the risk of physical aggression (Johnston, 2003). ...
    ... It is also believed that higher levels of emotional intelligence, which is observable via the ability to manage stress and intrapersonal development, tend to lower the risk of physical aggression (Johnston, 2003). Further, Liau et al. (2003) and Harris (2002) suggested that secondary school students who are more involved in delinquent acts might have a lower emotional intelligence and higher aggressiveness together with lower moral standards. ...
    ... In other words, the study result indicated that the higher the interpersonal emotional intelligence, the lower the problem behaviours are being reported. Such finding is consistent with Liau et al. (2003)'s as their study concluded that adolescents who showed greater emotional exchange with peers tend to have less problem behaviour. In addition, a couple of previous studies also supported that adolescents who have difficulty in social communication with their friends or others and hard to express themselves to other people may lead to delinquent behaviours (Chong et al., 2015;Erasmus, 2007). ...
  • ... Specifically, in some of these studies, it has been observed that emotionally intelligent students are more psychologically well-adjusted, as evidenced by a lower number of somatic complaints and lower levels of anxiety and depression. They also have higher quality interpersonal relationships and a lower likelihood of displaying disruptive, aggressive or violent behaviors (Ciarrochi et al. 2002;Extremera and Fernández-Berrocal 2003;Liau et al. 2003). ...
    ... Thus, several studies such as one by Liau et al. (2003), have observed that secondary school students with low levels of EI showed higher levels of aggressive and delinquent behavior. In a study conducted with American teenage students, Rubin (1999) found significant relationships between high levels of EI, measured through a skill measure called the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer et al. 1999), and lower rates of aggressive behaviors and higher prosocial behaviors reported by peers and teachers, respectively. ...
    ... In contrast, other studies that found a differential relation between the dimensions of EI (specifically between high or low levels of emotional attention and its relations with clarity and emotional repair) and different variables related to psychological and academic adjustment Fernández-Berrocal 2002, 2005;Fernández-Berrocal et al. 2001;Martín et al. 2008;Salguero et al. 2012;Salovey et al. 1995) would support the profiles of low scores on attention and high rates of clarity and repair. Finally, low scores on the three dimensions of EI seem to be related to deficits in psychological functioning and problems in interpersonal relationships Fernández-Berrocal 2002, 2004;Liau et al. 2003;Mestre et al. 2006;Petrides et al. 2004;Siu 2009), which could be associated with a low EI profile. ...
    Article
    The aim of this study was twofold: to identify different emotional intelligence (EI) profiles and to verify possible statistically significant differences in school refusal factors that result in a demotivation to attend school. Participants were 2362 Chilean adolescents aged from 13 to 17 (M = 15.25; SD = 1.33), who completed the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R). Cluster analysis identified four EI profiles: high scores in repair and low in attention, high scores in attention and low in clarity and repair, low EI and high EI. Students with high scores in attention and low in repair scored higher in the first three factors of the SRAS-R, whereas in the fourth factor of the SRAS-R, students with high EI had significantly higher scores. Emotional regulation seems to be one of the determinant factors to prevent the appearance of school refusal. Based on these findings, we recommend that EI training be a part of future programs to overcome school attendance demotivation issues.
  • ... Martinez-Pons (1999) found that adolescents" perceptions of their parents" reinforcement, praise, and education of emotion-related behavior were related to the adolescents" self-reported trait emotional intelligence. Liau, Liau, Teoh, & Liau (2003) found parental monitoring and supervision are related to children"s trait emotional intelligence. Also, Alegre & Benson (2010) detect that parental availability and control are related to late adolescents" trait emotional intelligence. ...
    ... Parenting practices have been shown to predict children"s emotional intelligence (Alegre, 2012). As well as, parental monitoring and supervision (Liau, Liau, Teoh;& Liau, 2003). parents attitudes, beliefs, and responses to their children"s emotional expressions (Gottman;Katz;& Hooven, 1997). ...
    ... Parenting practices have been shown to predict children"s emotional intelligence (Alegre, 2012). As well as, parental monitoring and supervision (Liau, Liau, Teoh;& Liau, 2003). parents attitudes, beliefs, and responses to their children"s emotional expressions (Gottman;Katz;& Hooven, 1997). ...
    Article
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    The current research aimed at investigating the relationship between the emotional intelligence of children and that of their mothers. The results revealed that. There is no correlation between emotional intelligence of the children and their mothers. The children have high emotional intelligence in recognizing emotion through faces, situations, social skills, and motivation, while empathy, managing emotions were low. There are differences between males and females in favor to females in possession of emotional intelligence in childhood. The emotional intelligence of the children does not associate only with parents emotional intelligence, but there are many other variables. These indicate the need for caution when concluding that parents emotional intelligence affects children emotional intelligence in the absence of tests for possible interactions between parents and other variables that may influence their children emotional intelligence. Specific aspects of emotional intelligence may grow with age. And it is so early to conclude that there are differences between males and females, in favor of girls in possession of emotional intelligence in childhood. Due to the children are still in a pre-school stage, which is an early age. And have not evolved to have all of the emotional intelligence skills that develop with age.
  • ... Researchers have argued that EI is a key element of human behavior (Karnes, 2009) and vital to healthy psycho-social development (Liau, Liau, Teoh, & Liau, 2003). The importance of EI is underpinned by the influence it has on an individual's behaviors, social skills, motivation, determination, and ability to adapt and succeed in various areas of functioning, including social, psychological, educational, and professional. ...
    ... The importance of EI is underpinned by the influence it has on an individual's behaviors, social skills, motivation, determination, and ability to adapt and succeed in various areas of functioning, including social, psychological, educational, and professional. In fact, a growing body of research has demonstrated a positive link between higher levels of EI, measured either as ability, trait, or a mixture of both theoretical constructs, and various positive 23 ISSN: 1553-9563 outcomes such as greater coping capabilities (Salovey, Detweiler-Bedell, B.T., Detweiler-Bedell, J.B., & Mayer, 2008), mental health, life satisfaction, professional success, academic achievement, subjective well-being (Davis & Levin, 2013;Liau et al., 2003;Schutte & Malouff, 2011), disposable income, and socioeconomic status (Côté, Gyurak, & Levenson, 2010). ...
    ... Various researchers have examined the effects of behavioral incidents in relation to academic success, and prior research has consistently recognized the negative relationship between behavioral infractions and educational attainment (Allensworth et al., 2014;Balfanz, Herzog, 26 ISSN: 1553-9563 Mac Iver, 2007;Lee, Daniels, Puig, Newgent, & Nam, 2008;Stephan et al., 2015). These maladaptive behaviors, which are often measured by student suspension, expulsion, or juvenile delinquency factors, have also been associated with other adverse outcomes, including school disengagement, increased absenteeism, lower levels of academic achievement, peer rejection, and higher levels of substance abuse (Liu, 2006;Liau et al., 2003;Mavroveli & Sanchez-Ruiz, 2010;McKee & Caldarella, 2016). Burke (2015) examined whether graduation outcomes among a cohort of 6,118 Oregon students who entered grade 9 in 2007/08 differed by their demographic characteristics, attendance, GPA, and behavior, and found that students who were suspended or expelled in grade 9 dropped out at a rate 4.2 times higher than student who were not suspended or expelled in grade 9 did. ...
  • ... Several studies indicated strong evidence of a negative association between EI and aggression irrespective of ages, indicators, and populations in the sample of adults as well as adolescents (Denson, 2013;Denson, Pedersen, Friese, Hahm, & Roberts, 2011;García-Sancho et al., 2014;García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2015, 2016Liau, Liau, Teoh, & Liau, 2003). García-Sancho et al. (2014) identified 19 related studies in a systematic review; among these eighteen studies reported that people with low EI display hostile and aggressive behavior in all the cultures such as United Kingdom, United States, Spain, Malaysia, Canada, Australia, and China . ...
    ... The current study aimed at investigating the association between EI and aggression among young Pakistani adults. Results indicated that EI is negatively associated with the anger and hostility subscales of aggression (García-Sancho et al., 2014;Liau et al., 2003;Masum & Khan, 2014). There is a possible explanation that individuals who are unable to understand the other's emotions, erroneously attribute the hostility to others expressions and are more likely to react angrily due to their maladaptive emotional perception. ...
    ... The Theory of EI argue that people with higher EI have positive social interaction and can adjust in environment successfully (Brackett et al., 2011;Mayer et al., 2008); consequently, they are less likely to experience aggressive behavior. The role of emotional regulation in aggression across various cultures is evident in existing literature (Denson, 2013;Denson et al., 2011;García-Sancho et al., 2014, 2016Liau et al., 2003). In line with previous studies, the current study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by indicating gender differences in EI and aggression among the student population of Pakistan. ...
    Article
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    The present study aims at examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and aggression and investigating gender differences for both variables. A sample of 100 University students (50 males and 50 females) were recruited from two adjacent cities of Pakistan. Emotional Intelligence (EI) of participants was measured by the Emotional Intelligence Scale, whereas Aggression Scale was used to measure aggression level. Results indicated a negative association between emotional intelligence and aggression (r = − 0.34, p < .001) specifically with hostility and anger subscale of aggression (p < .001). Moreover, no significant gender differences were observed for emotional intelligence (p > .001) and aggression except for the physical aggression subscale on which male students scored higher as compared to female students (p < .05). Results suggest that emotional intelligence could be a protective factor against specific aspects of aggression. Therefore, appropriate management programs should be developed to enhance the different dimensions of emotional intelligence inhibiting aggressive behavior.
  • ... As for the cyberbullies, numerous studies suggest that they have a lack of empathy towards their victims and low levels of emotional intelligence. Liau, Liau, Teoh, and Liau (2003) found that the students having the lowest emotional intelligence revealed higher levels of aggressive and delinquent behaviors. Along these lines, Vásquez, Ávila, Marqués, Martínez, Mercado & Severiche (2010) using a sample of Colombian university students, found that the non-aggressors had adequate emotional intelligence as compared to the aggressors. ...
    ... A greater understanding of emotions helps students to feel a greater level of empathy towards their peers, which may drastically reduce their involvement in intimidating behaviors. In general, this data supports the studies that consider EI to be a protective variable against bullying and cyberbullying (Elipe et al., 2015;Garaigordobil & Oñederra, 2010;Liau et al., 2003;Vásquez et al., 2010). ...
  • ... The importance of developing emotional literacy has been demonstrated in empirical literature. While Ciarrochi, Chan, and Caputi (2000) found that low EL was associated with low levels of empathy and difficulty regulating moods, Liau, Liau, Teoh and Liau (2003) surveyed over 200 secondary school students in Malaysia and found a significant negative relationship between levels of EL and internalising behaviours, whereby those with lower levels of EL had higher levels of stress and depression. A significant negative association was also found between EL and externalising problem behaviours, with low levels of EL related to high levels of aggression. ...
    ... A significant negative association was also found between EL and externalising problem behaviours, with low levels of EL related to high levels of aggression. Although this suggests that emotional literacy skills may be important for both internalising and externalising behaviour, it is important to be aware that this research was reliant on self-report measures (Liau et al., 2003). ...
  • ... On another hand, Liau et al. [19] found that high school students with lower emotional intelligence showed higher levels of aggressive and criminal behavior. In the same direction, other authors such as Zimmerman [20] and, more recently, [21] identified some deficits in certain aspects of emotional intelligence in adolescent aggressors, specifically in aspects of the perspective-taking of others, self-control, and social skills in general. ...
    ... This result confirms the findings of other works that have reported that adolescents who presented more intense and frequent facial expressions of hostility and anger were less able to regulate and adequately manage their emotions, aspects that are present in students with violent behavior [22,75,76]. In fact, several previous studies have shown lower general levels of emotional intelligence in schoolchildren with a tendency to show aggressive behaviors [19,20,76,77], but there are hardly any referents of multidimensional emotional intelligence in aggressors, and even fewer in cyberaggressors. In this study, cyberaggressors did not show a worsening in any dimension of emotional intelligence or in emotion regulation. ...
    Article
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    The objective of the present study was to analyze the extent to which violent peer behavior and victimization, both traditional and cybernetic, and predict certain indicators of psychological maladjustment in adolescents, such as self-concept, satisfaction with life, feeling of loneliness, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, social anxiety, empathy, and emotional intelligence. Participants in the study were 1318 adolescents of both sexes, aged between 11 and 18 years and enrolled in Compulsory Secondary Education schools. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The results indicated that the victims generally present greater maladjustment than the aggressors. Both victims and cybervictims showed a greater decrease in all the dimensions of self-concept, compared with aggressors and cyberaggressors. However, the two types of aggressors showed a higher likelihood of presenting low levels of empathy. Feeling of loneliness, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, and degree of life satisfaction was more probable to be present in all groups of aggressors and victims. Finally, with regard to emotional intelligence, victims had a higher probability of obtaining low scores in all the dimensions of this construct; this was the case for traditional aggressors only in the dimension of emotion regulation. These results contribute to our understanding of the consequences of harassment in the adaptation of the students involved, with relevant practical implications.
  • ... Berdasarkan beberapa hasil kajian yang telah dijalankan, kecerdasan emosi dilihat memberi impak yang positif ke atas kehidupan manusia. Hal ini kerana seseorang yang mempunyai tahap kecerdasan emosi yang rendah menunjukkan perasaan bimbang dan perasaan tidak selesa apabila melaksanakan tugasan yang diberi, tidak dapat berfungsi dalam kehidupan dengan baik dan tidak dapat membina potensi diri secara optimum (Saemah et al., 2008), merupakan seorang yang lebih berpusatkan pada diri sendiri dan kurang menunjukkan sifat empati terhadap orang lain (Erasmus, 2007), mempunyai masalah tingkah laku seperti agresif dan kemurungan (Liau et al., 2003;Parker et al., 2008), tingginya penggunaan dadah dan alkohol, penglibatan dalam tingkah laku devian seperti pergaduhan yang melibatkan fizikal dan vandalisme (Maria et al., 2015), serta penggunaan strategi daya tindak maladaptif (Homauni Masoumeh et al., 2014). ...
    ... Sebaliknya, mereka yang mempunyai tahap kecerdasan emosi yang tinggi pula mempamerkan berlakunya peningkatan kesihatan mental seperti penurunan kemurungan dan stres sosial (Ruiz-Arand et al., 2012), kadar penggunaan alkohol dan merokok yang rendah (Trinidad & Johnson, 2002), dapat memberi tumpuan dalam menyelesaikan sesuatu tugasan yang diberi (Noriah et al., 2001), mempunyai hubungan sosial yang baik (Mayer, 2001;Asnawi, Madlan & Sombuling, 2017), menjadi peramal kepada kepuasan hidup dan peningkatan positif dalam interaksi dengan rakan dan keluarga (Maria et al., 2015) serta rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku dalaman seperti kebimbangan akademik, kemurungan dan stres serta rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku luaran seperti marah dan delinkuen (Liau et al., 2003). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Social emotional intelligent ia s burgeoning field and related studies have been widely conducted in Malaysia. The Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version (EQ-i:YV) which was design by Bar-On and Parker, is an instrument to measure social emotional intelligent, specifically among children and adolescent aged between seven and 18 years old. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of EQ-i:YV. A total of 1067 students from various secondary schools in Kota Kinabalu and Kudat, Sabah was employed as the respondents. In order to test the reliability of EQ-i:YV, the internal measurement by using Cronbach’s alpha was used. Meanwhile, the construct validity was tested by using inter-correlation validity test and Exploritory Factor Analysis (EFA). The results show that all the six dimension in EQ-i:YV display a good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha values ranging 0.52 to 0.75. Nevertheless, the overall internal consistency of EQ-i:YV show high Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.87. For inter-correlation validity, several dimension show positive correlation and several others do not. Meanwhile, EFA results show that most of the items have a medium and high loading. The psychometric evaluation towards EQ-i:YV gives an implication to researches who intend to conduct related to social emotional intelligence particularly among students or adolecents in Malaysia. Keywords: Social emotional intelligent, psychometric evaluation, reliability, validity, EFA, the emotional quotient inventory youth version (EQ-i:YV), secondary school students.
  • ... Moreover, along children life, aggression would undermine their social life because aggressive individuals who can not adjust to the different situation will do violent or will be isolated (Calvete & Orue 2010). Research of Liau et al. (2003) showed that emotional intelligence negatively correlated with aggression and delinquency of children. It means that the higher the emotional intelligence then the lower the aggression and delinquency. ...
    ... The results showed that emotional intelligence showed a significant negative correlation with aggressive behavior. These results are consistent with the results of Liau et al. (2003) and Masum and Khan (2014) who found that emotional intelligence negatively correlated with aggression and delinquency of children. It means that the higher the emotional intelligence so the lower aggression and delinquency. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Emotional socialization is important factor to shape emotional intelligence for children. Children who have high emotional intelligence will prevent to behave aggressively. Basic emotions in children such as anger, sadness, and fear is still regarded as inappropriate emotions expressed. The aimed of this research was to analyze the effect of emotional socialization of three basic emotions and emotional intelligence on aggressive behavior of school-age children in the rural family. This research was conducted at Ciasmara and Ciasihan Village, Pamijahan Sub District, Bogor Regency. Design of this research was cross sectional. The samples of this research were intact family who had school-aged children. Hundreds students were selected by proportional random sampling in the two selected school. Result showed that there were significant positive correlation between emotional socialization and emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence was significant negatively correlated with aggressive behavior. Other result found that mother’s age, acceptance dimension of emotional socialization, awareness and self-regulation of emotional intelligence had significant influences on aggressive behavior among school-age children of rural family
  • ... Berdasarkan hasil dapatan kajian lepas, menunjukkan kecerdasan emosi yang tinggi dapat meningkatkan kesihatan mental seperti penurunan kemurungan dan stres sosial (Ruiz-Arand et al., 2012), kadar penggunaan alkohol dan merokok yang rendah (Trinidad & Johnson, 2002), dapat memberi tumpuan dalam menyelesaikan sesuatu tugasan yang diberi (Noriah et al., 2001), mempunyai hubungan sosial yang mantap (Mayer, 2001), menjadi peramal kepada kepuasan hidup dan peningkatan positif dalam interaksi dengan rakan dan keluarga (Chong et al., 2015) serta rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku dalaman seperti kebimbangan akademik, kemurungan dan stres dan rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku luaran seperti marah dan delinkuen (Liau et al., 2003). Sebaliknya, kecerdasan emosi yang rendah pula mempunyai impak kesignifikanan berkaitan dengan masalah tingkah laku seperti agresif dan kemurungan (Liau et al., 2003;Parker et al., 2008), tingginya penggunaan dadah dan alkohol, serta penglibatan dalam tingkah laku devian seperti pergaduhan fizikal dan vandalisme (Chong et al., 2015), menunjukkan tingkah laku bimbang dan perasaan tidak selesa apabila melaksanakan tugasan yang diberi, tidak dapat berfungsi dalam kehidupan dengan baik dan tidak dapat membina potensi diri secara optima (Saemah et al., 2008), menjadi seorang yang lebih berpusatkan pada diri sendiri dan ketidakbolehan empati serta apa-apa yang melibatkan orang lain (Erasmus, 2007) serta penggunaan strategi daya tindak maladaptif (Homauni et al., 2014). ...
    ... Berdasarkan hasil dapatan kajian lepas, menunjukkan kecerdasan emosi yang tinggi dapat meningkatkan kesihatan mental seperti penurunan kemurungan dan stres sosial (Ruiz-Arand et al., 2012), kadar penggunaan alkohol dan merokok yang rendah (Trinidad & Johnson, 2002), dapat memberi tumpuan dalam menyelesaikan sesuatu tugasan yang diberi (Noriah et al., 2001), mempunyai hubungan sosial yang mantap (Mayer, 2001), menjadi peramal kepada kepuasan hidup dan peningkatan positif dalam interaksi dengan rakan dan keluarga (Chong et al., 2015) serta rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku dalaman seperti kebimbangan akademik, kemurungan dan stres dan rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku luaran seperti marah dan delinkuen (Liau et al., 2003). Sebaliknya, kecerdasan emosi yang rendah pula mempunyai impak kesignifikanan berkaitan dengan masalah tingkah laku seperti agresif dan kemurungan (Liau et al., 2003;Parker et al., 2008), tingginya penggunaan dadah dan alkohol, serta penglibatan dalam tingkah laku devian seperti pergaduhan fizikal dan vandalisme (Chong et al., 2015), menunjukkan tingkah laku bimbang dan perasaan tidak selesa apabila melaksanakan tugasan yang diberi, tidak dapat berfungsi dalam kehidupan dengan baik dan tidak dapat membina potensi diri secara optima (Saemah et al., 2008), menjadi seorang yang lebih berpusatkan pada diri sendiri dan ketidakbolehan empati serta apa-apa yang melibatkan orang lain (Erasmus, 2007) serta penggunaan strategi daya tindak maladaptif (Homauni et al., 2014). ...
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    Social emotional intelligence, a combination between emotion and social intelligence, is a very important aspect of one's self. It is divided into five components which is intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress management, adaptation and general mood. Social emotional intelligence directly affects the behavior, emotion and decision making of an individual. Secondary school students are a group of early teenager and still in the process of identity formation. Therefore, it is important to know the social emotional intelligence of adaptability skills especially among school students as it has long-term impact on their performance. The main objective of this study is to examine the social emotional intelligence scores among high school students in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. The sample in this study consisted of Form One to Form Six students from various schools around Kota Kinabalu. A set of questionnaire used in this study is The Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version (EQ-i: YV) designed by Bar-On and Parker (2000) contains 60 questions with four likert scale. The data obtained were analyzed using the IBM SPSS version 24.0. The results of this study showed that the social emotional intelligence as a whole is at a moderate level. Meanwhile, there are differences in adaptability skills between male and female students, where the mean score for male students is higher than female students. As for the implication, related parties such as ministries of education, parents and the community can obtain relevant information for the purpose of implementation of programs and activities to enhance emotional intelligence and adaptability skills that are appropriate to the current generation Z.
  • ... Por otro lado, Liau, Liau, Teoh y Liau (2003) constatan que los alumnos de secundaria con inteligencia emocional más baja, muestran mayores niveles de conductas agresivas y delictivas; y en la misma dirección, Zimmerman (2005) concluye que los agresores tienen un bajo índice de inteligencia emocional, concretamente en los aspectos de empatía, autocontrol y habilidades sociales. Caspi et al. (1994) asociaron la conducta delictiva de los adolescentes a un débil autocontrol y a una emotividad negativa (tendencia a estar enojado, ansioso e irritable). ...
    ... En tercer lugar, los adolescentes que tenían un nivel alto de conductas antisociales-delictivas mostraban bajo nivel de pensamiento constructivo global o inteligencia emocional, bajo nivel de eficacia, de actividad, de responsabilidad, de extremismo, de ilusión, de pensamiento estereotipado y de tolerancia, lo que confirma la hipótesis 3. Estos resultados confirman los obtenidos por Caspi et al. (1994), Contreras y García (2008), Liau et al. (2003), Zimmerman (2005) y Zuckerman (1994, y principalmente en lo referente a deficiencias de autocontrol y empatía, los estudios de Avilés y Monjas (2005), Díaz-Aguado (2006), Henley y Long (1999), Hernández et al. (2002) y Stassen (2007. ...
    Article
    El estudio tuvo como principal objetivo analizar las relaciones existentes entre ser víctima de acoso escolar y ser agresor con parámetros asociados a la inteligencia emocional (emotividad, eficacia, pensamiento supersticioso, rigidez, pensamiento esotérico, ilusión). La muestra está constituida por 248 alumnos de 12 a 16 años, 144 varones (58.1%) y 104 mujeres (41.9%). Para medir las variables se utilizaron 3 instrumentos de evaluación: el Inventario de Pensamiento Constructivo, la Lista de Chequeo mi vida en la escuela y el Cuestionario de Conductas Antisociales-Delictivas. Los resultados obtenidos confirmaron que: 1) los adolescentes que habían sufrido muchas conductas de intimidación o bullying, tuvieron bajo nivel de inteligencia emocional, baja emotividad, baja autoestima, baja tolerancia a la frustración, baja eficacia, y poca actividad; y 2) Los adolescentes que tenían un nivel alto de conductas antisociales-delictivas mostraban bajo nivel de inteligencia emocional, de eficacia, de actividad, de responsabilidad, y de tolerancia. La discusión gira en torno a la importancia de implementar programas para fomentar la inteligencia emocional con la finalidad de prevenir el acoso escolar.
  • ... Sebagai contoh, individu yang mempunyai kecerdasan emosi yang tinggi dilaporkan mempunyai kesihatan mental yang lebih baik serta mempunyai kadar kemurungan dan stres sosial yang kurang (Ruiz-Arand et al., 2012). Selain itu, mereka juga mempunyai kecenderungan yang rendah dari segi masalah tingkah laku luaran seperti pemarah dan delinkuen (Liau et al., 2003), mempunyai hubungan sosial yang baik (Mayer, 2001), dapat memberi tumpuan dan menyelesaikan (Maria et al., 2015). Sebaliknya pula, individu yang mempunyai kecerdasan emosi yang rendah dilaporkan mempunyai kecenderungan yang tinggi dengan masalah tingkah laku seperti kebimbangan, kemurungan dan agresif (Parker et al., 2008;Liau et al., 2003), penggunaan alkohol dan rokok yang tinggi (Trinidad & Johnson, 2002), terlibat dengan tingkah laku devian seperti pergaduhan dan vandalisme (Maria et al., 2015), dan pada masa yang sama kerap menggunakan pendekatan strategi daya tindak maladatif (Homauni et al., 2014). ...
    ... Selain itu, mereka juga mempunyai kecenderungan yang rendah dari segi masalah tingkah laku luaran seperti pemarah dan delinkuen (Liau et al., 2003), mempunyai hubungan sosial yang baik (Mayer, 2001), dapat memberi tumpuan dan menyelesaikan (Maria et al., 2015). Sebaliknya pula, individu yang mempunyai kecerdasan emosi yang rendah dilaporkan mempunyai kecenderungan yang tinggi dengan masalah tingkah laku seperti kebimbangan, kemurungan dan agresif (Parker et al., 2008;Liau et al., 2003), penggunaan alkohol dan rokok yang tinggi (Trinidad & Johnson, 2002), terlibat dengan tingkah laku devian seperti pergaduhan dan vandalisme (Maria et al., 2015), dan pada masa yang sama kerap menggunakan pendekatan strategi daya tindak maladatif (Homauni et al., 2014). Oleh demikian, pentingnya kecerdasan emosi dalam kalangan remaja kerana ia memberi impak yang cukup besar kepada kehidupan mereka. ...
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    Emotional intelligence has a positive impact in various aspects of human life. However, the development of emotional intelligence was influenced by a lot of factors. Thus, the aim of this article was to report the influence of parenting style towards the development of emotional intelligence among teenagers in rural area. This research also aims to study gender-based differences in emotional intelligence and the acceptance of parenting styles. The respondents are 110 teenagers aged between 15 and 17 years old, who are chosen randomly from rural schools. The questionnaire consists of three parts: a) respondent demographic, b) parenting style (using the Parental Authority Questionnaire) and c) emotional intelligence (using the Assessing Emotions Scale). Multiple regression test and independent sample t-test are used to analyze the data using IBM SPSS version 23. The result show that there is significant influence of authoritative parenting style on the development of teenagers' emotional intelligence in the rural area. There is also significant gender differences in the emotional intelligence among the rural teenagers. However, there is no significant differences between genders in the teenagers’ acceptance of parenting style. This study has shown the importance of suitable approach in parenting style among rural parents, in order to ensure positive development of emotional intelligence among teenagers. Keywords: Parenting Style, Emotional Intelligence, Teenager, Rural Area, Gender
  • ... Berdasarkan hasil dapatan kajian lepas menunjukkan bahawa kecerdasan emosi yang tinggi dapat meningkatkan kesihatan mental dengan mengurangkan kadar kemurungan dan stres sosial (Ruiz-Arand, Sactilo, Salquero, Cabello, Fernandez-Berrocal, & Balluerka, 2012), kadar penggunaan alkohol dan merokok yang rendah (Trinidad & Johnson, 2002), dapat memberi tumpuan dalam menyelesaikan sesuatu tugasan yang diberi (Noriah, Siti Rahaya, Zuria, Mansor, & Sara, 2001), mempunyai hubungan sosial yang mantap (Mayer, Perkins, Caruso, & Salovey, 2001), menjadi peramal kepada kepuasan hidup dan peningkatan positif dalam interaksi dengan rakan dan keluarga (Maria, Lee, Samsilah, & Maznah, 2015) serta rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku dalaman seperti kebimbangan akademik, kemurungan dan stres dan rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku luaran seperti marah dan delinkuen (Liau, Liau, Teoh, & Liau, 2003). 14 Sebaliknya, kecerdasan emosi yang rendah pula mempunyai impak kesignifikanan berkaitan dengan masalah tingkah laku seperti agresif dan kemurungan (Liau et al., 2003;Parker, Taylor, Eastabrook, Schell, & Wood, 2008), kurang kemampuan dalam mengendalikan stres secara efektif (Dady dlm Abdul Adib, Lailawati & Agnis, 2017), tingginya penggunaan dadah dan alkohol, serta penglibatan dalam tingkah laku devian seperti pergaduhan fizikal dan vandalisma (Maria, et al., 2015), menunjukkan tingkah laku bimbang dan perasaan tidak selesa apabila melaksanakan tugasan yang diberi, tidak dapat berfungsi dalam kehidupan dengan baik dan tidak dapat membina potensi diri secara optima (Saemah et al., 2008), menjadi seorang yang lebih berpusatkan pada diri sendiri dan kurang sikap empati terhadap orang lain (Erasmus, 2007) serta penggunaan strategi daya tindak maladaptif (Homauni Masoumeh, Mariani Mansor, Siti Nor Yaacob, Mansor Abu Talib, & Sara, 2014). ...
    ... Berdasarkan hasil dapatan kajian lepas menunjukkan bahawa kecerdasan emosi yang tinggi dapat meningkatkan kesihatan mental dengan mengurangkan kadar kemurungan dan stres sosial (Ruiz-Arand, Sactilo, Salquero, Cabello, Fernandez-Berrocal, & Balluerka, 2012), kadar penggunaan alkohol dan merokok yang rendah (Trinidad & Johnson, 2002), dapat memberi tumpuan dalam menyelesaikan sesuatu tugasan yang diberi (Noriah, Siti Rahaya, Zuria, Mansor, & Sara, 2001), mempunyai hubungan sosial yang mantap (Mayer, Perkins, Caruso, & Salovey, 2001), menjadi peramal kepada kepuasan hidup dan peningkatan positif dalam interaksi dengan rakan dan keluarga (Maria, Lee, Samsilah, & Maznah, 2015) serta rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku dalaman seperti kebimbangan akademik, kemurungan dan stres dan rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku luaran seperti marah dan delinkuen (Liau, Liau, Teoh, & Liau, 2003). 14 Sebaliknya, kecerdasan emosi yang rendah pula mempunyai impak kesignifikanan berkaitan dengan masalah tingkah laku seperti agresif dan kemurungan (Liau et al., 2003;Parker, Taylor, Eastabrook, Schell, & Wood, 2008), kurang kemampuan dalam mengendalikan stres secara efektif (Dady dlm Abdul Adib, Lailawati & Agnis, 2017), tingginya penggunaan dadah dan alkohol, serta penglibatan dalam tingkah laku devian seperti pergaduhan fizikal dan vandalisma (Maria, et al., 2015), menunjukkan tingkah laku bimbang dan perasaan tidak selesa apabila melaksanakan tugasan yang diberi, tidak dapat berfungsi dalam kehidupan dengan baik dan tidak dapat membina potensi diri secara optima (Saemah et al., 2008), menjadi seorang yang lebih berpusatkan pada diri sendiri dan kurang sikap empati terhadap orang lain (Erasmus, 2007) serta penggunaan strategi daya tindak maladaptif (Homauni Masoumeh, Mariani Mansor, Siti Nor Yaacob, Mansor Abu Talib, & Sara, 2014). ...
    Article
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    Penting untuk mengetahui tahap kecerdasan emosi sosial khususnya dalam kalangan pelajar sekolah kerana ia memberi kesan jangka panjang ke atas prestasi mereka. Maka, objektif utama kajian ini adalah untuk mengetahui profil kecerdasan emosi sosial dalam kalangan pelajar sekolah menengah di Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Di samping itu, kajian ini turut mengenal pasti sekiranya terdapat perbezaan umur bagi kesemua domain kecerdasan emosi sosial. Sampel kajian adalah seramai 503 orang pelajar yang terdiri daripada pelajar tingkatan satu hingga tingkatan enam. Sementara, alat kajian yang digunakan adalah the Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version (EQ-i:YV) yang direka oleh BarOn dan Parker yang mengandungi sebanyak 60 item. Data yang diperolehi dianalisis menggunakan IBM SPSS Statistics versi 22. Hasil keputusan daripada kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa profil bagi domain interpersonal dan mood umum secara keseluruhannya berada pada tahap tinggi. Manakala, profil bagi domain yang selebihnya seperti intrapersonal, pengurusan stres, adaptasi pula secara keseluruhannya adalah berada tahap sederhana. Sementara itu, bagi profil kecerdasan emosi sosial secara keseluruhannya berada tahap sederhana. Dari segi perbezaan umur bagi kesemua domain kecerdasan emosi sosial pula menunjukkan wujudnya perbezaan yang signifikan bagi aspek umur bagi domain interpersonal dan mood umum. Hasil daripada kajian ini secara tidak langsung memberi implikasi kepada pengkaji akan datang khususnya yang ingin menjalankan kajian berkaitan kecerdasan emosi sosial atau yang memberi fokus kepada domainnya dalam kalangan pelajar sekolah. Kata kunci: kecerdasan emosi sosial, pelajar, sekolah menengah
  • ... Impact is observed in the emotional and social competencies when family relationships become secure and smooth (Chandran and Nair, 2015). Furthermore, there is a relationship between parenting and children's trait EI (Alegre, 2012;Alegre and Benson, 2010;Gottman et al., 1997;Liau et al., 2003). The amount of time mothers spend with their children and the quality of their interactions are important factors in forming children's trait EI. ...
    Article
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    This study explored the relationship between family functioning and trait emotional intelligence among 547 respondents, between the age of 16 and 24 years from Malaysia, Iran, China, Sudan, Somalia, Morocco, the United Kingdom, Germany and the Netherlands. The questionnaires were Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between family functioning and trait emotional intelligence. The higher the family functioning, the higher the trait emotional intelligence among youths. The findings provide a deeper understanding in the field of family functioning and trait emotional intelligence and have implications for parents, administrators and child relationships dealing with trait emotional intelligence.
  • ... Selain itu, kajian oleh Liau et al. (2003) tentang kesan kecerdasan emosi ke atas masalah tingkah laku pelajar-pelajar sekolah menangah telah dijalankan ke atas 203 orang pelajar sekolah menengah di kawasan Bandar . Kajian ini mendapati bahawa tahap kecerdasan emosi yang rendah menyebabkan berlakunya masalah tingkah laku dalaman seperti stress, menyalahkan diri sendiri dan kecewa. ...
    Conference Paper
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    ABSTRAK Perkembangan awal kanak-kanak perlu diberi perhatian yang secukupnya baik dari segi mental, emosi, sosial dan juga fizikal. Masalah tingkah laku dalam kalangan kanak-kanak perlu dipandang serius oleh semua pihak bagi membentuk individu yang mempunyai sahsiah dan tingkah laku yang baik pada masa hadapan. Terdapat pelbagai faktor yang memainkan peranan penting dalam pembentukan tingkah laku kanak-kanak. Antaranya ialah kurangnya perhatian daripada ibu bapa serta masalah dalam pengurusan emosi kanak-kanak. Kertas konsep ini mengulas mengenai gaya keibubapaan dan kecerdasan emosi yang menjadi peramal kepada masalah tingkah laku kanak-kanak. Hasil sorotan kajian kebanyakannya mendapati bahawa terdapat hubungan antara gaya keibubapaan dan kecerdasan emosi dengan masalah tingkah laku kanak-kanak. Gaya keibubapaan autoritatif dan kecerdasan emosi yang baik dilihat berperanan dalam mengurangkan masalah tingkah laku kanak-kanak. Hasil kajian ini dilihat dapat memberi implikasi kepada ahli professional dalam bidang keluarga dan keibubapaan bagi menyarankan dan menggalakkan ibu bapa supaya lebih memahami gaya didikan yang berkesan dan pengurusan emosi dalam kalangan kanak-kanak. Kajian akan datang disarankan agar dapat melibatkan guru kepada kanak-kanak yang mempunyai masalah tingkah laku. Ini dapat memberi kefahaman yang lebih baik daripada perspektif guru untuk mengatasi masalah tingkah laku dalam kalangan kanak-kanak. Kata kunci : gaya keibubapaan, autoritatif, kecerdasan emosi, masalah tingkah laku, kanak-kanak
  • ... On the other hand, a low level of EI may be a key factor in a variety of deviant behavior (Eisenberg, 2000). Liau, Liau, Teoh, and Liau (2003), for example, found that lower EI is linked to deviant behaviors among secondary school students, and lower EI scores are linked to drug abuse, excessive drinking and deviant behavior in male college students (Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, 2004). Berko and Lovinday (1998) estimate that 90% of our actions and activities are actually sense-related and only 10% are based on thoughts, logic and reasoning. ...
    Article
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    The purpose of the study is to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, deviant workplace behavior, and job performance. Emotional intelligence and deviant workplace behavior was measured by the Emotional Quotient Index and Multidimensional Scale respectively while job performance was assessed by Tsui et al.,'s Job Performance Scale. Data for this study were collected from 201 employed MBA students studying at four private universities in Chittagong, a port city of Bangladesh. They were asked to rate their supervisors' emotional intelligence, deviant workplace behavior, and job performance with the help of self-administered questionnaires. In data collection, this study used convenience sampling. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation, and regression analysis. Results indicated a negative correlation between emotional intelligence and deviant workplace behavior (r =-.52 **), and deviant workplace behavior and job performance (r =-.45 **) while emotional intelligence was found to correlate positively with job performance (r = .58 **). The main implication of the study is that emotionally intelligent employees exhibit higher job performance and a lesser tendency to take part in deviant workplace behavior. The other implication is that the presence of deviant workplace behavior was a prior indication of poor job performance; hence supervisors should use their emotional intelligence competencies to improve their own and others' job performance. The most important limitation of the study was that it used convenience samples, which might limit the generalizability of the results. Future research directions are also discussed.
  • ... Otros estudios realizados en Australia presentan evidencias de que los estudiantes universitarios con alta IE responden al estrés con menos ideaciones suicidas, comparados con aquellos con baja IE, e informan menor depresión y desesperanza (Ciarrochi et al., 2002). Igualmente, Liau et al. (2003) han encontrado que los estudiantes de secundaria que indican menores niveles de IE tienen puntuaciones más altas en estrés, depresión y quejas somáticas. ...
    Article
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    La generación de los milenios ha representado un reto tanto para los empleadores como para los sistemas universitarios. Esta generación presenta características diferentes a otras generaciones de trabajadores. El propósito de este trabajo de investigación es identificar la relación que existe entre el autoliderazgo y la inteligencia emocional de esta nueva generación de trabajadores. El levantamiento de información se realizó a través de estudiantes de últimos semestres universitarios y se analizó mediante la utilización de la modelación de ecuaciones estructurales para identificar la relación entre las variables de estudio. Los resultados indican que existe una fuerte relación entre la inteligencia emocional y el autoliderazgo, siendo uno de los factores clave el uso de las emociones para fijar los objetivos, así como la apreciación de las emociones propias y las de los demás.
  • ... Tumpuan pengajaran dan pembelajaran (PdP) Pendidikan Moral adalah mengkaitkan situasi atau isu-isu di dalam negara mahupun di luar negara agar membantu pelajar dalam menghadapi konflik moral berdasarkan kepada nilai dan prinsip moral yang dipelajari. PdP akan lebih efektif sekiranya guru mengkaitkan peristiwa sebenar dengan kehidupan manusia (Liau et al., 2003). Proses pengajaran Pendidikan Moral ialah penyebaran ilmu pengetahuan dan kemahiran oleh guru. ...
  • ... El perfil de acosador/a, responde a un sujeto con escaso índice de inteligencia emocional, que se concreta en los aspectos de empatía, autocontrol, y habilidades sociales, que trata de imponer a toda costa su voluntad hacia los demás, utilizando habitualmente formas provocadoras. Carecen de sentido de la culpa y tienen escasa empatía hacia los demás (Olweus, 1998;Liau, 2003;Gil Guzmán, 2015). Estos actúan guiados por la ira y por consiguiente son normalmente rechazados por sus iguales con excepción de los que participan en sus fechorías. ...
    Article
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    p>En este trabajo se realiza un análisis psicosocial de las actitudes ante la violencia escolar conocido como ( bullying), en un grupo de estudiantes de Educación Secundaria de acuerdo con un modelo tridimensional de evaluación actitudinal respecto a relaciones, creencias, expectativas, etc., además de afectivo respecto a sentimientos y valoraciones de las diferencias informadas en el ambiente relacional familiar y académico. Para ello se cuenta con una muestra constituida por 493 niños y niñas de entre 11 y 18 años, que cursan las diversas etapas de la ESO en diferentes institutos de Educación Secundaria de Sevilla y provincia. También se efectúa un estudio sobre la diferente legislación aplicable a todos los niveles, desde internacional, nacional, local, administrativa, penal y civil, al objeto de obtener una visión general de la competencia legal para la puesta en marcha de los procedimientos en el tratamiento legal de la problemática del acoso entre iguales.</p
  • ... Déficit en los niveles de bienestar y ajuste psicológico del alumnado; (2) Disminución en la cantidad y calidad de las relaciones interpersonales; (3) Descenso del rendimiento académico y (4) Aparición de conductas disruptivas y consumo de sustancias adictivas.(Ciarrochi, Chan y Bajgar, 2001; Fernández-Berrocal, Extremera y Ramos, 2003;Liau, Liau, Teoh y Liau, 2003; Trinidad y Johnson, 2002. cit. ...
    Thesis
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    La sociedad actual demanda personas que a través de un aprendizaje continuo se conviertan en sujetos autónomos capaces de tomar conciencia de sus propios procesos mentales al enfrentarse con los problemas, analizarlos adecuadamente, planificar, supervisar y evaluar la propia actuación. Aunque los estilos de aprendizaje son relativamente estables, pueden ser modificados, siendo una responsabilidad de los profesores ayudar a los estudiantes a descubrir su estilo y aprender a adaptarlo a las experiencias de cada situación. Ése es nuestro objetivo, ahora que nos enfrentamos a un cambio drástico en la forma de enseñar, acorde con el nuevo sistema europeo: conocer los estilos de aprendizaje predominantes en nuestros estudiantes para planificar la docencia de acuerdo a ese hecho. Este trabajo se ha diseñado para evaluar y analizar la Inteligencia Emocional, los Estilos de Aprendizaje y las Estrategias de Aprendizaje de los alumnos de las seis Escuelas de enseñanza Superior del Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco, Portugal, utilizando métodos estadísticos multivariantes tradicionalmente utilizados en contextos muy diferentes, especialmente en estudios ecológicos. La población en estudio, en el año lectivo 2009/10 representa un total de 4014 alumnos. Para recoger la información fueron utilizados el cuestionario TMMS (Salovey et al. 1995, en su versión TMMS-24, Fernández-Berrocal et al. 2004), el cuestionario CASVI creado por Vicente-Galindo y Castro en 2007 (Galindo, 2007), el cuestionario CHAEA (Alonso y Honey, 1995) y el cuestionario ACRA (Román y Gallego, 1994). Se obtuvieron 1785 encuestas. De los cuestionarios utilizados (TMMS, CASVI, CHAEA y ACRA), solo el TMMS y el CHAEA se habían validado en Portugal. Entre los objetivos del estudio destacaremos, además de evaluar la relación entre la Inteligencia Emocional y los Estilos y Estrategias de Aprendizaje, utilizando métodos estadísticos multivariantes nunca usados en este contexto, el estudio del comportamiento psicométrico de los cuestionarios para identificar perfiles de alumnos y su relación con el género, el tipo de carrera cursada y el rendimiento académico.
  • ... On the other hand, it has been found that deficiencies in EI skills affect people in any context, especially students in and out of school [17,18]. Liau et al. [19] found that high school students with low levels of emotional intelligence show greater predictability toward aggressive and/or criminal behaviour; and Zimmerman [20] concluded that bullies show a very low emotional intelligence, especially in those aspects related to social skills, self-control and empathy. ...
    Article
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    The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between emotional intelligence and social skills, and how these two variables influence bullying. In this study, 912 Spanish high school students, 471 boys and 441 girls aged 14–16 years, participated, who were administered the Spanish version of the Trait Meta Mood Scale 24, the “Bateria de socialización BAS-3” and the Peer Harassment Questionnaire. To analyse the results, a structural equation model was made. The results reflected a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and social skills (B = 0.44, p < 0.001), and a negative relationship with respect to bullying (B = −0.56, p < 0.001). In turn, social skills reflected a negative relationship with respect to bullying (B = −0.38, p < 0.001). These results reflect the need to implement educational programs focused on the development of emotional intelligence in the classroom, as a means to try to stop bullying behaviours in the classroom.
  • ... Pretpostavlja se da osoba više emocionalne inteligencije (EI) svoje emocije koristi na povoljniji način te, posljedično, ima u svom ponašanju i manji broj neprikladnih, pa i agresivnih emocionalnih reakcija. Postoje istraživanja koja su potvrdila povezanost emocionalnih sposobnosti i agresivnog ponašanja (Bohnert i sur., 2003;Liau, Liau, Teoh i Liau, 2003;McLaughlin, Hatzenbuehler, Mennin i Nolen-Hoeksema, 2011;Mohorić, 2012;Munjas, 2007), no u kontekstu modela EI još uvijek ne nalazimo dostatne empirijske nalaze o tijeku razvoja emocionalnih sposobnosti, te mogućnostima unaprjeđivanja tih sposobnosti s ciljem smanjivanja nepoželjnih oblika ponašanja. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Svrha je ovog rada dati pregled istraživanja razvoja emocionalne inteligencije (EI) i agresivnosti u djetinjstvu i adolescenciji, kao i studija koje su se bavile odnosom ovih dvaju konstrukata u toj dobi. Već sam pregled podataka o razvoju upućuje na moguće poveznice u razvojnim putanjama emocionalnih sposobnosti i agresivnosti. No istraživanja povezanosti varijabli emocionalnog doživljavanja i procesiranja emocija s različitim aspektima agresivnosti prilično su rijetka. Većina rezultata postojećih istraživanja upućuje na povezanost između ovih dvaju konstrukata, ali problem u donošenju jasnih zaključaka velike su razlike u konceptualizacijama, primijenjenim mjerama, uzorcima i metodama. U budućim je istraživanjima važno usmjeriti se na ispitivanje specifičnih veza između svake razine EI, užih sposobnosti koje pripadaju pojedinim razinama i različitih oblika agresivnosti. Osim toga, važno je ispitati mogućnosti utjecaja na svaku od specifičnih sposobnosti s obzirom na njihove razvojne putanje i važnost za agresivno ponašanje u pojedinoj točki razvoja. Položaj varijabli EI unutar konstelacije mnogih drugih korelata agresivnog ponašanja u različitim razvojnim razdobljima također je bitan problem potencijalnih istraživanja. Primjena bi rezultata takvih istraživanja u kreiranju programa prevencije agresivnog ponašanja povećala njihovu efikasnost, ali i omogućila valjaniju procjenu učinka primijenjenih tretmana.
  • ... The Assessing Emotions Scale had been used in Malaysian and showed good reliability. Liau et al. (2003) used the English version of the scale on 203 secondary school students. The Cronbach alpha in that study was 0.76. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Schutte et al. (1998) developed a 33-item emotional intelligence scale which they claimed to be uni-dimensional. Petrides and Furnham (2006) conducted factor analysis on the same scale and found 4 factors underlying the scale. Studies on emotional intelligence had been conducted in Malaysia with scales that were adopted, adapted, and developed. The dimensionality of the scales needed to be clearly demonstrated to better put the findings within the local context. This study examined the factor structure of the bilingual version of the scale (Malay translation by Abd Hamid and Kimin, 2004) using principal axis factoring with a varimax orthogonal rotation, in a Malaysian sample. The scale was administered to 187 Malaysian employees in a government agency and a college community. The analysis revealed four factors underlying the scale that matched Petrides and Furnham's findings. Reliability was found to be good for three factors and unacceptable for one. The issues in the factor structure were discussed.
  • ... Multiliteracies has also been used in many ways to draw attention to the importance of various kinds of literacies like emotional literacy (A. Liau, G. Liau, Teoh, & Liah, 2003), information literacies (Hodgman, 2005), visual literacies (Burton 2006;O'Brien 2001), scientific literacies (Weinstein 2006), etc. Because a multiliteracies approach focuses on bringing non-traditional literacies into the classroom, many scholars have also taken up a multiliteracies lens in conjunction with social media as a way to empower students (e.g., Curwood, 2013;Halverson, 2009;Hughes & Morrison, 2014;Rogers, Winters, LeMonde, & Perry, 2010), which will be further discussed later in this chapter. ...
    Thesis
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    In this article-style dissertation, I explore how students used digital technologies, specifically three social media platforms, as multimodal writing platforms while creating a digital portfolio in a senior English class. These platforms are 1) Weebly pages: a website building platform, 2) Weebly Blogs: a feature of Weebly, and 3) Instagram: a photo/video sharing application. Under a multiliteracies lens, I examine the changing nature of literacies and the educational practices surrounding learning literacies when mediated through social media. First, I conducted an analysis of how the students in this class designed their portfolios. This is done through an examination of each students’ Weebly homepage as well as an in-depth analysis two focal students across each of the social media platforms as illustrative cases. Findings show the students designed complex multimodal compositions that would have otherwise not been possible with the more formal, rigid forms of writing typical to this classroom. Implications for this study include embracing alternative authoring paths in classrooms beyond traditional forms of text-based writing to allow for students’ interests to be included through their designs. I also examined how students used each of the platforms and the pedagogical implications for those uses. I found that students used Instagram to write multimodally, which allowed them to express ideas in non-traditional ways that are often not present in classrooms. Students used Weebly pages to publically showcase their writing, which afforded them an opportunity to extend their writing to a larger audience. Students used Weebly Blogs to communicate informally, which allowed them to reflect on connections to the text. I offer implications for how teachers can use social media in the classroom. ii Finally, I outline how Ms. Lee and her students oriented to the value of writing in this unit. Findings indicate that Ms. Lee, like many others, privileged print-based forms of writing, even in a more expansive project like the portfolio unit. The students oriented to this value by predominantly making meaning through textual modes throughout their portfolios. Implications extend to teachers expanding their classroom practices beyond the traditional forms of literacy for which they are trained.
  • ... Namun kajian menunjukkan wujudnya masalah dalam melaksanakan pengajaran dan pembelajaran Pendidikan Moral di negara Malaysia (Liau et al. 2003). Pengajaran guru Pendidikan Moral memberikan keutamaan dalam aspek kognitif malah aspek emosi dan tindakan tidak diendahkan (Vishalache 2009). ...
    Article
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    Moral sensitivity is an important element that is the cornerstone of a moral act. Moral sensitivity involves the process of interpreting the feelings of others, understanding the impact of an issue and how it affects certain parties, empathy skills and role play in realizing a moral issue exists in a situation, and adhering to moral principles, rules or guidelines. Hence this article discusses the findings of the study on the potential of watching and analysing short films as a method of teaching in identifying the element of moral sensitivity among secondary school children. A total of 18 male and female Form Four students (three focus groups) were used for data collection purposes. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the study participants. This study uses a qualitative approach with action research design using interviews, observations and journal writing for the purpose of collecting data. Data analysis shows that watching and film analysis activities in the teaching and learning of Moral Education were able to unleash moral sensitivity and awareness among the participants. Having moral sensitivity is a very important moral value to a student in having awareness in a particular moral issue and having the ability to take rasional judgment before resolving any conflict.
  • ... When the literature regarding the "emotional literacy" is reviewed, it can be seen that most of the researches are focused on children and young people (Matsumoto, 2012;Kandemir & Dündar, 2008;Antidote, 2003;Liau A. K., Liau A. W., Teoh, & Liau M., 2003). Besides, some researches that were done with grown-ups and teachers revealed that emotional literacy is related to some other psychological variables such as coping behavior, general well-being, emotional well-being, etc. (Chan, 2008;Adeyemo, 2007;Carmeli, Yitzhak-Halevy, & Weisberg, 2009). ...
    Article
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    Self-efficacy beliefs and emotional literacy skills are considered as one of the most fundamental characteristics of teachers to create positive effects on students. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between preservice teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and their emotional literacy levels. This study is designed as a relational survey model research. Study group consisted of 318 volunteer preservice teachers who are fourth graders at education faculty in a state university in the West of Turkey, in 2015-2016 academic year. Teacher Efficacy Scale, Emotional Literacy Scale and Personal Information Form were used to collect data. The results of this study are that according to the gender, there is a significant difference in favor of female preservice teachers in social competence subscale and total score of emotional literacy scale; according to the departments preservice teachers are educated, there is a significant difference in emotional awareness and emotional self-efficacy subscales of emotional literacy scale; on the basis of the gender, preservice teachers’ self-efficacy levels differ significantly in favor of female preservice teachers in teaching competency/external factors subscale and total score of the scale; according to the departments preservice teachers are educated, there is a significant difference in preservice teachers’ self-efficacy levels in teaching competency/external factors subscale; and finally there is a positive relationship between preservice teachers’ emotional literacy levels and their self-efficacy belief levels.
  • ... The role of teachers as transmitters of values and moral content and students as passive receptors has been a teaching pedagogy of Moral Education in Malaysia (Balakrishnan, 2011). One way method of teaching and exam oriented pedagogy (Liau et al., 2003) makes the subject boring for students. Students are not interested in attending the Moral Education class (Barone, 2004). ...
  • ... Pretpostavlja se da osoba više emocionalne inteligencije (EI) svoje emocije koristi na povoljniji način te, posljedično, ima u svom ponašanju i manji broj neprikladnih, pa i agresivnih emocionalnih reakcija. Postoje istraživanja koja su potvrdila povezanost emocionalnih sposobnosti i agresivnog ponašanja (Bohnert i sur., 2003;Liau, Liau, Teoh i Liau, 2003;McLaughlin, Hatzenbuehler, Mennin i Nolen-Hoeksema, 2011;Mohorić, 2012;Munjas, 2007), no u kontekstu modela EI još uvijek ne nalazimo dostatne empirijske nalaze o tijeku razvoja emocionalnih sposobnosti, te mogućnostima unaprjeđivanja tih sposobnosti s ciljem smanjivanja nepoželjnih oblika ponašanja. ...
    Article
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    The purpose of this work was to review research about the development of emotional intelligence (EI) and aggressiveness during childhood and adolescence as well as to review studies that looked into the relationship between these constructs during that life frame. The review of the literature points to a possible association between developmental paths of emotional intelligence and aggression, although the research on the relationship between emotional experience and emotion processing variables with different aspects of aggressiveness are quite rare. The majority of existing research indicates a significant correlation between these two constructs, but differences in conceptualizations, applied measures, patterns and methods, make it difficult to draw clear conclusions. The future research needs to be focused on the investigation of relationships between individual levels of EI, narrow abilities associated with it, and different forms of aggression. In addition, it is important to examine the possibility to influence each EI capability bearing in mind its developmental paths and its importance for aggressive behaviour at a particular point of development. The position of EI variables within the constellation of various correlates of aggressive behaviour at different points of development is also an important task of future research. The results of such studies would increase the efficiency of violence prevention programs, and allow for better assessment of the effectiveness of treatments for aggression. © 2017, Faculty of Arts and Sciences in Rijeka. All rights reserved.
  • ... According to many researchers, emotional intelligence as ability is associated with cognitive intelligence but not personality trait (Lopes, Salovey and Straus, 2003;MacCann, Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2003;Mayer, Caruso et al., 1999;Roberts, Zeidner and Matthews, 2001). Liau, Liau, Teoh and Liau (2003) investigated the relationship between the emotional intelligence of secondary school students and their behavioural problems. It was noted that as emotional intelligence level increased, behavioural problems including stress, depression, somatic complaints, aggression and committing crime decreased. ...
  • ... In this regard, the study of transformative behaviours should include moral emotions in order to reach a better society (Johnson and Manoli, 2011). As a result, knowledge and moral emotions lead students to transform society through environmental experiences and challenges at school (Liau et al., 2003;Robina-Ramírez and Medina-Merodio, 2019). ...
  • ... According to many researchers, emotional intelligence as ability is associated with cognitive intelligence but not personality trait (Lopes, Salovey and Straus, 2003;MacCann, Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2003;Mayer, Caruso et al., 1999;Roberts, Zeidner and Matthews, 2001). Liau, Liau, Teoh and Liau (2003) investigated the relationship between the emotional intelligence of secondary school students and their behavioural problems. It was noted that as emotional intelligence level increased, behavioural problems including stress, depression, somatic complaints, aggression and committing crime decreased. ...
    Article
    According to the existing research, emotional intelligence includes skills that can be developed. In many studies conducted in the literature, it is emphasized that emotional intelligence skills are not stable rather continuously change and develop. In the current study, it is aimed to investigate the level of secondary school students’ emotional intelligence (11-14 years old) in terms of different variables (gender, grade level, parents’ education level, the extent to which their parents care about their feelings, the frequency of reading book, the length of time spent on the phone or computer, person(s) or the environment playing the most important role in the growth of the individual, experiencing difficulty or not in making friends). The current study is designed in the descriptive survey model. The study group is comprised of a total of 920 students (483 females, 437 males) attending different state schools in the city of Denizli in the spring term of the 2018-2019 school year. As the data collection tools, “The BarOn Emotional Intelligence Scale (Child and Adolescent Form) and a “Personal Information Form” were used in the current study. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS 22.0 program package. The data were analyzed by using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). As a result of the research, it was found that secondary school students’ emotional intelligence levels significantly vary depending on the variables such as grade level, the extent to which their parents care about their feelings, the frequency of reading book, the length of time spent on the phone or computer, person(s) or environment playing the most important role in their growth, father’s education level and experiencing difficulty or not in making friends. However, no significant difference was found in the students’ levels of emotional intelligence based on gender and mother’s education level. Keywords:1 Emotional intelligence, BarOn emotional intelligence scale, secondary school students.
  • ... Parental warmth has been reported to be positively related to children's emotion knowledge (Bennett et al. 2005), children's emotion understanding (Alegre and Benson 2007), emotion regulation (Eisenberg et al. 2000), and the total EI of early adolescents (Alegre and Perez 2009). Parental positive monitoring and emotional intelligence has been found to be positively correlate in Malaysian secondary school students (Liau et al. 2003). Al-Elaimat et al. (2018), in a study on kindergarten children in Jordan, found a statistically significant positive relation between the democratic parenting style and EI in all of its dimensions. ...
    Article
    Parenting has been reported to exert significant short-term and long-term impact on the offspring’s personality, behavior, and relationships during their lifespan. The present study aimed to assess the impact of positive parenting on the trait emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior (altruism) and friendship quality of adolescents. The sample of present study comprised 350 adolescents (208 boys and 142 girls) aged between 14 and 16 year (M = 15. 46 year, SD = .86) and their parents. The data were collected from two public and two private sector schools of Lahore, Pakistan. Parenting Style Scale (Batool and Mumtaz Pakistan Journal of Psychological Reseaech, 30(2), 225–248, 2015), the Emotional Intelligence Scale for Children and Adolescents (Batool and Hayat Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 16(2), 17–26, 2018), the Altruistic Personality Scale (Rushton et al. Personality and Individual Differences, 1, 292–302, 1981), and the Intimate Friendship Scale (Sharabany 1974) were employed. The final model of a mediational path analysis revealed that positive parenting had a statistically significant indirect impact on the prosocial behavior of adolescents via emotional intelligence (R2 = .24). As the friendship quality of adolescents concerns, positive parenting had statistically significant direct and indirect impact (via emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior) on it (R2 = .28). Gender appeared as a significant covariate of both prosocial behavior and friendship quality. Based on the results, we suggest parents to practice positive parenting styles and recommend emotional intelligence training of adolescents to promote prosocial behavior and better relationship with friends.
  • ... Oleh itu, pengajaran di kelas perlu menjurus kepada penerapan aspek penaakulan moral, perasaan moral dan tingkah laku moral secara sepadu. Namun, kajian pula menunjukkan wujudnya pelbagai masalah dalam pelaksanaan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran mata pelajaran ini di Malaysia (Barone, 2004;Liau et al., 2003). Pengajaran guru masih menekankan aspek kognitif dan kurang penekanan kepada aspek perkembangan sosial dan perasaan moral murid (Vishalache, 2009). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Produce a creative, innovative and critical thinking of Malaysian society is a aspirations of Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025. In this regard, the use of an innovative teaching techniques which can stimulate holistic human development among students is the current concern. Pedagogy and classroom teaching techniques are essential to determine the students' cognitive skills, affective skills and psychomotor skills so that they can be competent in both domestic and international level. This article discusses the use of Forum Theatre technique in Moral Education class in secondary schools. The four stages of Forum Theatre were used in Moral Education classes. The results showed that Forum Theatre technique is able to develop moral reasoning, moral emotion and moral behaviour among form four students; which are important for human capital development in the era of globalization.
  • ... High responsiveness behaviours are associated with higher understanding of emotions (Dunn and Brown 1994) and emotion knowledge (Bennett et al. 2005). Parental monitoring is an aspect of positive demandingness, relating to high levels of general emotional intelligence (Liau et al. 2003); and it is possible that the lack of positive demands made on children with permissive parents negates the benefits of responsiveness provided. Hypothesis 4. Finally, Neglectful parenting behaviours (Low Responsiveness + Low Demandingness) would correspond to the lowest levels of emotional intelligence on all components. ...
  • ... Namun, kajian juga menunjukkan wujudnya masalah dalam melaksanakan pengajaran dan pembelajaran Pendidikan Moral di negara ini (Liau, & Teoh, 2003) 2 . Pengajaran guru memberikan keutamaan dalam aspek kognitif, malah aspek emosi dan tindakan tidak diendahkan (Vishalache, 2009) 3 . ...
    Article
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    Abstrak Motivasi moral merupakan unsur yang menjadi penggerak kepada sesuatu tindakan moral. Seseorang yang mempunyai motivasi moral yang tinggi dapat (i) bertanggungjawab terhadap keputusan dan tindakan yang diambil, (ii) komited terhadap prinsip-prinsip moral, (iii) mengutamakan nilai-nilai moral berbanding kehendak lain, (iv) menolak elemen yang memberikan keuntungan peribadi dan (v) berpendirian untuk bertindak berdasarkan unsur moral dan etika. Justeru, artikel ini membincangkan potensi aktiviti lakonan filem pendek sebagai kaedah pengajaran dalam meningkatkan motivasi moral dalam kalangan murid sekolah. Seramai 18 orang murid perempuan dan lelaki (tiga kumpulan berfokus) dari kelas Pendidikan Moral tingkatan empat digunakan untuk tujuan pengumpulan data Teknik pensampelan bertujuan digunakan untuk memilih peserta kajian. Kajian kualitatif ini dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan instrumen protokol pemerhatian, protokol temu bual dan panduan penulisan jurnal bertujuan untuk mengumpul data. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan aktiviti lakonan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran Pendidikan Moral mampu meningkatkan motivasi moral dalam kalangan peserta kajian.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Introduction: Emotional intelligence as an aspect of social intelligence determines the individual’s ability in encountering with psychic pressures and adopting with them. Based on previous studies deficiency of emotional intelligence has a relation with disruptive behaviors in adolescents. The purpose of this research was to find the relationship between behavioral disorders and emotional intelligence (Emotional Intelligence Quotient: EQ) in secondary school students in Tehran City. Method: In whole, 420 students (195 boys and 225 girls) from six high schools in three city areas (1, 6, 16) selected randomly. Subjects were asked to complete SDQ and SSRI scales. Ultimately, data from 420 students were analyzed with Pearson correlation and Multiple Regression. Results: EQ and it's components, that is mean regulation of emotion, appraisal and expression of emotion� and utilization of emotions, showed negative relationship with behavioral disorders (respectively r=-0.27, r=- 0.29, r=-0.17, r=-0.24 and p<0.001). In addition, results suggested that general EQ (Beta=-0.275, p<0.000) and one of it's component's, that is regulation of emotion (Beta=-0.293, p<0.000) can predict significantly behavioral disorders. Conclusion: The role of EQ in shaping behavioral disorders has some important implications especially for professionals in the field of behavioral disorders. For example considering EQ improvement programs in preventing and treating behavioral disorders is necessary. Key words: Behavioral disorders, Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EQ), Emotion regulation, Secondary school, Tehran City, SDQ, SSRI
  • Article
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    91-90 ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ‬ ‫دﻫﻨﺪ‬. ‫آزﻣﻮدﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ 40 ‫آﻣﻮز‬ ‫داﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫رﻳﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼل‬ ‫داراي‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اردﺑﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫راﻫﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻨﺞ‬ ‫آﻣﻮزان‬ ‫داﻧﺶ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮل‬ ‫و‬ ‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬ ‫دو‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬ ‫ﺳﺎده‬) 20 ‫ﻫﺮﮔﺮوه‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬ (‫ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﮔﻤﺎرده‬. ‫آوري‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫داده‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاس‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﻮري‬ ،‫ﻫﻴﺠﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮدازش‬ ‫ازﭘﺮﺳﺸﻨﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬. ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﻛﻮوارﻳﺎﻧﺲ‬) MANCOVA (‫ﺑﺮﻧ‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﻮري‬ ،‫ﻫﻴﺠﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮدازش‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮل‬ ‫درﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاس‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫داﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاس‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﻮري‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺠﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫رﻳﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼل‬ ‫داراي‬ ‫آﻣﻮزان‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬. ‫و‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫آﺳﻴﺐ‬ ،‫ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻴﺮي‬ ‫زﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺤﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼل‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫درﻣﺎن‬. ‫واژ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪي‬ : ‫رﻳﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼل‬ ،‫ﭘﺮﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاس‬ ،‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﻮري‬ ،‫ﻫﻴﺠﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮدازش‬ ،‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮل‬ .
  • Chapter
    Full-text available
    Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) is formally defined as a constellation of emotional perceptions assessed through questionnaires and rating scales (Petrides et al. Br J Psychol 98:273–289, 2007). The construct describes our perceptions of our emotional world (e.g., how good we believe we are in terms of understanding, managing, and utilizing our own and other people’s emotions). Although it has been empirically demonstrated that these perceptions affect virtually every area of our life, the present chapter focuses exclusively on their role in education. We begin with a brief overview of trait EI theory and measures that have been salient in education research, with particular emphasis on scales developed for children and adolescents. Subsequently, we summarize the effects of trait EI on academic performance and related variables across primary, secondary, and tertiary education. The review of the evidence indicates that research-based applications of trait EI theory in educational settings can yield concrete and lasting advantages for both individuals and schools.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    هدف این مطالعه، بررسی اثر بخشی آموزش کنترل تکانه و توجه بر پردازش هیجانی، تکانشگری و حواس‌پرتی دانش‌آموزان مبتلا به اختلال ریاضی بود. این پژوهش از نوع آزمایشی بوده و با طرح پیش‌آزمون ـ پس‌آزمون با گروه گواه اجرا شد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش را کلیه دانش‌آموزان پسر مقطع راهنمایی شهر اردبیل در سال تحصیلی 91-90 تشکیل دادند. نمونه پژوهش 60 نفر از دانش‌آموزان دارای اختلال ریاضی بود که از میان دانش‌آموزان پنج مدرسه راهنمایی شهر اردبیل بعد از شناسایی به‌وسیله آزمون ریاضی کی‌مت (1988) و انجام مصاحبه بالینی ساختار یافته به‌صورت تصادفی ساده انتخاب و در دو گروه آزمایش (کنترل تکانه و توجه) و گواه (20 نفر برای هر گروه) گمارده شدند. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از مقیاس پردازش هیجانی باکر و همکاران (2007)، تکانشگری بارات (1994)، آزمون ریاضی کی‌مت (1988) و حواس‌پرتی تولوز ـ پیرون (1986) استفاده شده است. نتایج تحلیل کوواریانس تک ‌متغیری (ANCOVA) نشان داد آموزش برنامه‌های کنترل تکانه و توجه بر پردازش هیجانی، تکانشوری و حواس‌پرتی تأثیر دارد (001/0≥P)؛ به این صورت که به کاهش هیجان‌های منفی، تکانشوری و حواس‌پرتی دانش‌آموزان مبتلا به اختلال ریاضی منجر می‌شود. بنابر یافته‌های این مطالعه، آموزش مهارت‌های کنترل تکانه و توجه به دانش‌آموزان مبتلا به اختلال ریاضی باعث کاهش تکانشگری و حواس‌پرتی می‌شود و می‌توان از این آموزش‌ها به عنوان روش‌های مداخله‌ای مناسب سود جست.
  • Article
    This study explores the construct validity of the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale in the light of psychological type theory that hypothesises a bias in item content to favour extraverts over introverts, sensing types over intuitive types, feeling types over thinking types, and perceiving types over judging types. Data provided by 364 Anglican clergy serving in the Church in Wales, who completed the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale alongside the Francis Psychological Type Scales, confirm higher scores among extraverts (compared with introverts), intuitive types (compared with sensing types), and feeling types (compared with thinking types), but found no significant difference between judging types and perceiving types. These data are interpreted to nuance the kind of emotional intelligence accessed by the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale and to encourage future scale development that may conceptualise emotional intelligence in ways more independent of psychological type preferences.
  • Thesis
    Τα επιθετικά παιδιά διακρίνονται από ελλείμματα τόσο στις κοινωνικές όσο και στις συναισθηματικές τους δεξιότητες. Σκοπός της παρούσας έρευνας ήταν να διερευνήσει αφενός την υπόθεση της ελλειμματικής Γνωστικής Επεξεργασίας Κοινωνικών Πληροφοριών (ΓΕΠΚ) παιδιών που εμπλέκονται σε περιστατικά εκφοβισμού και θυματοποίησης και αφετέρου τη σχέση του φαινομένου με τη Συναισθηματική Νοημοσύνη. Το δείγμα αποτέλεσαν 310 προέφηβοι μαθητές των δύο τελευταίων τάξεων του δημοτικού σχολείου, οι οποίοι συμπλήρωσαν αυτοσχέδιο ερωτηματολόγιο αυτοαναφοράς για την εμπλοκή τους σε περιστατικά εκφοβισμού-θυματοποίησης, τη σύντομη έκδοση της κλίμακας για τη Συναισθηματική Νοημοσύνη ως γνώρισμα της προσωπικότητας των Petrides et al. (2006), καθώς και δελτίο κοινωνικο-δημογραφικών χαρακτηριστικών. Για την αξιολόγηση της ΓΕΚΠ χρησιμοποιήθηκε κλίμακα με διφορούμενα υποθετικά σενάρια που ενσωματώθηκε στο ερωτηματολόγιο. Η ανάλυση των δεδομένων έδειξε ότι τα αγόρια εκφοβίζουν πιο συχνά και προτιμούν να εκδικηθούν επιλέγοντας σωματική ή λεκτική επιθετικότητα, ενώ τα κορίτσια αποσύρονται η διεκδικούν με παρρησία. Ακόμη, βρέθηκε ότι οι θύτες και τα επιθετικά θύματα παρουσιάζουν περισσότερα ελλείμματα στην επεξεργασία κοινωνικών πληροφοριών, όπως και στη Συναισθηματική Νοημοσύνη, συγκριτικά με τα υπόλοιπα παιδιά. Τείνουν δηλαδή να εστιάζουν περισσότερο σε εχθρικά ερεθίσματα, αποδίδουν σε μεγαλύτερο βαθμό εχθρότητα στις προθέσεις των άλλων, υιοθετούν πιο συχνά εκδικητικούς στόχους και επιθετικές συμπεριφορές (σωματική/λεκτική επιθετικότητα) και διακρίνονται συνήθως από χαμηλή αυτοεκτίμηση και ευημερία. Από τις συσχετίσεις των μεταβλητών προέκυψε ότι ο εκφοβισμός και η θυματοποίηση συσχετίζονται θετικά και στατιστικώς σημαντικά με την απόδοση εχθρικής διάθεσης, την εκδίκηση, τη σωματική επιθετικότητα ως απάντηση στην πρόκληση και την έλλειψη αυτοεκτίμησης, και αρνητικά με τη διεκδικητικότητα, την ευημερία και τον έλεγχο συναισθημάτων. Τέλος, βρέθηκε ότι το φύλο, η σωματική επίθεση ως απάντηση στην πρόκληση, η έλλειψη αυτοεκτίμησης και η αδυναμία ελέγχου των συναισθημάτων προέβλεπαν την εμπλοκή σε περιστατικά εκφοβισμού, ενώ η επιθυμία για εκδίκηση, η έλλειψη ευημερίας και αυτοεκτίμησης ήταν σημαντικοί προβλεπτικοί παράγοντες της θυματοποίησης.
  • Chapter
    The subjective experience of mental states has a specific structure determined by various factors: age, sex, social conditions, personal and characterological traits, etc. The ability to understand emotions, person’s own mental states and mental states of other people is realized if the person has a rich experience of emotions, feelings and mental states. The development of this ability leads to positive social and interpersonal interactions. Children with disabilities have a weakly developed emotional-volitional sphere but they have qualitative features in emotional development. The article describes the specificity of the subjective experience of children’s mental states (7-10 years old) and adolescents (13-14 years old) with limited possibilities of health: severe speech disorders (SSD) and cerebral palsy (CP). Such mental states joy, anger, calmness were studied in the article. Content analysis of self-reports allowed to single out semantic units related to different categories. Children and adolescents with SSD and CP describe their mental states experienced in the past through the causes of the states, through external markers – for example, communication and unity with relatives and important people. Their subjective experience reflects such characteristics of mental states as behavior, reactions, and types of activities. Their experience also includes internal markers related to the world of their feelings and experiences, evaluative judgments and reflections, elements of regulation and problem-solving. The study discovered the specificity of the subjective experience of mental states depending on the age and type of disorder.
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    The concept of emotional intelligence is gaining wide attention among researchers in social science. However, most of the previous studies focused more on the students or teenagers in general. Therefore, this study was conducted specifically among delinquents who were undergoing rehabilitation program in the rehabilitation institutions. The main objective of this study was to examine the correlation of social support and emotional intelligence among delinquents in government rehabilitation institutions in Malaysia. Respondents involved in this study were 203 Malay delinquents aged between 11 to 19 years old that were randomly selected from six different rehabilitation institutions in Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur (WPKL), Selangor and Malacca.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    محققان براي افرادي كه در شرايط ناگوار و پرخطر، پيامدهاي نامطلوب را نشان نميدهند، اصطلاح تابآور را بهكار ميبرند. تاب- آوري صرفاً به سازگاري و تطابق سازنده و مثبت در برخورد با مشكلات و گرفتاريها اطلاق شده است. باتوجه به اينكه ورزشكاران بعد از شكست در بيشتر مواقع قادر به هضم و تحمل شكست براي خود نيستند، بررسي اين عامل و نحوة تعامل و فراگيري آن براي ورزشكاران اجتناب ناپذير است. بر اين اساس، هدف از اين پژوهش بررسي ارتباط بين هوش هيجاني بر تابآوري كشتي- گيران ليگ برتر ايران است. به اين منظور 80 كشتيگير ليگ برتر كشتي ايران در اين پژوهش شركت كردند. كشتيگيران نسخة را تكميل كردند. (CD-RISC و پرسشنامة تابآوري كونور و ديويدسون ( 2 (SSREIT) فارسي مقياس هوش هيجاني شانه 2 بود. نتايج نشان داد بين نمرة كلي مقياس هوش هيجاني و / 23 سال و انحراف استاندارد آنان 85 / ميانگين سن كل ورزشكاران 8 همچنين بين خردهمقياسهاي هوش هيجاني و تابآوري رابطة مثبت و .(P< 0/ تابآوري رابطة مثبت و معنادار وجود دارد ( 01 نتايج تحليل رگرسيون همزمان نشان داد كه خردهمقياس ادارك و ابراز هيجانات سهم .(P< 0/ معناداري مشاهده شد ( 01 خردهمقياس تنظيم هيجانات نيز بهطور معناداري تابآوري را .(P< 0/ معناداري در تبيين و پيشبيني تابآوري دارد ( 01 در مجموع ميتوان نتيجه گرفت كه هوش هيجاني عاملي مؤثر در پيشبيني و تقويت تابآوري در .(P< 0/ پيشبيني ميكند ( 01 ورزشكاران و كشتيگيران ليگ برتر ايران است و از طريق آن ميتوان تابآوري را در ورزشكاران افزايش داد
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Abstract Background: Emotional intelligence as a basic psychological constructs to the success of life and mental health of people formed in the process of life and behavior of parents plays an important role in its growth. This study aimed determines the predictive role of assertiveness and aggression in emotional intelligence of students of sixth grade of elementary school. Methods: The present study was Cross-sectional. The study population of present study consisted of all students of the sixth grade of elementary school of Qaen city and parents in academic year of 2013-2014 that 189 students (94 boys and 95 girls) and their parents using multi-stage random sampling method were selected from among them. Data were collected using The Aggression Questionnaire- AQ, Gambryl and Ritchie assertiveness questionnaire and The Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT). The results were analyzed using SPSS-20 software and regression, independent t test and Mann-Whitney U test in the significant level of 0.05. Results: The results showed that between assertiveness of parents and none of its components and emotional intelligence of students there is no significant correlation (p>0.05). But There was significant negative correlation between aggression of parent and emotional intelligence of students (p>0.01, r=-0.18). Regression analysis showed aggression of father is a predictor of emotional intelligence of students (p>0.05). But, aggression of mother had no role in predicting emotional intelligence of students (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results of present study showed that aggression of parents causes that children face in the process of emotional intelligence with problems and limitations. Given that, the behavior of parents affect on the behavior and how to train of children in the family. So, it is recommended more attention in the parenting of children and parental lifestyle. Keywords: Aggression, Assertiveness, Emotional intelligence, Parent, Students
  • Emotional literacy: a Conceptualiza-tion based on the pedagogy of multiliteracies
    • A K Liau
    • A W L Liau
    • G S B Teoh
    • M T L Liau
    LIAU, A.K., LIAU, A.W.L., TEOH, G.S.B. & LIAU, M.T.L. (2001) Emotional literacy: a Conceptualiza-tion based on the pedagogy of multiliteracies, in M. KALANTZIS & A. PANDIAN (Eds) Literacy Matters: issues for new times (Altona, Australia, Common Ground Publishing).
  • A pedagogy of multiliteracies designing social futures Multiliteracies: literacy learning and design of social futures
    • New London
    NEW LONDON GROUP (2000) A pedagogy of multiliteracies designing social futures, in B. COPE & M. KALANTZIS (Eds) Multiliteracies: literacy learning and design of social futures, pp. 9–38 (
  • Multiliteracies: rethinking what we mean by literacy and what we teach as literacy in the context of global cultural diversity and new communications technologies Global Literacy: vision, revisions and vistas in education
    • M Kalantzis
    • B Cope
    KALANTZIS, M. & COPE, B. (1999). Multiliteracies: rethinking what we mean by literacy and what we teach as literacy in the context of global cultural diversity and new communications technologies, in: A. PANDIAN (Ed.) Global Literacy: vision, revisions and vistas in education, pp. 1–12 (
  • Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools (Kuala Lumpur, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka) [in Malay sian Young adolescents' perceptions of parental management of peer relationships
    • Ministry Of
    • Education
    MINISTRY OF EDUCATION (1987) Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools (Kuala Lumpur, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka) [in Malay sian]. MOUNTS, N.S. (2001) Young adolescents' perceptions of parental management of peer relationships, Journal of Early Adolescence, 21, pp. 92–122.
  • Whereas the People … Civics and Citizenship Education
    • Government Of
    • Australia
    GOVERNMENT OF AUSTRALIA (1994) Whereas the People … Civics and Citizenship Education (Canberra, Author).
  • Character Building for a Democratic
    • A Etzioni
    ETZIONI, A. (1994) Character Building for a Democratic, Civil Society (Washington DC, WA, Communi-tarian Network).
  • Citizenship Education and the Modern State
    • K Kennedy
    KENNEDY, K. (Ed.) (1997) Citizenship Education and the Modern State (London, Falmer Press).
  • Multiliteracies: the beginnings of an idea
    • B Cope
    • M Kalantzis
    COPE, B. & KALANTZIS, M. (2000) Multiliteracies: the beginnings of an idea. In B. COPE & M. KALANTZIS (Eds) Multiliteracies: literacy learning and design of social futures, pp.
  • Article
    This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.
  • Article
    A study was conducted to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and adolescent tobacco and alcohol use (TAU). Subjects were 205 multi-ethnic adolescents (52% male) from middle schools in southern California (mean age=12.63 years), 153 from a public school and 52 from a parochial school. An abbreviated version of the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale, Student Version [Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (1997). Multifactor emotional intelligence scale, student version. Durham, NH] was used to assess the EI of the students. EI was negatively correlated with a general, overall measure of tobacco and alcohol use, and with individual tobacco and alcohol scales and items. It is plausible that the adolescents with high EI may possess a greater mental ability to read others well and detect unwanted peer pressure. These abilities may have led to an increased resistance to TAU, thus explaining the negative correlations found in this study. Further research is needed to validate these findings.
  • Article
    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of parenting, personality, and school adjustment on early adolescent substance use. The sample consisted of 1,023 6th and 7th graders (mean age = 12.7 years) about equally divided between males and females. Using structural equation modeling, similarity in developmental process across gender and ethnic groups was confirmed. Hierarchical nested modeling revealed few direct effects of personality or parenting on experimentation or illicit use; rather, both latent traits were mediated by school adjustment. The final mediated model demonstrated excellent fit, accounting for 59% of the total variance in licit substance use and 21% of the variance in illicit use. Findings indicate (a) similarity in etiology of early adolescent substance use across gender and ethnicity; (b) the importance of examining multiple domains of influence on adolescent substance use; and (c) the need to examine mediated versus direct effects models in predicting early adolescent substance use.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The effects of service-learning on social responsibility and academic success were investigated among a large, racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of students in Grades 6 through 8 in three middle schools. Over the school year, service-learning students maintained their concern for others’ social welfare, whereas control students declined on those concerns. Service-learning students, especially girls, also declined significantly less than did controls in their frequency of talking with parents about school. Compared with other students, students with substantial hours of service-learning, a lot of reflection, and a high degree of motivation attributed to service-learning, significantly increased their belief in the efficacy of their helping behaviors, maintained their pursuit of better grades and their perception that school provided personal development opportunities, and decreased less in their commitment to classwork. The results indicate that service-learning can positively affect students’ social responsibility and academic success.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The relation of psychosocial protective factors to involvement in problem behavior—alcohol and drug abuse, delinquency, and sexual precocity—was investigated in a longitudinal study of 7th-, 8th-, and 9th-grade adolescents in a large, urban school district. Protective factors were drawn from the personality, the perceived environment, and the behavior systems of problem-behavior theory. The findings show a significant inverse relation between protection and problem-behavior involvement. There is a significant interaction between protection and risk in the prediction of problem behavior: Protection is shown to moderate the relation of risk to problem behavior. Protective factors are also significant predictors of change in adolescent problem behavior over time. Direct effects of protection are consistent across all gender and racial/ethnic subgroups; moderator effects are evident for female, White, and Hispanic subgroups only.
  • Article
    The study examined reliability and validity of a new measure of emotional (i.e. non-cognitive) intelligence, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; Bar-On, 1997, in a sample of 243 university students. Results indicated that the EQ-i domain and component scales had good item homogeneity and internal consistency. Scores were not unduly affected by response styles or biases. The EQ-i scales had a meaningful pattern of convergent validities with respect to measures of normal personality, depression, somatic symptomatology, intensity of affective experience and alexithymia. The reliability and validity results for men and women were very similar. Overall, the results suggested that the EQ-i is a promising measure of emotional intelligence. We recommend strategies for further validation of the EQ-i, as well as the construct of emotional intelligence.
  • Article
    This series of studies describes the development of a measure of emotional intelligence based on the model of emotional intelligence developed by Salovey and Mayer [Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211.]. A pool of 62 items represented the different dimensions of the model. A factor analysis of the responses of 346 participants suggested the creation of a 33-item scale. Additional studies showed the 33-item measure to have good internal consistency and testretest reliability. Validation studies showed that scores on the 33-item measure 1.(a) correlated with eight of nine theoretically related constructs, including alexithymia, attention to feelings, clarity of feelings, mood repair, optimism and impulse control;2.(b) predicted first-year college grades;3.(c) were significantly higher for therapists than for therapy clients or for prisoners;4.(d) were significantly higher for females than males, consistent with prior findings in studies of emotional skills;5.(e) were not related to cognitive ability and6.(f) were associated with the openness to experience trait of the big five personality dimensions.
  • Article
    An intelligence must meet several standard criteria before it can be considered scientifically legitimate. First, it should be capable of being operationalized as a set of abilities. Second, it should meet certain correlational criteria: the abilities defined by the intelligence should form a related set (i.e., be intercorrelated), and be related to pre-existing intelligences, while also showing some unique variance. Third, the abilities of the intelligence should develop with age and experience. In two studies, adults (N=503) and adolescents (N=229) took a new, 12-subscale ability test of emotional intelligence: the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS). The present studies show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the MEIS, meets the above three classical criteria of a standard intelligence.
  • Article
    In two short-term longitudinal studies, the relation of direct parental management of peer relationships with young adolescents’ and their best friends’ antisocial behavior and academic achievement were examined. Ninth-graders reported perceptions of parental monitoring and parental prohibiting of peer relationships. Ninth-graders and best friends reported drug use, delinquent behavior, grade point average (GPA), and educational expectations. At Time 1, adolescents who reported higher levels of parental monitoring reported lower levels of drug use, lower levels of delinquent behavior, higher GPAs, and higher educational expectations. At Time 1, perceptions of moderate levels of prohibiting were associated with lower levels of drug use and delinquent behavior for adolescents and their peers. Adolescents who reported moderate levels of prohibiting reported higher levels of Time 3 academic achievement.
  • Article
    A single common factor underlies variation in delinquent acts; thus, by statistical criteria, they appear “unitary.” We extended the analysis of single-factoredness from delinquency itself to explanatory variables associated with delinquency (e.g., parental affection, personality traits, school involvement). Three factors were extracted from 15 explanatory variables. All three factors were statistically associated with delinquency, but the first factor extracted dominated in terms of variance explained (21.6% vs. 1.6% and 3.4%, respectively). This first factor had loadings from variables in conceptually diverse domains (e.g., family and peer relations, school success, and personality). A question for delinquency theory is why diverse explanatory variables load primarily on one factor, if theories postulate multiple and complex social and individual influences.
  • Article
    Civics and Moral Educationwas implemented as a new moral education programme in Singapore schools in 1992. This paper argues that the underlying theme is that of citizenship training and that new measures are under way to strengthen the capacity of the school system to transmit national values for economic and political socialisation. The motives and motivation for retaining a formal moral education programme have remained strong. A discussion of the structure and content of key modules in Civics and Moral Education shows how curriculum writers have attempted to integrate separate strands of civics and moral education from earlier programmes and present them in a less divisive manner. The paper also assesses the impact of the written civics and moral education programme on teachers and pupils, and the way in which strategies have been used by curriculum agencies to overcome possible obstacles at the curriculum implementation phase.
  • Article
    Provides background on civic education in the United States and differentiates between civic and citizenship education. Discusses content and reflective inquiry instructional approaches and their integration through national standards. States that national standards have the potential to refocus attention on civic learning. Addresses the future of civic education, focusing on service learning. (CMK)
  • Book
    This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the values intentionally promoted in civics education in junior high schools in Taiwan. The article first examines the antecedents of civics education in Taiwan, then applies content analysis in exploring the values promoted through the curriculum for civics education at junior high school level. The article uses eight categories of values clusters as the framework for analysis, namely: self cultivation, family values, democratic values, civic life and community, economic life, fair government, national identity and social cohesion/diversity. The following findings emerged from this study:
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This chapter is followed by an educator's commentary written by P. M. Harbour and J. Stewart. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    In a study spanning 22 years, data were collected on the aggressiveness of over 600 subjects, their parents, and their children. Subjects who were the more aggressive 8-year-olds at the beginning of the study were discovered to be the more aggressive 30-year-olds at the end of the study. The stability of aggressive behavior was shown to be very similar to the stability of intellectual competence, especially for males. Early aggressiveness was predictive of later serious antisocial behavior, including criminal behavior, spouse abuse, traffic violations, and self-reported physical aggression. Furthermore, the stability of aggression across generations within a family when measured at comparable ages was even higher than the within individual stability across ages. It is concluded that, whatever its causes, aggression can be viewed as a persistent trait that may be influenced by situational variables but possesses substantial cross-situational constancy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Discusses the embeddedness of emotion in social interactions, relationships, and contexts. A tripartite view of emotion socialization is offered that stresses interaction, direct teaching, and regulation of opportunities for learning about emotions. Future research needs to be directed to the developmental appropriateness of strategies, to positive rather than negative affect, and to the cultural contexts of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Despite broad consensus about the effects of parenting practices on child development, many questions about the construct parenting style remain unanswered. Particularly pressing issues are the variability in the effects of parenting style as a function of the child's cultural background, the processes through which parenting style influences the child's development, and the operationalization of parenting style. Drawing on historical review, the authors present a model that integrates 2 traditions in socialization research, the study of specific parenting practices and the study of global parent characteristics. They propose that parenting style is best conceptualized as a context that moderates the influence of specific parenting practices on the child. It is argued that only by maintaining the distinction between parenting style and parenting practice can researchers address questions concerning socialization processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    We examined the relation of parental empathy-related characteristics and emotion-related child-rearing practices to third and sixth graders' vicarious emotional responding. Children's heart rate, skin conductance, facial, and self-reported reactions to a sympathy-inducing film were assessed, as were their dispositional sympathy, empathy, and self-monitoring. Parental sympathy was positively related to low levels of personal distress in same-sex children and, for both parents, with sons' dispositional sympathy or empathy. Parental emphasis on problem-focused coping strategies when their sons were anxious was positively correlated with indexes of sons' situational and dispositional sympathy. Same-sex parental restrictiveness in regard to the control of inappropriate, hurtful emotional displays was associated with sons' and daughters' dispositional and situational sympathy, whereas maternal restrictiveness in regard to emotions that are unlikely to hurt others was correlated with nonverbal indexes of personal distress and self reports of low distress. Parental emphasis on control of the child's own negative emotion was associated with children's self-monitoring.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Educational policy on emotional intelligence appears to be based more on mass-media science journalism than on actual educational and psychological research. The first section of this article provides an overview of the research areas of emotional intelligence, social and emotional learning, and character education; it further examines how these areas became linked in the popular press. The second section examines the scientific evidence for whether emotional intelligence underpins social and emotional learning, how emotional intelligence relates to success, and whether it is central to character. We conclude that educational policy in this area has outpaced the science on which it is ostensibly based, and recommendations for the future are made.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    In this study, the empirical association between the apparently similar constructs of emotional intelligence and alexithymia was examined using latent variable analysis in a large community sample of adults (N=734). The Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) were used to assess alexithymia and emotional intelligence. Results revealed that although the constructs are independent, they overlap considerably and are strongly and inversely related.
  • Article
    Despite a great deal of popular interest and the development of numerous training programs in emotional intelligence (EI), some researchers have argued that there is little evidence that EI is both useful and different from other, well established constructs. We hypothesized that EI would make a unique contribution to understanding the relationship between stress and three important mental health variables, depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. University students (n=302) participated in a cross-sectional study that involved measuring life stress, objective and self-reported emotional intelligence, and mental health. Regression analyses revealed that stress was associated with: (1) greater reported depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation among people high in emotional perception (EP) compared to others; and (2) greater suicidal ideation among those low in managing others' emotions (MOE). Both EP and MOE were shown to be statistically different from other relevant measures, suggesting that EI is a distinctive construct as well as being important in understanding the link between stress and mental health.
  • Article
    This chapter lays out the research questions that guided the study and the methods used to conduct the study. The study was conducted in 17 secondary schools in six countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States. The first research question related to the school's policies with respect to civics education. The second question inquired into the nature and extent of the curriculum activities that were provided for the purpose of promoting civics education. The third question asked how key stakeholders perceived the nature and impact of the implemented curriculum. The fourth question concerned the similarities and differences across schools within each society with regard to each of the first three questions. Interviews and observations provided the primary data used to address the questions.
  • Article
    This study critically evaluated the Emotional Intelligence (EI) construct (the ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions), as measured by the Multi-factor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS in press). We administered the MEIS to Australian undergraduates along with a battery of IQ, personality, and other theoretically relevant criterion measures, including life satisfaction and relationship quality. We also induced moods in the students and examined whether people high in EI were better than others at managing their moods and preventing their moods from biasing their social judgments. Analyses revealed that EI was not related to IQ but was related, as expected, to specific personality measures (e.g., empathy) and to other criterion measures (e.g., life satisfaction) even after controlling for IQ and personality traits. EI was also related to people's ability to manage their moods, but not to their ability to prevent moods from biasing their judgments. IQ was surprisingly related to both these mood processes. The results suggest that the EI construct is distinctive and useful, but that traditional IQ may also be important in understanding emotional processes.
  • Article
    We examined the relation of parental empathy-related characteristics and emotion-related child-rearing practices to third and sixth graders' vicarious emotional responding. Children's heart rate, skin conductance, facial, and self-reported reactions to a sympathy-inducing film were assessed, as were their dispositional sympathy, empathy, and self-monitoring. Parental sympathy was positively related to low levels of personal distress in same-sex children and, for both parents, with sons' dispositional sympathy or empathy. Parental emphasis on problem-focused coping strategies when their sons were anxious was positively correlated with indexes of sons' situational and dispositional sympathy. Same-sex parental restrictiveness in regard to the control of inappropriate, hurtful emotional displays was associated with sons' and daughters' dispositional and situational sympathy, whereas maternal restrictiveness in regard to emotions that are unlikely to hurt others was correlated with nonverbal indexes of personal distress and self reports of low distress. Parental emphasis on control of the child's own negative emotion was associated with children's self-monitoring.
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