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CSR for Development Through Sport: examining its potential and limitations

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Abstract

Recent publications have highlighted the growth of sport as a vehicle in deploying corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes or for disseminating international development initiatives. However, very little has been written on the considerable increase of the use of sport with corporate social responsibility to further social and economic development. This will expand as a range of CSR for development initiatives are being launched to coincide with mega-sports events in the coming years, starting with the 2010 football World Cup. This article addresses this gap by charting the ways in which sport is being used by businesses (ranging from multinational corporations to sports federations) as part of discrete development initiatives. It highlights the opportunities (notably developing partnerships and reaching those alienated from traditional development) and limitations associated with this. Limitations form around Stefano Ponte et al's typology of CSR initiatives, which is used to highlight the fact that many projects are poorly linked to core business objectives and are therefore less likely to be taken seriously and succeed. A lack of evaluation and the tarnished reputation of sport are other problems associated with CSR for development through sport.

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... Indeed, McDonald et al. (2009) showed that CSR, through the sporting activities of these companies, is comprised primarily of sponsorship, followed by a focus on philanthropic funding, volunteers, health, disability, grassroots initiatives, underprivileged groups, and the environment. Levermore (2010) addressed the same subject from a more critical perspective, identifying some of the limitations involved in employing CSRthrough-sport. For Levermore (2010), although the sporting context provides a platform for building partnerships between institutions that would not normally work together, this development is most often driven by the needs of the donor (firms) rather than those of the community the program is supposed to serve. ...
... Levermore (2010) addressed the same subject from a more critical perspective, identifying some of the limitations involved in employing CSRthrough-sport. For Levermore (2010), although the sporting context provides a platform for building partnerships between institutions that would not normally work together, this development is most often driven by the needs of the donor (firms) rather than those of the community the program is supposed to serve. Spaaij and Westerbeek (2010) highlighted the same point as Levermore (2010). ...
... For Levermore (2010), although the sporting context provides a platform for building partnerships between institutions that would not normally work together, this development is most often driven by the needs of the donor (firms) rather than those of the community the program is supposed to serve. Spaaij and Westerbeek (2010) highlighted the same point as Levermore (2010). Although they acknowledged the potential for sport to create and maintain social capital through CSR-related activities, they also recognised that the aim of furthering corporate business objectives might be disproportional to the production of social capital (in favour of the former). ...
Article
This paper provides a descriptive account of the extent to which firms listed on the Warsaw (WSE) and Moscow (MSE) Stock Exchanges use sport for their corporate social responsibility agendas. Drawing on institutional isomorphism, we deductively categorised CSR through sport cases based on the framework developed by Bason and Anagnostopoulos (2015). A total of 1317 documents were content-analysed, 442 from WSE firms and 875 from MSE firms. A total of 2501 CSR-through-sport initiatives were reported over the five-year period studied (2013–2017) in the WSE case and 2175 in the MSE case. Our results show that internationally listed firms are increasingly embracing sport for their CSR programs, with the ‘personnel engagement’ stream seeing a constant increase, followed by ‘sponsorship’ and ‘philanthropic’ initiatives. The young generation takes the lion’s share when it comes to being the beneficiaries of these CSR programs, whereas ‘sport participation’ constitutes the basis of most such programs.
... Indeed, McDonald et al. (2009) showed that CSR, through the sporting activities of these companies, is comprised primarily of sponsorship, followed by a focus on philanthropic funding, volunteers, health, disability, grassroots initiatives, underprivileged groups, and the environment. Levermore (2010) addressed the same subject from a more critical perspective, identifying some of the limitations involved in employing CSRthrough-sport. For Levermore (2010), although the sporting context provides a platform for building partnerships between institutions that would not normally work together, this development is most often driven by the needs of the donor (firms) rather than those of the community the program is supposed to serve. ...
... Levermore (2010) addressed the same subject from a more critical perspective, identifying some of the limitations involved in employing CSRthrough-sport. For Levermore (2010), although the sporting context provides a platform for building partnerships between institutions that would not normally work together, this development is most often driven by the needs of the donor (firms) rather than those of the community the program is supposed to serve. Spaaij and Westerbeek (2010) highlighted the same point as Levermore (2010). ...
... For Levermore (2010), although the sporting context provides a platform for building partnerships between institutions that would not normally work together, this development is most often driven by the needs of the donor (firms) rather than those of the community the program is supposed to serve. Spaaij and Westerbeek (2010) highlighted the same point as Levermore (2010). Although they acknowledged the potential for sport to create and maintain social capital through CSR-related activities, they also recognised that the aim of furthering corporate business objectives might be disproportional to the production of social capital (in favour of the former). ...
... Sporting activities are considered a natural partner for corporations in the presentation of CSR initiatives implemented in this sector. To explain this phenomenon, Levermore [63] offers three main arguments: (a) Sport is an entity that connects with many grassroots communities where a business might have had difficulty becoming established; (b) sport allows the creation of a common ground where society and organizations can work together [59]; and (c) sport programs provide a natural setting where collaborating partners and civil society can meet and strengthen their business operations [20]. ...
... Because of this, the binomial formed by CSR and sport could be used to meet the needs of residents. In this way, sport could be offered as a bridge between the social and economic gaps in the community [63]. ...
... While the actions that make up the concept of CSR are widely perceived by society and studied by researchers, the CSR construct and its perception is more recent and therefore has limitations when researching in very specific contexts, such as small sporting events [15]. However, the last decade has seen an increase in interest among researchers in this field of study, which explores the role of sports in promoting social and community development [16,21,63,105]. However, within this sport-CSR binomial, a small part of this research is oriented towards the use of CSR in conjunction with sports events for social development [16,63,105]. ...
Article
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Due to the increase of sports events in local communities, it has become essential to organize such events in a socially responsible way at the environmental, social, and economic levels. The aim of this research was to develop a measurement tool to help determine the degree of social responsibility perceived by residents at small-medium scale sports events, to guide sports managers towards the design of socially responsible sports events. From the elaboration of a questionnaire developed ad-hoc, the perception of the residents was analyzed (n = 516). The psychometric properties of the tool, composed of 35 items, were analyzed by means of an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. As main conclusions, we were able to contrast the validity and reliability of the questionnaire on the perception of corporate social responsibility in small-scale sports events, around the dimensions of Sustainable Sports Activity, Social Cohesion, and Well-Being. As a consequence, it allowed us to identify three strategic management areas towards which the organizers of these events should focus special attention if they want to progress towards the achievement of socially responsible sports events.
... In doing so, extractives companies often seek to capitalize on the "transformative" potential of sport to contribute to social good, drawing from discourses reflected in the SFD sector that have grown in popularity since the late 1990s (see Kidd, 2008). Over this period, SFD has been increasingly mobilized by governmental and nongovernmental organizations in pursuit of a range of development strategies, most often in the global South, including infrastructural development, the promotion of health and education, and the empowerment of marginalized peoples (see Darnell, 2007;Kidd, 2008;Levermore, 2010). More recently, SFD has proven attractive for corporations in their CSR platforms, given sport's ties to mass media, youth appeal, cultural universality, and immediate gratification benefits (see Smith & Westerbeek, 2007). ...
... In some ways, CSR strategies seek to relegate the industry's troublesome social and environmental record to the past, while offering a new way forward through support of SFD built on discourses of partnership and change. Indeed, a common theme within the critical literature is that SFD programs rely upon the supposedly inherent ability of sport to promote social good, (Ahead of Print) combined with vague and malleable definitions of what development entails (see Darnell, 2012;Giulianotti, 2015;Levermore, 2010). Such a priori understandings are thus particularly attractive for CSR, in that the ability of SFD programs-and their corporate sponsors-to promote social good is assumed and goes unquestioned. ...
... Given the pervasive common-sense understanding of sport's ability to contribute to a range of "social good" objectives in the vein of SFD and the concomitant need for extractives companies to advertise their "genuine" commitment to sustainable futures for Indigenous communities, it is perhaps unsurprising that the industry looked to engage with SFD. As noted throughout this paper, sport has been increasingly incorporated into CSR endeavors because it offers corporations direct access to local communities while communicating seemingly universal values (Levermore, 2010). As such, sport offers a potentially attractive outlet for extractives-led CSR practices in that it advances corporate objectives while contributing to "social good." ...
Article
Over the past two decades, significant policy shifts within Canada have urged corporations from all sectors, including the extractives industry, to fund and support sport for development (SFD) programming in Indigenous communities, often through corporate social responsibility strategies. The idea that sport is an appropriate tool of development for Indigenous communities in Canada and that the extractives industry is a suitable partner to implement development programs highlight profound tensions regarding ongoing histories of resource extraction and settler colonialism. To explore these tensions, in this paper, the authors drew on interviews conducted with extractives industry representatives of four companies that fund and implement such SFD programs. From these interviews, three overarching discourses emerged in relation to the extractives industry’s role in promoting development through sport: SFD is a catalyst to positive relationships between industry and community, SFD is a contributor to “social good” in Indigenous communities, and extractives industry funding of SFD is “socially responsible.”
... For example, organizations such as CARE International and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) have invested millions into SDP-focussed programmes (Burnett 2010;Hartmann and Kwauk 2011). Similarly, BP, Deloitte and Vodafone -to name a few -support SDP programmes, despite the lack of substantial evidence to validate the power of sport (Levermore 2008;Levermore 2010;Coalter 2013). Indeed, in a world where corporate social responsibility (CSR) is imperative, the expectation is that companies contribute to some form of social, economic and environmental development (Levermore 2010;Coalter 2013). ...
... Similarly, BP, Deloitte and Vodafone -to name a few -support SDP programmes, despite the lack of substantial evidence to validate the power of sport (Levermore 2008;Levermore 2010;Coalter 2013). Indeed, in a world where corporate social responsibility (CSR) is imperative, the expectation is that companies contribute to some form of social, economic and environmental development (Levermore 2010;Coalter 2013). As such, sport serves as an obvious artifice to accomplish such outreaches and represents a win-win for non-sporting organizations (Levermore 2010). ...
... Indeed, in a world where corporate social responsibility (CSR) is imperative, the expectation is that companies contribute to some form of social, economic and environmental development (Levermore 2010;Coalter 2013). As such, sport serves as an obvious artifice to accomplish such outreaches and represents a win-win for non-sporting organizations (Levermore 2010). First, for an international organization it is seen as good practice to be involved in some aspect of CSR, whether taken seriously or not (Levermore 2010). ...
Article
As the excitement of the sport-for-development-and-peace (SDP) movement settles down, there is expected criticism as to whether the current practice and theorization of SDP can actually deliver authentic development in the global south. The frustration is partly due to the classical theorization of SDP which tends to centralize sport as the unique tool for social change with little regard for cultural factors. Inevitably, many authors are turning to alternative theorizations of SDP with hopes of realistically progressing the field. Following this directive, the paper offers an alternative conceptualization of SDP through a critical re-examination of Nelson Mandela’s views and engagement with sport. We argue that Mandela’s popularized assertions of sport as a tool for social change were taken out of context helping construct the current SDP paradigm built upon pseudo realistic foundations. In turn, this paper uses Ubuntu, a Sub-Saharan African cultural ideology to propose an alternative theorization of SDP.
... Over the past several decades, professional sporting organisations have become key providers of community services (Babiak & Wolfe 2009;Godfrey 2009;Levermore 2010;Sheth & Babiak 2010). Not only do they provide the means and structure for high level, experienced, professional athletes to compete and entertain their fans and audience, but they also provide broader entertainment and hospitality. ...
... This does come with a more cynical, 'greenwashing' concern (Levermore & Moore 2015) that the delivery of community welfare by sporting clubs may function as a shield deflecting the ever-present negative news cycle surrounding these organisations. As Levermore (2010) points out, 'professional sport is heavily tarnished -associated with cheating, corruption and exclusionary practices'. ...
Thesis
In this thesis I investigate the complexities of an emerging group-mentoring and rites-of-passage initiative for adolescent males living in the Penrith region of Western Sydney called Building Young Men. The Building Young Men (BYM) project is supported and facilitated by Panthers on the Prowl, the community development arm of the Penrith Panthers Rugby League Club. The BYM project engages with an emerging mentoring model, which I’ve called Dynamic Group Mentoring, to assist adolescent boys to reflect on their understandings of masculinity and to build trusted and sustainable social networks that, it is hoped, will enable the mentees to access various forms of capital beyond their current social spheres as they transition towards adulthood. Whilst mentoring is a common strategy employed by community development organisations, particularly those working with adolescent cohorts, there is a broad span of debate within the literature regarding the effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth cohorts as well as the tensions therein due to politics of power and control in mentor–mentee relationships. Vis-à-vis this program’s building of certain versions of masculinity in adolescent boys, I conduct a reflexive investigation into the politics of rites of passage programs, exploring potential for the misrecognition of symbolic violence. I debate the notion that such programs risk razing adolescent males’ experience of boyhood and their existing concept of masculinity, and highlight their potential to provide experiences of resistance to hegemonic masculinity and patriarchal dominance in the young men’s lives. Utilising Pierre Bourdieu’s ‘thinking tools’ of habitus, field, and capital, I discuss the BYM mentees’ understandings of masculinity, rites of passage, mentoring, adulthood, capital, and time, as well as explore the implications of this youth program being facilitated by a prominent corporate sporting and hospitality institution. Bourdieu’s terminology and his methodological approach to social research assisted me in structuring an exploration of the complex dynamics of the emerging mentoring model Dynamic Group Mentoring and of the BYM program. I employed a reflexive research approach that I believe this project required from me, being simultaneously primary researcher, BYM mentor, BYM group facilitator, BYM Project Development Team vi member, and social worker. Balancing the needs of these roles, as I wrote this thesis I discovered opportunities for reflexive writing that helped me identify power dynamics in these positions I held and performed. Set within a hypermasculine sporting organisation, I have worked to structure a field of practice in which participants can explore multiple versions of the masculine. Although further opportunity exists for significant development towards this goal of multiplicity, I believe that this project begins to develop of a site of resistance to the dominating versions of masculinity which emanate from hypermasculine sporting arenas and corporate entities involved in associated social initiatives.
... Despite the considerable increase of sports, Levermore (2010) indicated that the poor linkage of CSR projects to core business objectives is a main cause of failure. The absence of evaluation of such CSR projects also operates as a failure factor. ...
... The absence of evaluation of such CSR projects also operates as a failure factor. Levermore (2010) suggested that sport might be a valuable vehicle for the development of CSR initiatives, especially in communities which other CSR schemes have failed to reach, like youth communities. The sport has the advantage in delivering developmental objectives through CSR because of its appeal to youth, other groups of people, and marginalized communities. ...
... Contemporary sporting practice has always had developmental objectives (Levermore and Beacom 2009). Since 2000, sport activities have increasingly been included by the United Nations agencies, sporting bodies, governments and non-governmental organisations within community development programs to address a variety of social and economic problems such as education, health, social cohesion and poverty eradication, although researchers question the objectives of social or community development investments made by providers from high-income countries in SFD initiatives in low-and middle-income countries (Levermore 2010;Newell and Frynas 2007;Smith and Westerbeek 2007). Kidd (2008) identified that conducting SFD projects in a responsible and culturally appropriate manner can improve the education, health and well-being of participants. ...
Article
This article aims to contribute to the application of human resources systems and practices in a sport-for-development program for community development. Using a qualitative research approach, this study collected a series of data over a period of 24 months in a rural community setting in India. This article reveals that inputs such as soccer peer-coaching knowledge and opportunities for training not only develop coaching and playing skills and abilities but also can create a socially cohesive space to foster individual, group and community capacity building for improved sport-for-development program outcomes. Using social movement theory, this article illustrates that soccer peer-coaching knowledge can be an enabler in recruiting, training and incentivising participants and volunteer coaches for social action. This article provides a practical and theoretical understanding of using knowledge, skills and abilities to mobilise individuals and assist in the delivery of a sustainable sport-for-development program in a community setting. Key points 1 Knowledge, skills and ability development were effective in recruitment, training and incentivisation of volunteers. 2 Human resource development systems and practices can be enablers for community development initiatives. 3 Opportunities for regular coaching and training created social space for meaningful social interaction. 4 Human resource development systems and practices can be enablers in sustainable sport-for-development delivery.
... Another theoretical approach useful to explain the adoption of sustainable policies is the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) because social responsibility encourages the activation of sustainable actions to improve one's reputation (Levermore 2010;Babiak and Kihl 2018;François et al. 2019). Therefore, CSR becomes a dominant management approach that provides sports organizations with practical guidelines for planning and developing innovative solutions suited to the needs of society. ...
Chapter
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This chapter is focused on the process of increased demand for sustainable practices in today’s tourism. The purpose of this chapter is to explore and explain the importance of social responsibilities (SR) among all stakeholders in the sports tourism today. And to gain awareness knowledge about the role of social media to in providing timely information about those relevant codes of conduct for to sports tourists, as well. So, this chapter applies the content analysis method with the support of program NVivo of then posted firm generated and user generated content on the Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter. The research analyses observe social media as a good tool for sharing information about SR behaviour in sports tourism, and explores the nature and tone of communication between non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Croatia, specifically HGSS (Croatian Mountain Rescue Service) and sports tourists, and tourists’ perception of social responsibility as something important and essential for their safety, and the safety of other tourists during sports activities. The results show that social media are a great tool for sharing large amount of information that can increase social responsibility among sports tourists, also improve tourist’s understanding of SR behaviour during sports activities, educate them and familiarize them with about the safety instructions, and codes of conduct while engaging during participation in sports activities on their travels.
... Another theoretical approach useful to explain the adoption of sustainable policies is the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) because social responsibility encourages the activation of sustainable actions to improve one's reputation (Levermore 2010;Babiak and Kihl 2018;François et al. 2019). Therefore, CSR becomes a dominant management approach that provides sports organizations with practical guidelines for planning and developing innovative solutions suited to the needs of society. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
One of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN), the Goal 16, is to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels”. In line with the partnership between the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the UN dating back to 1922, sport was officially recognized as an “important enabler of sustainable devel- opment”. The IOC and some of its stakeholders such as the National Olympic Committees (NOCs) have therefore the potential to play a pivotal role in promoting transparency and reducing corruption. Corruption scandals such as bribery of offi- cials, betting or doping are often related to elite sport, hence regularly making headlines. But they are only the tip of the iceberg, as corruption is majorly structural and systemic within the national sport policies. Sport in Lebanon is a case in point of this state of affair. This article first assesses how rooted the corruption is in the Lebanese sport community. It will then study how transparency could be implemented in SDGs principles, and how good governance in sport could eventu- ally lead to local sustainable development of the whole society.
... It is particularly difficult to reach and engage men [6,7], especially those from lower socio-economic groups, in healthy lifestyle interventions [8]. However, it has been argued that professional football organisations can have a positive public health impact by engaging people in health-related programmes or interventions through their CSR provision [9][10][11]. ...
Article
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This study mapped existing health-promotion provisions targeting adults in professional football clubs across England, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal, and explored motives behind the clubs’ adoption of the European Fans in Training (EuroFIT) programme. We surveyed top-tier football clubs in the four countries and interviewed representatives from football clubs and the clubs’ charitable foundation who delivered EuroFIT. The findings showed large between-country differences, with football clubs in England reporting far greater healthy lifestyle provision than other countries. Relatively few health-promotion programmes targeted adults, particularly in the Netherlands, Portugal, and Norway. Club representatives reported that the motives for adopting the EuroFIT programme often involved adhering to both the social objectives of the football club or club’s foundation and business-related objectives. They viewed the scientific evidence and evaluation underpinning EuroFIT as helpful in demonstrating the value and potential future impact of both the programme and the clubs’ wider corporate social responsibility provision.
... MARKET Charity Commission was also stated as beneficial as it inspired public confidence in the governance of CSTs (Brown, Crabbe, and Mellor 2006). It is argued that the benefits of this partnership arrangement are not only related to the provision of "off-the-pitch" activities but could also include support for "on-the-pitch" development, through the deployment of community-based coaching staff to scout for local sporting/football talent (Levermore 2010). In contrast, Castro-Martinez and Jackson (2015) identified limitations of this partnership arrangement, stating that the separation of club and CST prevents football clubs from fully leveraging the value of their association with a charitable organization. ...
... This includes broadening our engagement of theory beyond the tried and tested stakeholder and institutional theories, and extending ourselves to more dynamic understandings of organisations and their interrelationships through network theories (c.f., Wang et al., 2016). In addition, and importantly, we also need our research community to fully commit to CSR by embracing and integrating critical theories that would encourage conceptualisation and designing of empirical research methodologies that aim to pay much greater attention to issues of diversity and equality (Breitbarth et al., 2015;Levermore, 2010). These approaches would Not specified 2006-2010 0 0 0 3 3 7 3 7 2011-2015 1 8 6 3 8 16 6 10 2016-2019 2 9 6 3 10 16 8 11 provide greater understanding of the experiences and viewpoints of marginalised groups, which were substantially under-represented in our literature sample. ...
Article
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Given the rising global use of corporate social responsibility (CSR) by professional sport organisations, this paper acts to consolidate the state of scholarly research using a systematic quantitative literature review. Our aim was to critically analyse the literature on CSR and professional sport organisations and in doing so ask, how is the global research at the nexus of sport and CSR poised to deliver social good? Our findings indicate the presence of variability in approaches to investigating CSR in professional sport, and the lack of discrete reporting of target audiences and initiatives evidenced across our sample. We suggest there is potential to learn from other disciplinary approaches to CSR research and to push towards conceptual clarity. Finally, sport organisations can lever sports’ unique qualities to deliver, engage and unite people across a range of boundaries, and to promote and create social value which is even more important as we navigate the post-COVID-19 environment of uncertainty and resource constraints.
... While hybrid organizational arrangements offer a variety of benefits including the ability to reach out to those typically estranged by development initiatives (Levermore, 2010), they also have the capacity to cause tensions when trying to balance various institutional logics (Dixon & Svensson, 2019). Svensson's (2017) examination of SFD hybridity, uncovered a number of areas in which tensions may occur within organizations, including: ...
Article
The professionalization of sport for development (SFD) has resulted in the evolution of increasingly complex organizational environments. As such, these initiatives are often balancing divergent goals such as financial, sport and community outcomes. However, previous research provides minimal insight into how SFD managers handle such tensions, and frequently oversimplifies the realities of these conflicts. To address this knowledge gap, we aim to explore the experiences of SFD managers employed within Australian National Sporting Organizations engaged in SFD programming across Asia and the Pacific. Adopting a basic qualitative methodology, our findings demonstrate how managers are challenged with complexities, tensions, and resourcing. Drawing upon paradox theory, our results also highlight how managers navigate these challenges, including scaling back programs, collaboration, promoting work, fostering local autonomy, and seeking synergies. Through this study, we build upon theoretical understandings of SFD management roles and paradoxes. Further, we offer practical insight into the challenges and strategies of managing SFD hybrids.
... A growing body of literature is being dedicated to the growth of sports as a channel for continuing international development initiatives, as sports have significant potential as a means to achieve social, political, and economic change (Levermore, 2010). Another stream of research is dedicated to the study of sporting events in developing and developed contexts in order to foster change, enforce social cohesion and healthy lifestyles, and highlight locations as tourist destinations (Bob & Swart, 2010 (Chalip, 2006). ...
Thesis
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This thesis explores how volunteering at an Olympic event can function as a catalyst for social innovation for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). People with ID are not usually a part of the sports-event volunteer context; thus, little is known about potential benefits they can access by doing so. This thesis contributes to filling this gap in the literature. The thesis is a qualitative single-case study, using the 2016 Lillehammer Youth Olympic Games (LYOG) as its main case. The event organizers demonstrated social responsibility by displaying a willingness to include all kinds of people as volunteer participants in the LYOG, including a group of high school students with ID. This study follows, in particular, this group of volunteers with ID who were assigned to pick up garbage on two of the main venues of the LYOG. Furthermore, several other actors seeking to address social change for specific target groups perceived the event as an entrepreneurial opportunity and used it to highlight their projects through volunteer activities. Thus, four other projects that involved other marginalized groups are also partially studied. Empirically, the thesis contributes to the field of sports event volunteering by studying a group of volunteers with intellectual disabilities through the theoretical framework of social leveraging, social innovation, and social entrepreneurship. Furthermore, through the empirical studies, appended in three articles, links to other theoretical concepts are made, including social capital and quality of life. In addition, one paper related to facilitating qualitative interviews with people with ID is included in the thesis. Some of the main findings are that volunteering at Olympic events holds a potential for cooperation between persons or organizations that do not normally cooperate, where a win–win effect can be created. Organizations addressing social issues on behalf of vulnerable groups experienced the LYOG as a suitable arena for entrepreneurial social projects, with a potential for creating social value for specific groups
... An in-depth understanding of the reasons behind companies' decisions to sponsor mega events is also important for effectively promoting the competitiveness of a sponsorships program and handling afterwards the expectations of the sponsors from the sponsee (Apostolopoulou, 2004). Based on Levermore (2010), companies choose to invest in mega sport events because they want to contribute to social inclusion, engage with diverse population groups in communities, divert young people from crime and anti-social behaviour, raise health and sustainability awareness and take part in the mass media distribution which is usually attached to mega events. ...
... CSR activities related to sports development is an example of companies' sports sponsorship for grassroots development. Sport for development as a working field and communication platform is an area that have been discovered more and more by business entities as CSR initiatives (Geoff, 2009;Levermore, 2010). ...
... Although sport for PWDs naturally includes navigation of barriers, sport can also be used as a mechanism for social change by empowering (Kay, 2009;Levermore, 2008) and educating (Beutler, 2008;Jeanes, 2013;Levermore, 2010;Wilson & Khoo, 2013) key stakeholders. Lyras and Welty Peachey (2011) argued that sport can be used "to exert a positive influence on public health, the socialization of children, youths and adults, the social inclusion of the disadvantaged, the economic development of regions and states, and on fostering intercultural exchange and conflict resolution" (p. ...
Article
Research question: The purpose of this study was to explore how an immersive mentorship and cultural exchange program may be structured to empower disability sport community leaders to face barriers. The study was guided by the question: How does participation in a cultural exchange program empower community leaders to combat barriers for people with disabilities? Research methods: Two focus groups were conducted with 15 delegates who participated in a US government-sponsored global exchange program. Next, four-month follow-up transcripts were analyzed for descriptions of the delegates’ experience participating in the program. Results and findings: Using the lens of the three psychological needs of self-determination theory, findings revealed that experiences designed within the cultural exchange program positioned the delegates to establish relationships with like-minded leaders (e.g. relatedness) while enhancing their own self-confidence (e.g. competence) prior to returning home to combat identified barriers with their own strategy (e.g. autonomy). Implications: Developing a community of support with other leaders while also validating one's own competencies may better enhance one’s advocacy work in their respective community.
... Critiques suggest that volunteer tourism organizations and other external "change agents" using sports programs for empowerment promote a faulty "growth-for-development" model that reinforces, rather than challenges the harms tourism growth brings to local communities and environments (Hartmann & Kwauk, 2011;Ruttenberg & Brosius, 2017). Funding sources like corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives have been found to drive SDP programming in a direction that favors the needs of sponsoring institutions, rather than local communities and often leads to challenges associated with mission drift (Coalter, 2010;Hayhurst, 2011;Holmes, Banda, & Chawansky, 2015;Levermore, 2010). ...
Article
Critical sport for development and peace (SDP) and sustainable surf tourism (SST) research calls for sports programming and research that adheres not only to the desires and needs of local communities but also for movements away from neoliberal development models. This case study, derived from interviewing participants 4 years after partaking in a learn-to-surf program in Lobitos, Peru, suggests that these two broad goals may be contradictory. Leveraging skills and traits adopted from participating in the surf program were seen as important contributions to both individual (i.e., gender and economic empowerment) and community benefits (i.e., re-imagining Lobitos). These findings shed light on the need to better understand program recipient desires for local “reforms” and how they can best be served by SDP programs.
... In a study of sport and CSR, findings indicated that if the purpose of CSR activities is misunderstood in SFD contexts, it has the potential to reduce a project's capacity to be taken seriously by partner organizations (Levermore, 2010). However, understanding SFD activities within professional sport contexts can be difficult, as this requires "a more nuanced understanding of their value and importance to sport and sport organizations" (Rowe et al., 2018, p. 14). ...
Article
Despite recent advances in sport-for-development (SFD) literature, few scholars have empirically examined organizational hybridity in SFD contexts. This is despite hybrid organizational approaches becoming increasingly common in the delivery of SFD initiatives. Opportunities exist for researchers to build knowledge regarding SFD hybrids, particularly those which operate in professional sport contexts. In this research, we examine an SFD organization, delivered by a professional sport team, which operates under a hybrid structure. A longitudinal qualitative case study design was employed, and findings demonstrate how the SFD organization, which presents a practical example of organizational hybridity, evolved over time. Drawing upon Svensson typologies of SFD hybrids, results illustrate how the organization transformed from a differentiated hybrid into a dysfunctional hybrid, under the influence of funding opportunities and institutional logics. Through the present study, we build upon theoretical understandings of SFD hybrids and offer practical insight into the nuances of SFD hybrids delivered in professional sport contexts.
Article
Despite significant growth in the sport-for-development (SFD) sector, there has been little research to date examining the ways that SFD organizations attract communities, and/or the reasons that SFD organizations are able to attract and retain community members in their programmes. The purpose of this study was to explore how and why Maple Leafs Sports and Entertainment (MLSE) Launchpad, an SFD facility in downtown Toronto, attracted participants into its programmes, and to understand how and why community members took up the offer to engage in its programmes. Using ethnographic observations and semi-structured interviews with Launchpad staff, we found that ‘development’ activities, with little or no sport component to them at all, were, in many instances, the main attraction to participants at MLSE Launchpad, a phenomenon that we term ‘plus-development.’ In these cases, what attracted participants to MLSE Launchpad were programmes that, in practice, filled gaps in basic social and community service provisions. We use these findings to advance some critical insights about the broader neoliberal structures under which programmes like MLSE Launchpad operate, and the significance of SFD for and within urban communities.
Chapter
The aim of the chapter is analyzing the role of sporting organization for planning and promoting active policies and sustainable strategies related to 2030 Agenda goals (6, 8, 11). Through a holistic approach, the essay explains how preserving the environment means determining the conditions for improving the quality of human life starting from the commitment of all. In this framework, several theoretical perspectives are examined in order to indicate the way for the development of sustainable sport. Following the review of the literature concerning policies and management models of sustainable development, the authors describe the setting of an analysis model useful for testing the sports organizations’ sustainability. The construction and use of some indicators related to international guidelines relating to sustainability are examined. In specific, the scheme is based on three pillars (Synergy, Culture, and Practice) and five dimensions (economic-financial, managerial, environmental, social, cultural). Monitoring the actions related to the main Italian sporting events is therefore useful to provide information to all minor events in order to spread a culture of sustainability and bring out virtuous examples of healthy lifestyles throughout the country.
Chapter
From the colonial period to the current neoliberal era, sport and physical activity have been used as a development tool both because sport is so frequently positioned as apolitical and non-threatening and because it is understood to have universal, transnational, and trans-historical meanings (Darnell et al., 2019). Much of the discourse in this field over the last two decades has been framed by “the perception that the use of sport may assist the international development process” (Levermore & Beacom, 2009: 9). MacAloon (1995) has called sport an “empty form,” that is, like any other tool, technology, or social practice whose meaning, use, and impact are dependent on the ways in which it is employed on how and to what ends it is used (Hartmann & Kwauk, 2011).
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International students have been continuously transitioning to U.S. colleges in pursuit of high-quality education and social mobility opportunities. Multiple studies have dealt with the adjustment of international students in their process of transitioning to a new environment. The purpose of our study is to explore if college sports fan identification can contribute to this population’s adjustment process. This study used lived experiences from 10 international graduate students regarding their college sports fan experiences and how that helped them adjust to American colleges. Results showed that answers from international students derived two themes: social and academic adjustments. Social adjustment was specified as a sense of belonging and academic adjustment was specified as finding a way to relax from their academic burden. The results of this study can help both the international student office and athletic departments to utilize college sports to help international students with their adjustment to their new environments.
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The impact of sporting events is related to social, economic, environmental and political aspects that affect the development of communities through social integration. The aim of the study was to examine the current state of research on sporting events and corporate social responsibility. The research design is a systematic review of the scientific literature (SLR) of 268 documents in the Scopus, SportDiscus, Proquest and Dialnet databases. After the filtering process, 26 articles were selected that met the inclusion criteria. According to this review, it is concluded that in sporting events it is necessary to have the interest groups from the moment of planning the event, generate initiatives to avoid environmental damage in the construction of stages, seek economic sustainability, and give conscious use to the sports infrastructure built and leave a long-term positive legacy. El impacto de los eventos deportivos está relacionado con aspectos sociales, económicos, ambientales y políticos que inciden en el desarrollo de las comunidades por medio de la integración social. El objetivo del estudio fue examinar el estado actual de las investigaciones sobre los eventos deportivos y la responsabilidad social corporativa. El diseño de investigación es una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica (SLR) de 268 documentos en las bases de datos Scopus, SportDiscus, Proquest y Dialnet, posterior al proceso de filtrado se seleccionaron 26 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. La principal conclusión de este estudio es que en los eventos deportivos se debe contar con los grupos de interés desde el momento de planificación del evento, generar iniciativas para evitar daños ambientales en la construcción de escenarios, buscar sostenibilidad económica, dar uso consiente a la infraestructura deportiva construida y dejar un legado positivo a largo plazo.
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Full-text available
The impact of sporting events is related to social, economic, environmental and political aspects that affect the development of communities through social integration. The aim of the study was to examine the current state of research on sporting events and corporate social responsibility. The research design is a systematic review of the scientific literature (SLR) of 268 documents in the Scopus, SportDiscus, Proquest and Dialnet databases. After the filtering process, 26 articles were selected that met the inclusion criteria. According to this review, it is concluded that in sporting events it is necessary to have the interest groups from the moment of planning the event, generate initiatives to avoid environmental damage in the construction of stages, seek economic sustainability, and give conscious use to the sports infrastructure built and leave a long-term positive legacy. RESUMEN El impacto de los eventos deportivos está relacionado con aspectos sociales, económicos, ambientales y políticos que inciden en el desarrollo de las comunidades por medio de la integración social. El objetivo del estudio fue examinar el estado actual de las investigaciones sobre los eventos deportivos y la responsabilidad social corporativa. El diseño de investigación es una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica (SLR) de 268 documentos en las bases de datos Scopus, SportDiscus, Proquest y Dialnet, posterior al proceso de filtrado se seleccionaron 26 artículos que
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International students have been continuously transitioning to the U.S. colleges in pursuit of high-quality education and social mobility opportunities. Multiple studies dealt with the adjustment of international students in their process of transitioning to a new environment. The purpose of our study is to explore if college sports fan identification can contribute to this population's adjustment process. This study used lived experiences from 10 international graduate students regarding their college sports fan experiences and how that helped them adjust to American colleges. Results showed that answers from international students derived two themes: social and academic adjustments. Social adjustment was specified as a sense of belonging and academic adjustment was specified as finding a way to relax from their academic burden. The results of this study can help both the international student's office and athletic departments to utilize college sports to help international students with their adjustment to new environments.
Chapter
This research seeks to ascertain the extent to which the innovative and competitive capacities of knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) companies are influenced by the service type (technological vs professional) and their respective location (rural vs urban) in times of crisis. Through recourse to structural equation models, the results demonstrate that innovative capacities are strong.
Article
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Sport is one of the fundamental areas of human activity that engages people of all ages, evokes positive associations and has a good effect on health and well-being. Due to the fact that sport is nowadays associated with very high financial investments, as well as becomes a source of significant profits, it attracts attention of local, national or even global business. In particular, a relatively frequent phenomenon is the involvement of banks in sport activities as capital providers or sponsors in order to promote own brand, improve the image or attract new customers on sport. Because both material and non-material support for sport fits strongly in the social context, therefore it can be truly considered as an element of the implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) concept by banks. This paper aims to develop the conceptual framework and debate concern in supporting sports by banks as an element of their CSR policy. The paper presents the concept of bank's CSR, the reasons of banks interest in sports and justification for sport support, especially in form of sponsorship as well as expectations related due to the support. The work was prepared on the basis of literature studies as well as the evaluation of the involvement of banks in Poland in supporting sports activities. The investigation carried out for the purposes of the paper proves that banks in Poland are commonly involved in financial support for sport, they do it through sponsorship, patronage or voluntary work. The reason of support is primarily the will to use massive character and positive receiving of sport to create relations with customers.
Article
This article investigates the intersection of three interrelated trends: first, the positioning of sport as a contributor to sustainable development, particularly in regard to the increasing corporatization of sport for development (SFD); second, the trend toward sustainable development in the extractives industry, as taken up within a corporate social responsibility (CSR) approach; and intersection of SFD and CSR when mobilized in pursuit of sustainable development in Indigenous communities in Canada. To do so, we examined the sustainability documents of Rio Tinto, the largest mining and metals company in Canada, with a focus on its operations in the Canadian North that are near Indigenous communities. Based on our results, we argue that SFD programming and the CSR approaches of Rio Tinto promote forms of sustainable development that capitalize on broadened (and emptied) definitions of sustainability, that may ultimately contribute to greater forms of unsustainability.
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Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
Chapter
Football is the world's most popular sport. It is a cultural phenomenon and a global media spectacle. For its billions of fans, it serves as a common language. But where does its enduring popularity come from? Featuring essays from prominent experts in the field, scholars and journalists, this Companion covers ground seldom attempted in a single volume about football. It examines the game's oft-disputed roots and traces its development through Europe, South America and Africa, analysing whether resistance to the game is finally beginning to erode in China, India and the United States. It dissects the cult of the manager and how David Beckham redefined sporting celebrity. It investigates the game's followers, reporters and writers, as well as its most zealous money makers and powerful administrators. A valuable resource for students, scholars and general readers, The Cambridge Companion to Football is a true and faithful companion for anyone fascinated by the people's game.
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The need for new and evidence-based solutions for mobilizing stakeholders and resources in sport for development and peace (SDP) is increasingly emphasized in a number of recent policy documents including the Kazan Action Plan and a set of publications by the Commonwealth Secretariat. This paper provides a response to these calls for the development of mechanisms and toolkits to support multistakeholder collaboration. We draw on our combined experiences in SDP research, practice, and funding to identify how multistakeholder initiatives in SDP can be better leveraged. Specifically, we discuss how Brown’s (2015) five elements of bridge-building for social transformation, namely, compelling and locally relevant goals; cross-boundary leadership systems; generative theories of change; systems enabling and protecting innovation; and investment in institutionalizing change, apply in the SDP domain. The practical framework we have outlined provides a common ground and starting point to build upon for generating improved synergies among a multitude of stakeholders.
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It is only in recent years that soccer has become big business, and the ethical strains are beginning to show. What is the “product” and where do fans figure in the list of “stakeholders”? The writer is completing his MBA at London Business School, and is a lifelong football fan.
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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been adopted as an approach to international development. But who does it benefit and in what ways? Most importantly, does it allow certain interest groups to redefine the meaning of international development success?This article examines the historical relationship between business and development and compares how expectations of business as exemplified through CSR practices differ from those in the past. It then looks at the role and expectations of business in developing countries and proposes two tests for assessing if CSR makes a positive contribution to development goals based on whether it redefines the meaning of good business practice in the interests of the poor and marginalized, and if it helps development practitioners to manage more effectively the possibility and consequences of global capitalism for poor countries.The article argues that the interests of business are not adequately aligned with those of the poor, and explains why CSR does little to redress this. It argues that the business case in some instances overrides the developmental case for certain actions, and that business thinking is increasingly evident in the policies and practices of international development. Although CSR may have a positive contribution to make in some circumstances, its limitations need to be understood if development's case for involving business is not to be subsumed by business reasons for engaging with (and by-passing) developing countries.
Article
In July 1995, the Rugby World Cup was won by South Africa and Nelson Mandela appropriated the Springbok emblem in an effort to unite the nation. At around the same time, Ali Bacher secured an 8 million rand sponsorship deal for boys' cricket in Soweto, and development programmes for township football were evolving. These events are conspicuous symbols of the massive gender equalities in the sporting structures of the country and the strong association between sport and masculinity. In spite of the restructuring of sport in the new South Africa, there are no equivalent resources or efforts being put into female sports. In large part, this is because gender has tended to be treated as less important than race and ethnicity as a factor that effects equality, and because little attention is paid to the ways in which gender articulates with race and ethnicity.
Offside—Labour Rights and Sportswear Production in AsiaThe World Cup, sport sponsorship, and health
  • Oxfam
37 Oxfam, Offside—Labour Rights and Sportswear Production in Asia, Oxford: Oxfam, 2006. 38 Jeff Collin & Ross MacKenzie, 'The World Cup, sport sponsorship, and health', Lancet, 367(9527), 2006, pp 1964–1965.