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The Case for Emotional Literacy: The influence of emotional intelligence on problem behaviours in Malaysian secondary school students

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The Case for Emotional Literacy: The influence of emotional intelligence on problem behaviours in Malaysian secondary school students

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Abstract

There has been a recent renaissance in civics and moral education in the Asia-Pacific region. The need to incorporate the notion of emotional literacy into such programmes is discussed and results from the analysis of the influence that emotional literacy has on problem behaviours in Malaysian secondary school students are presented. Results indicated that emotional literacy, measured in terms of emotional intelligence, was linked to internalising and externalising problem behaviours. Emotional literacy also served as a moderating factor between parental monitoring and externalising problem behaviours. The need for developing emotional literacy programmes utilising the pedagogy of multiliteracies is discussed.

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... Several studies indicated strong evidence of a negative association between EI and aggression irrespective of ages, indicators, and populations in the sample of adults as well as adolescents (Denson, 2013;Denson, Pedersen, Friese, Hahm, & Roberts, 2011;García-Sancho et al., 2014;García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2015, 2016Liau, Liau, Teoh, & Liau, 2003). García-Sancho et al. (2014) identified 19 related studies in a systematic review; among these eighteen studies reported that people with low EI display hostile and aggressive behavior in all the cultures such as United Kingdom, United States, Spain, Malaysia, Canada, Australia, and China . ...
... The current study aimed at investigating the association between EI and aggression among young Pakistani adults. Results indicated that EI is negatively associated with the anger and hostility subscales of aggression (García-Sancho et al., 2014;Liau et al., 2003;Masum & Khan, 2014). There is a possible explanation that individuals who are unable to understand the other's emotions, erroneously attribute the hostility to others expressions and are more likely to react angrily due to their maladaptive emotional perception. ...
... The Theory of EI argue that people with higher EI have positive social interaction and can adjust in environment successfully (Brackett et al., 2011;Mayer et al., 2008); consequently, they are less likely to experience aggressive behavior. The role of emotional regulation in aggression across various cultures is evident in existing literature (Denson, 2013;Denson et al., 2011;García-Sancho et al., 2014, 2016Liau et al., 2003). In line with previous studies, the current study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by indicating gender differences in EI and aggression among the student population of Pakistan. ...
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The present study aims at examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and aggression and investigating gender differences for both variables. A sample of 100 University students (50 males and 50 females) were recruited from two adjacent cities of Pakistan. Emotional Intelligence (EI) of participants was measured by the Emotional Intelligence Scale, whereas Aggression Scale was used to measure aggression level. Results indicated a negative association between emotional intelligence and aggression (r = − 0.34, p < .001) specifically with hostility and anger subscale of aggression (p < .001). Moreover, no significant gender differences were observed for emotional intelligence (p > .001) and aggression except for the physical aggression subscale on which male students scored higher as compared to female students (p < .05). Results suggest that emotional intelligence could be a protective factor against specific aspects of aggression. Therefore, appropriate management programs should be developed to enhance the different dimensions of emotional intelligence inhibiting aggressive behavior.
... Qualter și asociații (2007) descoperă cu ajutorul testului alcătuit de Bar-On că este posibilă nu doar o evoluție a inteligenței emoționale, ci chiar o involuție în timpul tranziției de la gimnaziu la liceu, iar creșteri semnificative după instruirea emoțională s-au înregistrat doar la elevii cu scoruri mici. Totuși, există o puternică susținere în favoarea educării emoționale (Liau et al., 2003;Liff, 2003;Maree & Fernandes, 2003;Liptak, 2005). ...
... Problemele de comportament în copilărie și adolescență a fost asociate cu probleme de autocontrol în adolescență și la vârsta adultă (A. K. Liau, A. W. Liau, Teoh, & M. T. L. Liau, 2003;Santesso, Reker, Schmidt, & Segalowitz, 2006). Valorile mici ale inteligenței emoționale printre pacienții cu tulburări emoționale pot să influențeze capacitatea lor de a-și organiza viața prin interferența cu abilitatea de a utiliza emoțiile pentru planificări flexibile, redirecționarea atenției și motivației. ...
... Jaeger ( 2003) susține ideea că IE poate fi îmbunătățită în cadrul instruirii din clasă și pe parcursul întregii vieți, arătând că cea mai buna pedagogie este cea care este îmbunătățită cu tehnici care măresc IE prin crearea unui sistem de relații speciale între elevi și prin intermediul unui mediu în care aceștia să fie învățați cum să aibă succes. Acest punct de vedere este susținut și de alte cercetări importante (Liau et al., 2003;Liff, 2003;Maree & Fernandes, 2003;Liptak, 2005). Includerea preocupării pentru IE în curriculum licean poate să conducă la obținerea de rezultate mai bune pe plan personal, social și comunitar. ...
... Several past studies pointed out adolescents who showed lower level of emotional intelligence may have higher level of aggression. The results of these studies indicated a negative and significant association between aggression traits and emotional intelligence (Asl, 2018;Liau, Liau, Teoh, & Liau, 2003;Masoumeh, Mansor, Yaacob, Talib, & Sara, 2014;Shahzad, Begum, & Khan, 2013). It is also believed that higher levels of emotional intelligence, which is observable via the ability to manage stress and intrapersonal development, tend to lower the risk of physical aggression (Johnston, 2003). ...
... It is also believed that higher levels of emotional intelligence, which is observable via the ability to manage stress and intrapersonal development, tend to lower the risk of physical aggression (Johnston, 2003). Further, Liau et al. (2003) and Harris (2002) suggested that secondary school students who are more involved in delinquent acts might have a lower emotional intelligence and higher aggressiveness together with lower moral standards. ...
... In other words, the study result indicated that the higher the interpersonal emotional intelligence, the lower the problem behaviours are being reported. Such finding is consistent with Liau et al. (2003)'s as their study concluded that adolescents who showed greater emotional exchange with peers tend to have less problem behaviour. In addition, a couple of previous studies also supported that adolescents who have difficulty in social communication with their friends or others and hard to express themselves to other people may lead to delinquent behaviours (Chong et al., 2015;Erasmus, 2007). ...
... There are four studies related to students' emotional competencies, negative emotions, misbehaviors, and ways of coping: Students who have affective and cognitive empathy, and have more responsive mothers, are less likely to engage in bullying behaviors at school (Georgiou, 2008;Topcu & Erdur-Baker, 2012). Students who have higher emotional intelligence levels are less likely to engage in problem behaviors such as aggression and delinquency (Liau et al., 2003). Mindfulness meditation can be used to increase students' self-awareness and increase their emotional regulation abilities to help them cope with such intense emotional states (Birnbaum, 2008). ...
... There are four articles in the second group on students' emotional competencies, negative emotions, misbehavior, and coping ways. These articles showed the effects of affective and cognitive empathy (Topcu & Erdur-Baker, 2012), maternal responsiveness (Georgiou, 2008), emotional intelligence (Liau et al., 2003), and mindfulness meditation (Birnbaum, 2008) to cope with negative emotions and problem behaviors of students. In the third group, four publications show the influence of emotional climate (Zembylas, 2008), teachers' emotional knowledge (Zembylas, 2007), politics and power relations (Zembylas, 2004), and political conflicts (Zembylas, 2011) on teachers' emotions, teaching, and learning. ...
... Teachers with high emotional intelligence and positive affectivity can more easily cope with the adverse effects of the negative experiences at work (Chan, 2008), are less likely to experience burnout (Chan, 2006(Chan, , 2007(Chan, , 2010Chan & Hui, 1995), have higher job satisfaction levels (Wong et al., 2010), and perform OCB more frequently (Somech & Ron, 2007), which are among the antecedents of high-quality teaching performance (Indarti et al., 2017). Students with high emotional competencies such as emotional intelligence, affective and cognitive empathy, self-awareness, and emotional regulation abilities can better cope with negative emotional states (Birnbaum, 2008), are less likely to engage in problem behaviors (Georgiou, 2008;Liau et al., 2003;Topcu & Erdur-Baker, 2012), and have higher academic performance (Chew et al., 2013). ...
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This study aims to map the Asian literature on emotions in learning, teaching, and leadership through a review of published research in Web of Science Core Collection. In all, 862 articles published between 1990 and 2018 were retrieved and analyzed. Bibliographic coupling of the countries, bibliographic coupling of the authors, co-occurrences of author keywords, bibliographic coupling of the journals, and bibliographic coupling of the institutions were extracted through bibliographic visualization methods. All the h-classics publications were also reviewed and categorized according to their topics. People’s Republic of China (Hong Kong), Israel, Turkey, and Cyprus are the countries with most relevant evidence. The top authors are found to be D.W Chan and M. Zembylas, while emotional intelligence, empathy, burnout, emotion, and self-efficacy have been the most frequently studied concepts. Teaching and Teacher Education and Journal of Educational Psychology are the journals with prominent pertinent influence. Education University of Hong Kong, Chinese University of Hong Kong, and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev are the institutions with the most notable influence. The current situation and research trends are discussed in the article.
... Emotional literacy is considered important for mental health and well-being (Liau et al., 2003;Carmeli, Yitzhak-Halelvy & Weisberg, 2007), which have been the focus of widespread government initiatives in schools. For example, Public Health ...
... Research from Ciarrochi, Chan and Caputi (2000) indicates that CYP with higher emotional literacy are better equipped with the skills to cope with adverse life events and manage difficult moods. This was corroborated by Liau et al. (2003) who conducted research exploring the relationship between emotional literacy and internal and externalising behaviour problems in 203 secondary school students in Malaysia using questionnaire data. ...
Thesis
The Emotional Literacy Support Assistant (ELSA) programme is a school-based intervention developed by Educational Psychologists in which Teaching Assistants (TAs) are trained to deliver bespoke support to develop the social and emotional skills of children and young people (CYP) (Burton, Traill & Norgate, 2009). A systematic critical appraisal of the present ELSA literature was conducted, focusing on what is known about the impact of the intervention on outcomes for CYP. This highlighted the scarcity of available research which focused on ELSA in secondary settings and the limitations around measures available to evaluate the impact of the intervention. To address this, mixed methodology research was conducted to explore the use of three outcome measures, two standardised measures (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Emotional Literacy Checklist) and an idiographic measure (Goal Based Outcomes [GBO]) with a sample of secondary-aged young people (N=5). GBO was used as this approach has evidenced success in clinical settings, such as Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHs), in evaluating bespoke interventions akin to ELSA. The researcher intended to triangulate the standardised data by seeking feedback from teaching staff (N = 3), but challenges with recruitment and data collection prevented this. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ELSAs (N = 8) and students (N = 4) to explore their views on using the GBO approach in ELSA. Findings indicate that the GBO data captures richer information about the ELSA intervention when compared to standardised measures in terms of the focus of the sessions. However, the tracking of change over time was limited due to the general nature of goals set. The GBO approach was perceived to benefit ELSA practice by supporting ELSAs’ planning and organisation and facilitating a sense of agency for students. ELSAs lacked confidence in using GBO, and students reflected on their uncertainty about the approach, which suggests that ELSAs would benefit from more comprehensive training and ongoing support to build confidence and ensure targets are SMART in nature. The strengths and limitations of this research are highlighted, and implications for the practice of ELSAs and Educational Psychologists, including directions for further research in this area, are discussed.
... Berdasarkan beberapa hasil kajian yang telah dijalankan, kecerdasan emosi dilihat memberi impak yang positif ke atas kehidupan manusia. Hal ini kerana seseorang yang mempunyai tahap kecerdasan emosi yang rendah menunjukkan perasaan bimbang dan perasaan tidak selesa apabila melaksanakan tugasan yang diberi, tidak dapat berfungsi dalam kehidupan dengan baik dan tidak dapat membina potensi diri secara optimum (Saemah et al., 2008), merupakan seorang yang lebih berpusatkan pada diri sendiri dan kurang menunjukkan sifat empati terhadap orang lain (Erasmus, 2007), mempunyai masalah tingkah laku seperti agresif dan kemurungan (Liau et al., 2003;Parker et al., 2008), tingginya penggunaan dadah dan alkohol, penglibatan dalam tingkah laku devian seperti pergaduhan yang melibatkan fizikal dan vandalisme (Maria et al., 2015), serta penggunaan strategi daya tindak maladaptif (Homauni Masoumeh et al., 2014). ...
... Sebaliknya, mereka yang mempunyai tahap kecerdasan emosi yang tinggi pula mempamerkan berlakunya peningkatan kesihatan mental seperti penurunan kemurungan dan stres sosial (Ruiz-Arand et al., 2012), kadar penggunaan alkohol dan merokok yang rendah (Trinidad & Johnson, 2002), dapat memberi tumpuan dalam menyelesaikan sesuatu tugasan yang diberi (Noriah et al., 2001), mempunyai hubungan sosial yang baik (Mayer, 2001;Asnawi, Madlan & Sombuling, 2017), menjadi peramal kepada kepuasan hidup dan peningkatan positif dalam interaksi dengan rakan dan keluarga (Maria et al., 2015) serta rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku dalaman seperti kebimbangan akademik, kemurungan dan stres serta rendahnya tahap masalah tingkah laku luaran seperti marah dan delinkuen (Liau et al., 2003). ...
Article
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Social emotional intelligent ia s burgeoning field and related studies have been widely conducted in Malaysia. The Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version (EQ-i:YV) which was design by Bar-On and Parker, is an instrument to measure social emotional intelligent, specifically among children and adolescent aged between seven and 18 years old. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of EQ-i:YV. A total of 1067 students from various secondary schools in Kota Kinabalu and Kudat, Sabah was employed as the respondents. In order to test the reliability of EQ-i:YV, the internal measurement by using Cronbach’s alpha was used. Meanwhile, the construct validity was tested by using inter-correlation validity test and Exploritory Factor Analysis (EFA). The results show that all the six dimension in EQ-i:YV display a good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha values ranging 0.52 to 0.75. Nevertheless, the overall internal consistency of EQ-i:YV show high Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.87. For inter-correlation validity, several dimension show positive correlation and several others do not. Meanwhile, EFA results show that most of the items have a medium and high loading. The psychometric evaluation towards EQ-i:YV gives an implication to researches who intend to conduct related to social emotional intelligence particularly among students or adolecents in Malaysia. Keywords: Social emotional intelligent, psychometric evaluation, reliability, validity, EFA, the emotional quotient inventory youth version (EQ-i:YV), secondary school students.
... As for the cyberbullies, numerous studies suggest that they have a lack of empathy towards their victims and low levels of emotional intelligence. Liau, Liau, Teoh, and Liau (2003) found that the students having the lowest emotional intelligence revealed higher levels of aggressive and delinquent behaviors. Along these lines, Vásquez, Ávila, Marqués, Martínez, Mercado & Severiche (2010) using a sample of Colombian university students, found that the non-aggressors had adequate emotional intelligence as compared to the aggressors. ...
... A greater understanding of emotions helps students to feel a greater level of empathy towards their peers, which may drastically reduce their involvement in intimidating behaviors. In general, this data supports the studies that consider EI to be a protective variable against bullying and cyberbullying (Elipe et al., 2015;Garaigordobil & Oñederra, 2010;Liau et al., 2003;Vásquez et al., 2010). ...
... We found that EI is positively associated with authoritative parenting in comparison of the other two parenting styles. Findings are consistent with the findings of Liau et al. [15] In their study of 203 Malaysian secondary school students; Liau et al. [15] found a positive correlation between parental monitoring and EI. ...
... We found that EI is positively associated with authoritative parenting in comparison of the other two parenting styles. Findings are consistent with the findings of Liau et al. [15] In their study of 203 Malaysian secondary school students; Liau et al. [15] found a positive correlation between parental monitoring and EI. ...
Article
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Background: In many reviews, it is found that parental responsiveness, parental emotion-related coaching, and parental positive demandingness are related to children's higher emotional intelligence (EI), while parental negative demandingness is related to children's lower EI. There is a lack of Indian work in this area. Aim: To study the role of EI and parenting style in predicting psychological well-being among adolescents in an Indian scenario. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional, analytical study was carried out on 75 boys and 75 girls in the age range of 15-18 years and attending school. They were assessed with the sociodemographic data sheet, trait EI questionnaire, psychological well-being inventory, and parental authority questionnaire. After the administration on different scales, the scoring was done and data were analyzed with SPSS. Results: There were no gender differences in the scores of EI, psychological well-being, and self-reported parenting style scores. There was a significant positive co-relation between well being and authoritative, authoritarian and autonomy, positive relationship. and self acceptance. Authoritarian parenting style is highly correlated with EI in comparison to authoritative and permissive parenting styles. Conclusion: Authoritarian parenting style is most suitable for the development of EI and on the other hand, permissive parenting style has the least role in the development of EI. EI and parenting style are found to predict the psychological well-being in adolescents.
... In addition, some studies have confirmed that high EI is related to less: (1) Internalizing and externalizing problems [37], internalizing problems (stress, depression, somatic complaints), externalizing problems (aggression, delinquency) [38], and emotional and behavioral problems [39]; ...
... These results, in the same direction as other studies, suggest that adolescents with high emotion regulation, a relevant factor of IEI, present fewer symptoms and emotional and behavioral problems. Several studies have confirmed that individuals who have high EI usually show fewer internalizing (anxiety, depression, etc.) and externalizing problems (such as aggression) [37][38][39]49,51]. More symptoms have been observed in people with low EI, both in adolescent and adult studies [48,50]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores Intrapersonal Emotional Intelligence (IEI) with the objectives of: (1) analyzing possible differences due to sex and age, and the request for psychological assistance for behavioral and emotional problems; (2) finding evidence of personality traits, social behaviors, and parental socialization styles that are characteristic of adolescents with low IEI; and (3) identifying variables that predict high IEI. The sample comprised 2283 participants aged 12–17 years from the Basque Country (northern Spain). Results: (1) Females had greater emotional attention capacity but there were no sex differences in emotional comprehension and emotion regulation; (2) adolescents aged 12–14 showed higher scores in comprehension and emotion regulation than those aged 15–17; (3) adolescents who consulted a psychologist for problems (anxiety, depression, violence, etc.) had lower emotion regulation; (4) adolescents with low IEI had less empathy, self-esteem, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and responsibility, and lower use of cooperative and passive conflict-resolution strategies, and their parents had a low level of acceptance-affection towards their children. They also engaged in more bullying/cyberbullying and antisocial behaviors. (5) High IEI predictor variables were: using cooperative conflict-resolution strategies; traits such as extroversion, responsibility, openness, and empathy; and a high level of maternal acceptance-affection. The work identifies relevant variables for designing intervention programs and shows the importance of promoting IEI and interpersonal emotional intelligence as a factor in the development and prevention of bullying/cyberbullying.
... The importance of developing emotional literacy has been demonstrated in empirical literature. While Ciarrochi, Chan, and Caputi (2000) found that low EL was associated with low levels of empathy and difficulty regulating moods, Liau, Liau, Teoh and Liau (2003) surveyed over 200 secondary school students in Malaysia and found a significant negative relationship between levels of EL and internalising behaviours, whereby those with lower levels of EL had higher levels of stress and depression. A significant negative association was also found between EL and externalising problem behaviours, with low levels of EL related to high levels of aggression. ...
... A significant negative association was also found between EL and externalising problem behaviours, with low levels of EL related to high levels of aggression. Although this suggests that emotional literacy skills may be important for both internalising and externalising behaviour, it is important to be aware that this research was reliant on self-report measures (Liau et al., 2003). ...
... On another hand, Liau et al. [19] found that high school students with lower emotional intelligence showed higher levels of aggressive and criminal behavior. In the same direction, other authors such as Zimmerman [20] and, more recently, [21] identified some deficits in certain aspects of emotional intelligence in adolescent aggressors, specifically in aspects of the perspective-taking of others, self-control, and social skills in general. ...
... This result confirms the findings of other works that have reported that adolescents who presented more intense and frequent facial expressions of hostility and anger were less able to regulate and adequately manage their emotions, aspects that are present in students with violent behavior [22,75,76]. In fact, several previous studies have shown lower general levels of emotional intelligence in schoolchildren with a tendency to show aggressive behaviors [19,20,76,77], but there are hardly any referents of multidimensional emotional intelligence in aggressors, and even fewer in cyberaggressors. In this study, cyberaggressors did not show a worsening in any dimension of emotional intelligence or in emotion regulation. ...
Article
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The objective of the present study was to analyze the extent to which violent peer behavior and victimization, both traditional and cybernetic, and predict certain indicators of psychological maladjustment in adolescents, such as self-concept, satisfaction with life, feeling of loneliness, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, social anxiety, empathy, and emotional intelligence. Participants in the study were 1318 adolescents of both sexes, aged between 11 and 18 years and enrolled in Compulsory Secondary Education schools. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The results indicated that the victims generally present greater maladjustment than the aggressors. Both victims and cybervictims showed a greater decrease in all the dimensions of self-concept, compared with aggressors and cyberaggressors. However, the two types of aggressors showed a higher likelihood of presenting low levels of empathy. Feeling of loneliness, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, and degree of life satisfaction was more probable to be present in all groups of aggressors and victims. Finally, with regard to emotional intelligence, victims had a higher probability of obtaining low scores in all the dimensions of this construct; this was the case for traditional aggressors only in the dimension of emotion regulation. These results contribute to our understanding of the consequences of harassment in the adaptation of the students involved, with relevant practical implications.
... In this regard, the study of transformative behaviours should include moral emotions in order to reach a better society (Johnson and Manoli, 2011). As a result, knowledge and moral emotions lead students to transform society through environmental experiences and challenges at school (Liau et al., 2003;Robina-Ramírez and Medina-Merodio, 2019). ...
... According to many researchers, emotional intelligence as ability is associated with cognitive intelligence but not personality trait (Lopes, Salovey and Straus, 2003;MacCann, Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2003;Mayer, Caruso et al., 1999;Roberts, Zeidner and Matthews, 2001). Liau, Liau, Teoh and Liau (2003) investigated the relationship between the emotional intelligence of secondary school students and their behavioural problems. It was noted that as emotional intelligence level increased, behavioural problems including stress, depression, somatic complaints, aggression and committing crime decreased. ...
Article
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According to the existing research, emotional intelligence includes skills that can be developed. In many studies conducted in the literature, it is emphasized that emotional intelligence skills are not stable rather continuously change and develop. In the current study, it is aimed to investigate the level of secondary school students’ emotional intelligence (11-14 years old) in terms of different variables (gender, grade level, parents’ education level, the extent to which their parents care about their feelings, the frequency of reading book, the length of time spent on the phone or computer, person(s) or the environment playing the most important role in the growth of the individual, experiencing difficulty or not in making friends). The current study is designed in the descriptive survey model. The study group is comprised of a total of 920 students (483 females, 437 males) attending different state schools in the city of Denizli in the spring term of the 2018-2019 school year. As the data collection tools, “The BarOn Emotional Intelligence Scale (Child and Adolescent Form) and a “Personal Information Form” were used in the current study. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS 22.0 program package. The data were analyzed by using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). As a result of the research, it was found that secondary school students’ emotional intelligence levels significantly vary depending on the variables such as grade level, the extent to which their parents care about their feelings, the frequency of reading book, the length of time spent on the phone or computer, person(s) or environment playing the most important role in their growth, father’s education level and experiencing difficulty or not in making friends. However, no significant difference was found in the students’ levels of emotional intelligence based on gender and mother’s education level.
... Namun kajian menunjukkan wujudnya masalah dalam melaksanakan pengajaran dan pembelajaran Pendidikan Moral di negara Malaysia (Liau et al. 2003). Pengajaran guru Pendidikan Moral memberikan keutamaan dalam aspek kognitif malah aspek emosi dan tindakan tidak diendahkan (Vishalache 2009). ...
Article
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Moral sensitivity is an important element that is the cornerstone of a moral act. Moral sensitivity involves the process of interpreting the feelings of others, understanding the impact of an issue and how it affects certain parties, empathy skills and role play in realizing a moral issue exists in a situation, and adhering to moral principles, rules or guidelines. Hence this article discusses the findings of the study on the potential of watching and analysing short films as a method of teaching in identifying the element of moral sensitivity among secondary school children. A total of 18 male and female Form Four students (three focus groups) were used for data collection purposes. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the study participants. This study uses a qualitative approach with action research design using interviews, observations and journal writing for the purpose of collecting data. Data analysis shows that watching and film analysis activities in the teaching and learning of Moral Education were able to unleash moral sensitivity and awareness among the participants. Having moral sensitivity is a very important moral value to a student in having awareness in a particular moral issue and having the ability to take rasional judgment before resolving any conflict.
... The role of teachers as transmitters of values and moral content and students as passive receptors has been a teaching pedagogy of Moral Education in Malaysia (Balakrishnan, 2011). One way method of teaching and exam oriented pedagogy (Liau et al., 2003) makes the subject boring for students. Students are not interested in attending the Moral Education class (Barone, 2004). ...
... Parental warmth has been reported to be positively related to children's emotion knowledge (Bennett et al. 2005), children's emotion understanding (Alegre and Benson 2007), emotion regulation (Eisenberg et al. 2000), and the total EI of early adolescents (Alegre and Perez 2009). Parental positive monitoring and emotional intelligence has been found to be positively correlate in Malaysian secondary school students (Liau et al. 2003). Al-Elaimat et al. (2018), in a study on kindergarten children in Jordan, found a statistically significant positive relation between the democratic parenting style and EI in all of its dimensions. ...
Article
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Parenting has been reported to exert significant short-term and long-term impact on the offspring’s personality, behavior, and relationships during their lifespan. The present study aimed to assess the impact of positive parenting on the trait emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior (altruism) and friendship quality of adolescents. The sample of present study comprised 350 adolescents (208 boys and 142 girls) aged between 14 and 16 year (M = 15. 46 year, SD = .86) and their parents. The data were collected from two public and two private sector schools of Lahore, Pakistan. Parenting Style Scale (Batool and Mumtaz Pakistan Journal of Psychological Reseaech, 30(2), 225–248, 2015), the Emotional Intelligence Scale for Children and Adolescents (Batool and Hayat Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 16(2), 17–26, 2018), the Altruistic Personality Scale (Rushton et al. Personality and Individual Differences, 1, 292–302, 1981), and the Intimate Friendship Scale (Sharabany 1974) were employed. The final model of a mediational path analysis revealed that positive parenting had a statistically significant indirect impact on the prosocial behavior of adolescents via emotional intelligence (R2 = .24). As the friendship quality of adolescents concerns, positive parenting had statistically significant direct and indirect impact (via emotional intelligence and prosocial behavior) on it (R2 = .28). Gender appeared as a significant covariate of both prosocial behavior and friendship quality. Based on the results, we suggest parents to practice positive parenting styles and recommend emotional intelligence training of adolescents to promote prosocial behavior and better relationship with friends.
... Namun, kajian juga menunjukkan wujudnya masalah dalam melaksanakan pengajaran dan pembelajaran Pendidikan Moral di negara ini (Liau, & Teoh, 2003) 2 . Pengajaran guru memberikan keutamaan dalam aspek kognitif, malah aspek emosi dan tindakan tidak diendahkan (Vishalache, 2009) 3 . ...
Article
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Abstrak Motivasi moral merupakan unsur yang menjadi penggerak kepada sesuatu tindakan moral. Seseorang yang mempunyai motivasi moral yang tinggi dapat (i) bertanggungjawab terhadap keputusan dan tindakan yang diambil, (ii) komited terhadap prinsip-prinsip moral, (iii) mengutamakan nilai-nilai moral berbanding kehendak lain, (iv) menolak elemen yang memberikan keuntungan peribadi dan (v) berpendirian untuk bertindak berdasarkan unsur moral dan etika. Justeru, artikel ini membincangkan potensi aktiviti lakonan filem pendek sebagai kaedah pengajaran dalam meningkatkan motivasi moral dalam kalangan murid sekolah. Seramai 18 orang murid perempuan dan lelaki (tiga kumpulan berfokus) dari kelas Pendidikan Moral tingkatan empat digunakan untuk tujuan pengumpulan data Teknik pensampelan bertujuan digunakan untuk memilih peserta kajian. Kajian kualitatif ini dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan instrumen protokol pemerhatian, protokol temu bual dan panduan penulisan jurnal bertujuan untuk mengumpul data. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan aktiviti lakonan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran Pendidikan Moral mampu meningkatkan motivasi moral dalam kalangan peserta kajian.
... In this regard, the study of transformative behaviours should include moral emotions in order to achieve a better society (Johnson and Manoli, 2011). As a result, knowledge and moral emotions lead students to transform society through environmental experiences and challenges at school (Liau et al., 2003;Robina-Ramírez and Medina-Merodio, 2019). ...
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Despite the prevalence of theories based on religious tourism, very little research has been done on educational motivation. Up until now, educational motivation has played a secondary role. Most religious tourism studies hardly mention educational motivation as a driver to visit sacred places. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by analysing its relevance as a key motivation in religious tourism. A total of 242 visitors were interviewed in 2017. The mediator effect of educational motivation is measured and compared with other tourist motivations, such as religious, environmental and rural, and cultural with PLS-SEM. The research discussed here evaluates the direct or indirect effect of educational motivation on touristś learning experience while visiting a religious place, in this case, the Royal Monastery of Guadalupe. The model revealed a strong predictive power (R² = 87.5%) and reported an indirect effect between educational motivation, environmental and rural motivation and cultural motivation.
... Pretpostavlja se da osoba više emocionalne inteligencije (EI) svoje emocije koristi na povoljniji način te, posljedično, ima u svom ponašanju i manji broj neprikladnih, pa i agresivnih emocionalnih reakcija. Postoje istraživanja koja su potvrdila povezanost emocionalnih sposobnosti i agresivnog ponašanja (Bohnert i sur., 2003;Liau, Liau, Teoh i Liau, 2003;McLaughlin, Hatzenbuehler, Mennin i Nolen-Hoeksema, 2011;Mohorić, 2012;Munjas, 2007), no u kontekstu modela EI još uvijek ne nalazimo dostatne empirijske nalaze o tijeku razvoja emocionalnih sposobnosti, te mogućnostima unaprjeđivanja tih sposobnosti s ciljem smanjivanja nepoželjnih oblika ponašanja. ...
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Svrha je ovog rada dati pregled istraživanja razvoja emocionalne inteligencije (EI) i agresivnosti u djetinjstvu i adolescenciji, kao i studija koje su se bavile odnosom ovih dvaju konstrukata u toj dobi. Već sam pregled podataka o razvoju upućuje na moguće poveznice u razvojnim putanjama emocionalnih sposobnosti i agresivnosti. No istraživanja povezanosti varijabli emocionalnog doživljavanja i procesiranja emocija s različitim aspektima agresivnosti prilično su rijetka. Većina rezultata postojećih istraživanja upućuje na povezanost između ovih dvaju konstrukata, ali problem u donošenju jasnih zaključaka velike su razlike u konceptualizacijama, primijenjenim mjerama, uzorcima i metodama. U budućim je istraživanjima važno usmjeriti se na ispitivanje specifičnih veza između svake razine EI, užih sposobnosti koje pripadaju pojedinim razinama i različitih oblika agresivnosti. Osim toga, važno je ispitati mogućnosti utjecaja na svaku od specifičnih sposobnosti s obzirom na njihove razvojne putanje i važnost za agresivno ponašanje u pojedinoj točki razvoja. Položaj varijabli EI unutar konstelacije mnogih drugih korelata agresivnog ponašanja u različitim razvojnim razdobljima također je bitan problem potencijalnih istraživanja. Primjena bi rezultata takvih istraživanja u kreiranju programa prevencije agresivnog ponašanja povećala njihovu efikasnost, ali i omogućila valjaniju procjenu učinka primijenjenih tretmana.
... Déficit en los niveles de bienestar y ajuste psicológico del alumnado; (2) Disminución en la cantidad y calidad de las relaciones interpersonales; (3) Descenso del rendimiento académico y (4) Aparición de conductas disruptivas y consumo de sustancias adictivas.(Ciarrochi, Chan y Bajgar, 2001; Fernández-Berrocal, Extremera y Ramos, 2003;Liau, Liau, Teoh y Liau, 2003; Trinidad y Johnson, 2002. cit. ...
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La sociedad actual demanda personas que a través de un aprendizaje continuo se conviertan en sujetos autónomos capaces de tomar conciencia de sus propios procesos mentales al enfrentarse con los problemas, analizarlos adecuadamente, planificar, supervisar y evaluar la propia actuación. Aunque los estilos de aprendizaje son relativamente estables, pueden ser modificados, siendo una responsabilidad de los profesores ayudar a los estudiantes a descubrir su estilo y aprender a adaptarlo a las experiencias de cada situación. Ése es nuestro objetivo, ahora que nos enfrentamos a un cambio drástico en la forma de enseñar, acorde con el nuevo sistema europeo: conocer los estilos de aprendizaje predominantes en nuestros estudiantes para planificar la docencia de acuerdo a ese hecho. Este trabajo se ha diseñado para evaluar y analizar la Inteligencia Emocional, los Estilos de Aprendizaje y las Estrategias de Aprendizaje de los alumnos de las seis Escuelas de enseñanza Superior del Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco, Portugal, utilizando métodos estadísticos multivariantes tradicionalmente utilizados en contextos muy diferentes, especialmente en estudios ecológicos. La población en estudio, en el año lectivo 2009/10 representa un total de 4014 alumnos. Para recoger la información fueron utilizados el cuestionario TMMS (Salovey et al. 1995, en su versión TMMS-24, Fernández-Berrocal et al. 2004), el cuestionario CASVI creado por Vicente-Galindo y Castro en 2007 (Galindo, 2007), el cuestionario CHAEA (Alonso y Honey, 1995) y el cuestionario ACRA (Román y Gallego, 1994). Se obtuvieron 1785 encuestas. De los cuestionarios utilizados (TMMS, CASVI, CHAEA y ACRA), solo el TMMS y el CHAEA se habían validado en Portugal. Entre los objetivos del estudio destacaremos, además de evaluar la relación entre la Inteligencia Emocional y los Estilos y Estrategias de Aprendizaje, utilizando métodos estadísticos multivariantes nunca usados en este contexto, el estudio del comportamiento psicométrico de los cuestionarios para identificar perfiles de alumnos y su relación con el género, el tipo de carrera cursada y el rendimiento académico.
... A lot of earlier studies supported the assumption that adolescents" mental health is deeply affected by parental warmth and care (Bennet et al., 2005). Moreover, parental check and balance is closely linked with resilience (Liau et al., 2003). In this case, authoritative parents always established responsive and warm but at the same time more demanding and monitored relationships (Imtiaz &Naqvi, 2012). ...
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The aim of this research was to investigate the association between authoritative parenting style, resilience, and mental health in adolescents. The sample comprised of 300 high school students to university freshmen of age group 15 to 20 years. Data was collected by using purposive sampling techniques from various government and private educational institutions of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Wah Cantt. Gafoor and Kukuran's (2014) Parenting Style Scale was used to measure perceived parenting style. Resilience Scale (RS-14) by Wagnild (2010) was used to measure resilience. The mental health of adolescents was assessed by using the WarwickEdinburgh Mental Well-being scale developed by Tennant et al., 2007. Results of the present study revealed that authoritative parenting style was positively correlated with mental health. Results also indicated that resilience moderated authoritative parenting style with mental health. Furthermore, results demonstrated that males have better mental health as they are more resilient compared to females. Moreover, this study provides strong evidence highlighting the crucial role of parenting on mental health which will help the parents to adopt positive and beneficial rearing practices and to avoid toxic upbringing patterns.
... According to many researchers, emotional intelligence as ability is associated with cognitive intelligence but not personality trait (Lopes, Salovey and Straus, 2003;MacCann, Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2003;Mayer, Caruso et al., 1999;Roberts, Zeidner and Matthews, 2001). Liau, Liau, Teoh and Liau (2003) investigated the relationship between the emotional intelligence of secondary school students and their behavioural problems. It was noted that as emotional intelligence level increased, behavioural problems including stress, depression, somatic complaints, aggression and committing crime decreased. ...
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According to the existing research, emotional intelligence includes skills that can be developed. In many studies conducted in the literature, it is emphasized that emotional intelligence skills are not stable rather continuously change and develop. In the current study, it is aimed to investigate the level of secondary school students’ emotional intelligence (11-14 years old) in terms of different variables (gender, grade level, parents’ education level, the extent to which their parents care about their feelings, the frequency of reading book, the length of time spent on the phone or computer, person(s) or the environment playing the most important role in the growth of the individual, experiencing difficulty or not in making friends). The current study is designed in the descriptive survey model. The study group is comprised of a total of 920 students (483 females, 437 males) attending different state schools in the city of Denizli in the spring term of the 2018-2019 school year. As the data collection tools, “The BarOn Emotional Intelligence Scale (Child and Adolescent Form) and a “Personal Information Form” were used in the current study. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS 22.0 program package. The data were analyzed by using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). As a result of the research, it was found that secondary school students’ emotional intelligence levels significantly vary depending on the variables such as grade level, the extent to which their parents care about their feelings, the frequency of reading book, the length of time spent on the phone or computer, person(s) or environment playing the most important role in their growth, father’s education level and experiencing difficulty or not in making friends. However, no significant difference was found in the students’ levels of emotional intelligence based on gender and mother’s education level. Keywords:1 Emotional intelligence, BarOn emotional intelligence scale, secondary school students.
... High responsiveness behaviours are associated with higher understanding of emotions (Dunn and Brown 1994) and emotion knowledge (Bennett et al. 2005). Parental monitoring is an aspect of positive demandingness, relating to high levels of general emotional intelligence (Liau et al. 2003); and it is possible that the lack of positive demands made on children with permissive parents negates the benefits of responsiveness provided. Hypothesis 4. Finally, Neglectful parenting behaviours (Low Responsiveness + Low Demandingness) would correspond to the lowest levels of emotional intelligence on all components. ...
... De hecho, en el informe Delors (1996) se recogen 4 pilares fundamentales de la educación del siglo XXI: (1) aprender a conocer, (2) aprender a hacer, (3) aprender a vivir con los demás y (4) aprender a ser; y las habilidades sociales y emocionales tienen un papel fundamental en todos ellos. En la etapa escolar, especialmente en educación secundaria que es una etapa de muchos cambios sociales, contextuales, y personales, la Inteligencia Emocional (IE) es un recurso personal que, por un lado, previene riesgos importantes como el estrés, el síndrome de burnout, la ansiedad social, la depresión, los pensamientos rumiativos (Extremera y Fernández-Berrocal, 2003;Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2006;Salovey et al., 2002), los comportamientos agresivos (Liau et al., 2003;Petrides et al., 2004) y el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y drogas (Trinidad et al., 2003;Peterson et al., 2011); y por otro, favorece el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje, el ajuste psicosocial, el bienestar y el rendimiento de los estudiantes Sánchez-Álvarez et al., 2020). ...
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El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar el papel del género en la relación entre la Inteligencia Emocional (IE), el estrés académico y la satisfacción con la vida. Para ello, participaron 333 estudiantes de secundaria con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 16 años. Los resultados mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género en todas las dimensiones de la IE, en dos de las dimensiones del burnout y en la satisfacción con la vida; siendo las mujeres las que informan de más habilidades para percibir, asimilar y regular las emociones, más desgaste emocional y menos satisfacción con la vida. La relación entre IE y estrés académico puso en evidencia que a mayores niveles de IE menos estrés académico y mayores niveles de satisfacción con la vida. No obstante, tales relaciones estuvieron moduladas por el género: el posible efecto “protector” de la IE sobre el estrés académico es más potente en las chicas, mientras que el posible efecto “beneficioso” de la IE sobre la satisfacción vital en más potente en los chicos. Concluimos que la IE es un recurso personal que protege más a las mujeres que a los hombres del estrés académico, y potencia más la satisfacción con la vida de los hombres que de las mujeres.
... The influence of emotional intelligence on behavioral problem in Malaysian secondary school students showed that high school students who show lower levels of emotional intelligence have higher scores on stress, depression and somatic complaints. (Liau et al 2003) There is a relationship between emotional intelligence and mental health. (Mathews et al 2004) It was also supported by the study relationship between early-life I.Q. ...
... Moreover, Kollontai [93] argued that learning outcomes in HEIs are negatively affected with unmanaged emotions which may result in dysfunctional human behaviors that can impact on social relationships. EI can only be developed in supporting relationships [94], otherwise there are negative effects on learning outcomes [95,96]. Moreover, negative emotional expressions impede learning outcomes [97], therefore, one must challenge their own practices to be a positive role model and emotional coach for improving learning outcomes of others [98]. ...
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Objective: Drawing on the knowledge-based view and ability-based theories of emotional intelligence (EI), in this study, we investigate the effects of EI on learning outcomes related to academics and administrators in Chinese research universities and we also test the direct association between learning outcomes and creative performance. In addition, we examine the mediating role of self-directed learning (SDL) and knowledge management processes (KMPs) on the relationship between EI and learning outcomes. Methods: The sample, for this study, consisted of 547 academic and administrative personnel at Chinese higher educational institutions (HEIs), and the hypothesized associations were examined through partial least squares structural equation modeling. Results: Our results indicated that EI has no significant influence on learning outcomes. However, an indirect relationship between EI and learning outcomes is established through SDL and KMPs. Conclusions: This study strengthens the professional understanding of EI and supports that the personnel at HEIs should value SDL and KMPs, which in turn enhances their learning outcomes. Although EI has received increased importance in higher education institutions, there are few studies that have investigated the relationship of EI, SDL, KMP, and learning outcomes. This is one of the initial studies that has empirically examined the interface of EI and learning outcomes in HEIs and also provides timely insights into the understanding of the mediating role of SDL and KMP.
... Similarly, in a research involving 203 secondary school students of Malaysia reported a significant positive relationship between parenting styles and emotional intelligence. Adolescents having high rates of emotional intelligence, in return, expressed less problems in internalizing and externalizing (Liau, Teoh & Liau, 2003). Harsh patterns of imposing discipline on children came out to be highly correlated with low rates of emotional perception and emotional regulation (Morris, Silk, Steinberg, Myers & Robinson, 2007). ...
Article
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The major focus of the present study was to find out the predicting role of parenting styles and emotional intelligence on communication competence among adolescents. The technique of convenient sampling was utilized to gather data for the study. The sample of the study consisted of two hundred (N=200) participants including one hundred male (N=100) adolescents and one hundred female (N=100). Adolescence is defined as a transitional phase of development and growth between childhood and adulthood. The sample was selected from Fazaia Inter College E/9 Islamabad. Demographic sheet, Buri Parenting Style Questionnaire (PSQ), Wong and Law Emotional intelligence Scale (EIS) and Lewicki Communication competence scale (CCS) were used to collect data from the sample of this research. The results show that permissive parenting style and authoritarian parenting style have significant negative correlation with communication competence as well as with all dimensions of emotional intelligence. Whereas, flexible or authoritative parenting style has a positive correlation with communication competence as well as with all dimensions of emotional intelligence. On the other hand, there is a positive correlation between emotional intelligence and communication competence. Further analysis indicated that the patterns of parenting styles and emotional intelligence have a predicting impact on communication competence of the adolescents. Moreover, the results showed that adolescents will rate differently on perceived parenting style, emotional intelligence and communication competence on the basis of gender. Whereas, no significant differences exist on perceived parenting style, emotional intelligence and communication competence on the basis of nuclear and joint family systems as well as on lower, middle and higher socioeconomic status.
... Importantly, when emotional needs are not met, children are at an increased risk of mental health difficulties (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Reduced emotional literacy ability has been associated with difficulties with empathy and regulating mood (Ciarrochi, Chan & Caputi, 2000), as well as higher levels of stress, depression and aggressive behaviour (Liau, Liau, Teoh & Liau, 2003). ...
Article
The current thesis presents an exploratory evaluation of the Emotional Literacy Support Assistant (ELSA) project in primary schools. The ELSA intervention aims to improve schools’ capacity to support children with emotional literacy needs by training Teaching Assistants to equip them with the skills, knowledge and resources needed to support the social and emotional learning of children. Existing literature indicates a positive foundation of the intervention. However, due to the small body of research evaluating the ELSA project, and limitations to the existing evidence-base, the need for further research has been acknowledged. Therefore, the current study aimed to ascertain the measurable impact of ELSA support, as well as establish any perceived intervention effect. Factors viewed contributory to the positive impact of the intervention were also explored. A pragmatic, mixed methods approach was used, encompassing a multiple case studies design. Single case experimental designs were employed to consider the impact of ELSA support on individual intervention targets for five participants within one local authority. Results from SCEDs were triangulated with pre- and post- intervention measures. Post-intervention semi-structured interviews with participants and ELSAs were undertaken to explore views of the ELSA intervention in greater depth. Visual analysis of single case experimental design graphs suggested that in some contexts, a positive impact of the ELSA intervention can be ascertained. However, a number of limitations to this approach resulted in difficulties in gaining a clear indication of the measurable impact of the ELSA intervention. Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews identified that a positive impact of the ELSA intervention was consistently perceived by both the ELSAs and children, and several factors contributing to its success were reported. The current findings were discussed with reference to existing literature and limitations of the study were outlined. Implications for future research and practice are provided.
... De hecho, en el informe Delors (1996) se recogen 4 pilares fundamentales de la educación del siglo XXI: (1) aprender a conocer, (2) aprender a hacer, (3) aprender a vivir con los demás y (4) aprender a ser; y las habilidades sociales y emocionales tienen un papel fundamental en todos ellos. En la etapa escolar, especialmente en educación secundaria que es una etapa de muchos cambios sociales, contextuales, y personales, la Inteligencia Emocional (IE) es un recurso personal que, por un lado, previene riesgos importantes como el estrés, el síndrome de burnout, la ansiedad social, la depresión, los pensamientos rumiativos (Extremera y Fernández-Berrocal, 2003;Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2006;Salovey et al., 2002), los comportamientos agresivos (Liau et al., 2003;Petrides et al., 2004) y el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y drogas (Trinidad et al., 2003;Peterson et al., 2011); y por otro, favorece el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje, el ajuste psicosocial, el bienestar y el rendimiento de los estudiantes Sánchez-Álvarez et al., 2020). ...
Article
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El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar el papel del género en la relación entre la Inteligencia Emocional (IE), el estrés académico y la satisfacción con la vida. Para ello, participaron 333 estudiantes de secundaria con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 16 años. Los resultados mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género en todas las dimensiones de la IE, en dos de las dimensiones del burnout y en la satisfacción con la vida; siendo las mujeres las que informan de más habilidades para percibir, asimilar y regular las emociones, más desgaste emocional y menos satisfacción con la vida. La relación entre IE y estrés académico puso en evidencia que a mayores niveles de IE menos estrés académico y mayores niveles de satisfacción con la vida. No obstante, tales relaciones estuvieron moduladas por el género: el posible efecto “protector” de la IE sobre el estrés académico es más potente en las chicas, mientras que el posible efecto “beneficioso” de la IE sobre la satisfacción vital en más potente en los chicos. Concluimos que la IE es un recurso personal que protege más a las mujeres que a los hombres del estrés académico, y potencia más la satisfacción con la vida de los hombres que de las mujeres.
... Otros estudios realizados en Australia presentan evidencias de que los estudiantes universitarios con alta IE responden al estrés con menos ideaciones suicidas, comparados con aquellos con baja IE, e informan menor depresión y desesperanza (Ciarrochi et al., 2002). Igualmente, Liau et al. (2003) han encontrado que los estudiantes de secundaria que indican menores niveles de IE tienen puntuaciones más altas en estrés, depresión y quejas somáticas. ...
Article
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La generación de los milenios ha representado un reto tanto para los empleadores como para los sistemas universitarios. Esta generación presenta características diferentes a otras generaciones de trabajadores. El propósito de este trabajo de investigación es identificar la relación que existe entre el autoliderazgo y la inteligencia emocional de esta nueva generación de trabajadores. El levantamiento de información se realizó a través de estudiantes de últimos semestres universitarios y se analizó mediante la utilización de la modelación de ecuaciones estructurales para identificar la relación entre las variables de estudio. Los resultados indican que existe una fuerte relación entre la inteligencia emocional y el autoliderazgo, siendo uno de los factores clave el uso de las emociones para fijar los objetivos, así como la apreciación de las emociones propias y las de los demás.
... The role of teachers as transmitters of values and moral content and students as passive receptors has been a teaching pedagogy of Moral Education in Malaysia. One way method of teaching and exam oriented pedagogy (Liau et al., 2003) makes the subject boring for students. Students are not interested in attending the Moral Education class. ...
Article
Implementing teaching and learning, to raise the dimension of moral reasoning among students, is still a major challenge to secondary school teachers. Pedagogy and classroom teaching strategies is important to stimulate students to think critically and pro-active in addressing a moral and social conflict. Furthermore, one of the aspirations of Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025 is to produce a creative, innovative and critical thinking society in Malaysia. Conventional classroom teaching seems difficult to attract secondary school students to engage physically and mentally in moral learning process. In this regard, the use of pedagogical strategies and innovative teaching techniques can stimulate students' cognitive skills to current demands. Therefore, this article discusses the use of Forum Theatre as a creative pedagogical strategies in teaching and learning of moral education in secondary school. Creative teaching strategies that are able to develop reasonable thought and justification, is essential for the development of human capital in the era of globalization. KEYWORDS : Pedagogy, Creativity, Moral Education, Technique, Strategies, Teaching, Learning
... Tumpuan pengajaran dan pembelajaran (PdP) Pendidikan Moral adalah mengkaitkan situasi atau isu-isu di dalam negara mahupun di luar negara agar membantu pelajar dalam menghadapi konflik moral berdasarkan kepada nilai dan prinsip moral yang dipelajari. PdP akan lebih efektif sekiranya guru mengkaitkan peristiwa sebenar dengan kehidupan manusia (Liau et al., 2003). Proses pengajaran Pendidikan Moral ialah penyebaran ilmu pengetahuan dan kemahiran oleh guru. ...
... On the other hand, it has been found that deficiencies in EI skills affect people in any context, especially students in and out of school [17,18]. Liau et al. [19] found that high school students with low levels of emotional intelligence show greater predictability toward aggressive and/or criminal behaviour; and Zimmerman [20] concluded that bullies show a very low emotional intelligence, especially in those aspects related to social skills, self-control and empathy. ...
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The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between emotional intelligence and social skills, and how these two variables influence bullying. In this study, 912 Spanish high school students, 471 boys and 441 girls aged 14–16 years, participated, who were administered the Spanish version of the Trait Meta Mood Scale 24, the “Bateria de socialización BAS-3” and the Peer Harassment Questionnaire. To analyse the results, a structural equation model was made. The results reflected a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and social skills (B = 0.44, p < 0.001), and a negative relationship with respect to bullying (B = −0.56, p < 0.001). In turn, social skills reflected a negative relationship with respect to bullying (B = −0.38, p < 0.001). These results reflect the need to implement educational programs focused on the development of emotional intelligence in the classroom, as a means to try to stop bullying behaviours in the classroom.
... It should go beyond in order to educate the students in life skills, so that they can benefit from their education while fully participating in public, community and economic life. Liau, Liau, Teoh and Liau, (2003) state that emotional literacy is the best means through which students and educators will be able to fulfill the increasing demands of changing life. .526 ...
Article
This research was conducted to examine the influential role of pedagogical leadership in the secondary schools of Lahore, Pakistan. The central premise of this research was to ascertain the effects of pedagogical leadership on the life achievements of students at secondary level which they carried up to the college. The main focus was how school principals and teachers play their role as pedagogical leaders to prepare students for academic achievements and life achievements. A quantitative survey was held to conduct this study. Data was collected from student of intermediate enrolled in different colleges in the arts, science and commerce programs of the Higher Secondary School Certificate by Lahore Board, Pakistan. Six public and private colleges of Lahore (male and female) which enroll students with high academic achievements were targeted. Data was collected from 600 students using cluster sampling and each targeted college was taken as a cluster. Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to determine the relationships among various constructs of pedagogical leadership of secondary school teachers and principals used for inculcating lifelong learning skills in students and promoting the self-efficacy beliefs of achievement. The study concludes that pedagogic leadership roles played by principals and teachers are of equal importance; however, pedagogic leadership provided by principals is more effective in supportive and managerial roles. On the other hand, teachers’ pedagogic leadership is realized in their professional commitment exhibited in everyday teaching and learning. The study also identifies certain gaps in the achievement of 21st century life skills of students which are vital for survival and sustainability in the current era.
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Τα επιθετικά παιδιά διακρίνονται από ελλείμματα τόσο στις κοινωνικές όσο και στις συναισθηματικές τους δεξιότητες. Σκοπός της παρούσας έρευνας ήταν να διερευνήσει αφενός την υπόθεση της ελλειμματικής Γνωστικής Επεξεργασίας Κοινωνικών Πληροφοριών (ΓΕΠΚ) παιδιών που εμπλέκονται σε περιστατικά εκφοβισμού και θυματοποίησης και αφετέρου τη σχέση του φαινομένου με τη Συναισθηματική Νοημοσύνη. Το δείγμα αποτέλεσαν 310 προέφηβοι μαθητές των δύο τελευταίων τάξεων του δημοτικού σχολείου, οι οποίοι συμπλήρωσαν αυτοσχέδιο ερωτηματολόγιο αυτοαναφοράς για την εμπλοκή τους σε περιστατικά εκφοβισμού-θυματοποίησης, τη σύντομη έκδοση της κλίμακας για τη Συναισθηματική Νοημοσύνη ως γνώρισμα της προσωπικότητας των Petrides et al. (2006), καθώς και δελτίο κοινωνικο-δημογραφικών χαρακτηριστικών. Για την αξιολόγηση της ΓΕΚΠ χρησιμοποιήθηκε κλίμακα με διφορούμενα υποθετικά σενάρια που ενσωματώθηκε στο ερωτηματολόγιο. Η ανάλυση των δεδομένων έδειξε ότι τα αγόρια εκφοβίζουν πιο συχνά και προτιμούν να εκδικηθούν επιλέγοντας σωματική ή λεκτική επιθετικότητα, ενώ τα κορίτσια αποσύρονται η διεκδικούν με παρρησία. Ακόμη, βρέθηκε ότι οι θύτες και τα επιθετικά θύματα παρουσιάζουν περισσότερα ελλείμματα στην επεξεργασία κοινωνικών πληροφοριών, όπως και στη Συναισθηματική Νοημοσύνη, συγκριτικά με τα υπόλοιπα παιδιά. Τείνουν δηλαδή να εστιάζουν περισσότερο σε εχθρικά ερεθίσματα, αποδίδουν σε μεγαλύτερο βαθμό εχθρότητα στις προθέσεις των άλλων, υιοθετούν πιο συχνά εκδικητικούς στόχους και επιθετικές συμπεριφορές (σωματική/λεκτική επιθετικότητα) και διακρίνονται συνήθως από χαμηλή αυτοεκτίμηση και ευημερία. Από τις συσχετίσεις των μεταβλητών προέκυψε ότι ο εκφοβισμός και η θυματοποίηση συσχετίζονται θετικά και στατιστικώς σημαντικά με την απόδοση εχθρικής διάθεσης, την εκδίκηση, τη σωματική επιθετικότητα ως απάντηση στην πρόκληση και την έλλειψη αυτοεκτίμησης, και αρνητικά με τη διεκδικητικότητα, την ευημερία και τον έλεγχο συναισθημάτων. Τέλος, βρέθηκε ότι το φύλο, η σωματική επίθεση ως απάντηση στην πρόκληση, η έλλειψη αυτοεκτίμησης και η αδυναμία ελέγχου των συναισθημάτων προέβλεπαν την εμπλοκή σε περιστατικά εκφοβισμού, ενώ η επιθυμία για εκδίκηση, η έλλειψη ευημερίας και αυτοεκτίμησης ήταν σημαντικοί προβλεπτικοί παράγοντες της θυματοποίησης.
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هدف این مطالعه، بررسی اثر بخشی آموزش کنترل تکانه و توجه بر پردازش هیجانی، تکانشگری و حواس‌پرتی دانش‌آموزان مبتلا به اختلال ریاضی بود. این پژوهش از نوع آزمایشی بوده و با طرح پیش‌آزمون ـ پس‌آزمون با گروه گواه اجرا شد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش را کلیه دانش‌آموزان پسر مقطع راهنمایی شهر اردبیل در سال تحصیلی 91-90 تشکیل دادند. نمونه پژوهش 60 نفر از دانش‌آموزان دارای اختلال ریاضی بود که از میان دانش‌آموزان پنج مدرسه راهنمایی شهر اردبیل بعد از شناسایی به‌وسیله آزمون ریاضی کی‌مت (1988) و انجام مصاحبه بالینی ساختار یافته به‌صورت تصادفی ساده انتخاب و در دو گروه آزمایش (کنترل تکانه و توجه) و گواه (20 نفر برای هر گروه) گمارده شدند. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از مقیاس پردازش هیجانی باکر و همکاران (2007)، تکانشگری بارات (1994)، آزمون ریاضی کی‌مت (1988) و حواس‌پرتی تولوز ـ پیرون (1986) استفاده شده است. نتایج تحلیل کوواریانس تک ‌متغیری (ANCOVA) نشان داد آموزش برنامه‌های کنترل تکانه و توجه بر پردازش هیجانی، تکانشوری و حواس‌پرتی تأثیر دارد (001/0≥P)؛ به این صورت که به کاهش هیجان‌های منفی، تکانشوری و حواس‌پرتی دانش‌آموزان مبتلا به اختلال ریاضی منجر می‌شود. بنابر یافته‌های این مطالعه، آموزش مهارت‌های کنترل تکانه و توجه به دانش‌آموزان مبتلا به اختلال ریاضی باعث کاهش تکانشگری و حواس‌پرتی می‌شود و می‌توان از این آموزش‌ها به عنوان روش‌های مداخله‌ای مناسب سود جست.
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91-90 ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ‬ ‫دﻫﻨﺪ‬. ‫آزﻣﻮدﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ 40 ‫آﻣﻮز‬ ‫داﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫رﻳﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼل‬ ‫داراي‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اردﺑﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫راﻫﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻨﺞ‬ ‫آﻣﻮزان‬ ‫داﻧﺶ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮل‬ ‫و‬ ‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬ ‫دو‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬ ‫ﺳﺎده‬) 20 ‫ﻫﺮﮔﺮوه‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬ (‫ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﮔﻤﺎرده‬. ‫آوري‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫داده‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاس‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﻮري‬ ،‫ﻫﻴﺠﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮدازش‬ ‫ازﭘﺮﺳﺸﻨﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬. ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﻛﻮوارﻳﺎﻧﺲ‬) MANCOVA (‫ﺑﺮﻧ‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﻮري‬ ،‫ﻫﻴﺠﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮدازش‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮل‬ ‫درﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاس‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫داﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاس‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﻮري‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺠﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫رﻳﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼل‬ ‫داراي‬ ‫آﻣﻮزان‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬. ‫و‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫آﺳﻴﺐ‬ ،‫ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻴﺮي‬ ‫زﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺤﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼل‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫درﻣﺎن‬. ‫واژ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪي‬ : ‫رﻳﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼل‬ ،‫ﭘﺮﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاس‬ ،‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﻮري‬ ،‫ﻫﻴﺠﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮدازش‬ ،‫ﺗﻜﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮل‬ .
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This study explores the construct validity of the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale in the light of psychological type theory that hypothesises a bias in item content to favour extraverts over introverts, sensing types over intuitive types, feeling types over thinking types, and perceiving types over judging types. Data provided by 364 Anglican clergy serving in the Church in Wales, who completed the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale alongside the Francis Psychological Type Scales, confirm higher scores among extraverts (compared with introverts), intuitive types (compared with sensing types), and feeling types (compared with thinking types), but found no significant difference between judging types and perceiving types. These data are interpreted to nuance the kind of emotional intelligence accessed by the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale and to encourage future scale development that may conceptualise emotional intelligence in ways more independent of psychological type preferences.
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In this study, it was aimed at investigating peer bullying seen in preschool period on the basis of emotional intelligence and family variables. A total of 286 children aged between 5 and 6 participated in the study. “Storied Hypothetical Situations Form”, “Sullivan Emotional Intelligence Scale for Children”, “Sullivan Brief Empathy Scale for Children”, “Sullivan Teacher Rating Scale of Emotional Intelligence in Children”, “Parents Attitude Scale” and Demographical Information Form have been used as data collection tools. The findings indicated that variables such as emotional intelligence, gender, maternal education level, socio-economic level, father's profession, child's level of interest in violent games and television programs, and democratic and authoritarian parent attitudes were directly related to peer bullying. In addition, the results showed that peer bullying seen in preschool period could be a worth-stressing problem. The findings were discussed in the context of the related literature.
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The purpose of this study is to analyze the advantages and needs of integrating various intelligence theories in the process of teaching and learning Moral Education in a more practical way. Smart individuals become human capital for the economic and social development of the country. However, efforts to highlight or expose the various intelligence available to students are still not given much attention by teachers. Identifying various aspects of student intelligence is still a challenge for teachers who implement the teaching and facilitation process in the Moral Education classroom. Moral Education teachers face problems to help students reach their maximum potential because of the unique and varied learning needs of students. In this regard, the theory of multiple intelligences is thought to be able to be a theoretical framework to define, understand, develop and assess the various intelligences that students have. This study uses a qualitative approach with text analysis design and document review. Therefore, this paper is structured into three parts. The first part is a discussion of the Moral Education curriculum in Malaysia, and issues in teaching pedagogy. The second part is a discussion of the theory of multiple intelligences and the Flow theory that supports it and the third part is the integration of the theory of multiple intelligences in the Daily Teaching Plan for one unit of teaching in the Moral Education class . This paper demonstrates the importance of the concept of integrating the theory of multiple intelligences in the teaching and learning of Moral Education. This article also proposes a framework for the preparation of Daily Teaching Plan for a teaching unit as a guide for Moral Education teachers. KEYWORDS : Moral Education, Multiple Intelligences, Teaching ,Learning, Integration , Flow Model
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Background/Objectives: to improve production efficiency, it is often necessary to solve various optimization problems. One of them is the task of allocating production resources. The solution of such problems depends on the influence of many factors, so to solve this problem there are different methods.
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Adolescent aggression is a global public health with long-lasting and costly emotional, social, and economic consequences, and it is of vital importance to identify those variables that can reduce these behaviors in this population. Therefore, there is a need to establish the protective factors of aggressive behavior in adolescence. While some research has demonstrated the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and various aggressive responses in adolescence, indicating that EI-or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions-could be considered a protective factor for the development of aggressive behavior in adolescence, the strength of this effect is not clear. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature concerning the relationship between aggressive behavior and EI in adolescents and provide a reliable estimate of the relationship between both constructs through a meta-analysis. For this purpose, we searched for relevant articles in English and Spanish in Medline, PsycINFO, and Scopus, obtaining 17 selectable articles based on the search terms used in research in the adolescent population. These studies provide scientific evidence of the relationship between the level of EI assessed from the three theoretical models of EI (performance-based ability model, self-report ability model, and self-report mixed model) and various aggressive responses, showing that adolescents with higher levels of EI show less aggressive behavior. Implications for interventions and guidelines for future research are discussed.
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The concept of emotional intelligence is gaining wide attention among researchers in social science. However, most of the previous studies focused more on the students or teenagers in general. Therefore, this study was conducted specifically among delinquents who were undergoing rehabilitation program in the rehabilitation institutions. The main objective of this study was to examine the correlation of social support and emotional intelligence among delinquents in government rehabilitation institutions in Malaysia. Respondents involved in this study were 203 Malay delinquents aged between 11 to 19 years old that were randomly selected from six different rehabilitation institutions in Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur (WPKL), Selangor and Malacca.
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The subjective experience of mental states has a specific structure determined by various factors: age, sex, social conditions, personal and characterological traits, etc. The ability to understand emotions, person’s own mental states and mental states of other people is realized if the person has a rich experience of emotions, feelings and mental states. The development of this ability leads to positive social and interpersonal interactions. Children with disabilities have a weakly developed emotional-volitional sphere but they have qualitative features in emotional development. The article describes the specificity of the subjective experience of children’s mental states (7-10 years old) and adolescents (13-14 years old) with limited possibilities of health: severe speech disorders (SSD) and cerebral palsy (CP). Such mental states joy, anger, calmness were studied in the article. Content analysis of self-reports allowed to single out semantic units related to different categories. Children and adolescents with SSD and CP describe their mental states experienced in the past through the causes of the states, through external markers – for example, communication and unity with relatives and important people. Their subjective experience reflects such characteristics of mental states as behavior, reactions, and types of activities. Their experience also includes internal markers related to the world of their feelings and experiences, evaluative judgments and reflections, elements of regulation and problem-solving. The study discovered the specificity of the subjective experience of mental states depending on the age and type of disorder.
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This chapter is followed by an educator's commentary written by P. M. Harbour and J. Stewart. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Despite broad consensus about the effects of parenting practices on child development, many questions about the construct parenting style remain unanswered. Particularly pressing issues are the variability in the effects of parenting style as a function of the child's cultural background, the processes through which parenting style influences the child's development, and the operationalization of parenting style. Drawing on historical review, the authors present a model that integrates 2 traditions in socialization research, the study of specific parenting practices and the study of global parent characteristics. They propose that parenting style is best conceptualized as a context that moderates the influence of specific parenting practices on the child. It is argued that only by maintaining the distinction between parenting style and parenting practice can researchers address questions concerning socialization processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.
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A study was conducted to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and adolescent tobacco and alcohol use (TAU). Subjects were 205 multi-ethnic adolescents (52% male) from middle schools in southern California (mean age=12.63 years), 153 from a public school and 52 from a parochial school. An abbreviated version of the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale, Student Version [Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (1997). Multifactor emotional intelligence scale, student version. Durham, NH] was used to assess the EI of the students. EI was negatively correlated with a general, overall measure of tobacco and alcohol use, and with individual tobacco and alcohol scales and items. It is plausible that the adolescents with high EI may possess a greater mental ability to read others well and detect unwanted peer pressure. These abilities may have led to an increased resistance to TAU, thus explaining the negative correlations found in this study. Further research is needed to validate these findings.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of parenting, personality, and school adjustment on early adolescent substance use. The sample consisted of 1,023 6th and 7th graders (mean age = 12.7 years) about equally divided between males and females. Using structural equation modeling, similarity in developmental process across gender and ethnic groups was confirmed. Hierarchical nested modeling revealed few direct effects of personality or parenting on experimentation or illicit use; rather, both latent traits were mediated by school adjustment. The final mediated model demonstrated excellent fit, accounting for 59% of the total variance in licit substance use and 21% of the variance in illicit use. Findings indicate (a) similarity in etiology of early adolescent substance use across gender and ethnicity; (b) the importance of examining multiple domains of influence on adolescent substance use; and (c) the need to examine mediated versus direct effects models in predicting early adolescent substance use.
Article
The study examined reliability and validity of a new measure of emotional (i.e. non-cognitive) intelligence, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; Bar-On, 1997, in a sample of 243 university students. Results indicated that the EQ-i domain and component scales had good item homogeneity and internal consistency. Scores were not unduly affected by response styles or biases. The EQ-i scales had a meaningful pattern of convergent validities with respect to measures of normal personality, depression, somatic symptomatology, intensity of affective experience and alexithymia. The reliability and validity results for men and women were very similar. Overall, the results suggested that the EQ-i is a promising measure of emotional intelligence. We recommend strategies for further validation of the EQ-i, as well as the construct of emotional intelligence.
Article
An intelligence must meet several standard criteria before it can be considered scientifically legitimate. First, it should be capable of being operationalized as a set of abilities. Second, it should meet certain correlational criteria: the abilities defined by the intelligence should form a related set (i.e., be intercorrelated), and be related to pre-existing intelligences, while also showing some unique variance. Third, the abilities of the intelligence should develop with age and experience. In two studies, adults (N=503) and adolescents (N=229) took a new, 12-subscale ability test of emotional intelligence: the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS). The present studies show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the MEIS, meets the above three classical criteria of a standard intelligence.
Article
In two short-term longitudinal studies, the relation of direct parental management of peer relationships with young adolescents’ and their best friends’ antisocial behavior and academic achievement were examined. Ninth-graders reported perceptions of parental monitoring and parental prohibiting of peer relationships. Ninth-graders and best friends reported drug use, delinquent behavior, grade point average (GPA), and educational expectations. At Time 1, adolescents who reported higher levels of parental monitoring reported lower levels of drug use, lower levels of delinquent behavior, higher GPAs, and higher educational expectations. At Time 1, perceptions of moderate levels of prohibiting were associated with lower levels of drug use and delinquent behavior for adolescents and their peers. Adolescents who reported moderate levels of prohibiting reported higher levels of Time 3 academic achievement.
Article
A single common factor underlies variation in delinquent acts; thus, by statistical criteria, they appear “unitary.” We extended the analysis of single-factoredness from delinquency itself to explanatory variables associated with delinquency (e.g., parental affection, personality traits, school involvement). Three factors were extracted from 15 explanatory variables. All three factors were statistically associated with delinquency, but the first factor extracted dominated in terms of variance explained (21.6% vs. 1.6% and 3.4%, respectively). This first factor had loadings from variables in conceptually diverse domains (e.g., family and peer relations, school success, and personality). A question for delinquency theory is why diverse explanatory variables load primarily on one factor, if theories postulate multiple and complex social and individual influences.
Article
Civics and Moral Educationwas implemented as a new moral education programme in Singapore schools in 1992. This paper argues that the underlying theme is that of citizenship training and that new measures are under way to strengthen the capacity of the school system to transmit national values for economic and political socialisation. The motives and motivation for retaining a formal moral education programme have remained strong. A discussion of the structure and content of key modules in Civics and Moral Education shows how curriculum writers have attempted to integrate separate strands of civics and moral education from earlier programmes and present them in a less divisive manner. The paper also assesses the impact of the written civics and moral education programme on teachers and pupils, and the way in which strategies have been used by curriculum agencies to overcome possible obstacles at the curriculum implementation phase.
Article
Provides background on civic education in the United States and differentiates between civic and citizenship education. Discusses content and reflective inquiry instructional approaches and their integration through national standards. States that national standards have the potential to refocus attention on civic learning. Addresses the future of civic education, focusing on service learning. (CMK)
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purpose of this article is to analyze the values intentionally promoted in civics education in junior high schools in Taiwan. The article first examines the antecedents of civics education in Taiwan, then applies content analysis in exploring the values promoted through the curriculum for civics education at junior high school level. The article uses eight categories of values clusters as the framework for analysis, namely: self cultivation, family values, democratic values, civic life and community, economic life, fair government, national identity and social cohesion/diversity. The following findings emerged from this study:
Article
In a study spanning 22 years, data were collected on the aggressiveness of over 600 subjects, their parents, and their children. Subjects who were the more aggressive 8-year-olds at the beginning of the study were discovered to be the more aggressive 30-year-olds at the end of the study. The stability of aggressive behavior was shown to be very similar to the stability of intellectual competence, especially for males. Early aggressiveness was predictive of later serious antisocial behavior, including criminal behavior, spouse abuse, traffic violations, and self-reported physical aggression. Furthermore, the stability of aggression across generations within a family when measured at comparable ages was even higher than the within individual stability across ages. It is concluded that, whatever its causes, aggression can be viewed as a persistent trait that may be influenced by situational variables but possesses substantial cross-situational constancy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the embeddedness of emotion in social interactions, relationships, and contexts. A tripartite view of emotion socialization is offered that stresses interaction, direct teaching, and regulation of opportunities for learning about emotions. Future research needs to be directed to the developmental appropriateness of strategies, to positive rather than negative affect, and to the cultural contexts of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We examined the relation of parental empathy-related characteristics and emotion-related child-rearing practices to third and sixth graders' vicarious emotional responding. Children's heart rate, skin conductance, facial, and self-reported reactions to a sympathy-inducing film were assessed, as were their dispositional sympathy, empathy, and self-monitoring. Parental sympathy was positively related to low levels of personal distress in same-sex children and, for both parents, with sons' dispositional sympathy or empathy. Parental emphasis on problem-focused coping strategies when their sons were anxious was positively correlated with indexes of sons' situational and dispositional sympathy. Same-sex parental restrictiveness in regard to the control of inappropriate, hurtful emotional displays was associated with sons' and daughters' dispositional and situational sympathy, whereas maternal restrictiveness in regard to emotions that are unlikely to hurt others was correlated with nonverbal indexes of personal distress and self reports of low distress. Parental emphasis on control of the child's own negative emotion was associated with children's self-monitoring.
Article
Despite a great deal of popular interest and the development of numerous training programs in emotional intelligence (EI), some researchers have argued that there is little evidence that EI is both useful and different from other, well established constructs. We hypothesized that EI would make a unique contribution to understanding the relationship between stress and three important mental health variables, depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. University students (n=302) participated in a cross-sectional study that involved measuring life stress, objective and self-reported emotional intelligence, and mental health. Regression analyses revealed that stress was associated with: (1) greater reported depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation among people high in emotional perception (EP) compared to others; and (2) greater suicidal ideation among those low in managing others' emotions (MOE). Both EP and MOE were shown to be statistically different from other relevant measures, suggesting that EI is a distinctive construct as well as being important in understanding the link between stress and mental health.
Article
This chapter lays out the research questions that guided the study and the methods used to conduct the study. The study was conducted in 17 secondary schools in six countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States. The first research question related to the school's policies with respect to civics education. The second question inquired into the nature and extent of the curriculum activities that were provided for the purpose of promoting civics education. The third question asked how key stakeholders perceived the nature and impact of the implemented curriculum. The fourth question concerned the similarities and differences across schools within each society with regard to each of the first three questions. Interviews and observations provided the primary data used to address the questions.
Article
This study critically evaluated the Emotional Intelligence (EI) construct (the ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions), as measured by the Multi-factor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS in press). We administered the MEIS to Australian undergraduates along with a battery of IQ, personality, and other theoretically relevant criterion measures, including life satisfaction and relationship quality. We also induced moods in the students and examined whether people high in EI were better than others at managing their moods and preventing their moods from biasing their social judgments. Analyses revealed that EI was not related to IQ but was related, as expected, to specific personality measures (e.g., empathy) and to other criterion measures (e.g., life satisfaction) even after controlling for IQ and personality traits. EI was also related to people's ability to manage their moods, but not to their ability to prevent moods from biasing their judgments. IQ was surprisingly related to both these mood processes. The results suggest that the EI construct is distinctive and useful, but that traditional IQ may also be important in understanding emotional processes.
Article
We examined the relation of parental empathy-related characteristics and emotion-related child-rearing practices to third and sixth graders' vicarious emotional responding. Children's heart rate, skin conductance, facial, and self-reported reactions to a sympathy-inducing film were assessed, as were their dispositional sympathy, empathy, and self-monitoring. Parental sympathy was positively related to low levels of personal distress in same-sex children and, for both parents, with sons' dispositional sympathy or empathy. Parental emphasis on problem-focused coping strategies when their sons were anxious was positively correlated with indexes of sons' situational and dispositional sympathy. Same-sex parental restrictiveness in regard to the control of inappropriate, hurtful emotional displays was associated with sons' and daughters' dispositional and situational sympathy, whereas maternal restrictiveness in regard to emotions that are unlikely to hurt others was correlated with nonverbal indexes of personal distress and self reports of low distress. Parental emphasis on control of the child's own negative emotion was associated with children's self-monitoring.
Article
This study examined stress, depression, attempted suicide, and knowledge of common signs of potential suicide in Alabama adolescents. A modified version of the National Adolescent Student Health Survey (NASHS) was administered to 3,803 eighth- and tenth-grade public school students during the fall of 1988. The incidence of stress, depression, and attempted suicide was analyzed by gender, ethnicity, locale (urban vs. rural), and participation in sexual intercourse and use of alcohol. Chi-square tests were used to determine if there were significant differences between groups. Findings indicated that females were at greater risk than were males. Both males and females who engaged in sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk than were abstainers. When analyzed by ethnicity, white adolescents who engaged in these behaviors were at significantly greater risk than were those who abstained; differences were not as pronounced for black youth. Comparisons on the knowledge scale indicated that females scored better than males, whites scored better than blacks, and urban students scored better than rural students. The data suggest that many adolescents are having difficulty coping with stress and depression, and that those who are engaging in various types of risk-taking behavior are at greater risk for depression and suicide.
Article
In a previous report, we demonstrated that adolescents' adjustment varies as a function of their parents' style (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, neglectful). This 1-year follow-up was conducted in order to examine whether the observed differences are maintained over time. In 1987, an ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample of approximately 2,300 14-18-year-olds provided information used to classify the adolescents' families into 1 of 4 parenting style groups. That year, and again 1 year later, the students completed a battery of standardized instruments tapping psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and behavior problems. Differences in adjustment associated with variations in parenting are either maintained or increase over time. However, whereas the benefits of authoritative parenting are largely in the maintenance of previous levels of high adjustment, the deleterious consequences of neglectful parenting continue to accumulate.
Article
Psychological maladjustment and its relation to academic achievement, parental expectations, and parental satisfaction were studied in a cross-national sample of 1,386 American, 1,633 Chinese, and 1,247 Japanese eleventh-grade students. 5 indices of maladjustment included measures of stress, depressed mood, academic anxiety, aggression, and somatic complaints. Asian students reported higher levels of parental expectation and lower levels of parental satisfaction concerning academic achievement than their American peers. Nevertheless, Japanese students reported less stress, depressed mood, aggression, academic anxiety, and fewer somatic complaints than did American students. Chinese students reported less stress, academic anxiety, and aggressive feelings than their American counterparts, but did report higher frequencies of depressed mood and somatic complaints. High academic achievement as assessed by a test of mathematics was generally not associated with psychological maladjustment. The only exception was in the United States, where high achievers indicated more frequent feelings of stress than did low achievers.
Article
The present study investigated whether a battery of tests designed to measure different levels of emotional intelligence could differentiate adolescent sex offenders from a non-offender control group. Fifteen male adolescent sex offenders ranging in age from 14 to 17 years were recruited through Health and Community Services (VIC, Australia) and 49 non-offender males, matched for age, completed the battery. The battery comprised the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-32), the Revised Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Openness to Feelings facet of the NEO PI-R. Discriminant analyses using all five tests showed that 89.9 per cent of the sample were correctly allocated their respective groups. Overall the sex offenders were higher on aggression and attention to feelings, less clear about their feelings and less capable to repair unpleasant moods and prolong positive ones. It was concluded that these findings could be the focus of treatment approaches for adolescent sex offenders.
Emotional literacy: a Conceptualiza-tion based on the pedagogy of multiliteracies
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