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Two studies investigated the relationship between teacher immediacy and student state motivation and the combined impact of these factors on learning. Study One participants completed all instruments based on a preceding class. The scales were randomly split between students in Study Two who completed them based on an intact class. Correlations revealed significant relationships between learning and both immediacy and motivation. Regression analyses indicated both unique and colinear predictability of learning by nonverbal immediacy and state motivation. Immediacy appears to modify motivation which leads to increased learning. Important implications of Study Two data indicate relationships observed in earlier research were not a simple function of confounding when scores were reported by the same subjects completing multiple instruments.
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... Hsu (2010) stated that the teacher can do much to capture and maintain the students' motivation if he builds positive characteristics or utilizes immediacy behaviors. This was also supported by some researches that proved nonverbal immediacy behaviors of teacher have shown to have a positive influence on student affective learning factors (Christophel, 1990;Hsu, 2010;Velez & Cano, 2008;Baker, 2010;. ...
... The concept of immediacy was proposed by Mehrabian (1969) who used this term to point to communication behaviors which "enhance closeness to and nonverbal interaction with another". Mehrabian (1969) and subsequent researchers (Gorham, 1988;Christophel, 1990) divided immediacy into two categories of communication; verbal and nonverbal. ...
... Teachers' Nonverbal Immediacy in English Language Learning 200 you need to convey messages that transmit a feeling of warmth and a willingness to get in touch to the receiver of the message. Research reports on verbal immediacy have shown relationships with student motivation, perceived cognition, and affective learning (Christophel, 1990). ...
Computer assisted language learning commonly applied by teachers and learners in English instructional, however the improvement of digital tools and mobile devices has not been developed. This research attempts to analyse students’ arguments of using digital tools on mobile phone technology in learning English. The study involved 439 learners studying in three distinct level of educations in Badung regency and Denpasar city. A five-point rating scale questionnaire survey was devised and administered to a sample of students on the different level of educations (junior high school, university, polytechnic) and a descriptive method was then employed to elaborate the result. The result demonstrated that learners tended to choose small devices with internet integration which assists and leads them to learn the lesson smoothly. This is a call for the researchers and teachers to build a combination between digital tools and small devices to increase learners’ urge in English lesson.
... Posteriormente, Richmond (1990) amplió dicho instrumento elaborando una escala bipolar de 5 ítems para evaluar la motivación estado de los estudiantes con respecto al curso, obteniendo un valor de alfa de Cronbach para la escala de .94. Finalmente, Christophel (1990) realizó una expansión de ambos instrumentos desarrollando una escala bipolar de 12 ítems que empleó, bajo diferentes instrucciones, para medir en un caso la motivación rasgo y en otros la motivación estado del alumnado universitario, obteniendo valores de alfa de Cronbach para la escala situados entre .91 y .96. Cabe destacar que en los estudios anteriormente mencionados no se llevaron a cabo análisis factoriales exploratorios ni confirmatorios, habiéndose ejecutado únicamente Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluacióne Avaliação Psicológica. ...
... RIDEP · Nº58 · Vol.1 · 117-126 · 2021 análisis de consistencia interna. No obstante, estudios posteriores realizaron análisis factoriales confirmatorios de la Escala de Motivación Estado de Christophel (1990), apoyando la estructura unifactorial del constructo (Bolkan & Goodboy, 2009;Pogue & AhYun, 2006). Igualmente, esta escala se ha empleado con estudiantes chinos (Zhang & Oetzel, 2006;Zhang & Zhang, 2005) y en estudios comparados entre estudiantes universitarios estadounidenses, chinos, alemanes y japoneses (Zhang, 2009;Zhang, Oetzel, Gao, Wilcox, & Takai, 2007), obteniéndose valores de alfa de Cronbach por encima de .90 ...
... Atendiendo a la ausencia de un instrumento válido y fiable en español que permita medir la motivación estado de los estudiantes universitarios, se establece como objetivo del presente estudio adaptar y validar al español la Escala de Motivación Estado de Christophel (1990) en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios. Se decidió seleccionar este instrumento en lugar de otros debido a que se trata del único instrumento que mide la motivación estado que ha sido sometido en diversos estudios a análisis factoriales confirmatorios y que ha sido aplicado a muestras de diversos países y culturas. ...
In the college classroom, student state motivation can be influenced by many factors, being one of them
students' perceptions of teachers' behaviors. The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate the Spanish
version of the State Motivation Scale (Christophel, 1990) in a sample of university students. The participants
were 344 students from the University of Seville. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported
the unifactorial structure proposed in the original model. Invariance across gender was found and evidence of
concurrent validity with teacher credibility. It is concluded that the State Motivation Scale has appropriate
psychometric properties to measure state motivation in Spanish-speaking university students.
... There is also a positive relationship between instructor verbal immediacy and student liking toward the instructor (Baker, 2004). Instructor nonverbal immediacy (Allen et al., 2006;Frymier et al., 2019;Goodboy et al., 2009), and verbal immediacy (Christophel, 1990) lead to greater student motivation. There is an indirect positive relationship between instructor nonverbal immediacy and students' recall of class information or student learning, mediated by affective learning (Allen et al., 2006), or mediated by instructor relatedness and student motivation (Frymier et al., 2019). ...
... There is an indirect positive relationship between instructor nonverbal immediacy and students' recall of class information or student learning, mediated by affective learning (Allen et al., 2006), or mediated by instructor relatedness and student motivation (Frymier et al., 2019). Teacher verbal immediacy is positively correlated with student cognitive learning (Christophel, 1990). Finally, when an instructor exhibited verbal and nonverbal immediacy, students remembered more information (Goodboy et al., 2009). ...
... Participants completed Christophel's (1990) motivation scale; the 12 items were modified to fit a physician-patient context. The measure consists of a 7-point semantic differential scale; the item prompt was adapted to fit the context of participants' reactions to the message given by the physician. ...
Guided by the fostering relationships function of patient-centered communication (PCC), the present study utilized a 2 (high/low nonverbal immediacy) x 2 (high/low verbal immediacy) between-subjects experimental design to determine whether physician verbal and nonverbal immediacy influenced participant liking for physician, motivation to process a health message, and recall of the health message. An actor physician delivered a 3-4 minute video-recorded message, diagnosing U.S. adult participants, serving as analogue patients, with a health issue. The results indicated main effects for physician verbal immediacy and nonverbal immediacy on participant liking for physician and motivation such that participants had greater liking for the physician and motivation to do what the physician requested when the physician demonstrated greater verbal and nonverbal immediacy. However, physician verbal and nonverbal immediacy did not influence participants' recall. Physicians should consider displaying verbal and nonverbal immediacy to create a positive impression among patients, and to motivate patients to take steps to improve their health.
... Nonverbal immediacy skills include nonverbal communication behaviors such as smiling, use of proximity, gesturing, and having a relaxed posture that indicate openness for communication. Teachers' use of nonverbal immediacy behaviors have positive effects on students (Burroughs, 2007;Christophel, 1990; V.P. Richmond et al., 2003;Witt et al., 2004). Students of teachers who are perceived as more immediate exhibit more compliant classroom behaviors (Burroughs, 2007;Kearney et al., 1988), be more motivated to attend class, and experience positive learning outcomes (LeFebvre & Allen, 2014;Witt et al., 2004). ...
... Teacher's use of nonverbal immediacy behaviors has been shown to affect students' levels of motivation, compliance, affective learning, and academic achievement (Burroughs, 2007;Christophel, 1990;Kyaruzi et al., 2019;Witt et al., 2004).To understand the construct of immediacy in the educational context, and its impact on positive educational outcomes, a focused review of empirical research was conducted. Explorations included the effect on student learning, motivation, and behavior management for successful student academic outcomes. ...
... The researchers concluded that the findings in the investigation supports the training and development of beginning teachers' nonverbal immediacy skills to promote positive educational outcomes for students (LeFebvre & Allen, 2014). Christophel (1990) sought to understand the relationship among teacher immediacy, student state motivation, and perceived cognitive learning. Students' state motivation for learning is temporary in nature, and reflective of students' attitudes toward a course at a period of time. ...
The purpose of this mixed method embedded design study was to examine the effect of a treatment package consisting of video and reflection, video feedback, and coaching on pre-service teachers’ use of nonverbal immediacy behaviors as they delivered lessons to student avatars in mixed reality simulations. Pre-service teachers delivered lessons at three points of time over the course of a semester within a teacher preparation course. Following each simulation, participants received three components of a treatment package targeted at improving nonverbal immediacy behaviors of teachers. The quantitative data were collected via nonverbal immediacy scores. Qualitative data were collected via observations of simulations and participant exit interviews. Statistical analysis resulted in a significant difference in pre-service teachers’ nonverbal immediacy when Time 2 and Time 3 were compared. An analysis of qualitative data resulted in two findings. Finding one was: Video and reflection, video feedback, and coaching fostered pre-service teachers’ reflections on the simulated environment as they delivered lessons within the simulations. Finding two was: Video and reflection, video feedback and coaching within a mixed reality simulation environment improved pre-service teachers’ use of nonverbal immediacy behaviors in student interactions. Connections to literature and implications are provided
... Two major explanations have been proposed for explaining the effect of immediacy on learning: motivational theory (Christophel, 1990) and arousal-attention theory (Kelly & Gorham, 1988). ...
... Additionally, the author indicated that teachers' immediacy influences students beyond their motivation and probably interacts with learning outcomes. Nonetheless, only few empirical studies have investigated this, providing support for motivational theory (i.e., Christophel, 1990;McCroskey, Richmond & Benett, 2006). ...
... Motivation was assessed by asking participants to answer nine questions on how they felt about the instructional video they watched. The questionnaire was administered using a 7-point semantic differential scale taken from Christophel (1990) (we selected the nine out of the 12 questions that were relevant to our study). We constructed a reliable measure of motivation (Cronbach's a = 0.91), by averaging participants' answers to each set of questions. ...
Though pedagogical artificial agents are expected to play a crucial role in the years to come, earlier studies provide inconsistent results regarding their effect on learning. This might be because their potential for exhibiting subtle nonverbal behaviours we know from human teachers has been untapped. What is more, there is little evidence of the processes underlying the effect of nonverbal behaviours of teachers (either human or artificial) on learning, so as to better guide their practical application.
The aims of the current research were threefold: firstly, to examine the effect of an artificial agent's vocal expressiveness on non‐verbal immediacy (teachers' ability to increase psychological closeness through nonverbal communication). Secondly, to test whether an artificial agent showing strong vocal expressiveness will enhance affective and cognitive learning (perceived and actual), as compared to an artificial agent that shows weak vocal expressiveness. Thirdly, to examine whether the underlying mechanisms of motivation and attention explain the effect of immediacy (and thereby also of vocal expressiveness) on the two learning outcomes.
The study used a between‐participants design, with the participants being randomly assigned to one of the two experimental conditions: artificial modelling with strong expressiveness and artificial modelling with weak vocal expressiveness.
Results and conclusions
Results showed that an artificial agent with strong vocal expressiveness increased affective and perceived cognitive learning. Partial support was found for actual cognitive learning. What is more, our findings revealed that vocal expressiveness is related to affective and perceived cognitive learning because it promotes nonverbal immediacy. Finally, results provided evidence of motivation as a mediator of the path from immediacy to affective learning.
The current findings verify the important role of nonverbal immediacy found in traditional educational settings. However, showing that these results also apply to artificial teachers is essential, given that the educational landscape is changing and reshaping by artificial intelligence. Thus, taking into consideration the role of vocal expressiveness in the development of artificial teachers or voice assistants like Alexa, Siri, and Google assistant, as a way to enhance immediacy and affective experience of learners is of imperative value, since they will be found more and more in our societies.
... Undoubtedly, motivation plays a crucial role in teaching and learning. For instance, the motivation-learning relationship theory developed by Christophel (1990)assumed that students would learn when they want to know. Wanzer, M. B., Sparks, L., & Frymier,(2009) also presented specifications for entertaining message/learning links, although this theory still has its degree. ...
... Backtracking to the literature, TH can provide a comfortable learning environment, better teacher-student relationship, and reduce the tension that many students feel in their learning process Christophel (1990); Richmond (1990); Dickmeyer (1993) (2016)). However, the current participants might still feel uncomfortable about interrupting their teachers' instructions even though they are humorous teachers. ...
According to several studies on English teaching and learning, English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers tend to avoid humor in their classrooms. However, many studies have shown that teachers’ sense of humor plays an essential role in EFL students’ learning process. Therefore, this study utilizing a mixed-method design was conducted to determine students’ perceptions of the impact of teachers’ humor (TH) on their learning. Data were collected through a questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale comprising twenty-one items and semi-structured interviews. The study involved 158 university students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Quantitative data from the questionnaire were analyzed by using SPSS 20.0, and data from the interviews were analyzed according to themes. The survey results revealed that the students showed positive attitudes toward the effects of TH in EFL classrooms, especially reducing boredom (M=4.59), strengthening teacher-student rapport (M=4.53), decreasing sleepiness (M=4.47), promoting students’ cheerfulness (M=4.47), increasing students’ consciousness (M=4.46), and solving conflicts in classrooms (M=4.42). Additionally, non-majored students were appreciated for TH more than their counterparts. Moreover, students’ perceptions positively correlated with their gender. The interviews also showed that cultural factors affected the effectiveness of TH in EFL classes. EFL teachers are encouraged to use TH in their classes in order to foster its benefits. However, careful consideration should be taken before using TH in teaching different students with different learning styles or characteristics.
... Immediacy was defined as the perceived psychological distance between communicators (Wiener & Mehrabian, 1968). Teachers' immediacy behaviors, both verbal and non-verbal, have been linked to improvement in students' affective and cognitive learning in face-to-face classrooms (Christophel, 1990;Kelley & Gorham, 1988). Further, definitions of social presence have been informed by research into computermediated communication (CMC) in education. ...
... Social presence researchers (Kreijns et al., 2021;Lowenthal & Snelson, 2017;Richardson et al., 2017) have identified at least 15 definitions of social presence used in studies, with numerous elements being considered part of the construct including: immediacy, affective expression, co-presence, online privacy, trust, perceived presence of peers and perceived presence of instructors, social space, and intimacy. Another substantive criticism of the CoI framework is that neither the teaching presence nor the social presence construct accounts for the social presence of instructors which, as evidenced by earlier teacher immediacy research, is an important predictor of learning (Christophel, 1990;Kelley & Gorham, 1988;Mehrabian, 1966Mehrabian, , 1981. Moreover, the social presence construct does not sufficiently account for the importance of emotion in communities of inquiry; indeed, as per Lipman's (2003) original notion of communities of inquiry, emotion is integral to all three constructs (e.g., Cleveland-Innes & Campbell, 2012). ...
The COVID-19 pandemic forced institutions of higher education around the world to quickly transition to forms of distance education, including synchronous and asynchronous online learning. Often lacking conceptual, empirical, and practical understanding of online pedagogy, many institutions have met this endeavor with mixed success. It seems inevitable that online learning will continue to play a key role in all sectors of education and, accordingly, that online pedagogy deserves a more mainstream focus. To help build a joint understanding of foundational knowledge between the online learning, educational technology, and educational psychology communities, in this article, we summarize the most frequently cited conceptual model that shapes research and practice in the field of higher education online learning: the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework. We describe the original CoI model and its foundational components (i.e., cognitive, social, and teaching presence) and highlight opportunities for improvement of the model by incorporating the educational psychology and learning sciences research base to inform: (1) conceptualizations of the social dimensions of collaborative learning and (2) understanding of learner contributions to online collaborative education including self-, co-, and shared regulation of learning. We propose that a new, more comprehensive conceptualization of the regulation of collaborative online learning be integrated into the existing CoI framework and that a new “presence” be referenced going forward—“Learning Presence.” Through this work, we strive to develop a more nuanced, generative, and informed vision of the future of online learning informed by relevant contemporary conceptualizations in educational psychology.
... Teacher immediacy would be one of the aspects that can increase students" motivational tendencies (Christophel, 1990;Frymeir and Houser 2000). Christophel (1990) stated that "it was believed that students would be motivated to move towards (approach) classes they like and unmotivated or move away from (avoid) classes they dislike" (Christophel, 1990, p. 325). ...
... Teacher immediacy would be one of the aspects that can increase students" motivational tendencies (Christophel, 1990;Frymeir and Houser 2000). Christophel (1990) stated that "it was believed that students would be motivated to move towards (approach) classes they like and unmotivated or move away from (avoid) classes they dislike" (Christophel, 1990, p. 325). Acordingly, Frymier and Houser (2000) have stressed that teachers recruit interpersonal communication methods to motive their students. ...
The purpose of the study is to investigate the impacts of two teacher immediacy
methods on students’ immediate and long-term evaluation of teacher immediacy, state of
motivation and cognitive learning. The first method is to memorize students’ names in the
first lecture and start calling them by their names at the end of it and the second method
is to welcome students at the entrance of the classroom by their names. Throughout the
semester, the teacher met the students at the entrance of the classroom before lectures
and welcomed each student by his or her name. At the end of the semester, the students
responded to the scales and sat the test again. The results revealed that the first method
significantly increased teacher immediacy. The posttest results revealed that teacher immediacy directly and state motivation through teacher immediacy significantly affected
... Students strongly attach to their lecturer as a caretaker, influence students' adjustment and adaptation in campus life. While, hypothesis regarding mediating effect of immediacy behavior on life satisfaction and emotional intelligence also take into account because similar with Christophel (1990) emotional intelligence and life satisfaction also support previous partial similar study of Wongpakaran et al (2016). ...
... Hereby the findings partially support means, mainly lecturers played more important role in students' perspective emotionally and cognitively towards life satisfaction than peers. Therefore, attachment relationship and immediacy behaviour of lecturers successfully contribute as mediator in this study, which means lecturer social behaviour need to take into account for a great life satisfaction level among undergraduates (Christophel, 1990). Finally, the findings reviewed in this section were not capable to be compared directly with prior studies, indicating there was lack of literature which had addressed similar issue. ...
... Applied to the classroom, teacher immediacy refers to the physical or psychological closeness between teachers and their students (Frymier 2013). Teachers can engage in various verbal behaviors (e.g., use personal examples, encourage students to ask questions, and refer to the class as "our" class) and nonverbal behaviors (e.g., gesture while talking, move around the class, and maintain eye contact) to increase immediacy (Christophel 1990;Meyerberg and Legg 2015). One study found a significant correlation (r = 0.54) between ratings of teacher immediacy and teaching evaluations (Moore et al. 1996). ...
Student evaluations of instruction (SEIs) have an important role in hiring, firing, and promotion decisions. However, evidence suggests that SEIs might be influenced by factors other than teaching skills. The author examined several nonteaching factors that may impact SEIs in two independent studies. Study 1 examined whether an instructor’s name preference (i.e., first name versus “Dr.” last name) influenced SEIs in actual courses. Study 2 implemented a two (i.e., instructor name preference: first name or “Dr.” last name) by two (i.e., instructor gender: male or female) by two (i.e., instructor race: white or Black) between-subjects design for SEIs in a hypothetical course. Study 1 found that SEIs were higher when the female instructor expressed a preference for being called by her first name. Study 2 found the highest SEIs for Black male instructors when instructors asked students to call them by their first name, but there was a decrease in SEI scores if they went by their professional title. Administrators should be aware of the various factors that can influence how students evaluate instructors.
... These behaviors include smiling, nods, relaxed body posture, forward leans, movement, gestures, vocal variety, and eye contact in the teaching-learning context (Andersen, 1979;Mehrabian, 1970;Witt et al., 2004). Teacher immediacy influences student motivation, which, in turn, results in increased positive affect towards the teacher and the content studied (Christophel, 1990;Frymier, 1994;McCroskey et al., 1995;Richmond, 1990). Moreover, in the context of studying mathematics, teachers' nonverbal immediacy behaviors increase students' positive affect towards the subject and their perceived learning (McCluskey et al., 2017). ...
Mobile eye-tracking research has provided evidence both on teachers' visual attention in relation to their intentions and on teachers’ student-centred gaze patterns. However, the importance of a teacher’s eye-movements when giving instructions is unexplored. In this study we used mobile eye-tracking to investigate six teachers’ gaze patterns when they are giving task instructions for a geometry problem in four different phases of a mathematical problem-solving lesson. We analysed the teachers’ eye-tracking data, their verbal data, and classroom video recordings. Our paper brings forth a novel interpretative lens for teacher’s pedagogical intentions communicated by gaze during teacher-led moments such as when introducing new tasks, reorganizing the social structures of students for collaboration, and lesson wrap-ups. A change in the students’ task changes teachers’ gaze patterns, which may indicate a change in teacher’s pedagogical intention. We found that teachers gazed at students throughout the lesson, whereas teachers’ focus was at task-related targets during collaborative instruction-giving more than during the introductory and reflective task instructions. Hence, we suggest two previously not detected gaze types: contextualizing gaze for task readiness and collaborative gaze for task focus to contribute to the present discussion on teacher gaze
... Although more scarcely, the presence of gender and LGBT+ issues in the foreign language classroom has also been examined, with new proposals being developed in this respect ; such is the case of English for Social Purposes and Cooperation , an approach to teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) that tackles issues with social impact while developing students' language abilities, whose potential for sex/gender education is being considered . However, the scientific literature is limited when analyzing teachers' perceptions about the inclusion of such topics in their lessons [e.g., 17,18,19,20] despite the impact they can have on the learning process of their pupils . ...
The inclusion of LGBT+ topics in education continues to be a heated debate despite the efforts of international bodies and organizations in the promotion of comprehensive sex/gender education across the globe as a way to train young generations appropriately in sexual health, gender identity, and well-being. However, and notwithstanding the impact that teachers can have on the learning process of their students, research has identified a lack of studies analyzing their perceptions about the inclusion of such topics in their lessons. This paper aims to examine the perceptions of a group of pre-service primary bilingual teachers (N = 52) from the University of Córdoba (Spain) regarding the inclusion of gender identity/equality and LGBT+ issues in the EFL classroom. The case study is developed as part of a training experience (implemented online due to the COVID-19 pandemic) in which they learned and discussed associated concepts, and where they were asked to use Flipgrid as a self-reflection tool. A mixed-method study based on content analysis is used to analyze the videos recorded by the participants in which they expressed their opinions. Six main categories are identified after applying content analysis techniques: (i) inclusion of gender identity/equality and LGBT+ issues in the classroom; (ii) reasons to include such topics; (iii) ways to address the topics; (iv) benefits for students; (v) potential problems; and (vi) other aspects. Findings reveal that, although part of the respondents agrees with including them in the EFL classroom, the majority of them believe these should be cross-curricular themes. Likewise, preparing and supporting students for society, and helping those who may not have the chance to learn about this reality at home are the main reasons for addressing these matters at schools, while increasing respect, tolerance and empathy, self-discovery and self-acceptance of LGBT+ learners, and reducing bullying are the main benefits for students.
... Teacher immediacy and Willingness to Communicate .Immediacy is defined as physical or psychological intimacy among individuals. Smiling, peaceful position, speaking to the students and not the whiteboard and using humor are among the approaches suggested for being an intimate teacher (47). The term sometimes is reversible with social presence (48), which indicates how much a person finds a real position in communication. ...
Background & Objective: It is argued that students have less tendency to communicate in English classes
even after several years of attending language courses. The general objective of this research was to find the
effective factors for willingness to communicate in English across medical classes.
Materials & Methods: The participants in this study were 252 medical students from Zanjan University of
Medical Sciences who were majoring in one of the fields of dentistry, medicine and pharmacy and were taking
the course of English for Specific Purposes. Macintyre’s Willingness to Communicate questionnaire was used
to compile the data. After collecting the data using the questionnaire, they were processed in the statistical
package. The collected data were then tabulated and analyzed via SPSS (20) and AMOS.
Results: In the structural model, there were significant pathways between self-confidence and motivation
and WTC in ESP classes. Motivation had a positive effect on self-confidence. The teacher's immediacy, with
its negative impact on shyness, increased the motivation to communicate in the ESP class. On the other hand,
the paths of shyness to motivation and self-confidence were negative. All pathways were significant at 0.05.
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that, as in the previous studies, the tendency to communicate
in language classes depends on several variables. Given that communication and speaking are the most
important language skills, language learning planning is recommended to consider the importance of this skill.
Language teachers should create conditions with low anxiety to encourage learners to speak and communicate.
Shyness was another variable during the study that had a negative effect on the WTC. The results of this study
also emphasize that highly motivated learners are more likely to participate in classroom activities and
communication due to their self-confidence. Also, in this study, the teacher's intervention had a positive effect
on reducing anxiety. Thus, it is recommended that teachers play an important role in motivating students to
communicate I ESP classes.
... For instance, researchers have examined learners' motivation as both a state-and a trait-like factor. As described by Christophel (1990), state motivation is a situational concept that alludes to the work put in the direction of a specific assignment domain at a specific point in time. As asserted by (as cited in Goldman et al., 2017), trait motivation is a somewhat steady paradigm that alludes to the general drive of learners toward learning and education. ...
It is maintained that one of the significant determining issues of success is motivation, and enhancing EFL/ESL students' motivation is dominant in cultivating their learning in the classroom. Moreover, teachers are reflected as the most noteworthy figure of any scholastic organization and the positive rapport between students and teachers is significant for learners' state motivation. In line with the investigations of teacher-student rapport, principles from positive psychology (PP), and motivational theories such as self-determination and rhetorical/relational goal theory, the present theoretical review seeks this type of relationship and its effects on learners' motivation. Student-teacher rapport results in progressive practices for learners, as well as superior classroom involvement, and motivation. Subsequently, the helpfulness of findings for teachers, learners, materials developers, and teacher trainers are conferred.
... Teachers put extra effort to create connect for a better teacher-student relationship which leads to increased student learning and results in effective teaching. (Christophel, 1990). Teacher ımmediacy behaviours ınfluence student motivation to learn. ...
It is not only the intelligence quotient (IQ) that make a good teacher,
but there are other traits required by teachers for effective teaching. This present study aims to identify the critical traits of teachers for effective in higher education institutions (HEIs) and also intend to outline the framework for effective teaching. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) of qualitative research methodology has been used in this research. In this research, teachers from higher education institutions have been selected as the respondent to understand the critical traits required for effective teaching. This
research found that teachers’ passion, self-efficacy, creativity, humour,
paralanguage, and immediacy are critical traits for effective teaching. The teaching framework highlights that each critical trait has an impact in the classroom management and students’ performance.
... A first reason is that teachers' and students' non-verbal immediacy behaviours (e.g., eyecontact, movement, facial expression, vocal variety) that generate the perception of closeness between students and the teacher are less prominent in distance settings . These non-verbal immediacy behaviours are not only known to foster learning , but presumably also help teachers to sense the engagement of their classroom (see also the systematic review on synchronous hybrid learning by Raes ). A second reason is that in distance settings, the behaviour of students is reflected through various channels, to which the teacher cannot possibly pay attention at the same time. ...
Computer vision has shown great accomplishments in a wide variety of classification, segmentation and object recognition tasks, but tends to encounter more difficulties when tasks require more contextual assessment. Measuring the engagement of students is an example of such a complex task, as it requires a strong interpretative component. This research describes a methodology to measure students’ engagement, taking both an individual (student-level) and a collective (classroom) approach. Results show that students’ individual behaviour, such as note-taking or hand-raising, is challenging to recognise, and does not correlate with students’ self-reported engagement. Interestingly, students’ collective behaviour can be quantified in a more generic way using measures for students’ symmetry, reaction times and eye-gaze intersections. Nonetheless, the evidence for a connection between these collective measures and engagement is rather weak. Although this study does not succeed in providing a proxy of students’ self-reported engagement, our approach sheds light on the needs for future research. More concretely, we suggest that not only the behavioural, but also the emotional and cognitive component of engagement should be captured.
... It was reported that coupling both verbal and nonverbal constructs, appeared to increase student liking for instructors, decrease student apprehension, and increase overall student liking for the course and subject matter (Butland & Beebe, 1992;Rodriguez, Plax, & Kearney, 1996;and Plax et al.,1987). Both teacher nonverbal and verbal behaviors have shown to have a positive influence on students' affective (Baker, 2004;Gorham & Christophel, 1990) and cognitive learning (Christophel, 1990). For lecturers, using verbal and nonverbal interpersonal communication that they are comfortable with and culturally accepted is the best choice. ...
This study attempted to reveal the perception of EFL students on the lecturer verbal and nonverbal interpersonal communication that they experience and expect to foster their positive attitudes and nurture their motivation in learning English at State University of Makassar, Indonesia. The respondents consisted of 152 fifth semester students of undergraduate program, majoring in English Education, attending TEFL course in 2013/2014 academic year. The study was guided by the researchers’ teaching belief stating that teaching is communicating and inspiring virtues in the forms of knowledge, skills and attitudes. The instruments used were (a) The 14 lecturer verbal interpersonal communication measure (VICM) and (b) the 14 lecturer non-verbal interpersonal communication measure (NVICM) developed by the researcher. The data analysis showed that four of the 14 VICM were not inspiring, namely telling students his personal experience, responding students’ reasons for being late, asking students to tell their most impressive learning English experience, and allowing students to call their lecturers by their first name; and three of the 14 NVICM were not inspiring, namely moving around the class when teaching, touching (shaking hands), coming closer to students when lecturing.
Key concepts: perception, inspiring, interpersonal, communication
... Teacher immediacy can be defined as teachers' behaviors that increase physical and psychological closeness between a teacher and students (Allen, Witt, & Wheeless, 2006;Comadena, Stephen, & Cheri, 2007). Several studies have revealed the positive impact of state motivation on students' academic achievement (Christensen & Menzel, 1998;Christophel, 1990;Comadena et al., 2007;Zhang & Oetzel 2006). Zhang and Oetzel (2006) examined the relationship between teacher immediacy, state motivation, and academic achievement of 421 Chinese university students. ...
The purpose of the study was to test the impact of a two-minute physical exercise that was applied at the beginning and in the middle of lectures on university students' state motivation and academic learning performance. There were three cohorts of religion education teacher candidates. Three cohorts were randomly assigned to the experimental, Hawthorne, and control groups. Throughout the semester, a teacher enacted physical exercises at the beginning and in the middle of each lecture. The findings revealed the direct positive impact of physical exercise on academic achievement. Only the Hawthorne group's state motivation was significantly higher than the control group's state motivation. Finally, the findings did not reveal a significant combined effect of physical exercise and state motivation on academic achievement. The qualitative data revealed that the physical exercise worked as a brief timeout, which caused relaxation and awakening in the participants.
... Christophel  argued that teaching should focus on how students should be taught rather that what they should be taught, indicating the way for student-centered learning activities which have gained the center of attention for the research community of the educational sector for many years now. Researchers , ,  agree that game utilization in education could positively impact students' learning, whereas studies show that games can enhance learning motivation and students' learning proficiency , , . ...
This paper presents an idea of a board game designed for teaching informatics related topics to kindergarteners, as part of an undergraduate thesis. The idea emerged through a course about game-based learning and popular board game ideas were examined. Based on a brainstorming session, the appropriate format of the board was selected. Then, the topics were selected, addressing the issue of internet use by young children. The subtopics identified were that of safety while accessing the internet, proper computer use, technological matters and functional potential (all explained in detail in the paper). The game idea, mechanics and design are presented in this paper.
... In this light, some countries, such as the UK (UK Government, 2019), regulate this training as compulsory in Primary and Secondary Education. However, research is scarce when analysing the attitudes of teachers about the inclusion of LGBTI matters in their lessons (e.g., Carlile, 2020;Garron & Logan, 2020) considering the impact they can have on learners (Christophel, 1990); furthermore, no studies compare their opinions between those from EU countries and those from non-EU territories. ...
... In contrast to psychological research, educational research has focused on teacher behaviors that should promote student motivation (Christophel, 1990). Motivation is a key concept in theories of learning. ...
Feelings of well-being, safety, acceptance, and a sense of belonging have been used to assess student engagement and motivation for learning. A students’ perception of belonging is formed through their ability to develop and maintain positive relationships with peers and adults in schools. Creating a space where students feel a sense of belonging during distance learning and, amid the COVID-19 pandemic, has been a challenge. School has not always been a place that values and validates the existence of some adolescent Black girls. Adolescent Black girls, particularly those in the sixth grade through the eighth grade, have unique needs and experiences based on their intersection of age, race, and gender. This study examines the extent to which a sense of belonging and relationships with peers and adults has impacted the motivation of adolescent Black girls during distance learning. Grounded in the lived experiences of 11, 12, and 13-year-old Black girls, this empirical study is based upon descriptive research that examined ways that schools respect, respond to, and recognize adolescent Black girls' needs and experiences during in-person and virtual learning. Through multiple data collection stages, which included a descriptive survey, photovoice methods, and semi-structured interviews, participants reflected on their experiences. The findings of this study indicated that strong SEL, encouraging family engagement, and the opportunity to build informal networks of support during virtual learning have impacted students’ sense of belonging.
... A vast body of research in the field of second/foreign languages emphasized that fostering a learner willingness to communicate in another language is one of the most ultimate goals of English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching and learning process (Khajavy et al., 2018;MacIntyre et al., 1998). Past research has also acknowledged that learner willingness to communicate in English (L2WTC (Foreign/second language willingness to communicate)) is closely linked with the language teacher interpersonal behaviors of immediacy (Fallah, 2014; associated with learner motivation, attitudes and confidence (Christophel, 1990;Gregersen, 2005;Henning, 2012;Hsu, 2010); similarly, teacher credibility is also positively linked to these learner affective variables (Tibbles et al., 2008;Zheng, 2021). While the predictive effect of teacher immediacy has been tested in previous models of L2WTC (Fallah, 2014;Sheybani, 2019), the role of teacher credibility in learner L2WTC has not been given due consideration to date. ...
This study aims to propose and test a model that examines the potential connections between two teacher situational variables (teacher immediacy and credibility) and three learner affective factors (motivation, attitudes and communication confidence) and to examine how such associations predict learners’ L2WTC (Foreign/second language willingness to communicate) in a language class via a comprehensive communication model to structurally verify the theoretically based associations among these variables.
In total, 214 females and 198 males took part in the study with age range between 19 and 38 years. Participants filled in a verified, translated Arabic version of the questionnaires using an online questionnaire. Data were gathered using questionnaires and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis and sequential mediation analysis using bootstrapping methods to identify and verify direct and indirect paths in the model.
The initial L2 communication structural model showed acceptable goodness of model fit. Teacher credibility and immediacy behaviors only indirectly predicted L2WTC through the mediation of affective variables. Motivation and communication confidence mediated the relationship between credibility and L2WTC, while the association between immediacy and L2WTC was mediated by communication confidence.
The findings of this study have important pedagogical implications globally for professions related to communication instruction, especially with regard to teacher credibility behaviors and particularly for practitioners and beneficiaries in EFL contexts where learners are widely acknowledged for their unwillingness to communicate in foreign language classes.
... Learners considered that the responsibility for the quality of the interaction is firstly that of their teacher, a finding that coincides with the opinion of a number of researchers such as Eisenring & Margana (2019) and Gorham (1988) and Christophel (1990) who were the first ones in developing a verbal immediacy scale. ...
Blended learning has emerged in the context of new learning environments and pedagogies offering its potential for maximising the effectiveness of contemporary teaching and learning. If full advantage is taken of technology, there are opportunities to trigger new relationships among the teacher, the learner and the educational context. However, to achieve this, the use of technology must be re-thought in terms of how teachers handle their teaching time and pedagogy (Laurillard, 2002).
The focus and interest of this study are on the role of teachers and how they work to develop concrete skills and strategies for teaching effectively. It looks at how they attempt to bridge the distance between teachers and learners and to establish their presence in blended learning environments in both face-to-face and online contexts. Teaching in blended learning environments requires specific pedagogical approaches; and how educators prepare to teach in these environments will potentially impact the quality of the learning experience they provide (Kim et al, 2015).
Given the importance of teaching presence and based on the assumption that teachers are key if learners are to achieve appropriate learning outcomes, this study sets out to examine the role of the teacher and the perceptions of their learners through an analysis of teaching presence (Garrison et al, 2000) in both environments, face-to-face and online, and understand how teachers and learners make sense of that blend. The data was collected at a university in Northwest Mexico over three years between 2016 and 2019 from four undergraduate-level blended learning courses in the field of English Language Teaching, Software Engineering, and International Commerce.
Findings suggest that teaching presence can enhance the learners´ educational experience as it emphasises the organisation of instructional design in their courses. Evidence showed that learners feel a disconnection between the face-to-face and the online components if their teachers lack ownership of their blended course. Thus, there seems to be a need to further integrate both environments so that they become a real blend. In addition, the study reported lower levels of perceived teaching presence in the online component. Teacher immediacy is experienced by learners only in the classroom which does little to encourage their engagement as online learners.
... To evaluate participants' levels of motivation, "Student Motivation Scale" (Christophel, 1990) was employed. The scale consists of 12 items that participants score on a bipolar scale. ...
Students’ personal, emotional, and psychological traits are perceived to be highly influential in their academic engagement; therefore, many investigations have been conducted into the role of students’ characteristics in their level of engagement. Yet, the role of L2 enjoyment and academic motivation as two instances of students’ emotional traits was disregarded. To narrow this gap, this article aimed to assess the effects of these two constructs on Chinese EFL students’ academic engagement. To accomplish this, three pre-designed scales were virtually administered to 490 Chinese students. Using the Spearman Rho test, significant correlations were discovered among the variables. Further, through regression analysis, the predictive power of dependent variables was also assessed. Chinese students’ academic engagement was proved to be favorably predicted by L2 enjoyment and academic motivation. The implications and limitations are finally discussed.
... Beyond student performance, we explore whether the different treatments have any effects on students and teachers´perceptions on Science teaching and learning. This is an important issue since research has shown that both teacher and student motivation and perceptions are associated with learning outcomes (Christophel, 1990;Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 2012). The next subsections explore these issues from the perspectives of the students (Section 7.3.1) ...
... Garn, et al 2012, stated that parents play a key role in developing their children's academic motivation, and parents of children with gifts and talents also may face additional parenting challenges that are less commonly faced by 636 parents of average-ability learners whose needs are more readily met in the school setting and according to Christophel, 2009, who investigated the relationship between teacher immediacy and student state motivation and the combined impact of these factors on learning. ...
Motivation is one of the most important factors for academic learning and achievement across childhood through adolescence, according to Elliot and Dweck, (2005). Using descriptive qualitative method, this study sought to establish information to determine the influence of teachers on the learning motivation of senior high school students in Siniloan Integrated National High School, Laguna, Philippines, the researcher used purposive random sampling and got 239 senior high school students as respondents. The study finds that (52.30) or 125 of the students are male where (35.98) or 86 are age 16 years old, (99.58) or 238 are also single belonging to an entire family. Two hundred thirty-three or (97.49) of the students also claimed to like the Technical Vocational Livelihood Strand and 69 or (28.87) are taking Food Processing as their field of specialization. 141 or (59.00) of the students also depicted that it was their parents that influenced them to take the TVL strand. It was found in this study that the teachers influence the students greater in terms of their learning styles and it was found that the senior high school students are aural or auditory learners. In view of the forgoing findings, it confirms that senior high school students from the Siniloan Integrated National High School under the TVL strand showed intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The study also stated that the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is significantly influenced bythe teachers method of motivation. The researcher recommends that the teachers continuously improve and use different methods of motivating students and to teach and allow the students to practice learning styles that would help the students to learn better and encourage students to use solitary learning style or become intrapersonal learners to help them become successful in the futureconcluded that solitary learning style is likely to influence a students academic performance because students that are intrapersonal tend to be more organized, focused andaccordance with the method of motivation used.
Teacher communication behaviors have enormous impacts on students’ learning processes and thus have attracted extensive scholarly attention (Mazer, 2013). Teacher confirmation is the process through which teachers communicate to students that they are endorsed, recognized, and acknowledged as valuable individuals (Ellis, 2000). In primarily US-based research, teacher confirmation has been linked to a variety of effective pedagogical practices, student motivation, and emotional outcomes (Ellis, 2004). As McCroskey and McCroskey (2006) stated, it is not likely that instructional practices in other instructional cultures are always as effective as they are in the United States. To understand the classroom dynamics in a global setting, instructional communication researchers increasingly have examined the extent to which teaching practices enacted in the United States can be applied to other countries. Goldman, Bolkan, and Goodboy (2014) observed that teacher confirmation has a greater effect on students learning in the United States than in China or Turkey. Goodboy, Bolkan, Beebe, and Schultz (2010), investigating the cross-cultural behavioral alteration techniques and affinity-seeking strategies with instructors, reported that while Chinese students use more behavioral alteration techniques, American students use more diverse varieties of affinity-seeking. These classroom differences were mainly attributed to the national cultural differences such as individualism vs. collectivism and power distance.
This paper aims at providing insights on the role of non-verbal communication (NVC) in classroom by examining the relationship between teacher NVC cues and student behavior. Student behavior is considered in terms of perceptions of the match between the teacher and the student self-concept (i.e. self-image congruence), attention, and learning. Hypotheses are tested on a sample of students coming from Spain and Italy. Findings indicate that the student self-concept has the strongest relationship with teacher personal appearance, attention with paralinguistics, and learning with kinesics. Some differences are found in the strength of the examined relationships between Spanish and Italian students.
This study aims to investigate if a smartphone laparoscopy simulator, SimuSurg, is effective in improving laparoscopic skills in surgically inexperienced medical students.
This is a single-blinded randomized controlled trial featuring 30 preclinical medical students without prior laparoscopic simulation experience. The students were randomly allocated to a control or intervention group (n = 15 each) and 28 students completed the study (n = 14 each). All participants performed three validated exercises in a laparoscopic box trainer and repeated them after 1 week. The intervention group spent the intervening time completing all levels in SimuSurg, whereas the control group refrained from any laparoscopic activity. A prestudy questionnaire was used to collect data on age, sex, handedness, and experience with gaming.
The total score improved significantly between the two testing sessions for the intervention group (n = 14, median change [MC] = 182.00, P = 0.009) but not for the control group (n = 14, MC = 161.50, P = 0.08). Scores for the nondominant hand improved significantly in the intervention group (MC = 66.50, P = 0.008) but not in the control group (MC = 9.00, P = 0.98). There was no improvement in dominant hand scores for either the intervention (MC = 62.00, P = 0.08) or control (MC = 26.00, P = 0.32) groups. Interest in surgery (β = −234.30, P = 0.02) was positively correlated with the baseline total scores; however, age, sex, and experience with video games were not.
The results suggest that smartphone applications improve laparoscopic skills in medical students, especially for the nondominant hand. These simulators may be a cost-effective and accessible adjunct for laparoscopic training among surgically inexperienced students and clinicians.
The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between visiting a communication center and taking an introductory communication course on student public-speaking anxiety, goal orientation, and motivation. Researchers analyzed pre- and post-course survey data for 1,373 students enrolled in a fundamentals of communication course. Results showed that, for students who reported medium and high levels of public-speaking anxiety at the beginning of the semester and before visiting the communication center, the communication center helped reduce their levels of anxiety, whereas students with low levels of reported public-speaking anxiety did not report as much of a difference in their anxiety levels after visiting the communication center. There was a significant main effect for communication-center visits on the goal-orientation types of mastery approach, performance approach, mastery avoidance, and performance avoidance. However, there were no significant effects for work avoidance. Results indicated a significant effect for communication center visits on motivation types: identified regulation and external motivation. However, there were no significant effects for intrinsic motivation or amotivation.
While we know that motivated students learn better than non-motivated students but detecting motivation is challenging. Here we present a game-based motivation detection approach from the EEG signals. We take an original approach of using EEG-based brain computer interface to assess if motivation state is manifest in physiological EEG signals as well, and what are suitable conditions in order to achieve the goal. The best of our knowledge, detection of motivation level from brain signals is proposed for the first time in this paper. In order to resolve the central obstacle of small EEG datasets containing deep features, we propose a novel and unique ‘residual-in-residual architecture of convolutional neural network (RRCNN)’ that is capable of reducing the problem of over-fitting small datasets and gradient vanishing. Having accomplished this, several aspects of using EEG signals for motivation detection are considered, including channel selection and accuracy obtained using alpha or beta waves of EEG signals. We also include a detailed validation of the different aspects of our methodology, including detailed comparison with other works as relevant. Our approach achieves 89% accuracy in using EEG signals to detect motivation state while learning, where alpha wave signals of frontal asymmetry channels are employed. A more robust (less sensitive to learning conditions) 88% accuracy is achieved using beta waves signals of frontal asymmetry channels. The results clearly indicate the potential of detecting motivation states using EEG signals, provided suitable methodologies such as proposed in this paper, are employed.
This study investigated a key question involved with attracting and retaining a diverse workforce: Should recruiters provide race-related realistic organizational previews (ROPs) to job candidates from historically-marginalized groups during the offer consideration phase? Colorblind (i.e., race ignoring) socialization practices are likely motivated by several fears. Yet, a colorblind strategy may also miss potential advantages afforded by race-acknowledging ROPs. Black and African-American ( N = 338) individuals participated in a three (colorblind, implicit, or explicit ROP-type) × two (Black or White recruiter) message processing experiment. Statistical analyses revealed that implicit race-acknowledged ROP messages were comparable to a colorblind condition in terms of organizational attraction and motivation to join the organization. Furthermore, an implicit race-acknowledged ROP message was associated with higher intention to accept a job offer than an explicit race-acknowledged ROP. Analyses also revealed that participants perceived recruiters as credible and polite, regardless of recruiter’s racial identity or the race-related explicitness of the ROP message. Implications of the study conclude the paper.
Companies’ demands and competition in the job market push International Business students to become ready to work in multilingual environments where English is the main language of communication. Rather than expecting students to learn English by exposure or on their own there are content and language integrated approaches (such as Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and Integrating Content and Language in Higher Education (ICLHE)) which support the development of a language while the student learns specific content. Using a case study approach, the study approaches the collaborative work of an Accounting teacher and an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) teacher in tertiary education, through the process of planning, designing, and implementation of a teaching module on Accounting. Results show that the teachers’ collaborative work for the construction and implementation of the integrated CLIL module produced positive outcomes for the teaching and learning process. Furthermore, students found the used methods highly motivating and engaging, contributing positively to their future professional careers. It is argued that the CLIL approach may be beneficial and approximates the environment of International Business, by demanding collaboration of individuals from different contextual backgrounds, whose main language is not English and promoting bilingualism and cross-cultural competence development.
Undergraduate advertising campaigns courses are known for their integration of knowledge, application of different skills, and group work. This capstone class partners with a real-world client and may be considered the last professional experience in an educational setting before students graduate. Using a multi-methods approach, this study describes a team teaching method developed by advertising campaigns instructors at a mid-size private university in Florida, gauges students’ perceptions on several learning dimensions, and maps out how this course is taught in American universities.
Sporting environments are informal contexts of learning that are dependent upon coaches’ use of effective instructional communication strategies. Coaches’ use of power while communicating instruction to athletes is especially germane, as coaches must appropriately use relational influence to inspire optimal athletic performance. Using French and Raven’s power bases (i.e., expert, referent, reward, legitimate, and coercive power), this study considers Division I student-athletes’ reports of affective learning for their sport and coaches, cognitive learning, state motivation, and team winning percentages as a function of their coaches’ use of power. Data collected from 170 student-athletes participating in team sports at Power 5 institutions revealed two significant canonical correlation roots. The first demonstrated that the increased use of prosocial power and avoidance of antisocial power were associated with greater amounts of affective learning for coaches, cognitive learning, and state motivation. The second revealed that expert power was associated with increases in cognitive learning and winning. This research has heuristic implications for expanding the assessment of athlete experience, as well as practical implications regarding the identification of effective modes of relational influence in coaching.
In instructional-learning contexts, the relationship between teacher verbal and non-verbal immediacy and student motivation has gained increasing attention. However, no systematic research has been done to review the empirical studies conducted on the impact of teacher immediacy on students' motivation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to systematically review the available literature on different types of teacher immediacy and student motivation. Some common databases were searched and 30 eligible manuscripts were identified. With regard to the key features of the included studies, the review's findings were categorized into different sections, namely “the measures of teacher immediacy employed,” “the measures of student motivation employed,” “designs,” and “educational contexts”. The main findings of the studies were also discussed. The reviewed studies pointed to positive associations between teacher immediacy and student motivation. Finally, limitations of the included studies are discussed and some practical directions for further research are offered, accordingly.
Instructional communication research is critiqued for lacking theoretical development and limited cultural understanding. This study tested the instructional beliefs model (IBM) in three countries: US, Turkey, and Finland. Participants (N = 376) reported perceptions of teacher relevance, state motivation, procedural justice, learner empowerment, and revised learning indicators. Results revealed that the IBM provided a good fit to the data in Turkey and Finland but not in the US. In all models, procedural justice and state motivation were significant predictors of learner empowerment, and learner empowerment strongly predicted revised learning indicators. However, teacher relevance only predicted learner empowerment in non-US classrooms. These results have practical implications for teaching in increasingly diverse classrooms and understanding higher education abroad. This study supports and extends IBM.
By the way it is presented, the repulsive educational style brings undeniable damage to the teaching-learning process, strongly affecting the whole construction of this process, but especially the segment that covers the relationship between teacher and students. Having the ability to impose itself differently - as something reminiscent of an authoritarian or nomothetic behavioral line, distant or impulsive, ultra-reactive or strict, oscillating or detached –, the given educational style contradicts the rights and duties of the teaching profession. As a result, the school environment is crumbling, ceasing to provide an appropriate environment for multilateral and harmonious development of the student or an area in which the professional competence of the teacher enters into a relationship of complementarity with the development peculiarities of the student. Moreover, through the conflicting energies it obviously contributes to the establishment of didactogeny. Or, as it has been mentioned more than once in various specialty sources, if the educational style does not resonate with the rights and duties of the teacher profession, didactogeny is predetermined to become a reality, a state of affairs that must be associated with major mistakes from the area of the teaching-learning process or, in other words, with the greatest deviations from what the professional deontology of the teaching personnel means.
By the way it presents itself, the repulsive educational style brings indisputable prejudices to the teachinglearning process, strongly affecting the entire construction of this process, especially the segment that covers the relationship between the teacher and the students. Having the ability to impose itself differently – as something reminiscent of an authoritarian or nomothetic behavioral, distant or impulsive, ultra-reactive or strict, oscillating or detached – the educational style in question is characterized by the fact that it contradicts the rights and duties incumbent on the position of a teacher. In his presence, the school environment collapses, ceasing to present a „suitable environment in which essential connections can be created for the multilateral and harmonious development of the student” or a „space in which the professional competence of the teacher is complementary to the developmental particularities of the student”. Moreover, through the conflicting energies he releases, he distorts the meaning of the teaching profession, obviously contributing to the establishment of didactogeny. Or, as it has been mentioned more than once, in various specialty sources, if the educational style does not resonate with the rights and duties of the pedagogical profession, the didactogeny is predetermined, simply, to become a reality, a state in fact, which must be associated with the big mistakes in the area of the teaching–learning process or, in other words, with the big deviations from what the professional deontology of the teacher means.
This study examined the relationship between differential use of Behavior Alteration Techniques (BATs) by teachers trained or untrained in communication in instruction and learning of students of varying quality levels. Results indicated that increased use of Immediate Reward from Behavior, Deferred Reward from Behavior, Self‐Esteem, and Teacher Feedback as well as decreased use of Punishment from Teacher, Legitimate‐Teacher Authority, Debt, Responsibility to Class, and Peer Modeling were associated with increased student learning. Results also indicated that appropriate training in communication in instruction may lead to more appropriate choices of BAT usage and increased student learning. The results of this investigation were found to be generally consistent with previous studies in this series.
Presents a theory of motivation based on attributions of causality for success and failure. The heart of the theory consists of an identification of the dimensions of causality and the relation of these underlying properties of causes to psychological consequences. Three central causal dimensions have been discerned: stability, locus, and control; these dimensions, respectively, are linked with expectancy change, esteem-related emotions, and interpersonal judgments. (81 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This investigation examined teacher immediacy as a potential predictor of teaching effectiveness. Teacher immediacy was conceptualized as those nonverbal behaviors that reduce physical and/or psychological distance between teachers and students. Teaching effectiveness was examined in light of teacher ability to produce affective, behavioral and cognitive student learning.
Hypothesized results indicated that in a multiple regression model, teacher immediacy predicted 46% of the variance in student affect toward the course instructor and about 20% of the variance in student affect toward the course content. Immediacy also predicted 18% of the variance in student behavioral commitment. Cognitive learning as operationalized by test score was not significantly predicted by teacher immediacy. Canonical correlation analysis produced one significant canonical relationship between specific and generalized teacher immediacy and teaching effectiveness.
This investigation is the sixth in a series of projects designed to programmatically examine teacher power in the classroom. Recognizing that nonverbal behaviors typically provide the framework for interpreting verbal messages, this project proposed and sequentially tested a heuristic model of student affective learning as a function of behavior alteration techniques and teacher nonverbal immediacy. Employing a two‐study correlational design, the model was tested in five stages across secondary and college students. Results supported the proposed positive relationships among teachers’ use of. behavior alteration techniques, immediacy and student affect for both studies. Teachers’ selective use of verbal control strategies in the classroom was shown to be indirectly related to affective learning as a function of students’ perceptions of teacher immediacy. Interpretations focus on the model, previous power in the classroom studies, and the design of future studies in this program.
L EARNING, particularly that which takes place in the traditional classroom setting, is an interactional process. Although curricular decisions, materials development, the organization of lectures, and the like focus primarily on the teacher's transmission of content-and student evaluation on comprehension and retention of that content-there is little disagreement that interpersonal perceptions and communicative relationships between teachers and students are crucial to the teaching-learning process. From a theoretical standpoint, Bloom's (1956) conceptualization of learn-ing as affective (development of a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward learning), behavioral (development of psychomotor skills or observable behavior change as a result of learning), and cognitive (comprehension and retention of knowledge) has for several decades been accepted widely as an elegant characterization of the learning construct. An interdepen-dence among these domains of learning generally has been recognized among educators, an assumption crucial to the fact that evaluation of learning outcomes often is focused on measurement within a selected domain. Physical and vocational education skills, which are clearly observ-able psychomotor skills, are often assessed in the behavioral domain. Stu-dents' learning of traditional "academic subjects," for which generalization of learning to behavior outside the classroom is more difficult to assess, is generally measured via tests of recall, analysis, and synthesis, elements of the cognitive domain. Evaluation of teaching effectiveness, particularly that which is based on the ubiquitous student course evaluation form, is drawn largely from assessment of affective dimensions of teaching.
Because classrooms are work settings in which students are engaged in compulsory activities and because the work involved is largely intellectual rather than physical, concepts and measures developed for studying motivation in free choice play situations have limited application to the study of student motivation for engaging in academic activities. More attention is needed to the cognitive aspects of motivation (not just its affective aspects) and to the value that students place on academic activity (not just their performance expectations and attributions). This article discusses these issues and offers suggestions about how teachers might become more successful than they are now in socializing their students to become motivated to learn. Motivation to learn in school means seeking to acquire the knowledge or skill that an academic activity is designed to develop, not merely getting the activity finished or doing the minimum necessary to meet requirements.
This study examines immediacy salience and teacher nonverbal immediacy as potential indicators of student affective learning across different types of course content. Divergent courses were defined on a continuum ranging from P to T‐Type. P‐Type courses focus primarily on people‐oriented content, while T‐Type classes include content which is product or task‐oriented. Two research questions were addressed which were based on the logic that there is little reason to expect that teacher behaviors that are judged effective in one type of course content will be so in a very different type of course. Tests of the research questions in both P and T‐Type classes included multiple regression, commonality, and canonical correlation analyses. Results indicated that the actual magnitude of the impact of teacher immediacy on student affective learning and students’ perceptions of the importance of immediacy for instruction are a function of the type of course content taught. The findings are discussed in terms of affective learning and the relative importance of particular teacher communication behaviors for instruction in P and T‐Type classes.
The important role played by nonverbal communication in the teaching process is emphasized. Following a discussion of semantic issues and general nonverbal research, school-related research is reviewed under seven categories of nonverbal communication: environmental factors, proxemics, kinesics, touching behavior, physical characteristics, paralanguage, and artifacts. Characteristics of general educational theory and the process-product paradigm are outlined and the relationship of nonverbal research to these areas is discussed. Finally, several technological and statistical concerns are presented.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of immediacy on cognitive learning in an experimental situation which removed the effects of affect from the measurement of cognitive learning. The theoretical rationale examines immediacy behaviors as arousal stimuli which are associated with attentional focus, enhanced memory and recall. Results indicated that a combination of eye contact and physical immediacy accounted for 19.5% of the overall variance in recall, with equivalence and interaction of the two immediacy agents suggesting that other immediacy behaviors should produce potentially similar beneficial results.
This study investigated the effects of teacher nonverbal immediacy and strategy type on college students' likelihood of resisting teacher compliance‐gaining attempts. Employing a 2 × 2 design, students were asked to indicate their likelihood of complying to teacher demands in one of the following scenarios: An immediate teacher who used prosocial (or antisocial) behavior alteration techniques; a nonimmediate teacher who used either strategy type. Predicting an interaction, results confirmed that students were less likely to resist an immediate teacher who employed prosocial techniques, but more likely to resist an immediate teacher who used antisocial techniques. In contrast, students reported greater resistance to a nonimmediate teacher employing prosocial techniques, but less resistance to a nonimmediate teacher who used antisocial techniques. Students' locus of control, gender, and class ranking were nonsignificant covariates. Findings were interpreted in terms of the interaction and the overwhelming influence of teacher nonverbal immediacy on students’ decisions to resist or comply.
Communication apprehension (CA) has attracted considerable attention in the research literature over the past fifteen years. The present study attempted to predict the duration of informative speeches using an interactive model employing CA scores and estimates of situational motivation. Results indicated that CA alone accounted for a significant but small proportion of variance in speech duration. However, a full regression model accounted for 37.41% of the variance in the duration of the speeches. Overall, the results indicated that the amount of time speaking was, in part, a function of the CA x motivation interaction.
This study examined the impact of video taped‐lecturer communication style on student learning. The lecturer was video taped employing three different levels of nonverbal expressiveness and these tapes were presented to different student audiences. Lecturer nonverbal expressiveness predicted 22% of the variance in student affective learning, but it was not a significant predictor for behavioral commitment or cognitive learning. These relationships, as well as the implications for videotaped instruction, are discussed.
This essay reports three investigations which examined the relationship between perceived teacher communication behavior and either student perceptions of teaching effectiveness or student learning. Teachers who were perceived as having greater interpersonal solidarity and a more positive communicator style (more dramatic, open, relaxed, impression leaving, and friendly) were perceived as more effective. Furthermore, positive perceptions of teacher communicator style resulted in greater student affect toward the instructor, the course content, and the overall course. It also resulted in greater student behavioral intent to use the course. The relationship of communicator style to cognitive learning, however, was less clear and basically nonexistent. The relationship between perceived teacher immediacy (a variable previously demonstrated to be highly predictive of affective and behavioral commitment) and communicator style was also examined and discussed.
Previous research has indicated that nonverbal teacher behaviors such as smiling, vocal expressiveness, movement about the classroom, and relaxed body position are salient low‐inference variables of a process which results in a product of increased cognitive and affective learning. This study identified a set of verbal teacher immediacy behaviors which similarly relate to increased student learning. Results indicated differentiated use of various types of verbal immediacy messages between small and larger classes, and that the impact of teacher immediacy behaviors (both verbal and nonverbal) on learning is coincidentally enhanced as class size increases. The study provides empirical definition of a specific set of low‐inference verbal variables which, in combination with previously identified nonverbal variables, clarify a single process‐product model for effective instructional interaction.
Synthesizes the conclusions drawn from a literature review on principles for motivating students to learn. Outlines numerous pointers for creating essential learning preconditions and for motivating, including maintaining high expectations, supplying extrinsic incentives, and capitalizing on students' intrinsic motivation. Provides strategies for stimulating students to learn course content. Includes 23 references. (MLH)
Describes how motivational processes influence a child's acquisition, transfer, and use of knowledge and skills. Recent research within the social-cognitive framework illustrates adaptive and maladaptive motivational patterns, and a research-based model of motivational processes is presented that shows how the particular performance or learning goals children pursue on cognitive tasks shape their reactions to success and failure and influence the quality of their cognitive performance. Implications for practice and the design of interventions to change maladaptive motivational processes are outlined. It is suggested that motivational patterns may contribute to gender differences in mathematics achievement and that empirically based interventions may prevent current achievement discrepancies and provide a basis for more effective socialization. (79 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Nonimmediacy has been defined as the degree of attenuation of directness and intensity of interaction between a communicator and the object of his communication, in a verbal message. The present study tested the hypothesis that non-Immediacy of a communication about an object is a monotonically increasing function of the degree of negative communicator attitude towards the object. The hypothesis was generally supported, except in the case of communications about people reported as being liked very much.
Motivation and teaching. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association. Downloaded by
R J Wlodkowski
Wlodkowski, R. J. (1978). Motivation and teaching. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association. Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 02:29 05 September 2013
A taxonomy of educational objectives: Handbook 2: The cognitive domain Human characteristics and school learning
B S Bloom
Bloom, B. S. (Ed.). (1956). A taxonomy of educational objectives: Handbook 2: The cognitive domain. NY: Longmans, Green. Bloom, B. S. (1976). Human characteristics and school learning. NY: McGraw-Hill.