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Improving Schools in Challenging Contexts: Exploring the possible

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This article outlines the findings from a small-scale research study that explored how a group of secondary schools in challenging contexts had improved and raised attainment successively over a 5-year period. The study points to the importance of external factors and how they influence a school's ability to improve and to sustain improvement. The study also identified certain strategies for improvement that schools found to be successful in securing improved performance. The article argues that more highly differentiated improvement approaches to school improvement are needed for schools in such circumstances. It concludes by suggesting that while schools in challenging contexts can raise attainment and performance through their own efforts, the external environment remains an important influence upon a school's ability to improve.

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... Cole-Henderson (2000) Harris et al. (2006), Taylor et al. (2000) and Acker-Hocevar et al. (2012) on the possibility of improving educational effectiveness in such societies. ...
... Whereas poor countries indeed need the critical resources to boost their education systems, it is also becoming apparent that some institutions within poor societies can offer effective education (see Acker-Hocevar et al., 2012;Harris et al., 2006;Taylor et al., 2000). Nonetheless, these incidences have not received wide attention in terms of research to showcase the kind of processes apparent in such institutions that have broken the norm by providing effective education, their poor status notwithstanding. ...
... This could be explained by the fact that, in high SES homesteads, English or other colonial languages tend to be spoken, there are reading materials in colonial languages, they are concentrated in urban areas associated with top-quality private schools, have educated parents, do not engage their children in endemic domestic chores, and have a tendency to enrol their children in preschool. Some of these variables that characterise elitism facilitate quicker development of reading and writing skills (see Kasirye, 2009;Nannyonjo, 2007;Twikirize, 2012 Harris et al., 2006;Levin and Lockheed, 1993;Muijs et al., 2004;Taylor et al., 2000;Teddlie and Stringfield, 1993). It is, however, important to be cautious in interpreting this result, as it could create complacence with the illusion that all is well with regards to the distribution of mathematics attainment in primary schools in Uganda. ...
Article
Earlier studies of educational effectiveness in resource-constrained countries tended to focus on fiscal and material resources. However, the impact thereof can be limited where effective processes at the school and classroom levels are not present. Using hierarchical linear modelling, this study draws on SACMEQ data to generate an effective education model for resource-constrained countries, using Uganda as a case study. Rasch modelling was used to construct the educational process indicators, and the dynamic model of educational effectiveness provided the basis for the conceptual framework used. On adjusting for confounding variables, the factors that significantly predicted both mathematics and reading outcomes included opportunity to learn (OTL), school management competences, school–community relationships, and school-based HIV/AIDS support. The effect of teacher academic and professional capital (TAPC) was mediated by OTL. The study argues for refocused attention on the school and teaching processes as key to enhancing educational effectiveness in resource-constrained countries.
... Many reform programs have been implemented since the early 1990s, with little evidence of significant improvements in quality (Barakat, 2019;Elbadawy, 2015; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, 2015). There is persuasive evidence suggesting that for education reforms to be successful, there needs to be a clear focus on what is going on in the classroom, including how teachers improve their instructional practices to meet the learning needs of their students (Bryk, 2010;Darling-Hammond, 2000;Harris et al., 2006). This seems to have been a major challenge in Egyptian schools where teachers have limited access to appropriate resources as well as adequate pre-service and in-service professional development opportunities (El-Bilawi & Nasser, 2017;Hargreaves et al., 2020;Johnson et al., 2000;Naguib, 2006). ...
... 377). Therefore, the past two decades have witnessed a shift in the way teacher professional learning is approached, with more emphasis being placed on job-embedded interventions that are sustained over time, collaborative, linked to teachers' daily work, and that offer hands-on learning opportunities (Garet et al., 2001;Hargreaves et al., 2020;Harris et al., 2006;Karami-Akkary, 2019). While teacher professional learning can follow a formal structure such as professional development programs or teaching research groups (Timperley, 2011), teachers can also learn through engagement in informal interactions in the workplace, including informal peer coaching and mentoring, peer review, collaborative planning, and shared assessment (Harris et al., 2006;Kwakman, 2003;Little, 2012). ...
... Therefore, the past two decades have witnessed a shift in the way teacher professional learning is approached, with more emphasis being placed on job-embedded interventions that are sustained over time, collaborative, linked to teachers' daily work, and that offer hands-on learning opportunities (Garet et al., 2001;Hargreaves et al., 2020;Harris et al., 2006;Karami-Akkary, 2019). While teacher professional learning can follow a formal structure such as professional development programs or teaching research groups (Timperley, 2011), teachers can also learn through engagement in informal interactions in the workplace, including informal peer coaching and mentoring, peer review, collaborative planning, and shared assessment (Harris et al., 2006;Kwakman, 2003;Little, 2012). ...
Article
This study aimed to explore learning-centered leadership (LCL) and teacher professional learning (TPL) in Egypt, a context that is relatively underrepresented in the international literature. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether and to what extent LCL and TPL were practiced in Egyptian schools, and whether principal’s LCL practices can predict teachers’ engagement in professional learning activities. The study used a cross-sectional survey design and collected data from a sample of 358 public school teachers in the northern city of Damietta. The findings revealed only a moderate level of LCL and a slightly above moderate level of TPL. No significant differences were found in teachers’ perceptions of LCL according to gender or school level. There were significant differences between males and females with regards to TPL in favor of females. Consistent with prior research, regression analysis showed that LCL had a positive and significant effect on TPL. The study’s findings are interpreted in light of existing literature and emerging implications are discussed.
... New, complex methodologies include multilevel modelling, meta-analysis, structural equation modelling, growth curve modelling, and mixed-method research (Reynolds et al. 2014). Educational effectiveness is investigated usually in two main contexts: Understanding the contributions of unique teaching and learning methods (e.g., Dori and Herscovitz 1999;Dori and Sasson 2008;Tynjala 1998); and defining competencies on an institutional or national level, school factors that may project positive outcomes and school development (e.g., Edmonds 1979;Eerola and Majuri 2016;Harris et al. 2006;Hughes 2013;Teddlie and Reynolds 2000). ...
... Teddlie and Reynolds (2000) added additional factors: parental involvement; development of effective pedagogical practices; professional development of teachers; and students' involvement in educational processes and their development of responsibility. Harris et al. (2006) identified three additional factors: conversion of the school into a learning community capable of defining and conveying effective pedagogical practices simultaneously; forging supportive partnerships with extra-scholastic factors in key areas; and encouragement of innovation and change. ...
... There has been international confirmation of the importance of 'evidence-based education' , understanding the 'best-evidence' , 'best-practices' , or 'what works' (Borman et al. 2003;Reynolds et al. 2014). Several studies during the last 40 years have investigated and identified general school success factors (Edmonds 1979;Harris et al. 2006;Teddlie and Reynolds 2000). Teachers' instructional methods have also been investigated in order to relate them to student achievements and the dynamic model of Kyriakides, Creemers, and Antoniou (2009), Kyriakides, Christoforou, and Charalambous (2013) was formed. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years considerable advances in both theoretical formulation and in methodologies have appeared in the Educational effectiveness research field. Yet there is a significant lack of studies that are focused on the effectiveness of learning tasks. Structured content analysis of learning tasks can provide information about learning opportunities and therefore, it has the potential to refine this field. The goal of this study was to describe and demonstrate a methodological framework for evaluating the quality of learning tasks based on innovative developments in the field of education. The methodological framework includes three dimensions: educational principles and practices, high-order thinking skills, and psychological approaches to learning. The methodology was tested in four learning contexts: inter-disciplinary inquiry lessons; mathematics; sciences; and extensive narrative subject lessons. Pedagogical differences were characterised. The tool makes several theoretical and practical contributions: It can serve researchers in pedagogical characterisation processes; it can advance teachers’ professional development with a focus on the development of the ‘new teacher’ as a designer of effective learning environments; and it can be used to mediate between theory and practice.
... For reasons like these, we suggest that turnaround leadership is not simply a more complex version of effective leadership, which seems to be a prevailing assumption within the field . Turnaround leadership and effective leadership may share similarities, but they also have their own differences which may distinguish them (Harris et al. 2006). ...
... This is a key difference between turnaround and sustainability. The importance of this specific aspect of the framework is underscored by the particular work of other scholars in the field who found that sustainability of school improvement in challenging contexts includes working with the community and other external entities (Harris et al. 2006). Through networking with others, and identifying mutual ground, sustained improvement leaders extend their influence through considering how other organisations can support their challenging work. ...
Article
We understand very little about what is special that leaders do to facilitate improvement that is both transformational and lasting in previously persistently failing schools in the United States. Relatively little is understood about change not just during the initial turnaround stage, but that endures on the larger journey as the school becomes a healthy organisation for adults and students. This lack of understanding is likely due to the lack of data sources because schools struggle to attain turnaround, let alone maintain the improvement and continue to grow. We conducted a literature review of frameworks implicated in leading a sustained school turnaround. This study synthesises existing frameworks relevant to implicated constructs of (1) school turnaround, (2) effective educational leadership, (3) turnaround external to education, and (4) sustained improvement external to education through developing a cohesive set of practices to inform the work of researchers and practitioners. We end by suggesting that this framework be tested and refined through examination of principal data so that it more robustly represents the work that leaders of sustained improvement undertake.
... The school's context is a determining factor of sustainability, as schools are exposed to a broad set of external factors that affect progress and decision making related to educational improvement (Harris, Chapman, Muijs, Russ, & Stoll, 2006;Hopkins et al., 1999;Maden, 2003;Thrupp, Lupton, & Brown, 2007). Hargreaves and Goodson (2006) consider the political and historical aspects of educational change in terms of the following five "forces for change" that affect sustainability: "waves of reform", which may generate acceptance or resistance in schools; demographic changes, which affect the student profile and create new challenges for teachers; generational changes in the classroom, which are related to the age and professional identity of teachers; changes in relationships between schools in the context of a competitive educational market; and, finally, changes in school principals. ...
... Additionally, schools located in disadvantaged areas face social problems such as unemployment or migration of the most educated segment of the population, the arrival of students expelled from other schools, problems such as drug use and violence, difficulty in retaining teachers, and a less stable student bodyall of which make it more challenging to launch and sustain improvement processes (Harris & Chapman, 2004;Harris et al., 2006;Muijs, 2007;Nicolaidou & Ainscow, 2005). Finally, in systems that emphasize competition between schools and freedom of parental choice, as in Chile, the national competition for resources means that schools in contexts of vulnerability tend to be less well equipped to make improvements Leithwood, Harris, & Strauss, 2010). ...
Article
A great deal of knowledge has been accumulated on how educational effectiveness and improvement come to be. However, the issue of how these processes behave once they have been achieved has remained relatively unexplored. In this paper, we report on the findings of a multiple case study that delved into the factors and processes explaining different levels of sustainability of educational effectiveness for schools previously identified and studied as highly effective and located in low-income areas. We show that effectiveness is a fragile attainment that is affected by a variety of external and internal processes. Transformations in the local context (demographic changes and the dynamics of the school market), and educational policies and programs are key external factors. In the internal realm, the role of school administrators, principals, and leadership teams, the organization of pedagogical work, and the school culture modulate the sustainability of educational effectiveness in the long term.
... Sun and Leithwood (2012) found that most transformational school leadership studies do not directly explore the effects of moderators. Out of all possible moderators, one in particular seems crucial for explaining the success of schools and principals: the degree of challenge in the circumstances that schools face, that is, the combination of socio-economic conditions that diminish the likelihood of success of schools (Ainscow, Muijs, & West, 2006;Harris, Chapman, Muijs, Russ, & Stoll, 2006). The present work argues that the challenging circumstances facing schools are a key moderator that deserves exploring, because they are vital to understanding the effectiveness of principals' leadership styles. ...
... This finding further supports the idea that monitoring behaviours and hands-on leadership in difficult settings is not only expected and valued by teachers but also produces positive outcomes. The finding echoes the notion of "tough love," suggesting that strictness may be a positive approach that expresses care (Goldstein & Lake, 2000); it also provides support for earlier qualitative works, suggesting that principals often use monitoring behaviours in complex circumstances, and explains why these behaviours are perceived by interviewees and observers as contributing to effective schooling (Harris, 2002;Harris et al., 2006). TL in schools facing more challenging circumstances emerged as marginally negatively indicative of students' sense of safety, possibly suggesting that exclusive reliance on visionary, stimulating, and considerate leadership behaviours to promote discipline in challenging circumstances is not advisable. ...
Article
The principal's leadership style is one of the most common ways of conceptualizing school leadership behaviours. We lack understanding, however, of how the effectiveness of school leadership styles varies across degrees of challenging circumstances. Data obtained from a quantitative survey of primary school teachers in Israel (N = 570) and from the Ministry of Education database were used to account for principals' leadership styles and their effectiveness in schools facing more challenging circumstances (N = 15) and in those facing less challenging circumstances (N = 46). Differences were found in the relations between principals' transactional behaviours on one hand and the teaching dimension of school culture and principals' perceived effectiveness on the other, as a function of challenging school circumstances. The study also found a difference in the relations of principals' transformational behaviours and the safety dimension of school culture, by level of challenging school circumstances. The data also revealed that in schools facing less challenging circumstances, principals' passive behaviours were related to students' achievements and principals' perceived effectiveness, but not in schools facing more challenging circumstances. The findings and their implications are discussed.
... Identifying schools at different levels of educational effectiveness and measuring how they are changing their performance over the years is also relevant from the educational policy perspective. Research has found that school improvement programs need to be tailored to the varying situations and challenges schools face, and to the different internal capacities they have (Harris, Chapman, Muijs, Russ,& Stoll, 2006;Hopkins et al., 1999), all of which vary at different levels of educational effectiveness. Also, the literature shows the relevance of the pressures coming from national policies and the local environment, which interact with structural factors (like social segregation) that operate as constraints to producing school improvement or maintaining schools' effectiveness, particularly for those working in difficult social contexts (Harris et al., 2006;Maden, 2001). ...
... Research has found that school improvement programs need to be tailored to the varying situations and challenges schools face, and to the different internal capacities they have (Harris, Chapman, Muijs, Russ,& Stoll, 2006;Hopkins et al., 1999), all of which vary at different levels of educational effectiveness. Also, the literature shows the relevance of the pressures coming from national policies and the local environment, which interact with structural factors (like social segregation) that operate as constraints to producing school improvement or maintaining schools' effectiveness, particularly for those working in difficult social contexts (Harris et al., 2006;Maden, 2001). Certainly, these kinds of processes are only noticeable after some years. ...
Article
The objective of this study was to identify trajectories of school improvement experienced by Chilean elementary schools over the last decade. Using econometric analysis and controlling for potential confounding factors, we created an index of school performance combining outcome indicators focused on different school dimensions, and estimated the 2002/2010 evolution of school improvement for all Chilean schools with available data. Broadly, we estimated an average increase in the school performance of about 0.19 SD; nevertheless, while 41% of the schools increased their educational performance by at least 0.1 SD, 25% of the schools decreased it during the same period; we also found that improving school effectiveness was more probable among schools with lower student socioeconomic status (SES). Finally, we found that the observed school improvement trajectories tended to be non-linear; thus, we estimated that only 13.4% of the schools improved their performance in a systematic way during the entire decade.
... a. "improving schools in challenging circumstances", vgl. Harris et al. 2006;zusammenfassend Muijs et al. 2004;Sammons et al. 2011) unterschiedliche Qualitätsfaktoren auf der schulischen Prozessebene identifizieren konnten. Hierbei handelt es sich u. a. um Merkmale des Schulleitungshandelns, der Unterrichtsqualität sowie der Gestaltung interner und externer Kooperationsbeziehungen zur Erweiterung des Sozialkapitals der Schule. ...
... Vor allem vorliegende Befunde aus internationalen Studien zu erfolgreichen Schulen in schwieriger sozialer Lage deuten darauf hin, dass der Schulleitung erhöhte Aufmerksamkeit in der Schulentwicklung beizumessen ist Harris et al. 2006;Sammons et al. 2011;Klein 2015 Keys et al. (2003) kommen auf der Grundlage einer systematischen Sichtung des Forschungsstands zu dem Ergebnis, dass sich ein kooperativer/partizipativer Führungsstil, der durch eine hohe Erwartungshaltung an die Lehrkräfte sowie die Schüler und Schülerinnen gekennzeichnet ist, als charakteristisch für improving schools in challenging circumstances erweist. Die Arbeitsweise der Schulleitungen sollte sich ferner durch ein hohes Maß an Transparenz auszeichnen, das durch demokratische Entscheidungsprozesse und Partizipation aller schulischen Akteursgruppen flankiert wird Flintham 2006). ...
... a. "improving schools in challenging circumstances", vgl. Harris et al. 2006;zusammenfassend Muijs et al. 2004;Sammons et al. 2011) unterschiedliche Qualitätsfaktoren auf der schulischen Prozessebene identifizieren konnten. Hierbei handelt es sich u. a. um Merkmale des Schulleitungshandelns, der Unterrichtsqualität sowie der Gestaltung interner und externer Kooperationsbeziehungen zur Erweiterung des Sozialkapitals der Schule. ...
... Vor allem vorliegende Befunde aus internationalen Studien zu erfolgreichen Schulen in schwieriger sozialer Lage deuten darauf hin, dass der Schulleitung erhöhte Aufmerksamkeit in der Schulentwicklung beizumessen ist Harris et al. 2006;Sammons et al. 2011;Klein 2015 Keys et al. (2003) kommen auf der Grundlage einer systematischen Sichtung des Forschungsstands zu dem Ergebnis, dass sich ein kooperativer/partizipativer Führungsstil, der durch eine hohe Erwartungshaltung an die Lehrkräfte sowie die Schüler und Schülerinnen gekennzeichnet ist, als charakteristisch für improving schools in challenging circumstances erweist. Die Arbeitsweise der Schulleitungen sollte sich ferner durch ein hohes Maß an Transparenz auszeichnen, das durch demokratische Entscheidungsprozesse und Partizipation aller schulischen Akteursgruppen flankiert wird Flintham 2006). ...
... Diese Rekontextualisierung (vgl. Fend, 1980, 2008a, 2008b In verschiedenen Ländern, darunter auch in der Schweiz, wurde die Autonomie von Einzelschulen erhöht, indem curriculare, personelle, organisatorische und finanzielle Entscheidungsspielräume geschaffen wurden (Fend, 2008b, S. 155 (Haris et al., 2006). Im nächsten Kapitel wird beschrieben, welche ...
... Der Schulkontext kann also unabhängig von geografischer Lage und verfügbaren Finanzmitteln der Schulen gegebenenfalls derart übermächtige Belastungen auf Schulen haben, dass sie durchgängig kaum zu bewältigen sind. Harris et al. (2006) zeigten anhand einer Schulfallstudie, dass Veränderungen in der Komposition der Schülerschaft durch Erhöhung des Anteils von Lernenden aus bildungsnäheren Familien bereits zu Leistungssteigerungen insgesamt führten. Zudem wurde der Erfolg der Lernenden über vier Strategien erhöht: Verbesserung der Lese-, Schreib-und Mathematikkompetenz; Fokus auf Lehren und Lernen; Datennutzung und darauf basierende Zielsetzungen; professionelle Entwicklung des Kollegiums in Richtung einer lernenden Organisation. ...
... 210-211) Research into effective education has become more sophisticated and has diversified with focus on complex factors that are context-specific. For example, effective schools in different socio-economic areas or schools with challenging cultural contexts (see for example : Harris, Chapman, Muijs, Russ, & Stoll, 2006;Teddlie & Stringfield, 1993). An interest in classroom level practices has also increased with many studies simultaneously studying the school and the classroom factors (see for example: Campbell, Kyriakides, Muijs, & Robinson, 2004;Day et al., 2009). ...
... Muijs 2010;Muijs et al. 2010). Previous findings also inticate that this approach to school improvement could constitute a valuable platform for professional development and change in schools ( Chapman and Allen 2005;Datnow, Hubbard and Mehan 2002;Harris et al. 2006;Lieberman and Grolnick 1996;Muijs 2008). At the same time, Muijs et al. (2010) argued that important questions can still be raised as to whether networking is to be understood as a 'panacea' for school improvement, e.g. as the theoretical underpinning for school-to-school collaboration is limited. ...
Article
This article reports findings from a case study carried out in a Swedish municipality focusing on a school-to-school collaboration established to support implementation of a nation-wide curriculum. The aim was to study how ideas for improvements in this temporary organisation were transferred to the local schools. The findings presented are derived from audio-recordings ( n =13) and semi-structured interviews ( n =21). Community of practice theory and the concepts of boundary objects and brokering guided the analysis work. The results revealed that, generally, transfer was restricted to boundary objects with a closed character, meaning these objects should be distributed to and unpacked in the local schools without further dialogues and modifications. In addition, non-formal brokers had less capacity to extend and lead improvement processes in local schools. This approach also reduced the possibilities for principals and teachers in the local schools to benefit from more advanced learning discussions and understandings developed in the temporary organisation. The article shows that designers of improvement work must consider boundary objects with a more open-ended character, permitting an innovative interpretation and learning process. Finally, in this process the findings also reveal the importance of formal brokers underpinning a transfer process in which both participation and reification are considered. Keywords: community of practice, design, curriculum implementation, educational change, temporary organisation (Published: 5 December 2016) Citation: Education Inquiry (EDUI) 2016, 7, 28013, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/edui.v7.28013
... Effective leaders in schools facing challenging circumstances need to have a multidimensional behavioral range because of the complexity involved in promoting a positive academic climate in such schools . Frequently, schools in challenging environments cope with the outcomes of oppressive social structures and public policies that make students' learning, school support of learning, and home support of learning difficult Harris et al., 2006;Quartz & TEP Research Group, 2003;Reynolds, Clarke, & Harris, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
The myth of “tough love” leadership emerges in cultural narratives as a superior approach to improving students’ educational opportunities in urban schools facing challenging circumstances. This model, however, has not been conceptualized, and consequently, empirical research about it is lacking. We formulated a typology of tough love leadership as a mix of four behaviors that combine “tough” and “loving” approaches, with a focus on crisis management and a positive school vision. The study used the tough love leadership conceptualization to explore different mixes of tough love leadership, manifesting in four urban schools facing challenging circumstances. The study’s implications are discussed.
... This study found the school level accounted for around 25% of variance in pupils' attainment but the factors determining school effects were not necessarily pupil background or school composition factors. Other school level factors such as leadership, teaching priorities, teaching quality, school ethos and school resources are influential when considering attainment differences between schools (Harris et al., 2006). Overall, attainment differences associated with SES are of concern to policy makers. ...
Article
This narrative systematic review examined relationships between school attainment, socio‐economic status and gender in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The influence of socio‐economic status was considered at the individual and school level, while gender was examined at the individual level. To ensure consistency among included studies, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) was selected as the attainment measure. Following screening and the application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 23 studies were included in this review. The most common measures of socio‐economic status were parental occupation, parental education and individual/school mean of economic, social and cultural status. This review found that individual and school level factors of socio‐economic status were consistent in the magnitude and direction of their influence over time. Gender was also a statistically significant indicator of attainment. However, variation was evident in the effects of gender according to the PISA cycle, UK country and subject. This review also provided a critical discussion on the quality of included studies, questioning study reliability owing to variation in reporting sample sizes, data manipulation and summary statistics. The review concluded greater consistency in reporting PISA results, especially descriptive and summary statistics would improve comparability of studies within and between PISA cycles, transparency of methodological approaches and the overall reliability of studies.
... Im Zusammenhang mit internationalen Vergleichsstudien wie TIMMS oder PISA und den darauffolgenden Diskursen hat sich zunehmend ein an Output orientiertes Verständnis von Gerechtigkeit durchgesetzt, welchem ein meritokratisches Ideal zugrunde liegt (Bänninger, 2016;Stojanov, 2011Stojanov, , 2013. Bildungssoziologische Forschung die sich mit Herkunftseffekten auseinandersetzen (Boudon, 1974;Ditton & Krüsken, 2010) und Schuleffektivitätsforschung in benachteiligten Lagen (Harris, Chapman & Muijs, 2006;Muijs, Harris, Chapman, Stoll & Russ, 2004;Reynolds, Harris & Clarke, 2006) perpetuieren die Vorstellung eines meritokratischen Bildungsideals. Dass dieses an einem Leistungsoutput orientierten Ideal gerade in Schulen in benachteiligten Lagen mit dem Schulkontext, aber auch pädagogischen Vorstellungen der Schulakteure 1 konfligiert, ist kaum verwunderlich. ...
Chapter
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Der Beitrag stellt eine inhaltliche sowie methodische Perspektiverweiterung auf die evidenzbasierte Steuerung des Schulsystems vor: Inhaltlich wird der Fokus, mit Bezug auf die Weltbeziehungstheorie (Rosa, 2016), auf die Beziehung zwischen den Ebenen der Einzelschulen und der Bildungspolitik und -administration gerichtet. Methodisch wird ein selbst entwickelter Zugang auf der Basis der Dokumentarischen Methode vorgestellt, der die Weltbeziehungstheorie zur Metatheorie erhebt. Rekonstruktionen dreier Gruppendiskussionen zeigen insbesondere eine ausgeprägte Entfremdung, die sich, über die untersuchte Beziehung hinaus, bis in den Unterricht erstreckt. Der Beitrag schließt mit Implikationen für die evidenzbasierte Steuerung, die Dokumentarische Methode sowie die Schulentwicklungspraxis.
... In the U.S., for example, parental involvement im- proves children's academic achievement (e.g., Hill & Tyson, 2009) and reduces misbehaving (McNeal, 2012;Sheldon, 2007). In the United Kingdom, parental involvement at home and in school is one of the factors thought to improve children's affective and ac- ademic performance (Harris, Chapman, Muijs, Russ, & Stoll, 2006). In the 21st century, many studies in the U.S. (e.g., Kim, 2009), U.K. (e. g., Tett, 2001) and Canada (e. g., Li, 2006) have begun to critically examine previous work and shift the focus from parental de- ficiencies to increased parental involvement. ...
... The support of policy makers and administrators is crucial here, in order to provide concrete conditions to realize the collaboration. Research shows that leaders of schools that are able to challenge circumstances are usually highly engaged with other services/schools, with families, and with the community (Harris et al., 2006). Also, the outcomes and wellbeing of socio-economically disadvantaged children appears to improve when school leaders involve other partners beyond their own school/service (OECD, 2010;Kools and Stoll, 2016). ...
Technical Report
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Researchers and international organizations broadly agree that the quality of early childhood education and care (ECEC), and of schools, depends on well-educated and competent staff (OECD, 2006; UNICEF, 2008; Milotay, 2016). The contemporary educating/teaching profession has become incredibly complex (European Commission, 2011a) prompting calls for stronger support of ECEC and school staff, which could be included in both initial education and continuous professional development (CPD). The complex multi-diverse societies in which we live, make it indeed impossible today to find standardized solutions for all families/children. Negotiation and reflection are then essential competences to be achieved by practitioners/teachers in ECEC services and schools in order to contextualize pedagogical practice and adapt it to the diversity of children and families. However, these competences are not prioritised by traditional forms of CPD (for example, seminars or top-down approaches). Therefore the latter need to be integrated with additional forms of CPD that focus on the active and democratic participation of staff. Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) are a valuable answer in this direction (see 28). PLCs can be described as ‘a group of people sharing and critically interrogating their practice in an on-going, reflective, collaborative, inclusive, learning-oriented, growth-promoting way’ (Stoll et al., 2006, p. 223). The goal is not ‘being a professional learning community’, but improving wellbeing and learning for children and families (Ibidem). Competent systems are necessary to create and maintain PLCs. The latter require a multilevel network of competences, structural conditions, engagement, and awareness. Many definitions have been offered of what a professional learning community is or ought to be, with the risk of losing its true meaning (DuFour, 2004). This report seeks to correct this gap, by: 1) providing a framework to explain the need for PLCs today (see 20); 2) offering a clear definition of the essential criteria that define a PLC, with concrete examples from several European countries (see 28); and 3) providing four in-depth case studies—from Belgium (Flanders), Croatia, Italy and Slovenia—which illustrate different ways of establishing and sustaining PLCs (see 38). The study ends with specific conclusions and recommendations for policy makers in Member States. It should be noted that the report focuses on services and schools for 0 to 12 years old children. However, the key concepts and conclusions could also be readapted for secondary school.
... Research has shown that schools with a high percentage of affluent students have a similar set of correlates that enhance student learning and school effectiveness, which is not the case in low SES schools (Padilla et al., 2020). Most children from low SES families do not overcome the disadvantage of lower initial attainment (Harris, Christopher, Muijs, Russ & Stoll, 2006). ...
Article
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The Lesotho education system is largely ineffective, as evidenced by high failure rates in the school-leaving examinations. The situation is linked to ineffective primary education, due to poor teacher quality, weak school management, and a lack of resources, which have carry-over effects on secondary education. Despite these, some secondary schools consistently produce good Grade 12 results. To probe this phenomenon, data was collected through questionnaires from 374 Grade 12 students at 13 high-performing secondary schools. The findings revealed that the main reason for their excellent performance was the stringent selectivity of students in Grade 8, effective school leadership, and teacher efficiency. To improve the effectiveness of Lesotho secondary schools, it is recommended that teacher quality, school management, monitoring, and professional development be intensified aggressively in primary and secondary schools as the two sectors are interlinked.
... Diese Rekontextualisierung (vgl. Fend, 1980, 2008a, 2008b In verschiedenen Ländern, darunter auch in der Schweiz, wurde die Autonomie von Einzelschulen erhöht, indem curriculare, personelle, organisatorische und finanzielle Entscheidungsspielräume geschaffen wurden (Fend, 2008b, S. 155 (Haris et al., 2006). Im nächsten Kapitel wird beschrieben, welche ...
Thesis
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Der familiäre Hintergrund hat nach wie vor einen grossen Einfluss auf den Bildungserfolg von Schüler*innen. Theorie und Empirie zeigen, dass die Bearbeitung von Bildungsungleichheit auf den verschiedenen Ebenen des Bildungssystems erfolgen kann und sowohl die Angebotsseite (Schule) als auch die Nutzungsseite (Schüler*innen) beachtet werden muss. Dabei haben sich insbesondere Selektions- und Förderprozesse, aber auch die Passung zwischen der Ausgestaltung der Schule und den Bedürfnissen der Schüler*innen als zentral erwiesen. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, ein theoretisches Modell zu entwickeln, welches aufzeigt, wo und wie im Bildungssystem Bildungsungleichheit (re-)produziert oder vermindert werden kann. Aufgrund dieses Modells werden mittels einer explorativen Fallanalyse exemplarisch für fünf Schulen potenzielle Chancen und Risikofaktoren, bezogen auf die Bearbeitung von Bildungsungleichheit identifiziert. Datengrundlage sind die quantitativen Befragungen mit Lehrpersonen (n = 126) und Schüler*innen der Klasen 4, 5 und 6 (n = 373), sowie Schulstatistiken und demographische Angaben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass an allen Schulen das Schulklima, die Kompetenzüberzeugung der Schüler*innen sowie die Selbstwirksamkeit der Lehrpersonen bezogen auf die Unterstützung der Schüler*innen positiv eingeschätzt werden. Das kann als Chance für die Bearbeitung von Bildungsungleichheit interpretiert werden. Risikofaktoren, welche eine Reduktion der Bildungsungleichheit erschweren können, zeigen sich im Bereich der Bildungserwartungen. An allen Schulen lassen sich Zusammenhänge zwischen dem soziokulturellen Hintergrund und den Bildungsaspirationen der Schüler*innen identifizieren. Bezüglich der wahrgenommenen Unterstützung unterscheiden sich die Schulen. In zwei der untersuchten Schulen fühlen sich Schüler*innen mit problematischem Hintergrund weniger unterstützt, als Schüler*innen aus soziokulturell besser gestellten Familien. In drei der Schulen zeigt sich kein Zusammenhang und in einer Schule fühlen sich Schüler*innen mit Migrationshintergrund besser unterstützt, als Kinder ohne Migrationshintergrund. Je nach Schule kann somit der Zusammenhang zwischen dem familiären Hintergrund und der wahrgenommenen Unterstützung als Chance oder Risiko identifiziert werden. Innerhalb der Schulen nehmen die Lehrpersonen verschiedenste Aspekte mehrheitlich divergent wahr. Dieser Befund ist bedeutsam, da eine geteilte Wahrnehmung eine bedeutende Basis für eine gezielte Weiterentwicklung der Schule und ein Merkmal von professionellen Lerngemeinschaften darstellt (vgl. Bonsen & Rolff, 2006; Holtappels, 2010; Rolff, 2014a). Insgesamt zeigt sich, dass an allen Schulen Chancen und Risiken für die Bearbeitung von Bildungsungleichheit identifiziert werden können, die fünf Schulen jedoch unterschiedliche Muster aufweisen.
... • Schuleffektivität (Teddlie & Stringfield, 2007;Calman, 2010;Creemers, Kyriakides & Sammons, 2010;Chapman, Armstrong, Harris, Muijs, Reynolds & Sammons, 2012;Moos & Huber, 2007;Huber, 2013); • Schulverbesserung (Hargreaves, Lieberman, Fullan & Hopkins, 1998;Hopkins, Harris, Stoll & Mackay, 2011;Harris, Chapman, Muijs, Russ & Stoll, 2006;Huber, 2018); • Input-Throughput-Output (Cronbach, 1972;Ditton, 2002); • Kooperation (Rosenholtz, 1989;West & Hirst, 2003;Muijs, West & Ainscow, 2010;Harris & Jones, 2012;Huber & Ahlgrimm, 2012;Huber, 2014); • Schulleitung (Robinson, Lloyd & Rowe, 2008;Huber, 2016aHuber, , 2016bHuber & Muijs, 2010;Hallinger & Huber, 2012;Huber & Spillane, 2018;Tian & Huber, 2019); • Management von Krisen (Weick, 1988(Weick, , 2010Schneider, 1995;Rosenthal & Kouzmin, 1993, 1997Pearson, Roux-Dufort & Clair, 2007;Johansen, Aggerholm & Frandsen, 2012;Vardarlier, 2016); • Gesundheit/Belastung/Stress (Karasek, 1979;Lazarus & Folkman, 1984;Huber, 2013); • Arbeitsanforderungen und Ressourcen (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Huber & Robinson, 2016;Huber & Spillane, 2016 • Informiertheit der Mitarbeitenden (MA) ...
Article
Infolge der Corona-Pandemie wurden im März 2020 die Schulen geschlossen und der Unterricht als „Fernunterricht“ weitergeführt. Der Artikel berichtet Befunde einer Schüler*innenbefragung (N = 169) aus Baden-Württemberg zur ersten Phase des „Fernunterrichts“, in der die Lernenden zu ihrer Arbeitszeit, zu den Kommunikationsverfahren zwischen Schule und Elternhaus, zum Feedback durch die Lehrkräfte, den Vor- und Nachteilen sowie weiteren Anregungen befragt wurden. Die Ergebnisse verweisen auf verschiedene Vor- und Nachteile des „Fernunterrichts“ und lassen auf eine große Varianz der (digitalen) Kommunikations- und Rückmeldewege schließen. Zudem beschreiben die Antworten den Wunsch der Schüler*innen nach mehr kommunikativen Situationen in den digitalen Verfahren. Der Beitrag ist verfügbar unter (Open Access): https://www.waxmann.com/waxmann-buecher/?tx_p2waxmann_pi2%5bbuchnr%5d=4231&tx_p2waxmann_pi2%5baction%5d=show
... Der Schulkontext kann also, unabhängig von geografischer Lage und verfügbaren Finanzmitteln der Schulen, gegebenenfalls derart übermächtige Belastungen auf Schulen haben, dass sie durchgängig kaum zu bewältigen sind. Harris et al. (2006) verdeutlichten anhand einer Schulfallstudie, dass Veränderungen in der Komposition der Schülerschaft durch Erhöhung des Anteils von Lernenden aus bildungsnäheren Familien bereits zu Leistungssteigerungen insgesamt führten. Zudem wurde der Erfolg der Lernenden über vier Strategien erhöht: Verbesserung der Lese-, Schreib-und Mathematikkompetenz; Fokus auf Lehren und Lernen; Datennutzung und darauf basierende Zielsetzungen; professionelle Entwicklung des Kollegiums in Richtung einer lernenden Organisation. ...
Book
Sechs Jahre lang wurde im Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojekt «Potenziale entwickeln – Schulen stärken» analysiert, wie die Entwicklung von Schulen in herausfordernden Lagen unterstützt werden kann. Wie kann die Entwicklung von Schulen in herausfordernden Lagen unterstützt werden? Wie können ein datengestützter Ansatz und Netzwerkarbeit die Entwicklungskapazität dieser Schulen befördern? Diesen Fragen widmete sich das Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojekt «Potenziale entwickeln – Schulen stärken» in der Metropolregion Ruhr über sechs Jahre mit verschiedenen methodischen Zugängen und mit einem breiten Schulentwicklungsansatz. Im Buch werden zentrale Befunde in der Gesamtschau zusammengefasst und im Hinblick auf Hinweise für Praxis, Bildungsadministration und Wissenschaft diskutiert.
... Ross and Bruce (2012) investigated the impact of teachers undertaking collaborative action research projects, in their own settings with academics, and found self-reported perceptions about the usefulness and relevance of educational research to improve for teachers over time. This improvement is significant as it is known that positive attitudes towards research create the conditions for core elements of teacher practice including interpreting student data, setting learning goals, and monitoring the outcomes of student achievement (Harris, Chapman, Muijs, Russ, & Stoll, 2006). ...
Article
Teacher professional standards globally now include a stronger emphasis on teacher research and evaluation skills. Yet, little is known about how to build these capacities through teacher education. This paper reports on a systematic literature review conducted to synthesize the literature about approaches to improving research and evaluative skills and attitudes in teachers. A total of 19 studies were included. The field is largely dominated by small qualitative studies that focus on teacher action research as a facilitator of professional development. There is a substantial and highly problematic gap in the research specifically in relation to building evaluation skills in teachers. Recommendations include a stronger investment in teacher education focussed on evaluation and evaluative thinking, which holds significant potential to positively impact the professional practice of teachers and student learning outcomes.
... Im Zusammenhang mit internationalen Vergleichsstudien wie TIMMS oder PISA und den darauffolgenden Diskursen hat sich zunehmend ein an Output orientiertes Verständnis von Gerechtigkeit durchgesetzt, welchem ein meritokratisches Ideal zugrunde liegt (Bänninger, 2016;Stojanov, 2011Stojanov, , 2013. Bildungssoziologische Forschung die sich mit Herkunftseffekten auseinandersetzen (Boudon, 1974;Ditton & Krüsken, 2010) und Schuleffektivitätsforschung in benachteiligten Lagen (Harris, Chapman & Muijs, 2006;Muijs, Harris, Chapman, Stoll & Russ, 2004;Reynolds, Harris & Clarke, 2006) perpetuieren die Vorstellung eines meritokratischen Bildungsideals. Dass dieses an einem Leistungsoutput orientierten Ideal gerade in Schulen in benachteiligten Lagen mit dem Schulkontext, aber auch pädagogischen Vorstellungen der Schulakteure 1 konfligiert, ist kaum verwunderlich. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In E. Zala-Mezö, J. Häbig, & N. Bremm (Hrsg.), Dokumentarische Methode in der Schulentwicklungsforschung (S. 77–96). Münster: Waxmann. ISBN 978-3-8309-4423-2
... Im Zusammenhang mit internationalen Vergleichsstudien wie TIMMS oder PISA und den darauffolgenden Diskursen hat sich zunehmend ein an Output orientiertes Verständnis von Gerechtigkeit durchgesetzt, welchem ein meritokratisches Ideal zugrunde liegt (Bänninger, 2016;Stojanov, 2011Stojanov, , 2013. Bildungssoziologische Forschung die sich mit Herkunftseffekten auseinandersetzen (Boudon, 1974;Ditton & Krüsken, 2010) und Schuleffektivitätsforschung in benachteiligten Lagen (Harris, Chapman & Muijs, 2006;Muijs, Harris, Chapman, Stoll & Russ, 2004;Reynolds, Harris & Clarke, 2006) perpetuieren die Vorstellung eines meritokratischen Bildungsideals. Dass dieses an einem Leistungsoutput orientierten Ideal gerade in Schulen in benachteiligten Lagen mit dem Schulkontext, aber auch pädagogischen Vorstellungen der Schulakteure 1 konfligiert, ist kaum verwunderlich. ...
Book
Schulentwicklung ist ein komplexer Prozess, der sich nicht einfach steuern und erklären lässt. Wichtige Faktoren sind nicht immer auf den ersten Blick sichtbar. Eine Richtung der Schulforschung versteht die soziale Realität von Schulen als Ergebnis von sinnhaften, handlungsleitenden, jedoch oft impliziten Wissensstrukturen, die sich in Orientierungen, Relevanzsetzungen und Praktiken dokumentieren. So wird davon ausgegangen, dass Handlungen in menschlichen Sozialgebilden nicht zufällig entstehen, sondern durch Sinn- und Relevanzstrukturen vorstrukturiert sind. Um Alltagshandlungen verstehen und nachvollziehen zu können, müssen diese oft implizit vorhandenen Wissensstrukturen in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung rekonstruiert und somit sichtbar gemacht werden. Die Bedeutung der rekonstruktiven Sozialforschung und insbesondere der dokumentarischen Methode wächst. Der Band enthält Beiträge, in denen die dokumentarische Methode in verschiedenen Bereichen der Schulentwicklungsforschung eingesetzt wird und richtet sich an Lesende, die schulische Veränderungsprozesse besser verstehen wollen. Dazu gehören unter anderem Akteur*innen aus Schulen, Bildungspolitik, Behörden und Forschung.
... • Schuleffektivität (Teddlie & Stringfield, 2007;Calman, 2010;Creemers, Kyriakides & Sammons, 2010;Chapman, Armstrong, Harris, Muijs, Reynolds & Sammons, 2012;Moos & Huber, 2007;Huber, 2013); • Schulverbesserung (Hargreaves, Lieberman, Fullan & Hopkins, 1998;Hopkins, Harris, Stoll & Mackay, 2011;Harris, Chapman, Muijs, Russ & Stoll, 2006;Huber, 2018); • Input-Throughput-Output (Cronbach, 1972;Ditton, 2002); • Kooperation (Rosenholtz, 1989;West & Hirst, 2003;Muijs, West & Ainscow, 2010;Harris & Jones, 2012;Huber & Ahlgrimm, 2012;Huber, 2014); • Schulleitung (Robinson, Lloyd & Rowe, 2008;Huber, 2016aHuber, , 2016bHuber & Muijs, 2010;Hallinger & Huber, 2012;Huber & Spillane, 2018;Tian & Huber, 2019); • Management von Krisen (Weick, 1988(Weick, , 2010Schneider, 1995;Rosenthal & Kouzmin, 1993, 1997Pearson, Roux-Dufort & Clair, 2007;Johansen, Aggerholm & Frandsen, 2012;Vardarlier, 2016); • Gesundheit/Belastung/Stress (Karasek, 1979;Lazarus & Folkman, 1984;Huber, 2013); • Arbeitsanforderungen und Ressourcen (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Huber & Robinson, 2016;Huber & Spillane, 2016 , 3) Merkmale der Schüler*innen (z. B. Selbstkonzept) und 4) Merkmale der Eltern (z. ...
... • Schuleffektivität (Teddlie & Stringfield, 2007;Calman, 2010;Creemers, Kyriakides & Sammons, 2010;Chapman, Armstrong, Harris, Muijs, Reynolds & Sammons, 2012;Moos & Huber, 2007;Huber, 2013); • Schulverbesserung (Hargreaves, Lieberman, Fullan & Hopkins, 1998;Hopkins, Harris, Stoll & Mackay, 2011;Harris, Chapman, Muijs, Russ & Stoll, 2006;Huber, 2018); • Input-Throughput-Output (Cronbach, 1972;Ditton, 2002); • Kooperation (Rosenholtz, 1989;West & Hirst, 2003;Muijs, West & Ainscow, 2010;Harris & Jones, 2012;Huber & Ahlgrimm, 2012;Huber, 2014); • Schulleitung (Robinson, Lloyd & Rowe, 2008;Huber, 2016aHuber, , 2016bHuber & Muijs, 2010;Hallinger & Huber, 2012;Huber & Spillane, 2018;Tian & Huber, 2019); • Management von Krisen (Weick, 1988(Weick, , 2010Schneider, 1995;Rosenthal & Kouzmin, 1993, 1997Pearson, Roux-Dufort & Clair, 2007;Johansen, Aggerholm & Frandsen, 2012;Vardarlier, 2016); • Gesundheit/Belastung/Stress (Karasek, 1979;Lazarus & Folkman, 1984;Huber, 2013); • Arbeitsanforderungen und Ressourcen (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Huber & Robinson, 2016;Huber & Spillane, 2016 , 3) Merkmale der Schüler*innen (z. B. Selbstkonzept) und 4) Merkmale der Eltern (z. ...
Article
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COVID-19 led to temporary school lockdown worldwide. Does this leave disadvantaged students behind? Data from 8,344 students from Germany, Austria and Switzerland show that home resources like technical equipment and parental support play a role for student outcomes in terms of emotions, learning effort and learning success. However, students’ self-regulation skills and the quality of teaching during school lockdown are more important.
... The School Barometer survey covers the following topics 1 : & School effectiveness (Teddlie & Stringfield 2007;Calman 2010;Creemers et al. 2010;Chapman et al. 2012;Moos and Huber 2007;Huber et al. 2014), & School improvement (Hargreaves et al. 1998(Hargreaves et al. /2014Hopkins et al. 2011;Harris et al. 2006;Huber 2018), & Input-throughput-output (Cronbach 1972a, b;Ditton 2002a, b), & Collaboration (Rosenholtz 1989;West and Hirst 2003;Muijs et al. 2010;Harris and Jones 2012;Huber and Ahlgrimm 2012;Huber 2014), & Education leadership (Robinson et al. 2008;Huber 2016a, b;Huber and Muijs 2010;Hallinger and Huber 2012;Huber and Spillane 2018;Tian and Huber 2019), & Management of crises (Weick 1988(Weick , 2010Schneider 1995;Kouzmin 1993, 1997;Pearson, Pearson et al. 2007;Johansen et al. 2012;Vardarlier 2016), & Health/strain/stress (Karasek 1979;Robert and Karasek 1979;Lazarus and Folkman 1984;Huber 2013) and & Job demands and resources (Bakker and Demerouti 2017;Huber and Robinson 2016;Huber and Spillane 2016). Figure 1 shows the theoretical framework of the School Barometer based on these disciplines, figure 2 shows some of the variables of the School Barometer. ...
Article
Full-text available
The crisis caused by the COVID-19 virus has far-reaching effects in the field of education, as schools were closed in March 2020 in many countries around the world. In this article, we present and discuss the School Barometer, a fast survey (in terms of reaction time, time to answer and dissemination time) that was conducted in Germany, Austria and Switzerland during the early weeks of the school lockdown to assess and evaluate the current school situation caused by COVID-19. Later, the School Barometer was extended to an international survey, and some countries conducted the survey in their own languages. In Germany, Austria and Switzerland, 7116 persons participated in the German language version: 2222 parents, 2152 students, 1949 school staff, 655 school leaders, 58 school authority and 80 members of the school support system. The aim was to gather, analyse and present data in an exploratory way to inform policy, practice and further research. In this article, we present some exemplary first results and possible implications for policy, practice and research. Furthermore, we reflect on the strengths and limitations of the School Barometer and fast surveys as well as the methodological options for data collection and analysis when using a short monitoring survey approach. Specifically, we discuss the methodological challenges associated with survey data of this kind, including challenges related to hypothesis testing, the testing of causal effects and approaches to ensure reliability and validity. By doing this, we reflect on issues of assessment, evaluation and accountability in times of crisis.
... Many such processes are modifiable by the school whereas the socioeconomic profile of students is not easily modifiable. Drawing on Harris et al. (2006), we might expect that effective schools find the best fit between their internal conditions and the external contingency factors they are confronted with. This paper also presented evidence of low between-school variance on cognitive achievement measures in Ireland. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an introduction and review of some of the main findings from the international literature on school and teacher effectiveness and discusses the relative merits of several alternative approaches to judging ‘effective schools’. The assessment of school effectiveness in the Irish context is considered, particularly in light of the relatively low variance in achievement outcomes that is generally found between schools in Ireland. Finally, some conclusions are drawn, and a number of related issues are raised for the reader’s consideration. These include the importance of the home environment and early learning for later achievement outcomes, and the inclusion of non-cognitive and non-achievement outcomes in discussions of school effectiveness. Download from: https://t.co/24stE3mRTc.
Article
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Within the context of an apparent transnational agenda of accountability, standardization, and increased government control of public education in many countries, including Canada, a growing number of constituencies question the legitimacy of school boards and argue for their elimination. Herein the authors report results of their pan Canadian study on the extent to which school board insiders (school board trustees, provincial school board association executive directors and school district superintendents) perceive this transnational agenda to have impacted public school governance in Canada in two specific areas of interest: (a) the relevance of school boards; and (b) the nature of school board members' connection with their constituents.
Chapter
Despite the growth of networks and collaboration both in education and in the public sector more generally, most of what we know about management derives from studies of single organisations. This is clearly problematic in the light of observed differences in the nature of networks. Leading networks requires an additional skills set, focussed on organising resources and partners, and, not least, their relationships, something which head teachers have not traditionally had to do to this extent.
Chapter
Educational reform tends to operate in cycles, whereby reforms are abandoned and replaced, in many cases to be revisited and revised at a later date, as prior reforms come to be seen as not fully having addressed the key educational issues they set out to remedy (Ravitch, 2000). In particular, the issue of social disadvantage and its relationship to educational outcomes is one that is almost permanently a matter of concern for policy makers, educators, and researchers. Various strategies exist that attempt to improve the educational opportunities of disadvantaged groups. School effectiveness and school improvement have traditionally focused on schools as largely single purpose institutions, devoted to educating children of a particular age and stage of learning, and have aimed to improve within school processes, in particular in those schools serving disadvantaged communities, to this effect (Muijs, 2006b).
Chapter
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Hostettler, U., & Windlinger, R. (2016). Schulleitung - Profession und Forschung. In H. Hofmann, P. Hellmüller & U. Hostettler (Eds.), Eine Schule leiten - Grundlagen und Praxis (pp. 12-24). Bern: hep verlag. http://www.hep-verlag.ch/eine-schule-leiten
Chapter
Zum Verdienst der Schuleffektivitätsforschung gehört die empirisch fundierte Herausarbeitung lernförderlicher Merkmale auf der schulischen Prozessebene, die Leistungsunterschiede – über schulische Kontextbedingungen hinaus – erklären können. Die schulischen Effekte für Schüler/innen bildungsbenachteiligter Gruppen sind dabei besonders deutlich; Schulen mit schwach entwickelter Schulqualität können somit herkunftsbedingte Benachteiligungen verstärken, Schulen mit hoher Qualität diese abmildern. So gelingt es an sogenannten erwartungswidrig guten Schulen in schwieriger sozialer Lage trotz hoher Belastungsfaktoren, schulische Leistungen auf überdurchschnittlichem Niveau zu befördern und eine gute Passung zwischen Kontextmerkmalen und schulischen sowie unterrichtlichen Handlungsstrategien zu erreichen. Zur Erklärung des Phänomens erwartungswidrig guter Schulen bestehen vielfältige theoretische Anknüpfungsmöglichkeiten, die im Beitrag mit Blick auf Ergebnisse der internationalen Forschung weiter expliziert werden. Erste Befunde aus einem nationalen Forschungskontext zeigen Ansätze für Qualitätsentwicklungsstrategien von erfolgreichen Schulen in schwieriger Lage auf.
Article
Apart from its role to ensure school accountability, most Inspectorates pursue development-oriented goals. This introduction article will first provide a theoretical background for the assumed effects and side effects of school inspections, as well as an overview of the current knowledge base, based on an elaborate literature study. It is clear that a framework is needed in order to offer a coherent and well-documented picture of the effects of inspection and of their explanatory features. Furthermore an intensive scan of each of the previous publications of Studies in Educational Evaluation was conducted in order to determine a selection of nine highly relevant articles. In the final section of this introduction, a short review of the articles included in this special issue is presented.
Presentation
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Der vielfach belegte Zusammenhang zwischen den soziodemographischen Merkmalen der Schülerschaft, dem Standort bzw. Kompositionsmerkmalen der Schule und dem schulischen Kompetenzerwerb (vgl. z.B. OECD, 2010; Nicalaidou & Ainscow, 2005; Baumert et al., 2006) richtet das nationale sowie internationale Forschungsinteresse verstärkt darauf, wie Schulen in Challenging Circumstances, also unter herausfordernden und zumeist durch soziale Deprivation gekennzeichneten Rahmenbedingungen, erfolgreich arbeiten. Internationale Forschungsbefunde verweisen hierbei auf die zentrale Bedeutung des Schulleitungshandelns (vgl. z.B. Muijs et al., 2004; Potter et al., 2002). Insbesondere über die Gestaltung personeller, schulischer sowie unterrichtlicher Rahmenbedingungen ist diesen zwar eine indirekte, aber bedeutsame Einflussnahme auf die Schulwirksamkeit möglich (vgl. Heck & Hallinger, 2014; Leithwood et al., 2006; Reynolds et al., 2014). Studien aus dem anglo-amerikanischen Raum unterstreichen in diesem Kontext die Bedeutung eines auf die Lehr-Lern-Qualität ausgerichteten Schulleitungshandelns, das sowohl die Unterrichts- als auch professionelle Weiterentwicklung im Kollegium vorantreibt, unterstützt und strukturell etabliert (vgl. Muijs et al., 2004; Hallinger & Murphy, 1986; Mortimore et al., 1988). So erweisen sich Improving Schools in herausfordernder Lage nicht nur aktiver in der Personalauswahl, sondern wenden auch mehr Zeit, Anstrengungen und Ressourcen für die professionelle Entwicklung von Lehrkräften auf (vgl. Reynolds et al., 2002; Barth et al., 1999; Freeman, 1997). Insbesondere unter Berücksichtigung der an diesen Schulstandorten häufiger aufgewiesenen Mitarbeiterfluktuation (vgl. z.B. Harris et al., 2006), der Notwendigkeit einer hohen Anstrengungsbereitschaft seitens der Lehrkräfte (vgl. z.B. Muijs et al., 2004) und der „faktischen Gleichbehandlung von Schulen in der Personal- und Sachausstattung bei gleichzeitigen schwerwiegenden Disparitäten der Arbeitsbedingungen“ (Baumert et al., 2006, S. 166) kann schulische Personalentwicklung als Anreiz- und Kompensationsinstrument fungieren (vgl. Meetz, 2007). Theoretische Ansätze zur Erklärung erwartungswidrig guter Schulperformanz, wie etwa die Kontingenztheorie (Scheerens & Bosker, 1997) oder die Theory on Opportunity to Learn (Hallinger & Murphy, 1986; van de Grift & Houtveen, 2006) stützen diese Annahme. Obgleich schulische Personalentwicklung im Zuge neuer Steuerungsansätze zunehmend auch an hiesigen Schulen vorausgesetzt wird, ist unklar, inwiefern sich die aufgezeigten Befunde auf den deutschsprachigen Raum übertragen lassen. So bestehen nicht nur zahlreiche Desiderate in der Untersuchung von Schulen an herausfordernden Standorten (vgl. van Ackeren, 2008), sondern auch zur Umsetzung schulischer Personalentwicklung und ihren zugrunde liegenden Voraussetzungen (vgl. Thillmann et al., 2015). Erste Hinweise auf einen Zusammenhang zwischen der Nutzung von Personalentwicklungsinstrumenten durch die Schulleitung und der sozialen Komposition der Schülerschaft konnten Thillmann et al. (2015) an Grundschulen aufzeigen. Vor dem Hintergrund der genannten Befunde wird im Rahmen dieses Forschungsvorhabens die Nutzungspraxis schulischer Personalentwicklung durch Schulleitungen an sozial segregierten Standorten tiefergehend untersucht. Dabei wird der Frage nachgegangen, welche Praktiken, Bedingungen und Entscheidungsgrundlagen der (Nicht-) Durchführung von Personalentwicklung jene Schulen aufweisen, die sich hinsichtlich ihrer Performanz unterscheiden. Hierfür wurden im Rahmen eines kontrastiven Fallstudienansatzes (vgl. Pettigrew, 1990; Yin, 2009) acht Grundschulen in Berlin identifiziert, die hinsichtlich der sozialen Komposition ihrer Schülerschaft sowie des Standortes unter herausfordernden Rahmenbedingungen agieren. Auf Grundlage ihrer Schulleistungsdaten (VERA 3) wurden diese den Gruppen der Overperformer (N=3), Performance as expected (N=3) und Underperformer (N=2) zugeordnet. Die Erhebung der Nutzungspraxis schulischer Personalentwicklung erfolgte mithilfe problemzentrierter Interviews (Witzel, 2000) mit den Schulleitungen, die im Rahmen eines umfassenderen Dissertationsprojektes durchgeführt wurden. Orientiert an kategorienbasierten Verfahren der qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Kuckartz, 2014, Hopf & Schmidt, 1993) wurde eine deduktiv-induktive Kategorienbildung vorgenommen, welche die Grundlage des Kodierleitfadens bildete. Die Kodierung des Materials erfolgte computergestützt (MAXQDA) durch zwei unabhängige Personen im Rahmen einer Blind Coding Procedure (vgl. US Department of Education, 1997). Mittels gruppenspezifischer Within-case- sowie Cross-case-Analysen (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Eisenhardt, 1989) werden derzeit Formen und Bedingungen schulleitungsbezogener Personalentwicklungspraxis in herausfordernder Lage herausgearbeitet. Im Rahmen des Beitrags werden die Ergebnisse der skizzierten Analysen vorgestellt und in Bezug auf die schulische Performanz diskutiert.
Chapter
In diesem Beitrag wird, ausgehend von Theorien des organisationalen Lernens und des selbstregulierten Lernens, das Zusammenspiel zwischen impliziten, relativ stabilen und expliziten, systematisch gestalteten Prozessen der Schulentwicklung untersucht. Wir argumentieren, dass es die Analyse dieses Zusammenspiels besser ermöglicht herauszuarbeiten, welche stabilen Orientierungen und Praktiken den Schulentwicklungsalltag der Akteur*innen in der Schule prägen sowie wann und in welchen Situationen diese impliziten, routinierten Prozesse unterbrochen werden, weil sie für die Bearbeitung spezifischer schulinterner oder schulexterner Herausforderungen nicht (mehr) funktional sind bzw. zu sein scheinen. Es wird ein theoretisches Rahmenmodell entwickelt, dessen Potential für die Schulentwicklungsforschung aufgezeigt wird, dessen Schwächen aber auch diskutiert werden.
Article
During the last 20 years, the influx of immigrant pupils in Spanish schools has taken up much of school counsellors’ agendas. This leads us to reflect upon the status and role of educational guidance in terms of cultural diversity management, particularly focusing on two elements that may potentially help understand the situation: relations with other educational agents and the intervention model applied. The field work for this study was carried out during an academic semester in four secondary schools in Huelva. In addition to the analysis of official school documentation, remarks and field notes, semi-structured interviews were carried out and a discussion group was held with the four counsellors. Counsellors are trying to overcome an intervention model that is mainly therapeutic in nature and make space in their schedules for a way of working that is more focused on prevention and advisory services, incorporating the participation of other educational actors. But this is not an easy task. The possibility of generating changes would encourage better integration of cultural diversity in the life of schools, rather than treating it as a negative/deficit view, as an occasional issue, individual and isolated from the sum of school activities and other members of the education community.
Article
This paper considers the concerning issue of social disadvantage in N. Ireland schools and suggests that the majority of those entering the teaching profession are ill-equipped to empathise with pupils in disadvantaged areas and thus less enabled to offer effective pastoral care. It argues that this lack of preparedness stems from backgrounds very different to that of these pupils and also from an initial teacher education which does not provide a systematic practical experience in schools in ‘challenging’ areas. The paper briefly outlines a small-scale ITE social justice project undertaken at Stranmillis University College, Belfast designed to provide such experience and, citing specific evidence from data gathered in a recent evaluation, offers it as a model of preparing student-teachers to better understand the realities of their pupils’ lives through extended pre-service contact.
Book
Der Band beinhaltet theoretische Analysen der Transformationen von Schule, die sich im Zusammenhang mit gesell­schaftspolitischen Herausforderungen, bildungspolitischen Reformen oder einzelschulischen Entwicklungsprozessen ereignen. Vor dem Hintergrund der Annahme, dass Transformationen nicht losgelöst von Tendenzen der Beharrung zu analysieren sind, nehmen die Beiträge des Bandes Kontinuität und Wandel von Schule gleichermaßen in den Blick. Es werden sowohl Möglichkeitsräume als auch Begrenzungen für Schulentwicklung theoretisch ausgeleuchtet. Die Herausgeber*innen Dr. Anna Moldenhauer ist Professorin an der Fakultät Erziehungswissenschaften an der Technischen Universität Dresden. Dr. Barbara Asbrand ist Professorin am Fachbereich Erziehungswissenschaften der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main. Dr. Merle Hummrich ist Professorin am Fachbereich Erziehungswissenschaften der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main. Dr. Till-Sebastian Idel ist Professor an der Fakultät I – Bildungs- und Sozialwissenschaften der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg.
Book
Gemäß dem meritokratischen Prinzip sollte alleine die Leistung eines Schülers, gemessen u.a. durch Schulnoten oder Bildungsempfehlungen, dessen Bildungschancen bestimmen. Jedoch weist die empirische Bildungsforschung darauf hin, dass das deutsche Bildungssystem diesem Anspruch bei weitem und bis heute nicht gerecht wird. So belegen zahlreiche Studien ausgeprägte Ungleichheiten der Bildungschancen nach sozialer und ethnischer Herkunft sowie nach Geschlecht und Region. Dabei gehen die angesprochenen empirischen Analysen (und die jeweils zugrunde liegenden theoretischen Konzepte) jedoch implizit häufig davon aus, dass alleine individuelle Determinanten und Ressourcen des Elternhauses für die festgestellten Bildungsungleichheiten ursächlich sind und es somit für die Bildungschancen vernachlässigbar ist, in welchen Bildungskontexten – wie etwa Schule, Schulklasse, Wohngegend, Region oder soziales Netzwerk – sich eine Schülerin oder ein Schüler befindet. Neuere Untersuchungen auf Basis von Mehrebenen- und Längsschnittanalysen zeigen allerdings, dass neben dem Wandel gesellschaftlicher Kontexte und der Expansion von Bildungsgelegenheiten auch die Bedingungen in den Schulen, Klassen und Regionen sowie die Lehrkräfte und die Zusammensetzung des Freundeskreises der Schülerinnen und Schüler einen erheblichen Einfluss auf den individuellen Bildungserfolg haben. Der Inhalt Mit Beiträgen von Michael Windzio, Hans-Peter Blossfeld, Wilfried Bos, C. Katharina Spieß, Hartmut Ditton, Isabell van Ackeren, Dominik Becker, Volker Stocké, Petra Stanat, Michaela Sixt, Günter Faber, Cornelia Kristen, David Reimer, Martin Neugebauer, Horst Weishaupt, Rolf Becker und Jürgen Schiener Die Zielgruppen Bildungssoziologinnen und -soziologen, Migrationssoziologen und -soziologinnen, Sozialforscherinnen und -forscher, Erziehungswissenschaftlerinnen und -wissenschaftler Die Herausgeber Prof. Dr. Rolf Becker ist Direktor und Professor für Bildungssoziologie am Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft der Universität Bern. Dr. Alexander Schulze ist wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut für Soziologie der Universität Mainz.
Chapter
Schulentwicklungsforschung hat sich in der zweiten Hälfte des letzten Jahrhunderts als eine zentrale Forschungsperspektive herausgebildet. Im Zentrum steht die Einzelschule als pädagogische Handlungseinheit und die Frage, wie schulische Akteure die Qualität ihrer Schule weiterentwickeln können, so dass das Handeln der Akteure professionalisiert und das Lernen der Schüler*innen verbessert werden kann. Organisationstheoretische sowie mehrebenenanalytische Konzepte bilden die Basis der Erforschung von Schulentwicklung. Im Beitrag werden wichtige historische Entwicklungs- und aktuelle Forschungslinien herausgearbeitet und offene Forschungsfragen diskutiert.
Article
This study analyses how studies on disadvantaged schools, improvement and test-based accountability relate to each other. The analysis covers 69 studies on disadvantaged schools reported in prestigious educational journals and conducted in 1995–2015. Educational policies related to evaluation and accountability define the official goals of schooling, and the aim in this article is to analyse how the chosen studies discuss these educational policies and understand school success and failure. The following questions were asked: What typologies related to test-based accountability can be constructed in research on disadvantaged schools? What understandings of good schools are embedded in the identified typologies? Disadvantaged schools are at the centre of improvement and therefore also the target of evaluative policy practices. The results show that research supports test-based accountability practices, and that critical studies on school improvement are in the minority.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine principals’ sense-making of a school–university collaboration taking an institutional perspective on organizational change. The study’s context involves three schools in a collaboration focusing on leadership and school improvement with one university. Design/methodology/approach The study draws on findings from a qualitative case study that examined principals’ sense-making of this type of school–university collaboration. Data were collected over three years and consisted of semistructured interviews, meeting notes, field observations, field notes and document analysis. A qualitative content analysis was performed using the Atlas.ti 6.2 software tool. Findings The findings showed that mattering sense-making for the principals in this collaboration is related to the cultivation of collective participation and responsibility, the development of trust and improvement culture among actors, and the sense of moving towards research-based and collaborative learning-oriented practices in their schools. Research limitations/implications This study encountered several limitations that need to be addressed and recognized. First, the small number of cases in this multiple case study, as well as the specific social context, limits the possibilities for the generalization of the findings. Second, the study was not independently selected and the findings and analyses were linked to national and local contexts, which can be seen as a limitation and a strength. Nevertheless, this study provides in-depth information about the principals’ experiences and constructions of meaning as they helped lead a school–university collaboration in their schools. Finally, although the sample was small and not representative, the findings provided useful insights into and examples of how principals understand and interpret a school–university partnership in their schools’ improvement processes. Originality/value The findings provide an elaborated illustration of how intentional efforts to collaborate and develop the schools in a school–university partnership may affect the regulative, normative and cultural–cognitive aspects in schools.
Article
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Previous research has demonstrated that school processes can be significantly associated with (in)equality in schools. However, it is unclear what these practices in schools look like. This study aims to understand support practices for students in primary schools in a highly selective education system. The findings are based on a contrastive case comparison of five primary schools in Switzerland with a large percentage of children with a migration background. Quantitative surveys with students in Grades 4, 5, and 6 (n = 372) and qualitative analyses of group discussions with teachers were conducted. The results of the qualitative study, and in part also of the quantitative study, show that schools differ systematically in providing support for students. None of the schools was found to have a support milieu that could be described as non-discriminatory. In the majority of the schools, the support milieu is oriented towards high performing students with a higher socio-cultural family background or high educational aspirations; this may lead to the reproduction of inequalities. Only two schools seem to have implemented compensatory support strategies, at least partially. Further, the schools can be differentiated regarding the teachers' perceived degree of their active participation in supporting students.
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A review is given of internationally orientated educational effectiveness research over time, looking at the waves of studies from 1960 to 2001, the beginning of the PISA studies. It is concluded that whilst PISA has been a major methodological improvement upon earlier work, there are issues to do with the ‘culture fairness’ of test items, OECD misrepresenting of its own work, sampling adequacy and manipulation of samples by some governments. It is argued that educational effectiveness and improvement research can provide useful perspectives for international effectiveness research in terms of its focus upon pedagogy/teaching, its value-added approach, its often longitudinal design, its use of ‘supply side’ as well as ‘demand side’ policy variables and its use of ‘efficiency’ as well as ‘effectiveness’ measures. It is also argued that the cultural and contextual factors/features of societies would additionally require study. It is finally argued that high quality international comparative work may help in the generation of more useful educational effectiveness research, particularly in the generation of more valid, sensitive context specific formulations.
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This paper examines reforms to secondary school admissions in England since 1997. In particular, it focuses on the new ‘quasi-regulation’ that has been introduced to make the process of admissions fairer and more transparent. Our analysis reveals that the quasi-regulation has had some impact on the process of admissions to secondary schools. In a number of authorities with highly developed secondary school quasi-markets, the policy changes have resulted in some inequitable admissions criteria being removed. However, there are still problems with school admissions and policy recommendations about how the system can be made fairer are presented.
Article
This paper begins by noting the centrality of the issue of working-class school failure within the sociology of education in Britain. It argues that recent government policies have taken insufficient account of sociological work on the impact of social class on educational success and failure. It also suggests that sociologists should pay more attention to middle-class education. The importance of this is illustrated through reference to research on the trajectories of pupils receiving different forms of secondary education. The paper then argues that social inclusion policies need to address a variety of forms of middle-class self-exclusion from mainstream public provision as well as working-class social exclusion. It concludes that education policy needs to be located within a broader social policy framework.
Article
This study examines the leadership and management skills needed to improve urban high schools. Information was drawn from a national survey of 178 urban high school principals whose schools had been conducting serious improvement efforts for up to 4 years and in-depth case studies of five large high schools in the following urban areas: (1) Boston; (2) New York; (3) New Jersey; (4) Cleveland; and (5) Los Angeles. The following summary findings are discussed in terms of their implications for districts and schools and the issues of will and skill involved in implementation: (1) schools and their districts must be actively engaged with each other, but with few rules and much autonomy for the school to choose goals and strategies; (2) planning should be evolutionary and works best through a cross-role group of people who may not normally work together; (3) a shared vision of what the school is to become is an important feature guiding improvement; (4) from $50,000 to $100,000 annually for several years is needed for serious change efforts; and (5) problems must be confronted actively, promptly, and in depth. Discussions of the research methodology, nine tables of statistical data, and a list of 155 references are appended. (FMW)
Article
Incl. bibl., abstract. Schools in difficult and challenging circumstances have received increasing policy and to some extent research attention in recent years. Improving schools in these circumstances is likely to prove a difficult process. This literature review has attempted to collect research on improving schools in these areas. Themes emerging from the literature include: a focus on teaching and learning, leadership, creating an information-rich environment, creating a positive school culture, building a learning community, continuous professional development, involving parents, external support and resources. The crucial issue of sustaining improvement is also discussed.
Article
This paper investigates the effect of introducing quasi-market forces into secondary education on the allocation of pupils between schools and on the exam performance of pupils. A unique database is used which covers all publicly-funded secondary schools in England over the period 1992-98. We find several effects consistent with the operation of a quasi-market. Firstly, new admissions are found to be positively related to a school's own exam performance and negatively related to the exam performance of competing schools. Secondly, a school's growth in pupil numbers is positively related to its exam performance compared to its immediate competitors. Thirdly, there is strong evidence that schools experiencing an excess demand for places have responded by increasing their physical capacity. Fourthly, there is some evidence of an increase in the concentration of pupils from poor family backgrounds in those schools with the poorest exam performance of schools during 1992-98 can be attributed to the introduction of quasi-market forces.
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