Article

Midterm economical consequences of roadside tree topping

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Abstract

Tree care in Wallonia (Belgium) depends on the institution in charge (regional or local). Most municipalities have no statutory guidelines for the maintenance of their tree stock. In this situation, it is not surprising that trees are still topped. Moreover, tree owners think that topping is a fast and cheap way to prune trees. We studied crown restoration of 281 roadside Tilia x europaea L. individuals that were topped during the winter of 1992–1993. Our goal was the economic evaluation of three pruning scenarios. Time needed to prune and related tree parameters (such as tree growth) were measured to calculate pruning costs and trees value evolution between 1992 and 2022. Scenario 1 included topping and the necessary crown restoration. Because of differences in topping intensity between the individuals, we were able to categorise the trees into four groups with particular restoration planning. Scenario 2 considered regular topping and scenario 3 regular thinning. We confirmed that topping is not cheaper than regular crown thinning. In the medium term (30 years), topping is 1.4 fold more costly than selective thinning. Also, mean tree value was reduced by about 10 after regular topping.

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... Para evitar e/ou remediar o conflito de espécies incompatíveis, são necessários trabalhos de podas e/ou remoção dos indivíduos, sendo justamente essas as atividades mais onerosas relacionadas à manutenção da arborização de ruas (NOWAK; MCBRIDE; BEATTY, 1990;CAMPANELLA;TOUSSAINT;PAUL, 2009;ROY;BYRNE;PICKERING, 2012). ...
... Para evitar e/ou remediar o conflito de espécies incompatíveis, são necessários trabalhos de podas e/ou remoção dos indivíduos, sendo justamente essas as atividades mais onerosas relacionadas à manutenção da arborização de ruas (NOWAK; MCBRIDE; BEATTY, 1990;CAMPANELLA;TOUSSAINT;PAUL, 2009;ROY;BYRNE;PICKERING, 2012). ...
... Para evitar e/ou remediar o conflito de espécies incompatíveis, são necessários trabalhos de podas e/ou remoção dos indivíduos, sendo justamente essas as atividades mais onerosas relacionadas à manutenção da arborização de ruas (NOWAK; MCBRIDE; BEATTY, 1990;CAMPANELLA;TOUSSAINT;PAUL, 2009;ROY;BYRNE;PICKERING, 2012). ...
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RESUMO O manejo de árvores em áreas urbanas é uma atividade complexa, em que os vários elementos da cidade devem ser levados em consideração. A compatibilidade das árvores com a rede elétrica é um dos grandes desafios dos gestores públicos e os serviços de poda são os mais onerosos na manutenção dos indivíduos arbóreos. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo, o diagnóstico das modalidades de podas empregadas no estado de Minas Gerais, bem como as causas dessa prática. Para isso, foram amostrados 80 circuitos elétricos em 35 cidades. Foram identificados 1.643 indivíduos arbóreos, classificados em 41 famílias e 130 espécies, sendo 54 exóticas (11 de pequeno porte, 14 de médio porte e 28 de grande porte) e 76 nativas (sete de pequeno porte, dez de médio porte e 58 de grande porte). Percebeu-se que mais da metade das árvores avaliadas (52,28%) foram podadas por causa de conflitos com a fiação, sendo as espécies Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch (oiti), Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton (alfeneiro) e Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L.P.Queiroz (sibipiruna) as mais frequentes. A espécie introduzida sob rede elétrica também influenciou na modalidade da poda empregada, como por exemplo, a poda " em V " foi característica da Poincianella pluviosa. ABSTRACT The trees management in urban areas is a complex activity and the various elements of the city must have been taken into account. The compatibility of the trees and the power grids is a major challenge for public managers and the pruning services are the most costly services in the maintenance of individual trees. Thus, this study aimed to diagnose the types of pruning employed in the State of Minas Gerais, as well as the causes of this practice. For this, there were sampled 80 electric circuits in 35 cities. The number of 1,643 recorded trees were classified into 41 families and 130 species, 54 exotic (11 small, 14 medium-sized and 28 large) and 76 native (seven small, ten medium-sized and 58 large. It was noticed that more than half of the assessed trees (52.28%) were pruned because of conflicts with the wires, and the species Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch (oiti), Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton (alfeneiro) and Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L.P.Queiroz (sibipiruna) were the most frequent. The introduced species under power grids also influenced the mode of pruning employed, such as "V" pruning was characteristic of Poincianella pluviosa species.
... Para evitar e/ou remediar o conflito de espécies incompatíveis, são necessários trabalhos de podas e/ou remoção dos indivíduos, sendo justamente essas as atividades mais onerosas relacionadas à manutenção da arborização de ruas (NOWAK; MCBRIDE; BEATTY, 1990;CAMPANELLA;TOUSSAINT;PAUL, 2009;ROY;BYRNE;PICKERING, 2012). ...
... Para evitar e/ou remediar o conflito de espécies incompatíveis, são necessários trabalhos de podas e/ou remoção dos indivíduos, sendo justamente essas as atividades mais onerosas relacionadas à manutenção da arborização de ruas (NOWAK; MCBRIDE; BEATTY, 1990;CAMPANELLA;TOUSSAINT;PAUL, 2009;ROY;BYRNE;PICKERING, 2012). ...
... Para evitar e/ou remediar o conflito de espécies incompatíveis, são necessários trabalhos de podas e/ou remoção dos indivíduos, sendo justamente essas as atividades mais onerosas relacionadas à manutenção da arborização de ruas (NOWAK; MCBRIDE; BEATTY, 1990;CAMPANELLA;TOUSSAINT;PAUL, 2009;ROY;BYRNE;PICKERING, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
O manejo de árvores em áreas urbanas é uma atividade complexa, em que os vários elementos da cidade devem ser levados em consideração. A compatibilidade das árvores com a rede elétrica é um dos grandes desafios dos gestores públicos e os serviços de poda são os mais onerosos na manutenção dos indivíduos arbóreos. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo, o diagnóstico das modalidades de podas empregadas no estado de Minas Gerais, bem como as causas dessa prática. Para isso, foram amostrados 80 circuitos elétricos em 35 cidades. Foram identificados 1.643 indivíduos arbóreos, classificados em 41 famílias e 130 espécies, sendo 54 exóticas (11 de pequeno porte, 14 de médio porte e 28 de grande porte) e 76 nativas (sete de pequeno porte, dez de médio porte e 58 de grande porte). Percebeu-se que mais da metade das árvores avaliadas (52,28%) foram podadas por causa de conflitos com a fiação, sendo as espécies Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch (oiti), Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton (alfeneiro) e Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L.P.Queiroz (sibipiruna) as mais frequentes. A espécie introduzida sob rede elétrica também influenciou na modalidade da poda empregada, como por exemplo, a poda "em V" foi característica da Poincianella pluviosa.
... Much of research on pruning of urban trees, however, has focused on pruning severity and timing (Mierowska et al., 2002;Gilman and Grabosky, 2009;Fini et al., 2013), on tree response to wounding (Solomon and Blum, 1977;Neely, 1979;Schwarze, 2008), on compartmentalization of wood decay fungi (Shigo and Marx, 1977;Schwarze, 2001;O'Hara, 2007;Schwarze et al., 2007) or on tree response in the wind (Gilman et al., 2008a(Gilman et al., , 2008bPavlis et al., 2008), whereas very little research has focused on the effects of pruning method on the long-term structure and physiology of urban trees (Clark and Matheny, 2010). Because of the lack of knowledge about the long-term physiological effects of pruning, it is not possible to set national and international standards and best practices aimed at improving tree health and longevity and, in several countries, pruning prescriptions are mostly based on operational needs and short-term cost criteria (Campanella et al., 2009;Maurin and DesRochers, 2013). ...
... The fast growth rate (in length) of pruned branches, the increased codominant branching and the weak branch attachments in topped branches out-compassed the safety benefit resulting from the initial greater reduction of whole branch slenderness immediately after pruning. Thus, despite topping appearing as a cheap and fast pruning method in the short term, it has deleterious mid-and long-term effects on tree structure, thereby resulting in the need of more frequent pruning and in a 4-fold rise of overall pruning cost (Campanella et al., 2009). ...
Article
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of repeated pruning interventions using different pruning methods on growth and physiology of Acer pseudoplatanus L. Trees were pruned in 2008 and 2010 according to widely used pruning techniques for urban trees, such as reduction cut, removal cut and heading (topping) cut. Crown dieback, growth of the plant and of the pruned branches, leaf morphological traits and leaf gas exchange were assessed during the two growing season after each pruning cycle. Topping cut (i.e. the pruning treatment which suppressed the primary axis without providing a substitute) induced changes on tree growth pattern (i.e. by increasing the release of adventitious watersprouts and root suckers and decreasing stem diameter growth), which were not observed in the other pruning treatments. At the leaf level only topping cut increased leaf area at the expense of leaf mass per area, which may contribute to explain the higher occurrence of dieback on topped branches than in control and in the other pruning treatments. Also, leaves on topped branches displayed higher chlorophyll content and higher activity of Calvin cycle enzymes, which did not translate in higher CO2 assimilation. We show here that pruning method, not only its severity (i.e. the amount of leaf area removed), modulates the morpho-physiological response of trees to pruning and that maintenance of apical control and apical dominance are key issues to preserve a structurally sound tree structure, as well as the long-term efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus.
... Unfortunately, pruning prescriptions are often mostly based on operational needs and short-term cost criteria (Campanella et al., 2009). If pruning is not properly performed, it can reduce natural defences against phytosanitary problems thus compromising tree's health and weakening wood structure, which may cause its breakage (Clark and Matheny, 2010). ...
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The conservation of historic gardens is crucial for safeguarding monumental, aesthetic, historical, ecological and economic values in many countries of the World, as well as associated services, such as carbon stock, microclimate and water regulation, biodiversity conservation, pollution removal, and recreation. In historic gardens, architectural and sculpture elements coexist with an abundant plant component, which is currently often precarious due to senescence processes occurring in many historic gardens nowadays. Unhealthy plants and reduced structural stability of trees represent a threat for both garden artistic structures and buildings, as well for the visitors’ safety. Awareness in garden managers about the most relevant and current threats is necessary for garden conservation. This review, through a global survey of the literature since 1990, addresses two main questions (1) which are the most relevant threats on historic gardens vegetation as affected by environmental, biological and anthropogenic causes, and how do they impact on monuments? (2) Which are related strategies to counteract these threats? Regarding the whole analysed period, the impact of the biotic component on monuments was the most discussed threat; in recent years a growing concern on the effects of climate change and pathogens and pests on historic garden plants also emerged. Strategies to address current and future challenges of historic gardens are hereby identified from experiences reported in worldwide literature and discussed. Best practices are collected in tables to provide managers of historic gardens with a valuable tool and guide to conserve and enhance their value. Due to the heterogeneity of the threats to be addressed, a multidisciplinary approach to ensure the conservation of historic gardens is recommended.
... Many studies have verified that tree topping could in time adversely influence tree structure and lower stress tolerance. The resulting increase in management cost, in the long run, can exceed the cost-saving of drastic and expedient lowcost tree size control (Campanella et al., 2009;Fini et al., 2015). A Hong Kong government guideline follows the international best practice to forbid topping (Development Bureau, 2010). ...
Article
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Sky gardens, a type of above-ground urban green space, have been increasingly welcomed and installed in cities. However, few studies have assessed tree planting, management and health in high-rise greenery. This study investigated tree species composition, planting space design and management, and their relationships with tree health in sky gardens in 15 commercial sky gardens with 480 trees in Hong Kong. We assessed the differences between old and new sites regarding tree species, height, crown diameter, and health. We also evaluated selected planting and management factors, including planter type, distance to neighbor trees, root-growth obstacles, canopy barriers, canopy overlap and topping history. Tree species selection in commercial sky gardens was substantially different from public and private residential green spaces. Older sky gardens had more palm trees by species and tree counts. Newer gardens had increased adoption of broadleaf and conifer species with high ornamental value and compact form but fewer native tree species and lower species diversity. The widely planted Ficus spp. had created long-term management issues. Trees were often densely planted, particularly in newer sky gardens. The common practice of topping indicates poor species selection and mismanagement. Planter types with insufficient growing space had dampened tree health. Our findings reveal the trend of tree species adoption, narrower planting spaces and wider adoption of the sunken planter. Improvements in species selection, growing space design and management practices could promote healthy, stable and safe trees in sky gardens with contributions to biodiversity and other ecosystem services.
... O manejo da arborização urbana gera muitos resíduos nas cidades, tanto em decorrência da falta de planejamento e escolha adequada de espécies, quanto pela falta de conhecimento dos procedimentos corretos para o corte e a poda a partir das empresas ou prefeituras municipais que prestam serviços em áreas privadas e públicas (CAMPANELLA et al, 2009;MEIRA, 2010). ...
... Nevertheless, in the agenda of various municipalities, the pruning prescriptions are guided more by short-term economic considerations than the actual best practices (Maurin and Desrochers, 2013;Fini et al., 2015). Urban forestry maintenance is constrained by the limited eco- nomic means of public administrations and by the lack of knowledge of correct/acceptable pruning procedures on behalf of agencies and con- tractors ( Campanella et al., 2009). To develop a culture of trees' respect in public Administrations and to attract interest in the correct sus- tainable management of the urban green system is a long way. ...
Article
The management and care of urban greenery is essential to ensure the effective delivery of the ecosystem services it is capable of supplying. A sufficient and adequate care for urban greenery and in particular for urban forestry is an on-going challenge due to economic hardship of public administrations, to a lack of qualified personnel, and to a lack of a culture of valorization of public goods. To identify an opportunity to reuse any by-products resulting from pruning operations could signify economic benefits that could be invested in a better maintenance of urban arboreal patrimony, following a circular economy approach. This paper is the first step of a wider research that has the goal to delineate a strategy for the utilization of the pruning waste of the urban trees as thermal insulation materials. Particularly, in this paper is studied one of the most common tree species in urban greening and forestry: Tilia sp. Three tiles with different densities obtained mixing wood wool and PVA glue are realized and tested. The resulting thermal conductivity and specific heat varying respectively from 8.30 ± 0.54 to 8.60 ± 1.40 10-2 W/m*K, and from 2.26 ± 0.51 to 2.80 ± 0.65105 J/m3*K. Using these values, the paper developed a thermal simulation model, regarding the insulation of the roof of a residential building. The model aimed at comparing the thermal performance of the studied tiles, with two commercial materials produced with wood residues from the timber industry, and with the fibers of two vegetable crops, widely used as insulating materials. The linden tiles entailed an energy saving of 55% respect to the model without insulation, the other materials between 51 to 62%. The results show as the Tilia sp.’s pruning waste could be a good source material to create panels for thermal insulation.
... They contrasted the costs of routine pruning to those associated with topping, finding the former both less expensive and less damaging in the long-term. Campanella et al. (2009) followed this with an assessment of the long-term costs of roundover, restoration, and thinning of European linden street trees in Belgium. Nowak (1990) evaluated the results of street tree inventories from 11 tree species in the U.S. ...
Article
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Two hundred one research publications including 152 journal articles were compiled. Forty-four journals were represent-ed with the Journal of Arboriculture, Arboricultural & Urban Forestry, and Arboricultural Journal as the most frequently cited. Com-partmentalization, wounding, wound response, decay development, and wound treatment were the most frequently noted topic areas. The bibliography was organized in Zotero, an application using the Firefox web browser. Keywords were identi-fied for each publication. Where either the article or its abstract was available, an annotation was created. This pa-per describes the major topic areas identified in the review and discusses the future directions for pruning research. Pruning is at the heart of arboriculture, one of the most impor-tant services arborists provide. To paraphrase Alex Shigo (1989), pruning can be one of the best things an arborist can do for a tree and one of the worse things an arborist can do to a tree. Pruning impacts both tree health and structure. It is practiced worldwide. In 2007, the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) contracted HortScience, Inc. to prepare a literature review on the topic of pruning. The focus of the review was the research literature. The emphasis was on arboriculture but the review could reference forestry and pomology literature as appropriate.
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Analysis of physiological and economical impacts of the roadside trees pruning. The management of the roadside trees requires special care. Several factors interact with their growth and development, many trees presenting decay. In addition of aesthetic impact, this decay leads to high pruning costs, or even costs of replacing trees, and serious risk of tree fall. Although the situations are more and more complicated, an increasing lack in trees monitoring is observed. Due to neglected plantations, overpruning is very often adopted, although researchers have demonstrated for several years the damage of this practice. An economic study is here proposed and concerns a walkway of common limes (Tilia X europaea L.). It constituted a landscape reference mark of high patrimonial value. Trees were topped and their crowns were overpruned. The comparison of costs between crown thinning at regular intervals and topping shows a ratio of one to two or more and a patrimonial value loss of trees of nearly 85/. Customer education and teaching managers are the best ways to stop drastic pruning, due only to easier alternative and a lack of professionalism.
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The management of the roadside trees requires special care. Several factors interact with their growth and development, many trees presenting decay. In addition of aesthetic impact, this decay leads to high pruning costs, or even costs of replacing trees, and serious risk of tree fall. Although the situations are more and more complicated, an increasing lack in trees monitoring is observed. Due to neglected plantations, overpruning is very often adopted, although researchers have demonstrated for several years the damage of this practice. An economic study is here proposed and concerns a walkway of common limes (Tilia × europaea L.). It constituted a landscape reference mark of high patrimonial value. Trees were topped and their crowns were overpruned. The comparison of costs between crown thinning at regular intervals and topping shows a ratio of one to two or more and a patrimonial value loss of trees of nearly 85%. Customer education and teaching managers are the best ways to stop drastic pruning, due only to easier alternative and a lack of professionalism. © 2002 FAC UNIV SCIENCES AGRONOMIQUES GEMBLOUX. All rights reserved.
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Total pruning time, waste wood stack time, waste wood yield, and average annual diameter growth rates were determined for various diameter classes (4-16 inch; 10- 40 cm) of honeylocust (Gleditsia tricanthos), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Norway maple (Acerplatanoides), and littleleaf linden {Tilia cordata). Pruning time increased at a rate of 6 minutes per diameter inch (2.5 cm) and waste wood stack time increased at a rate of 1.5 minutes per diameter inch (1.5 cm) forall species combined. Waste wood yields increase at a rate of 3 pounds per minute pruning for all species combined. Maintenance costs and waste wood yields were higher for honeylocust than for green ash, littleleaf linden, and Norway maple.
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Tree height, trunk height, trunk diameter, crown base, and crown radius were measured on 331 trees growing in urban environments (Tilia cordata, T. europaea, T. euclora, and T. platyphyllos). Regression analyses revealed quadratic correlation between age and size for all relationships. Growth formulas and growth rates were derived and growth curves compiled. The results can be used for forecasting Tilia's physical dimensions as functions of time and environment and with it for planning and assessing the consequences of Tilia tree-planting schemes in urban environments. When implemented as a computer-aided design (CAD) application, these relationships can form the basis for dynamic illustration of a project.
Etat de la gestion du patrimoine arboré dans les communes wallonnes
  • Campanella
Les rattrapages d’erreurs ou d’accidents
  • V Kervyn De Meerendre
  • B Delcroix
Determining the age of streetside Tilia cordata trees with a dbh-based model
  • Lukaskiewicz
Les plantations d’alignement
  • C Bourgery
  • D Castaner