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Oh where, oh where, has juvenile court gone? (And where, oh where, should it go?)

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Despite statutes and rules of statewide applicability, juvenile justice administration varies consistently with urban, suburban, and rural social structure and context. In urban counties, which are more heterogenous and diverse, juvenile justice intervention is more formal, bureaucratized, and due process-oriented. Formality is associated with greater severity in pre-trial detention and sentencing practices. By contrast, in more homogeneous and stable rural counties, juvenile courts are procedurally less formal and sentence youths more leniently. The Article explores the implications of "justice by geography" for juvenile justice policy.
Article
This article uses data from six states to analyze the availability of and the effects of counsel on delinquency and status offenses cases in juvenile courts. In three of the states, nearly half or more of delinquent and status offenders did not have lawyers, including many youths who received out-of-home placement and secure confinement dispositions. In all the jurisdictions, each legal variable—seriousness of present offense, detention status, and prior referrals—that was associated with more severe dispositions was also associated with higher rates of representation. However, while legal variables enhance the probabilities of representation, the presence of an attorney appeared to exert an additional, independent effect on the severity of dispositions. The article then explores the policy implications of these findings.
Unlocking Juvenile Corrections: Eventuating the Massachusetts Department of Youth Services
  • B Krisberg
  • J Austin
  • P Steele@bullet
Krisberg, B., J. Austin, and P. Steele@BULLET 1991. Unlocking Juvenile Corrections: Eventuating the Massachusetts Department of Youth Services. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
The]uvenile Court: Reclaiming the Vision@BULLET San Francisco: National Coun-cil on Crime and Delinquency. .. 1992a, Excellence in Adolescent Care: The Thomas O'FarrelI Youth Center
  • B Krisberg
Krisberg, B, 1988. The]uvenile Court: Reclaiming the Vision@BULLET San Francisco: National Coun-cil on Crime and Delinquency... 1992a, Excellence in Adolescent Care: The Thomas O'FarrelI Youth Center, San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinguency. --. 199gb. Juvenile Justice: Improving the Quality of Care. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
  • Rubin S.