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Abstract

A key issue for the success of international conventions regulating biodiversity conservation is to understand the different philosophical positions of each party for initially acceding to that convention, and for the measures each party takes to implement that convention. This paper documents policies for wildlife trade regulation in Mexico from the early 1980s to the early 2000s, with emphasis on the process of CITES implementation. Mexico was slow to adopt environmental policies, but when Mexico did recognize wider environmental concerns, the prospect of acceding to CITES was not considered because of existing bans on all wildlife trade in native species. However, Mexico could not control the illegal trade of wild species during the 1980s. Mexico acceded to CITES in 1991 mainly in response to international pressure and to bilateral pressure while seeking to join a free trade agreement. The step of joining CITES was taken without clear analysis about the consequences of being a party to the Convention. Between 1992 and 1996, Mexico had no clear policy about its role within CITES. The period from 1997 to 2001 witnessed an improved legal and administrative structure and a greater internal coordination between the institutions involved with CITES. Mexico has now improved its policy toward international wildlife trade.

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... Arroyo-Quiroz et al. (2005: 47) explains that Mexico 'ratified CITES only as a result of external and internal pressure' from the US but it did not actively participate in the discussion of CITES nor implement any effective domestic legislation. It was only years later that Mexico finally recognized environmental concerns and national legislation was enacted in 2000 (Arroyo-Quiroz et al. 2005) 11 . Singh (2008) also provides a history of how Laos was pressured into entering CITES. ...
... A further point regarding CITES is that active member states committed to conservation may 'project an appearance of unified potency' but are in reality 'divided and weak' (Singh 2008: 14). The conscious collective that CITES represents in protecting wildlife is made up of state parties that believe in different approaches to conservation: the Southern African countries want a policy for sustainable use of wildlife whereas parties in developed countries and in East Africa take a protectionist stand to the preservation of wildlife (Arroyo-Quiroz et al. 2005). ...
... 2013). 11Arroyo-Quiroz et al. (2005) also makes a point that the implementation and enforcement of CITES represents a significant challenge and is not something that can be done quickly especially for a developing country like Mexico. © 2016 Journal of Trafficking, Organized Crime and Security, 2(1): 21-35 ...
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This paper considers methods for regulating the trafficking of rhino horn and ivory, seen through the lens of compliance theories. It stresses the importance of the distinction between normative and instrumental motivations. It argues for a balanced set of strategies that include normative levers designed to change the behaviour of poachers, traffickers and consumers of these products. In particular it considers the options needed to achieve demand reduction in consumer countries, and those needed to provide incentives to local communities in producer countries to disengage from poaching.
... Indeed, most studies have been done by conservationists (Ginsberg 2002;Nooren and Claridge 2001), political scientists (Miyaoka 2004;Stoett 2002Stoett , 2005 and policy makers (Dickson 1999;Favre 1993;Sand 1997). In these and other studies, localized patterns of trade, and international policy negotiations, have received much more attention than the interplay between them in specific national contexts (Arroyo-Quiroz et al. 2005). This is where political ecology's engagement with a diversity of disciplinary perspectives, and its attention to the multi-scaled politics of resource control, offers a valuable addition to an understanding of wildlife trade as a social and environmental concern (Forsyth 2003;Paulson et al. 2003). ...
... Since trade regulation affects the use of natural resources, any international system that seeks to regulate trade is inextricably tied to arguments over national sovereignty. 12 An ongoing challenge for CITES is actually achieving outcomes that will ensure the sustainability of wildlife trade while avoiding accusations of cultural imperialism (Arroyo-Quiroz et al. 2005;Ginsberg 2002;Hutton and Leader-Williams 2003;Stoett 2002). ...
... Furthermore, public fears about criminal activity and disease risks can be harnessed to support strict anti-trade views in the name of conservation, even while other conservationists decry such suggestions. 13 Regulation of wildlife trade, though based on scientific expertise, must be recognized as a value-laden issue, an assertion of how people should behave and why (Arroyo-Quiroz et al. 2005;Bell et al. 2007;Dickson 1999;Miyaoka 2004;Stoett 2002). The debates over values within CITES brings into question public understanding of this system as a united moral and scientific system, and it cautions against critiques of conservation that are based on such representations. ...
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This article examines the intricacy within stylized debates that surround conservation and the regulation of wildlife trade in Southeast Asia. Illegal and unregulated trade in wildlife has been characterized by conservation groups as a great risk for wildlife worldwide and the prime threat for remaining wildlife populations in Laos. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) is the centrepoint of the global discourse on wildlife trade. Popular representations of wildlife trade promoted by conservation organizations construct an image of regulation through CITES as a global necessity. The assumed morality of such interventions can provoke counter accusations about the immorality of impositions by Western conservationists. Yet both of these competing representations of wildlife trade regulation encourage externally-focused moralized debates that obscure the internal dynamics within global conservation, national policy formation and local practice. Recognition of the simplifications that characterize these three domains cautions against any idealized contrast between global hegemony and local resistance in critical studies of conservation. Instead, the focus becomes the contestation that is often hidden within such dichotomies. Keywords: Conservation, wildlife, Lao PDR, CITES
... Differences between pro-trade and anti-trade approaches to wildlife management exacerbates in developing countries where poverty alleviation dominates local politics. An ongoing challenge for CITES is achieving outcomes that will ensure the sustainability of wildlife trade while avoiding accusations of cultural domination (Arroyo-Quiroz et al. 2005). ...
Article
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This paper makes a review of literature on growing wildlife trafficking, more specifically to South Asia. It intends to analyze the nature of this illegal trade and evaluate practices in institution building for the control of wildlife crimes. Based on review and consultation with the stakeholders, we conclude that socio-cultural fabrics in East Asian countries are fuelling the demand side of the trafficking from this region whereas the poverty in the vicinity of national park areas coupled with the connection to mediators and smugglers is causing the supply side chain. The high prices in the international market are mainly caused by the misconception mainly regarding the medicinal values of some wildlife products. The poaching model discussed in the paper concludes that the conservation effort/cost needs to move along with the stock of the wildlife and the poaching efforts, but the lack of effective monitoring mechanism for the census of wildlife is causing the gap between them and the continuation of the crime in the region. Abstract-This paper makes a review of literature on growing wildlife trafficking, more specifically to South Asia. It intends to analyze the nature of this illegal trade and evaluate practices in institution building for the control of wildlife crimes. Based on review and consultation with the stakeholders, we conclude that socio-cultural fabrics in East Asian countries are fuelling the demand side of the trafficking from this region whereas the poverty in the vicinity of national park areas coupled with the connection to mediators and smugglers is causing the supply side chain. The high prices in the international market are mainly caused by the misconception mainly regarding the medicinal values of some wildlife products. The poaching model discussed in the paper concludes that the conservation effort/cost needs to move along with the stock of the wildlife and the poaching efforts, but the lack of effective monitoring mechanism for the census of wildlife is causing the gap between them and the continuation of the crime in the region.
... Nine of the papers describe hunting or the utilization of wild fauna in general, stressing the use of animals as food or medicine, though they indirectly may also mentioned their use as pets. Two of the studies (Arroyo-Quiroz et al. 2005; Sosa-Escalante 2011) evaluated the government strategies and other paper (Johnson et al. 2012) discloses a method to estimate the exploitation levels of passerines (Table 4). ...
Article
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A large amount of birds are harvested from the natural environment for the pet market. This trade is a conservation issue and an economic income for many people. Though bird trade is common in Latin America there are few published studies. Therefore, we reviewed available literature to understand the background of this topic and to identify future relevant research topics. We collected, summarized and discussed literature about bird use as pets in Latin America, with a detailed approach in Mexico. We searched by keywords in web search engines and constructed a database of 159 documents. Brazil was identified as one of the main countries with research on birds use. Most of the papers focused on parrots (35%) and were conducted at a local geographical level (71%). Less than half of the papers (39%) are focused on the general use of birds, 54% on the use as pets and 7% on other uses. In Mexico, 73% of the information is “gray literature”, mainly congress abstracts. This literature review shows that wildlife use in general and wild birds use as pets in particular are common in Latin America. We bring to light that most of the information is not found in peer review journals and contains only lists of useful birds. Finally, we found that research on social organization and on the perceptions of the main actors is scarce, so we suggest more research in this direction in order to implement better management policies.
... A response to Cooney & Jepson", in Oryx. (Volume 40:1, p. 27-28) 27;and Inés Arroyo-Quiroz, Ramón Perez-Gil and Nigel Leader-Williams (2005). "Developing Countries and the Implementation of CITES: The Mexican Experience", in Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy. ...
Thesis
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The proliferation of multilateral environmental agreements has resulted in an increased interest, from academics and others, in questions regarding the effectiveness of such agreements. Much if not all attention has focused on the institutional aspects of regime functioning, specifically behaviour change. Relatively less attention has been given to the actual ecological or biophysical aspects of regime effectiveness. The focus on institutional effectiveness is for sound reasons, such as challenges associated with incorporating ecological factors into any evaluation, measuring effectiveness, and establishing causality. However, these challenges do not diminish the importance of assessing ecological effectiveness and its relationships with institutional functioning. Does political, legal or behaviour change consistently lead to improvement in environmental quality? Can it be assumed that “institutional effectiveness” is an accurate and appropriate proxy for “ecological effectiveness”? Are the challenges associated with using ecological data insurmountable? This thesis aims to advance understanding of the linkages between institutional and ecological effectiveness and to explore how an integrated assessment of both can be undertaken. Putting forward a model for an integrated assessment of institutional and ecological effectiveness, and using a mixed methods approach, this study analyses a compliance mechanism under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) as a case study to evaluate both the institutional and the ecological effectiveness of this regime, and how these are linked with variables that may be intervening in the relationship. The results suggest that, although CITES is widely considered to be institutionally effective, its ecological effectiveness is questionable. The discrepancy can, to a large extent, be explained by two main categories of intervening variables: the complexity and nature of the problem, and domestic or national-level factors. The integrated assessment uses ecological and quantitative data to help increase our understanding of the nature and extent of institutional and ecological effectiveness, and illuminates any gaps between them. The analysis demonstrates that extending evaluations to include environmental impacts can provide a more accurate picture of overall effectiveness of regimes, and offers researchers and practitioners a basis for developing ideas and actions aimed at improving regime functioning.
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Documenting financial resources in biodiversity conservation is a key aspect worldwide in order to set priorities and use effectively the limited resources available. In Mexico, a megadiverse country, studies on financial resources invested in biodiversity conservation are scarce and do not address funding for conservation comprehensively. Using recent data from several sources and applying criteria based on the national priorities for conservation, we compiled, systematized and analyzed data at a national scale on financing sources, financial resources and conservation organizations and their projects. The information obtained is presented in various ways and part of it (case study) is already an information system that can be continuously up-dated. Some of the results show the following: a steady diversification of mechanisms and methods for raising funds for conservation; an increase in governmental budgets; the acknowledgment by the private sector of the importance of biodiversity conservation; a greater technical capacity in people and organizations working in conservation; a greater accessibility of financial resources to support and maintain conservation projects; yet a short term vision in conservation projects; among other. Although the results obtained through this study are a first approach, they can now be used as a baseline to continue gathering and analyzing information on conservation financing in Mexico.
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The essay examines the background of the current reforms, analysing their content, and evaluating the present regulatory regime in the environmental arena in Mexico. A chronological and comparative approach reviews the development of environmental policy under the Echeverria, Lopez Portillo, and de la Madrid administrations. Evidence from the Mexican case is brought to bear on the general propositions relating political development to the prospects for environmental policy in Mexico and Latin America.-after Authors
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Salinas's environmental initiative may best be seen as a situated and reactive response to the threat of unconstrained environmental mobilization and as part of a basic strategy of containing political mobilization at a time of declining system legitimacy and economic crisis. Preemptive reform challenges the independence and development of the environmental movement in Mexico and has been partly effective in dividing the environmental movement and neutralizing its effectiveness in the Mexican political arena. Even so, environmental groups have dramatized the gap between policy and performance on environmental issues and remain a positive force for environmental improvement and political change. -Author
Chapter
The Contracting States recognising that wild fauna and flora in their many beautiful and varied forms are an irreplaceable part of the natural systems of the earth which must be protected for this and the generations to come; conscious of the ever-growing value of wild fauna and flora from aesthetic, scientific, cultural, recreational and economic points of view; recognizing that peoples and States are and should be the best protectors of their own wild fauna and flora; recognizing, in addition, that international co-operation is essential for the protection of certain species of wild fauna and flora against over-exploitation through international trade; convinced of the urgency of taking appropriate measures to this end, have agreed as follows:
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Mexico and the United States are committed to a cooperative program that will encourage sustained economic growth and environmental protection in both countries. President Bush and President Salinas believe that the two are complementary and must be pursued together
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ii. In 1991, President Bush wrote, "The Government of Mexico knows it faces major environmental problems that threaten the health and well-being of millions of Mexicans." "Mexico and the United States are committed to a cooperative program that will encourage sustained economic growth and environmental protection in both countries. President Bush and President Salinas believe that the two are complementary and must be pursued together" (G. Bush, Response of the Administration to Issues Raised in Connection with the Negotiation of a North American Free Trade Agreement, Transmitted to the Congress by the President [1991]].