Article

Effects of essential oils and touch on resistance to nursing care procedures and other dementia-related behaviours in a residential care facility

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Abstract

Essential oils of lavender, sweet marjoram, patchouli and vetiver were blended into an aqueous cream (content of essential oil blend = 3.5ml/100g aqueous cream) and 5g was gently massaged five times/day onto the bodies and limbs of 56 aged care facility residents (age range 70–92 years) with moderate to severe dementia. Participants were divided into two groups and following a baseline period in which there was first no massage at all, followed by massage with cream only, the groups received 4 weeks of massage with cream and essential oils or 4 weeks of massage with cream alone, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. Full data sets over the trial period were available for 36 participants. During the period of oil application, both groups showed a significant decrease in the average frequency and severity of dementia-related behaviours occurring at times other than during nursing care, compared to during the baseline and the ‘no oil’ periods. Resistance to nursing care procedures increased, however, for participants in one of the gr oups during the essential oil application period, which may reflect increased mental alertness and awareness caused by the oils. A possible increase in mental alertness and cognitive function was also suggested by a small but significant improvement in Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores after the essential oil treatment period for the seven residents who scored above 0 on the MMSE.

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... Beröringen gav däremot ingen effekt på fysiskt aggressivt beteende (Hicks-Moore & Robinson, 2008;Hawranik et al., 2008). medmänsklig relation skapades (Skovdahl et al., 2007;Holliday Welsh et al., 2009;Edvardsson et al., 2002;Joy Bowles et al., 2005;Joy Bowles et al., 2002;Doherty, 2004). ...
... Flera studier visade att relationen mellan vårdare och patient förstärktes av beröringen och relationen blev mer mellanmänsklig. (Skovdahl et al., 2007;Welsh et al., 2009;Edvardsson et al., 2002;Joy Bowles et al., 2005;Joy Bowles et al., 2002;Doherty, 2004). Vårdpersonalen i en studie upplevde att beröring var lätt att lära sig. ...
... Detta har även visat sig i studier av JoyBowles (2002) och Holliday Welsh (2009) där resultatet visar att patienten måste kunna säga ifrån sig beröring och vårdaren ska inte tvinga sig på patienten med beröring. Två studier poängterade att närvaro och uppmärksamhet av vårdaren gav patienten trygghet och genom detta kunde effekterna av beröringen förbättras(Wang & Hermann, 2006;Kolcaba et al., 2006).Eide & Eide (2006) menade att den demenssjuke personen får en känsla av lugn, trygghet och stöd genom närvaro av en kompetent vårdare. ...
... Utilizaron la técnica de effleurage superficial, que consiste en desplazamientos con las manos (palma y pulpejos) de manera superficial sobre la piel de forma centrípeta 22 . En 2 investigaciones 21,30 realizaron la masoterapia sobre las muñecas, manos y dedos, y en el resto de los estudios aplicaron los masajes sobre brazos, hombros, manos y cabeza 10 o sobre la espalda, cuello, hombros, brazos y antebrazos 29 . ...
... Con respecto al tipo de lubricante utilizado para mejorar la fricción entre la piel de los participantes y las manos del terapeuta se han empleado tanto aceites sin aromas añadidos 8,10,25,30 como aceites aromáticos 4,9,29,31 , interfiriendo por lo tanto, además de la técnica del masaje, el efecto que los aromas proporcionan sobre los sujetos 4,9 . Se ha utilizado una mezcla de aceites de almendra, lavanda, geranio y mandarina 9 , aceites esenciales procedentes de la lavanda 31 , aceite de Melissa para el grupo de intervención, mientras que para el grupo control aceite de girasol 4 , o bien una mezcla de aceite de lavanda, mejorana, pachuli y vetiver con agua para el grupo de intervención, y crema acuosa para masaje en el grupo placebo 29 . ...
... Con respecto al tipo de lubricante utilizado para mejorar la fricción entre la piel de los participantes y las manos del terapeuta se han empleado tanto aceites sin aromas añadidos 8,10,25,30 como aceites aromáticos 4,9,29,31 , interfiriendo por lo tanto, además de la técnica del masaje, el efecto que los aromas proporcionan sobre los sujetos 4,9 . Se ha utilizado una mezcla de aceites de almendra, lavanda, geranio y mandarina 9 , aceites esenciales procedentes de la lavanda 31 , aceite de Melissa para el grupo de intervención, mientras que para el grupo control aceite de girasol 4 , o bien una mezcla de aceite de lavanda, mejorana, pachuli y vetiver con agua para el grupo de intervención, y crema acuosa para masaje en el grupo placebo 29 . ...
Article
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To know the efficacy of therapeutic massage on behavioral disturbances of elderly patients with dementia. Literature review. The literature search was done in six scientific databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library Plus, PEDro, Dialnet, Scopus and CSIC, between 1983 and 2013. The search terms were "massage", "dementia", "therapy", "behavior disorders" and "Alzheimer". Of the 496 articles analyzed, 11 scientific articles have met the selection criteria. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, which had analyzed the effects of massage therapy on altered behaviors in people with dementia. The variables were massage benefits, type of massage and massage lubricant. Their authors use different massage techniques (effleurage, pétrissage, pressures, frictions and kneading), obtain better conduct disorders (aggression, anxiety, agitation, and resistance to care) of elderly. The therapeutic massage can be a complementary treatment in the rehabilitation program for better behavior disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... Because of its excellent fixative properties, V. zizanioides is one of the most important raw materials in perfumery (16,23). The authors of most of the previous studies of V. zizanioides have aimed to identify the compounds of the essential oil prepared from the roots of V. zizanioides and elucidate the activities of this essential oil (3,5,8,11,15,18,35). The qualities of the essential oil prepared from the roots of V. zizanioides depend on genetic, environmental and technological factors (17,25). ...
... This suggests that the volatile compounds emitted under low-dose conditions can maintain performance without evoking strong emotions. The essential oil of the roots of V. zizanioides has been reported to possess sedative properties and is traditionally used for relieving stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia (3,5). Blood volume in the frontal lobe of the brain ...
Article
The perennial grass Vetiveria zizanioides (vetiver) is mainly cultivated for its fragrant essential oil. Although the components of the oil and their biological activities have been studied extensively, the effect of the volatiles emitted from the roots of V. zizanioides on humans has so far remained unexplored. We investigated the effects of volatile compounds emitted from the cut roots of V. zizanioides (1.0 g, low-dose conditions; 30 g, high-dose conditions) on individuals during a visual display terminal task. Participants who breathed the volatile compounds emitted under low-dose conditions showed faster reaction times and stimulation of sympathetic nerve activity as measured by electrocardiography. These effects were not observed under high-dose conditions. The total amounnt of volatiles emitted during the experiment was 0.25 μg under low-dose conditions and 1.35 μg under high-dose conditions. These findings indicate that volatile compounds emitted from the roots of V. zizanioides under low-dose conditions may have helped subjects to maintain performance in visual discrimination tasks while maintaining high sympathetic nerve system activity.
... Such interventions have included: adequate lighting, 14 appropriate environmental temperatures, 15 removal of unpleasant noises, 16 presence of pleasant sounds (music) 17 and installation of multisensory environments including sensory gardens or Snoezelen rooms. 18 Other studies have focused on sensory interventions such as: physical contact, [19][20][21][22] animal therapy, 23 aromatherapy and essential oils, 24 25 and nutrition. [26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Although, research on older adults and sensory decline exists, this is the first review that focuses on the relationship between sensory interventions and the quality of life of residents living in long-term care settings. ...
... Although previous studies have looked at sensory decline and decreased quality of life, 4-13 and at interventions related to the senses, [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] this is the first review specifically looking at sensory interventions for older adults with a general decline of the senses living in long-term care. ...
Article
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Introduction and purpose Residents in long-term care exhibit diminishing senses (hearing, sight, taste, smell or touch). The purpose of this study was to examine the available literature on the impact of sensory interventions on the quality of life of residents living in long-term care settings. Methods We conducted a mixed-methods scoping review using Arksey and O’Malley’s framework. Seven databases (Medline (Ovid), PubMed (non-Medline-Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), Embase (Ovid), Ageline, PsycINFO (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 1 December 2020) were searched. Two reviewers independently screened the studies for sensory interventions using a two-step process. Eligible studies underwent data extraction and results were synthesised descriptively. Results We screened 5551 titles and abstracts. A total of 52 articles met our inclusion criteria. Some interventions involved only one sense: hearing (n=3), sight (n=12), smell (n=4) and touch (n=15). Other interventions involved multiple senses (n=18). We grouped the interventions into 16 categories (music programmes, environmental white noise, bright light interventions, visual stimulations, olfactory stimulations, massages, therapeutic touch, tactile stimulations, physical activity plus night-time programmes, pet therapies, various stimuli interventions, Snoezelen rooms, motor and multisensory based strategies, Namaste care, environmental modifications and expressive touch activities). Conclusion This preliminary review summarised some of the available sensory interventions that will help inform a series of future systematic reviews on each of the specific interventions. The evidence-based knowledge for sensory interventions will also inform a future audit programme for assessing the presence of sensory interventions in long-term care.
... Further clinical studies have also shown beneficial effects of essential oils in the treatment of agitated behaviour and other behavioural problems [47][48][49] and on resistance to nursing care procedures and other dementiarelated behaviours [49]. ...
... Further clinical studies have also shown beneficial effects of essential oils in the treatment of agitated behaviour and other behavioural problems [47][48][49] and on resistance to nursing care procedures and other dementiarelated behaviours [49]. ...
Article
Essential oils, made out of natural aromatic molecules, are endowed with so many physiological and pharmacological properties that they find applications in almost every field of medicine, not only curatively but also from a preventative medicine point of view. Although the perception of, and reaction to, essential oils seems to be slightly different between women and men, all people of all ages benefit from aromatherapy. Provided that the practitioner has the relevant information and has undergone the appropriate training, and that the aromatic extracts used conform to medical quality criteria, aromatherapy and aromatology can bring real complementary help to many patients, far beyond the anti-stress massage approach.Aromatherapy can provide a useful complementary medical service both in healthcare settings and in private practice, e.g. in cancer care, dementia, and depression. There are also many indications for the useful and successful application of essential oils, especially for men, such as stress, sleep disorders, back pain, urinary tract infections, rectal abscess, and sexual health.
... To our surprise, only 22 (27%) of the interventions in our sample specified the inclusion of an education and training component (19,20,26,29,37,41,42,(44)(45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51)(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57). When reviewing the literature, it is clear that continuing professional development via education and training courses for care providers related to understanding dementia is necessary for the implementation of best practices in dementia care (58) and that the lack of these opportunities can lead to increased prevalence of, and negative outcomes related to, BPSD (59). ...
... When examining our matrix to further elucidate the contextual factors that influence outcomes related to the presence of care skill development we found that 22 (28%) interventions included initial training to educate staff in dementia care and/or the benefits of the specific interventions. Of these studies, eight (36%) received an effectiveness rating "A" or "B" (19,26,29,37,41,42,55), nine (40%) received an effectiveness rating "C" (45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(52)(53)(54), and five (23%) received an effectiveness rating "D" or "E" (20,42,51,56,57). Thus, our review found that providing initial training on these essential topics may be necessary, but it is not sufficient in producing substantive or sustained improvements in decreasing BPSD. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) refer to the often distressing, noncognitive symptoms of dementia. BPSD appear in up to 90% of persons with dementia and can cause serious complications. Reducing the use of antipsychotic medications to treat BPSD is an international priority. This review addresses the following questions: What nonpharmacological interventions work to manage BPSD? And, in what circumstances do they work and why? Method A realist review was conducted to identify and explain the interactions among context, mechanism, and outcome. We searched electronic databases for empirical studies that reported a formal evaluation of nonpharmacological interventions to decrease BPSD. Results Seventy-four articles met the inclusion criteria. Three mechanisms emerged as necessary for sustained effective outcomes: the caring environment, care skill development and maintenance, and individualization of care. We offer hypotheses about how different contexts account for the success, failure, or partial success of these mechanisms within the interventions. Discussion Nonpharmacological interventions for BPSD should include consideration of both the physical and the social environment, ongoing education/training and support for care providers, and individualized approaches that promote self-determination and continued opportunities for meaning and purpose for persons with dementia.
... While these results support the hypothesis that absorption of lavender essential oils through the nose and skin may assist in promoting mental health, studies involving dementia patients often have many methodological constraints inherent in their experimental design which inhibit cogent interpretations of experimental conclusions. For instance, as Holmes and Ballard [28] report that the signature fragrances of lavender often compromise double-blind studies, that expectation of lavender exposure influences test subjectsʼ responses to treatment, and that patients with severe dementia have likely lost an acute sense of smell. These limitations, in addition to other clinical phenomena such as the Hawthorne effect, are all factors that compromise many studies [28]. ...
... For instance, as Holmes and Ballard [28] report that the signature fragrances of lavender often compromise double-blind studies, that expectation of lavender exposure influences test subjectsʼ responses to treatment, and that patients with severe dementia have likely lost an acute sense of smell. These limitations, in addition to other clinical phenomena such as the Hawthorne effect, are all factors that compromise many studies [28]. The purported aroma-therapeutic properties of lavender in healthy individuals have remained as the most controversial application of this essential oil. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lavenders and their essential oils have been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. The volatile compounds that comprise lavender essential oils, including linalool and linalyl acetate, have demonstrative therapeutic properties, and the relative abundance of these metabolites is greatly influenced by the genetics and environment of the developing plants. With the rapid progress of molecular biology and the genomic sciences, our understanding of essential oil biosynthesis has greatly improved over the past few decades. At the same time, there is a recent surge of interest in the use of natural remedies, including lavender essential oils, in alternative medicine and aromatherapy. This article provides a review of recent developments related to the biosynthesis and medicinal properties of lavender essential oils.
... Two studies focussed on aromatherapy, one (n=36, W) using a blend of lavender, sweet marjoram, patchouli, and vetiver applied in cream (Bowles et al, 2002) and one (n=13, M) using separate tea-tree, sweet orange, lavender vera, and no aroma (as a control) conditions on cotton wool attached to the person (Gray and Clair, 2002). Both studies found no statistical significant differences in refusal behaviour when aromas were used. ...
... Both studies found no statistical significant differences in refusal behaviour when aromas were used. Of note, a significant increase in refusal behaviour occurred in one of the intervention groups with the mixed-aroma cream (p=.0026) (Bowles et al, 2002). ...
Article
Background Refusals of care in dementia are common and can create difficult situations for caregivers. Little is known about the best way to manage them. Aim To identify possible strategies and interventions to reduce or cope with refusals of care in dementia, and determine the evidence for these. Methods We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, AMED and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases August 2018, with an updated search August 2019. An additional lateral search was conducted. Two researchers screened all records for potential eligibility and quality. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the findings. Results Out of the 5953 records identified, 36 articles, relating to 30 studies, met the eligibility criteria. Twenty-eight of the studies (93%) were set in long-term care facilities, one in a psychogeriatric unit and one with community dwelling people. Fourteen out of the 30 studies focussed on general or mixed care activities, 8 bathing, 4 mealtimes, 2 medication administration, and 2 mouth care. Strategies or interventions identified as potential ways to reduce refusals included: music interventions, interaction and communication style, caregiver approach, bathing techniques, abilities focussed approaches, distraction approaches, and video-simulated presence of a loved one. There was most evidence for music interventions and different bathing techniques, and interaction and communication styles were associated with reduced refusals. There was no evidence that slow-stroke massage (mixed care activities) or aromatherapy (mixed care activities and medication administration) reduced refusals of care. Conclusions Some non-pharmacological interventions can reduce, but not eliminate, refusals of care, such as playing music during care or communicating positively without using elderspeak. More research evidence is needed to underpin strategies identified as encouraging such as Namaste care or distraction techniques. Future research should address gaps identified such as, the absence of research examining non-pharmacological interventions for refusals of care in hospital settings and in community settings with home-care workers, and the limited research involving family carers. Tweetable abstract: Playing music during care and offering different bathing options can reduce refusal behaviours in dementia, whereas elderspeak and negative communication are associated with refusals.
... Recent research has demonstrated that extracts of vetiver roots possess several biological properties, such as antifungal [13], antioxidant [1], anticancer [14] and anti-inflammatory activities [15]. Vetiver oil can also be used for the treatment of patients with dementia-related behaviors to increase mental alertness and cognitive function [16]. These properties make vetiver extracts promising candidates for application in the pharmaceutical industry [9]. ...
Article
Three operating parameters of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) have been optimized by a response surface method using central composite design to obtain high yields of essential oil from roots of Vetiveria zizanioides. Analyses by multiple regression indicated that pressure has a major linear effect on oil yield, whilst temperature and time have a lesser impact. However, the effect of temperature in combination with pressure is significant. Overall, extraction yields increase with both pressure and temperature. The optimal SCE yield (1.38%) obtained at the operating conditions of 190 bar, 50 °C and 100 min was about four times higher than that achieved by hydro-distillation. In general, the quality of vetiver oil extracted by SCE is suitable for the food industry. In order for the SCE extracts to be acceptable in the perfumery industry, however, a high yield of vetiver oil would be required in association with high khusimol and low zizanoic acid contents.
... Studies receiving a 'poor' rating Bowles et al. (2002): It is an Australian study exploring the effects of essential oils applied with touch on the behaviour of 56 older people with moderate to severe dementia in one nursing home. Participants were divided into two groups, with one group receiving 4 weeks of massage with plain base cream only and the other group receiving 4 weeks of massage with cream and essential oils. ...
Article
Aims and objectives: To review the literature on massage used to manage agitated behaviours in older people with dementia, assess its efficacy as a non-pharmacological approach and provide recommendations for future research. Background: Agitation has traditionally been managed with chemical or physical restraint. There has been a growing interest in complementary therapies such as massage. Design: A literature review. Methods: Cooper's five-stage model of synthesising research guided the review process. The search terms 'massage', 'agitation' and 'dementia' were defined, and 10 databases were searched in October 2011. No date limitations were applied, although searches were limited to articles written in English. For relevant records, full-text copies were obtained and assessed in terms of inclusion criteria and methodological quality using the Validity Rating Tool (VRT). Data were extracted using a form constructed with reference to the checklist of items to consider in data extraction, produced by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Results: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were assessed on the VRT. One study was considered of adequate methodological quality to be included in the review. This prospective study found that massage significantly reduced levels of agitation in 52 cognitively impaired residents in two long-term care facilities. Conclusions: There is a severe paucity of research that considers the effects of massage on managing agitated behaviours in older people with dementia. Whilst conclusions cannot be drawn from the one study included in this review, it did provide evidence to support the use of massage as a non-pharmacological approach to managing agitation in older people with dementia. More research, of better methodological quality, is needed. Relevance to clinical practice: There is a need for health practitioners to be aware of the limited evidence for massage as an intervention for agitation and to provide opportunities to validate massage practice.
... In the Activity Garden, designers have rearranged the plants in order to ensure an active sensory stimulation all year long. Aromatherapy was considered for the selection of herbs and plants, such as bergamot, sage, rosemary, mint, lavender, laurel, basil which are known for their stimulating properties (Price and Price, 1999; Conn and Seitz, 2010; Fujii et al, 2008; Lin et al, 2007; Bowles et al, 2002; Burns, 2002; Holmes et al, 2004). The garden is surrounded on two sides by the building of the unit and on the other two sides by a planted green fence. ...
Article
Full-text available
Backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of two different Alzheimer‟s gardens, one designed as a “quiet space” and the other as an “activity” garden, by direct observations of behavior of the forty two residents in a Special Care Unit for people with dementia. Methods. Observations were conducted within the gardens to evaluate whether they were used by residents and how, including frequency of visit, way in which the gardens were used for individual and social activities. Since residents are persons with dementia with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer disease, other dementias or psychosis, we compared the recorded behaviors of these three groups. Results. Findings suggest that the two gardens are used differently in the activities performed according to gender, diagnosis and garden characteristics, while frequency is different only for the time of the day. Conclusion. These data confirm the importance of the connection between persons with dementia and environment, that can be considered essential part of the therapeutic protocol.
... Extracts of VG roots possess several biological properties, such as antifungal (Sridhar et al., 2003), antibacterial (Hammer et al., 1999), anticancer (Chen et al., 2003), anti-inflammatory (Jagtap et al., 2004) and antioxidant activities (Kim et al., 2005). VG oil can also be used for the treatment of patients with dementia-related behaviors to increase mental alertness and cognitive function (Bowles et al., 2002). These properties widen the applicability of VG extracts in the pharmaceutical industry (Talansier et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The application of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizaniodes) for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils can be promoted by economic return through essential oil production. Four levels of lead (0, 500, 2000, and 8000 mg kg(-1) dry soil), copper (0, 100, 400, and 1600 mg kg(-1) dry soil) and zinc (0, 400, 1600, and 6400 mg kg(-1) dry soil) were used to study their effects on vetiver growth, essential oil composition and yield. This study also investigated the effect of nitrogen concentrations on vetiver oil yield. Vetiver accumulated high concentrations of Pb, Cu and Zn in roots (3246, 754 and 2666 mg kg(-1), respectively) and small amounts of contaminants in shoots (327, 55, and 642 mg kg(-1), respectively). Oil content and yield were not affected at low and moderate concentrations of Cu and Zn. Only the application of Pb had a significant detrimental effect on oil composition. Extraction of vetiver essential oils by hydrodistillation produced heavy metal free products. High level of nitrogen reduced oil yields. Results show that phytoremediation of Cu and Zn contaminated soils by vetiver can generate revenue from the commercialization of oil extracts.
... Some biological activities are also attributed to the vetiver roots extracts such as antifungal [9], antioxidant [10], and antiinflammatory [11]. The vetiver oil can also be used for nursing care residents with dementia-related behaviors, in order to increase mental alertness and cognitive function [12]. These properties may open new possibilities to the utilization of vetiver extracts in the pharmaceutical industry. ...
Article
The volatile oils from the Vetiveria zizanioides oil are particularly appreciated in perfume and cosmetic products but may also be used in the food industry as aroma and flavor agent. The objective of this work was to study the improvement over the conventional process on the quantity and quality of vetiver extracts recovered by supercritical technology (SFE). The pressure effect (100–300bar) at 40°C, and the influence of amount of ethanol used as cosolvent (0, 5 and 10%, v/v) were studied. Supercritical extraction process was compared to the hydrodistillation, based on vetiver extract quantity and quality; SFE extracts and presented khusimol contents of 14–29% over hydrodistillation and for SFE, the global yields and kinetic parameters obtained using 10% (v/v) of ethanol were statistically different from extraction using 0 and 5% of ethanol. The TLC and GC showed similar chemical profiles for SFE and HD, but were aware some compounds that were observed by TLC just during the tCER region. Mathematical modeling was performed for vetiver kinetics obtained by SFE+cosolvent and Sovová model showed the best adjusts for all curves.
... In the Activity Garden, designers have rearranged the plants in order to ensure an active sensory stimulation all year long. Aromatherapy was considered for the selection of herbs and plants, such as bergamot, sage, rosemary, mint, lavender, laurel, basil which are known for their stimulating properties (Price and Price, 1999;Conn and Seitz, 2010;Fujii et al, 2008;Lin et al, 2007;Bowles et al, 2002;Burns, 2002;Holmes et al, 2004). The garden is surrounded on two sides by the building of the unit and on the other two sides by a planted green fence. ...
... The fresh leaves can help in healing burns. In aromatherapy, it is used to calm nerves, control appetite, relieves depression, stress and lack of sexual interest (Bowel et al., 2002). It also possesses insecticidal, antibacterial and antifungal properties (Kukreja et al., 1990, Yang, 1996, Pattnaik et al., 1996. ...
Article
Full-text available
The genetic relationships among patchouli cultivars were determined by using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technology. Among 45 decamer random primers used for PCR reactions, 10 primers showed reproducible results. Out of 98 amplification products recorded, 16.7 per cent were monomorphic and 83.3 per cent were polymorphic. The highest dissimilarity (7.35) was detected between KSM 4 and 5 and the least 3.61 between KSM 2 and 3. Dendrogram constructed by cluster analysis of RAPD markers using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) produced two major clusters Overall, RAPD analysis revealed the existence of considerable genetic variations in patchouli cultivars. This information regarding genetic variability at the molecular level could be used to identify and develop genetically unique germplasm that complements existing cultivars. Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) belonging to the family Lamiaceae, is an aromatic herb cultivated on a commercial scale in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, China and Singapore. The commercial oil from patchouli is extensively used in perfumes and cosmetics (Hasegawa et al., 1992, Maheswari et al., 1993). The oil is widely used in the manufacture of soaps, scents, body lotions and detergents. It is been used to treat dysentery, diarrhea, colds without fevers, vomiting and nausea. The essential oil may be used to treat acne, dry skin, fungal infections, dermatitis, dandruff and eczema (Kalra et al., 2006). The fresh leaves can help in healing burns. In aromatherapy, it is used to calm nerves, control appetite, relieves depression, stress and lack of sexual interest (Bowel et al., 2002). It also possesses insecticidal, antibacterial and antifungal properties (Kukreja et al., 1990, Yang, 1996, Pattnaik et al., 1996). Fibrinolytic and anti thrombotic activity of this essential oil is also been reported (Sumi, 2003, Eunkyung et al., 2002). Indian demand for patchouli oil is around 220 tonnes valued at 33 crores while global demand is to the tune of 1600 tonnes of oil per annum with a value of 240 crores (Vijaya Kumar, 2004). India is importing annually about 20 tonnes of pure patchouli oil and 100 tonnes of formulated oil which is
... Vetiver, a plant of the Gramiceae family, is well known as an eco-friendly tool to prevent soil erosion [1,2]. Vetiver grass is also cultivated for the production of a commercially important essential oil used in perfumery and aromatherapy345. The essential oil is extracted from the roots of the vetiver grass, mainly from Vetiveria zizanioides. ...
... 또한 마조람 에센셜 오일은 진정작용이 뛰어나서 [16], 성인을 대상으로 마조람을 혼합한 에센셜 오일로 등 부위 에 마사지를 하였더니 스트레스가 감소하였다 [21]. 이 외에도 마조람 에센셜 오일은 경련이나 편두통을 감소시키고 [10], 신 경긴장을 완화시키며 [2], 불면증, 신경과다인 사람에게 좋은 효과가 있었다 [12]. 마조람 115±0.061 ...
Article
This study investigated the effects of Origanum majorana essential aroma therapy on electrical activity in the brain as evaluated by an electroencephalogram (EEG). The subjects were 29 healthy female young adults, and their sleep quality was assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. EEG electrodes were attached at the frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes according to the international 10-20 system. Subjects were exposed to organic Origanum majorana essential aroma (50 ) for a period of 3 minutes each before, during, and after aromatherapy. Subjects with good sleep quality showed that Origanum majorana essential aroma increased the theta power at the frontal and temporal lobes of both cerebral hemispheres, the left parietal lobe, and the right occipital lobe. Furthermore, Origanum majorana essential aroma decreased the alpha power at the left occipital lobe and the beta power at the right temporal lobe. On the other hand, subjects with poor sleep quality showed an increase in the theta power at the temporal lobe of both cerebral hemispheres and a decrease in the alpha power at the left parietal lobe by Origanum majorana essential aroma therapy. It is concluded that Origanum majorana essential aroma therapy diminishes the state of wakefulness in the brain; alpha and beta powers were both decreased in the subjects with good sleep quality, but only alpha power was decreased in the subjects with poor sleep quality. Moreover, Origanum majorana essential aroma therapy has a sleep-inducing effect in both subjects with good sleep quality and poor sleep quality.
... It also possesses anti insecticidal activities, anti-fungal and bacteriostatic properties Yang, 1996;Pattnaik et al., 1996). In aromatherapy, it is used to calm nerves, relieve depression and stress (Bowel et al., 2002). Fibrinolytic and anti thrombotic (Sumi, 2003;Eunkyung et al., 2002) activity of this essential oil is also been reported. ...
Article
Full-text available
An efficient method was developed to initiate multiple shoots from nodal explants of Pogostemon cablin Benth. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BA initiated a mean of 45.66 shoots/nodal explant. Within 4 weeks of initiation, regenerated multiple shoots attained a height of 3.6 cm. Subsequent transfer of these in vitro derived nodal segments onto MS medium supplemented with BA and KN (0.5 mg/L), induced mean of 62.45 shoots. Higher concentration of either BA or KN more than 0.5 mg/L resulted in callus proliferation and showed hyperhydric shoots with morphological abnormalities. Rooting was readily achieved upon transfer of shoots on half strength MS medium supplemented with 100mg/L activated charcoal. Rooted shoots, following acclimatization in green house, were successfully transferred to soil with 91% survival. Also shoots regenerated in vitro were directly transplanted to soil and acclimatized. Tissue cultured plants were analyzed for oil content by employing gas chromatography and found that the patterns were similar to mother plants.
... It is thought to be a useful complementary therapy for people with dementia, in particular for managing the difficult or challenging behaviours that arise as the disease progresses. Several reports of aged care aromatherapy trials suggest that aromatherapy can reduce agitation and anxiety in residents with dementia and also help them sleep (Mitchell, 1993;Smallwood et al., 2001;Ballard et al., 2002;Bowles et al., 2002;Holmes et al., 2002). A review of these trials shows that they all used different treatment protocols for managing dementia subjects. ...
Article
Directors of care and aromatherapy care planners from 28 residential aged care facilities were surveyed about their practices and perceptions of aromatherapy in their facility. A total of 1032 (59%) residents in these facilities received aromatherapy, with 47% receiving daily treatments. The treatments were applied by assistants in nursing in most facilities, with activities officers and registered nurses also applying the treatments. The one essential oil used by all facilities was lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) followed by most facilities using tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and bergamot (Citrus bergamia). Commercial blends were used by 15/28 facilities. The choice of individual essential oils and blends suggests that aromatherapy is considered effective for both behavioural/psychological symptoms and physical ailments like arthritic pain. Nearly all facilities used foot baths and hand, foot, limb and neck-and-shoulders massage. The average monthly cost of materials per person was AUD 4.50. Directors of care also perceived that aromatherapy moderately reduces the amount of pharmaceuticals used. The main types of pharmaceuticals perceived to be reduced by aromatherapy were sedatives and analgesics. Considering all these findings, it appears as though aromatherapy is being used extensively in aged care facilities to manage symptoms of dementia and age-related physical discomfort. It is clear from this survey however, that further research is required to determine a 'best practice' for aromatherapy in dementia and aged care.
... Psoralea corylifolia seed oil is beneficial in scabies and ringworm infestations (Uikey et al., 2010), and recommended orally with betelnut leaf for leprosy (Sun et al., 1998). Vetiveria zizanioides is effective to shorten labor (Lans, 2007), its oil is used in the treatment of infantile hyperhidrosis (Chatterjee et al., 2005), and is used as an anti-microbial and anti-fungal agent in the pharmaceutical industry for perfumery and aromatherapy (Bowles et al., 2002;Bhuiyan et al., 2008;Chaudhury et al., 2007;Weyerstahl et al., 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
The active parts of 11 medicinal plants were analyzed for physico-chemical evaluation, phytochemical determinationand antioxidant activity. The physico-chemical evaluation revealed that highest water soluble extractive was from Origanumvulgare (38%), highest chloroform extractive was from Psoralea corylifolia (21%); highest ethanolic extractive was that ofAcorus calamus (11%) and the highest hexane extractive value was for Arnebia nobilis (9.8%). The total ash contentevaluation indicated that Achillea millefolium yielded (20.2%) and Rauvolfia serpentina yielded (41.6%); these values aremuch higher than the standard ash values for these plants indicating that these drugs are highly adulterated and substandard.The highest essential oil was yielded by Acorus calamus (3.2%). The highest saponin percentage was analyzed in Acoruscalamus (8.9%), while the alkaloids percentage was determined at 21% in Peganum harmala. Among all the plants assessedfor DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the maximum activity was shown by Paeonia emodi (85.8%), followed byAchillea millefolium (81.7%) and Origanum vulgare (80.3%).
... Communication strategies, such as the reduction of slow, simple speech in soft or highpitched tones or using repetition (elderspeak), can reduce refusals of care (Williams et al, 2017). There is no evidence that aromatherapy with essential oils is effective for specifically reducing refusals (Grey and Clair, 2002), with one study noting more refusals of care, potentially because of the stimulus of the oils (Bowles et al, 2002;Backhouse et al, 2020). More widely, aromatherapy has inconsistent effects on agitation and behavioural symptoms (Forrester et al, 2014). ...
Article
Background Refusals of assistance with personal care in dementia can be a major source of distress for people living with dementia and their caregivers. Aims This article examines refusals of care and considers ways of minimising them. Methods Summary of factors related to refusals of care. Findings Refusals of care in dementia are common, can occur for many reasons, and can contribute to poor hygiene and caregiver burden. Safeguarding legislation is in place to help guide practitioners and person-centred care can be one way to help reduce and manage refusals. Charities and other organisations suggest multiple ideas to manage refusals. Research evidence for formal interventions is limited, with most evidence for music interventions, bathing modifications and communication techniques. Conclusions A holistic approach tailored to each person could prevent, reduce or manage refusals of care. Using non-pharmacological interventions and person-centred care, modifying the caregiver approach, adapting to the person’s preferences, minimising the care task, eliminating underlying issues and altering the environment may reduce the likelihood of refusals.
... In aromatherapy, it is used to calm nerves, relieve depression and stress. In Chinese medicine decoction from the leaves are used with other drugs to treat nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cold and headaches [3]. Feasibility of mass propagation of high yielding and disease/pathogen resistant patchouli through tissue culture has been envisaged by several authors [1, 4, 5, 6 and 7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of various carbon sources, sucrose, glucose, fructose, table sugar and sugarcane juice was investigated on in vitro growth and physiology of Pogostemon cablin Benth. The entire morphogenetic pattern was influenced by nature and concentration of carbon source used. The maximum shoot length (4.87±0.41cm) and higher number of multiple shoots (61.43±0.l9) was observed on MS media fortified with 20% sugarcane juice. The maximum fresh weight of shoots was recorded on MS medium containing 2% sucrose (4.89±0.19g). Sugarcane juice at 20% resulted in maximum chlorophyll content (0.81±2.0mg/g tissue). The protein content was maximum on media supplemented with 20% sugarcane juice (18.8±0.24mg/ml) followed by 2% sucrose (18.5±0.25mg/ml). The least content was observed on media supplemented with 3% fructose (12.2±0.32mg/ml). Maximum accumulation of carbohydrate content was observed on MS supplemented with 3% sucrose (18.2±0.30mg/ml) and the least carbohydrate content (11.6±0.53mg/ml) was observed on MS media with 1% glucose. This is the first report on the use of sugarcane juice in tissue culture studies of patchouli. M Kumara swamy et al. Effect of Different Carbon Sources on In Vitro Morphogenetic Response of Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.). J Phytol 2/8 (2010) 11-17.
... A videotaped study (Gray & Clair, 2002), with high interrater reliability between masked observers, of 13 older people with dementia who were exposed to four aroma interventions during medication administration (lavender; sweet orange; tea tree; and no aroma (control)) failed to show any statistically significant differences between interventions for resistive behaviour. Bowles et al (2002) conducted a cross-over study of aromatherapy massage in 56 patients with moderate to severe dementia. Creams containing one of four essential oils (lavender, sweet marjoram, patchouli or vetiver) or cream alone were massaged into the skin 5 times daily for 8 weeks. ...
Article
The use of plant essential oils in aromatherapy has been recorded for thousands of years, but until recently there was very little formal evidence regarding the use of these treatments in people with dementia. Over the past few years a number of clinical trials have compared aromatherapy, principally using either lavender (Lavandula angustifolia or Lavandula officinalis) or lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), with inactive treatment. All of these studies demonstrated a significant impact on behavioural problems in patients with dementia, with negligible side-effects. However, there is still not sufficient evidence to recommend widespread use in clinical practice and the key question of whether these treatments can provide a viable alternative to existing pharmacological agents needs to be addressed.
... In the Activity Garden, designers have rearranged the plants in order to ensure an active sensory stimulation all year long. Aromatherapy was considered for the selection of herbs and plants, such as bergamot, sage, rosemary, mint, lavender, laurel, basil which are known for their stimulating properties (Price and Price, 1999;Conn and Seitz, 2010;Fujii et al, 2008;Lin et al, 2007;Bowles et al, 2002;Burns, 2002;Holmes et al, 2004). The garden is surrounded on two sides by the building of the unit and on the other two sides by a planted green fence. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare the reading comprehension performance of persons with dementia (N = 20) using personal and generic stimuli. Each subject participated in two data collection sessions over a 7-day period. Subjects were presented with five generic and five personal stimulus pages and were prompted to "Read this sentence and tell me something about it." Results indicated that subjects. reading accuracy was consistent over a 7-day period, and that, more novel comments overall and more novel comments indicating reading comprehension were made with personal stimuli when compared to generic stimuli. Personal stimuli may have advantages over generic stimuli for enhancing reading comprehension and communication in persons with dementia.
... [11][12][13][14] Vetiver oil can also be used for the treatment of dementia by increase mental alertness and cognitive function. [15] Vetiver oil can be also used as an aromatizing agent for canned asparagus and peas, and in some beverages. [16][17][18] In this study, we investigated the Vetiver roots essential oil from Comoros for his chemical constituents and his antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to determine the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Essential oil from roots of Vetiveria zizanioides. Essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation with a yield of 1%. Chemical analysis was done by GC and GC-MS and showed 40 compounds representing 99, 98% of the essential oil. The major components Khusimol (25.60%), Bicyclo-vetivenol (11.47%), α-Vetivone (7.76%), epi-α-Cadinol (5.97%), Nootaktone (5.28%), Khusinol acetate (3.75%), Nootkatol (3.53%), 1, 10-epi-cubenol (3.06%) and Khusinol (3.02%) constituted 69,44% of oil. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro using DPPH radical scavenging and results showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity. Essential oil showed an antibacterial activity, against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus, more important at a concentration of 1/5000 (v/v). However, for fungicidal activity results was low, with inhibition concentration of 1/500 (v/v) against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expensum, and 1/2000 (v/v) against Penicillium digitatum. These results suggest a possible
... This oil is principally used in high class perfumery where its persistent odour makes it of great value as a fixative in admixture with other perfumes. Vetiver grass is also cultivated for the production of a commercially important essential oil used in perfumery and aromatherapy [19,20,21]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Oil palm fronds (OPF) and distillated vetiver roots (dVR) are agricultural by products that would be the economically lignocellulosic resources. To extract cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, lignin and hemicellulose have to be separated by pulping and bleaching process. Cellulose fibres are potential to be utilized as reinforcing agent in composite materials. In this study, we investigate chemical properties of OPF and dVR strands. Then, effect of NaOH concentration, time and temperature of pulping on OPF and dVR ethanol-benzene extractive and lignin content were evaluated. The chemical composition of OPF and dVR strands were investigated according to TAPPI standard. Mechanical properties of the strands were evaluated using universal testing machine. The chemical analysis after pulping were also conducted. The ethanol-benzene extractive, lignin and cellulose contents of OPF determined in this work were similar to previous research results. The hollocellulose content shows that cellulose content in OPF strands of this study were slightly lower than those of cellulose content in OPF strands on previous studies. The ethanol-benzene extractive content in dVR strands were lower than those of undistillated vetiver root (VR). Distillation process which conducted at temperature of 160C and pressure of 5 bar for 16 hours, extracted essential oil from vetiver root and resulted a low ethanol-benzene extractive content. Cellulose content in dVR was 30.33%, similar with cellulose content in OPF which was 30.60%. The mechanical properties were also evaluated on OPF, VR and dVR strands. OPF strands exhibit higher tensile strength (76.17 MPa) than VR strands due to smaller fiber diameter. The OPF strands modulus of elasticity (19.18 GPa) was also higher than VR strands. However, OPF strands show lower elongation at break (0.64 %) than VR strands. These data indicate that OPF strands are strong, stiff but brittle. The VR strands modulus of elasticity before subjected to distillation process was lower than dVR strand. However, the maximum strain value and tensile strength of VR strands is higher than of dVR. These data indicate that dVR strands are weak and brittle. High temperature during distillation resulting an inferior dVR mechanical properties. Lignin and ethanol-benzene extractive in OPF and dVR were reduced after pulping. NaOH 10% degrade more lignin and ethanol-benzene extractive from OPF and dVR than NaOH 5%, within 2 hours pulping.
... In aromatherapy, it is used to calm nerves, relieve depression and stress [15]. Fibrinolytic and anti-hrombotic [16,17] activity of this essential oil is also been reported. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic, perfumery important, industrial crop widely cultivated in many Asian countries for its distinguished fragrance and other therapeutic purposes.Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the effect of different spacing and fertilizer levels on physical and chemical yield (total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in different parts (Leaf, Stem & Root) of Pogostemon heyneanus. Nine treatment combinations consisting of three levels of space (S1-90cm×45cm, S2-90cm×60cm and S3-90cm×90cm) and three levels of fertilizer (F1-Organic, F2-Inorganic and F-3 Control) was used for the field experiment in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. The plant height, canopy spread, number of leaves, number of branches, length of branches, number of roots and length of roots were recorded at two weeks intervals. The fresh weight and the dry weight of leaves, stems and toots of uprooted plants were recorded in each month. TPC, TFC and TAC of leaf, stem & root were determined by colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method, Aluminium Nitrate method and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay respectively. The highest values for all TAC, TPC and TFC (55.5±0.58 AB , 11.6±0.25 A and 86.1±2.83 A) were found in leaves of Pogostemon heyneanus planted in the treatment combination S3F1. The order of increase TPC, TFC and TAC of P. heyneanus was leaf > root > stem.The highest number of leaves, leaf area, leaf fresh weight and dry weight (928±6.2 A , 9484±4.9 A , 516.2±4.9 A and 70.3±0.7 A) recorded in the treatment combination S3F1. Therefore, it can suggest to use 90cm×90cm space and organic fertilizer (Compost) for cultivation of P. heyneanus in commercial scale. Presence of higher amount of dry matter content and chemical yield (TPC, TFC and TAC) in the leaves scientifically validate traditional claims of harvesting the leaves and value of leaf for the development of newer effective drugs instead of roots and stem.
... Such interventions included the following: adequate lighting [20], appropriate environmental temperatures [21], removal of unpleasant noises [22], presence of pleasant sounds (music) [23], and installation of multisensory environments including sensory gardens or Snoezelen rooms [24]. Other studies have focused on sensory interventions such as physical contact [25][26][27][28], animal therapy [29], aromatherapy and essential oils [30,31], and nutrition [32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: With age, the acuity of the five senses (i.e., hearing, sight, taste, smell, touch) is reduced. These types of sensory changes can affect day-to-day activities, making it more difficult for individuals to communicate and to interact with the world around them. The five senses allow us to receive information from the environment in the form of sound, light, smell, taste, and touch. As an older person's senses decline, they need more stimulation to be aware of these sensations. In long-term care settings, appropriate sensory practices are needed to address the diminishing senses of older adults. The objective of this mixed-methods systematic review is to examine the relationship between the sensory practices and the quality of life of residents living in long-term care settings and to develop an aggregated synthesis of mixed-methods studies to derive recommendations for policy, practice, and research. Methods: We will conduct a mixed-methods systematic review in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook. A search strategy has been developed with an expert health sciences librarian and peer reviewed using Peer Review for Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS). Seven databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), PubMed (non-MEDLINE-Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), Embase (Ovid), Ageline, PsycINFO (Ovid), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) will be searched for studies that meet the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers will independently screen the results of the literature search using a two-step process. Eligible studies will undergo a quality assessment and data extraction. Disagreements will be resolved through consultation with a third reviewer. We will assess the quality of individual studies using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) will be used to summarize the strength of the quantitative evidence, and the Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research (CERQual) tool to assess confidence in the qualitative syntheses. Discussion: This systematic review will summarize evidence-based knowledge for sensory practices, identify gaps in the literature, and inform an audit program for assessing the presence of sensory practices in the long-term care setting. The results will be relevant to policy makers, decision-makers, clinicians, and residents/families in long-term care settings. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration # CRD42017032330 .
... Mental alertness and awareness in participants was improved by the use oils. The problems related to stress due to exhaustion and anxiety can be addressed by using essential oils as they stimulate adrenal hormone secretion [124]. The anti-inflammatory and cooling oils such as P. cablin and Citrus limonum were used for treating symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes and sweating. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.
... Due to all of this mechanism lavender is widely used in aromatherapy as CNS depressant and anxiolytic agent. [25][26][27][28] More essential oils are used as CNS depressants are listed in Table 2. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aromatherapy is most commonly used therapy for the relaxation purpose to overcome the symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders. Essential oils are most commonly used substances for this purpose. These are obtained from various plant species including lavender, rosemary, sage, and salvia. The objective of this study was to evaluate aromatherapy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. A computer-based search of Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsycINFO, AMED, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed. Trials were included if they were potential human trials assessing aromatherapy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and utilized validated instruments to assess participant eligibility and clinical endpoints. Selection criteria of the study was decided and taken into consideration. Trials were identified that met all eligibility requirements. Individual trials investigating botanical sources and clinical effects of essential oils used in aromatherapy. Results of the trials are discussed to form the basis of a recommendation. No good quality evidence were identified on which to base a recommendation. However, no serious side effects were reported in any of the study on use of aromatherapy. Further studies are recommended to reach at any conclusion.
... It is thought to be a useful complementary therapy for people with dementia, in particular for managing the difficult or challenging behaviours that arise as the disease progresses. Several reports of aged care aromatherapy trials suggest that aromatherapy can reduce agitation and anxiety in residents with dementia and also help them sleep (Mitchell, 1993;Smallwood et al., 2001;Ballard et al., 2002;Bowles et al., 2002;Holmes et al., 2002). A review of these trials shows that they all used different treatment protocols for managing dementia subjects. ...
Article
Directors of care and aromatherapy care planners from 28 residential aged care facilities were surveyed about their practices and perceptions of aroma-therapy in their facility. A total of 1032 (59%) residents in these facilities received aromatherapy, with 47% receiving daily treatments. The treatments were applied by assistants in nursing in most facilities, with activities officers and registered nurses also applying the treatments. The one essential oil used by all facilities was lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) followed by most facilities using tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and bergamot (Citrus bergamia). Commercial blends were used by 15/28 facilities. The choice of individual essential oils and blends suggests that aromatherapy is considered effective for both behavioural/psychological symptoms and physical ailments like arthritic pain. Nearly all facilities used foot baths and hand, foot, limb and neck-and-shoulders massage. The average monthly cost of materials per person was AUD 4.50. Directors of care also perceived that aromatherapy moderately reduces the amount of pharmaceuticals used. The main types of pharmaceuticals perceived to be reduced by aromatherapy were sedatives and analgesics. Considering all these findings, it appears as though aromatherapy is being used extensively in aged care facilities to manage symptoms of dementia and age-related physical discomfort. It is clear from this survey however, that further research is required to determine a 'best practice' for aromatherapy in dementia and aged care.
... Its primary uses in agricultural and non-agricultural fi elds include applications in water and soil conservation (Dalton et al., 1996), slope stabilisation (Grimshaw, 1995), erosion control (Condon, 1994), environmental protection (Haigh et al., 2004), absorption of heavy metals (Lai and Chen, 2004), wastewater treatment (Pang et al., 2003) and other related uses. For example, it is also used for livestock grazing and as an ornamental (Bowles et al., 2002;Jain et al., 1982;Grove and Radley, 1968). Vetiver roots are also useful for essential oil extraction in producing perfumery and fragrant materials such as pot pourri, aromatic soaps, lotions and cosmetics. ...
Article
Vetiver root oil is known as one of the finest fixatives used in perfumery. This highly complex oil contains more than 200 components, which are mainly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives. Since conventional GC-MS has limitation in terms of separation efficiency, the comprehensive two-dimensional GC-MS (GC x GC-MS) was proposed in this study as an alternative technique for the analysis of vetiver oil constituents. To evaluate efficiency of the hyphenated GC x GC-MS technique in terms of separation power and sensitivity prior to identification and quantitation of the volatile constituents in a variety of vetiver root oil samples. METHODOLOGY. Dried roots of Vetiveria zizanioides were subjected to extraction using various conditions of four different methods; simultaneous steam distillation, supercritical fluid, microwave-assisted, and Soxhlet extraction. Volatile components in all vetiver root oil samples were separated and identified by GC-MS and GC x GC-MS. The relative contents of volatile constituents in each vetiver oil sample were calculated using the peak volume normalization method. Different techniques of extraction had diverse effects on yield, physical and chemical properties of the vetiver root oils obtained. Overall, 64 volatile constituents were identified by GC-MS. Among the 245 well-resolved individual components obtained by GC x GC-MS, the additional identification of 43 more volatiles was achieved. In comparison with GC-MS, GC x GC-MS showed greater ability to differentiate the quality of essential oils obtained from diverse extraction conditions in terms of their volatile compositions and contents.
... In the Activity Garden, designers have rearranged the plants in order to ensure an active sensory stimulation all year long. Aromatherapy was considered for the selection of herbs and plants, such as bergamot, sage, rosemary, mint, lavender, laurel, basil which are known for their stimulating properties (Price and Price, 1999;Conn and Seitz, 2010;Fujii et al, 2008;Lin et al, 2007;Bowles et al, 2002;Burns, 2002;Holmes et al, 2004). The garden is surrounded on two sides by the building of the unit and on the other two sides by a planted green fence. ...
Chapter
Background. The Meeting Centers Support Programme (MCSP) offers information and practical, emotional and social support to persons with dementia and their carers in local community centers. In this study the support programme was evaluated by participants (persons with dementia and carers) who utilized the MCSP for at least three months. Methods. Data collection took place within the framework of an implementation study in 11 meeting centers. 148 persons with dementia and 148 carers participated in the study. Data were collected after three and seven months of participation by means of questionnaires. Results. In general the persons with dementia and the carers were satisfied to very satisfied with the different elements of the support programme, the enrolment procedure, the contact with personnel, the location, and the facilities the centers have to offer. Half of the persons with dementia and one third of all carers indicated that they had made new acquaintances and friends at the center. Though satisfied with the programme, a majority of the persons with dementia (67% after three months and 58% after seven months) said that they were never asked what they wanted to do. The large majority of the carers feel somewhat less (42%) or much less (46%) burdened as a result of participating in the programme. This reduction of experienced burden proved to be related to satisfaction about the total programme (rs=0.35, p<0.005), experienced understanding for the own situation in informative meetings (rs=0.19, p=0.05), and experienced emotional support in contacts with other carers (rs=0.19, p=0.03). Conclusion. The satisfaction of the persons with dementia and their carers about the MCSP, and the percentage of carers who experienced a reduction of burden thanks to the support they received are high. However, the fact that two thirds of the persons with dementia say that they were never asked what they want to do indicates that the methods used by the staff need to be improved.
... Çalışma ve kontrol grubu arasında dirençli davranışsal değişiklikler ile ilgili anlamlı bir fark saptanmamıştır (Gray ve Clair; 2002). Bowles ve arkadaşları (2002) orta ve ileri demanslı 56 bireye 8 hafta boyunca günde 5 defa hastaların dudaklarına ve ciltlerine masajla aromaterapi uygulamıştır. Farklı 4 esansiyel yağdan (lavanta, tatlı mercanköşk, silhat ya da vetiver) sadece birisinin bulunduğu bir krem ile birde içinde hiçbir yağ bulunmayan normal bir kremle masaj uyguladığı çalışmanın sonucunda; deney grubunda kontrol grubuna göre önemli ölçüde demans ile ilişkili davranışsal değişikliklerin azaldığı dolayısıyla da hastaların bakımında karşılaşılan güçlüklerin giderildiği belirtilmiştir. ...
Article
Full-text available
z Demanslı bireylerin tedavi ve bakımında non-farmakolojik yöntemlerin kullanımı hızla artmaktadır. Tamamlayıcı tedavi yöntemlerinden birisi olan aromaterapi günümüz hemşirelik girişimlerinde sıkça kullanılmaktadır. Ancak hemşirelik alanında demanslı bireylerde aromaterapi uygulaması yeni çalışılmaya başlanmış bir konudur ve bu alanda yapılmış çok fazla çalışma bulunmamaktadır. Bu makalede günümüze kadar yapılmış çalışmaların bir özeti sunulmaktadır. Bu derlemenin amacı aromaterapi uygulamasının demanslı bireylerde görülen davranışsal değişiklikler üzerine etkisi olup olmadığını incelemektir. Abtract Effects on Behavioral Changes Observed in Individuals with Dementia of Aromatherapy Treatments Demented people's treatment and care is use of non-pharmacological methods increasing rapidly. One of the complementary therapies that are commonly used in aromatherapy today's nursing interventions. However, in individuals with dementia in nursing practice aromatherapy is an issue that was beginning to be studied and there are not many studies in this area. In this article, summary of the studies done to date is presented. The purpose of this review is to investigate the impact of aromatherapy treatments on behavioral changes observed in individuals with dementia.
... The patchouli essential oil is also well known for its medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-depressive, diuretic, anti-emetic, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities [6,7]. In aromatherapy, it is used to calm nerves, relieve depression and stress [22]. Fibrinolytic and anti thrombotic [23,24] activity of this essential oil is also been reported. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is an industrially important aromatic crop extensively cultivated in Asian countries as the main ingredient of perfume, high valued cosmetic and an array of ayurvedic products. Eventhogh it has high potential as an industrial crop, commercial cultivation in Sri Lanka is hampered due to lack of authentic, superior quality planting materials and optimized protocol for mass propagation of P. heyneanus. Therefore, in the present study an attempt has been made to investigate the optimum protocol for mass propagation of authentic, superior quality variety of P. heyneanus in order to ensure the commercial scale cultivation in Sri Lanka. Two types of cuttings (single and double nodal) at three maturity stages (i.e. softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood) were obtained from healthy mother plants and planted in poly bags filled with top soil: sand: compost ratios of 1:1:1, 1:1:2 and 1:2:1. Number of leaves, number of branches, length of branches, height and the spreading of plants were recorded at 2 weeks intervals. Data were analysed and the highest plant height (52.9 ± 2.1 cm), length of branches (82.2 ± 5.6 cm), number of leaves (32.3 ± 2.6), number of branches (4.6 ± 1.5) and spreading of plant canopy (28.5 ± 1.7 cm) were observed in hardwood double nodal cuttings planted in potting medium 1:1:1 ratio. It is thus suggested to use hardwood double nodal cuttings as planting material and top soil 1: sand 1: compost 1 as potting medium for propagation of P. heyneanus in commercial scale cultivation.
Data
Wetlands provide a unique habitat for several medicinal plants. Attempt has been made to document some of the little known medicinal properties of wetland plants used by local community of India. Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash synonymously known as Chrysopogon zizanioides (L) Roberty (Family: Poaceae/Gramineae) is widely cultivated in the tropical regions of the world. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. A perennial aromatic grass grows up to 2 meter in height. Vetiver has been known in India from the ancient times. It is known as Khas-Khas and is widely used as cooling agent, tonic and blood purifier. It is used to treat many skin disorders and is known to have calming effect on the nervous system. Other medicinal uses of Khas Khas include ringworm, indigestion and loss of appetite. It has been considered a high-class perfume. Though the aquatic situations of India are rich repositories of various plant species, not much work has been under taken to enumerate the medicinal uses of them.
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Patchouli (Pogostemon patchouli Benth.) crop rarely flowers and do not possess seed setting ability, so it is generally propagated through stem cuttings. However, limited information is available for characterising the most efficient media which can be used for vegetative propagation of patchouli. The aim of our study was to check the influence of different growing media on morphological traits in patchouli. The experiment was conducted in open field at Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Research Centre, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand), India during rainy season, 2019. Experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with treatments of T1: Geranium manure (GM), T2 : Geranium manure & FYM (1:1), T3 : Farm yard manure (FYM only), T4 : FYM & soil (1:1), T5 : Soil & Geranium manure (1:1) and T6 : Soil as control with three replications. Observations on mortality (%) at 30 days after planting, survival (%) at 30 days after planting, root length, no. of roots per plant, no. of leaves per plant, stem diameter (cm) and plant height (cm) were recorded. The treatment T4: FYM & soil (1:1) recorded significantly superior values compare to other treatments. So, it is better to raise cuttings in combination of FYM & soil (1:1) as growing media.
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Background: Medications licensed for the treatment of dementia have limited efficacy against cognitive impairment or against the distressed behaviours (behavioural and psychological symptoms, or behaviour that challenges) which are also often the most distressing aspect of the disorder for caregivers. Complementary therapies, including aromatherapy, are attractive to patients, practitioners and families, because they are perceived as being unlikely to cause adverse effects. Therefore there is interest in whether aromatherapy might offer a safe means of alleviating distressed behaviours in dementia. Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of aromatherapy for people with dementia. Search methods: We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialized Register, on 5 May 2020 using the terms: aromatherapy, lemon, lavender, rose, aroma, alternative therapies, complementary therapies, essential oils. In addition, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO (all via Ovid SP), Web of Science Core Collection (via Thompson Web of Science), LILACS (via BIREME), CENTRAL (via the Cochrane Library), ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) trials portal (ICTRP) on 5 May 2020. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials which compared fragrance from plants in an intervention defined as aromatherapy for people with dementia with placebo aromatherapy or with treatment as usual. All doses, frequencies and fragrances of aromatherapy were considered. Participants in the included studies had a diagnosis of dementia of any subtype and severity. Data collection and analysis: Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included studies, involving other authors to reach consensus decisions where necessary. We did not perform any meta-analyses because of heterogeneity between studies, but presented a narrative synthesis of results from the included trials. Because of the heterogeneity of analysis methods and inadequate or absent reporting of data from some trials, we used statistical significance (P ≤ or > 0.5) as a summary metric when synthesising results across studies. As far as possible, we used GRADE methods to assess our confidence in the results of the trials, downgrading for risk of bias and imprecision. Main results: We included 13 studies with 708 participants. All participants had dementia and in the 12 trials which described the setting, all were resident in institutional care facilities. Nine trials recruited participants because they had significant agitation or other behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) at baseline. The fragrances used were lavender (eight studies); lemon balm (four studies); lavender and lemon balm, lavender and orange, and cedar extracts (one study each). For six trials, assessment of risk of bias and extraction of results was hampered by poor reporting. Four of the other seven trials were at low risk of bias in all domains, but all were small (range 18 to 186 participants; median 66), reducing our confidence in the results. Our primary outcomes were agitation, overall behavioural and psychological symptoms, and adverse effects. Ten trials assessed agitation using various scales. Among the five trials for which our confidence in the results was moderate or low, four trials reported no significant effect on agitation and one trial reported a significant benefit of aromatherapy. The other five trials either reported no useable data or our confidence in the results was very low. Eight trials assessed overall BPSD using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and we had moderate or low confidence in the results of five of them. Of these, four reported significant benefit from aromatherapy and one reported no significant effect. Adverse events were poorly reported or not reported at all in most trials. No more than two trials assessed each of our secondary outcomes of quality of life, mood, sleep, activities of daily living, caregiver burden. We did not find evidence of benefit on these outcomes. Three trials assessed cognition: one did not report any data and the other two trials reported no significant effect of aromatherapy on cognition. Our confidence in the results of these studies was low. Authors' conclusions: We have not found any convincing evidence that aromatherapy (or exposure to fragrant plant oils) is beneficial for people with dementia although there are many limitations to the data. Conduct or reporting problems in half of the included studies meant that they could not contribute to the conclusions. Results from the other studies were inconsistent. Harms were very poorly reported in the included studies. In order for clear conclusions to be drawn, better design and reporting and consistency of outcome measurement in future trials would be needed.
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The wide use of herbal plants and essential oils for the prevention and treatment of diseases dates back to ancient times. However, the scientific basis for the beneficial effects of such plants and oils has not been precisely clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aromatherapy body treatment on healthy subjects. We compared the physiologic and psychologic effects of aromatherapy body treatment (E), massage treatment with carrier oil alone (C), and rest in healthy adults. Seven (7) female and 6 male volunteers participated as subjects. Each subject underwent 3 trials, in which the Advanced Trail Making Test (ATMT) was given as a stress-inducing task before and after 1 of 3 treatments. The State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), the Visual Analog Scale, and the Face Scale were used to assess anxiety, feelings, and mood, respectively. After the treatments, the SAI score and the feelings of fatigue were decreased, the positive and comfortable feelings were increased, and mood improved significantly in C and E. Furthermore, significant declines in the feelings of mental and total fatigue were maintained even after the second ATMT in E. On the other hand, the cortisol concentration in the saliva did not show significant changes in any of the trials. Secretory immunoglobulin A levels in the saliva increased significantly after all treatments. We conclude that massage treatments, irrespective of the presence of essential oils, are more advantageous than rest in terms of psychologic or subjective evaluations but not in terms of physiologic or objective evaluations. Furthermore, as compared to massage alone, the aromatherapy body treatment provides a stronger and continuous relief from fatigue, especially fatigue of mental origin.
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This study assessed the effectiveness of blended essential oils on menstrual cramps for outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea and explored the analgesic ingredients in the essential oils. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted. Forty-eight outpatients were diagnosed with primary dysmenorrhea by a gynecologist and had 10-point numeric rating scales that were more than 5. The patients were randomly assigned to an essential oil group (n = 24) and a synthetic fragrance group (n = 24). Essential oils blended with lavender (Lavandula officinalis), clary sage (Salvia sclarea) and marjoram (Origanum majorana) in a 2:1:1 ratio was diluted in unscented cream at 3% concentration for the essential oil group. All outpatients used the cream daily to massage their lower abdomen from the end of the last menstruation continuing to the beginning of the next menstruation. Both the numeric rating scale and the verbal rating scale significantly decreased (P < 0.001) after one menstrual cycle intervention in the two groups. The duration of pain was significantly reduced from 2.4 to 1.8 days after aromatherapy intervention in the essential oil group. Aromatic oil massage provided relief for outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea and reduced the duration of menstrual pain in the essential oil group. The blended essential oils contain four key analgesic components that amount to as much as 79.29%; these analgesic constitutes are linalyl acetate, linalool, eucalyptol, and β-caryophyllene. This study suggests that this blended formula can serve as a reference for alternative and complementary medicine on primary dysmenorrhea.
Thesis
Les troubles du comportement sont fréquents chez les sujets âgés avec ou sans troubles cognitifs. En Afrique subsaharienne, très peu de données sont disponibles en population générale sur les troubles du comportement chez le sujet âgé et aucune n’a encore été réalisée en Afrique Centrale. L’objectif général de ce travail était de contribuer à une meilleure connaissance des troubles du comportement chez les sujets âgés en Afrique Centrale en République Centrafricaine et au Congo. Nos objectifs spécifiques étaient de : 1) décrire les troubles du comportement, leur gravité, leur retentissement, leurs facteurs associés et les symptômes associés aux démences ; 2) évaluer l’association entre les troubles du comportement et l’Apolipoprotéine E ε4 ; 3) évaluer l’association entre les troubles du comportement, la mortalité et le déclin cognitif. A partir des données des programmes EPIDEMCA et EPIDEMCA-FU, nous avons pu déterminer que la prévalence des troubles du comportement était de 63,7% (IC95% : 59,5-67,8). Le score médian global de gravité était de 9 [IQR : 6-12] et le score médian global de retentissement était de 7 [IQR : 4-10]. Vivre à Gamboma (zone rurale du Congo), l’audition normale et les liens amicaux étaient protecteurs des troubles du comportement. Le sexe féminin, la démence, la personnalité dépendante et le handicap physique ont été identifiés comme étant associés à la présence des troubles du comportement. Les idées délirantes, la dépression, l’apathie, la désinhibition et le comportement moteur aberrant étaient associés à la présence de démences dans notre étude. Dans nos travaux, les troubles du comportement n’étaient pas associés à l’Apolipoprotéine E ε4. Ces symptômes étaient associés à la mortalité des sujets âgés à deux ans mais pas au déclin cognitif. Ces résultats permettent une amélioration de la connaissance des troubles du comportement en Afrique Centrale et de nombreuses perspectives liées à leur prise en charge s’en dégagent.
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Background: Agitation is recognised by aged care literature as the most common behavioural problem in residential aged care facilities. Complementary therapies are advocated by some as a solution to reduce the effect of agitation in older people and are becoming increasingly incorporating into nursing care. Complementary therapies in nursing management, is endorsed by the Australian Nurses and Midwifery Board for nurse initiation. Objectives: The review objective was to discover which types of Complementary therapies are being implemented in RACFs for agitation management and which of these therapies where effective in reducing agitation. Inclusion criteria: Participants were people over the age of 65 years living permanently in a residential aged care facility and experiencing agitation, regardless of cognitive ability, gender or ethnicity and existing co-morbidities.The types of complementary therapy interventions explored in this systematic review were Aromatherapy, Exercise, Massage, Music Therapy and Therapeutic TouchThe systematic review considered randomised controlled trials of complementary therapy interventions that could be initiated by a nurseOutcomes measured were the frequency and/or severity of verbal, non-physical aggressive and physical aggressive agitation among the participants. Search strategy: A comprehensive search strategy was developed for eleven electronic databases with dates ranging from January 2000 to September 2010. Searches included unpublished studies and the reference lists from identified papers. Only English language papers were considered due to a lack of interpreter facilities. Methodological quality: An adapted version of the Joanna Briggs Institute quality appraisal checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of studies. Appraisal was performed separately by two independent reviewers with any disagreement between appraisers settled by a third appraiser. Data collection: Data was extracted using the standardised Joanna Briggs Institute Data Extraction Tool. Data synthesis: Measurement tools reported different subcategories of agitated behaviours making data comparison difficult. A variety of complementary interventions made the comparing of this data inappropriate. Extracted data was unable to be synthesised in meta analysis, a narrative analysis of results was therefore more appropriate. Results: The ten included randomised controlled trials reported all interventions effective in reducing non-physical and verbal agitation. Two interventions, aromatherapy and music therapy, showed significant effect in reducing physical aggressive agitation. Conclusions: The results of this systematic review support the growing evidence that Complementary Therapies are effective in agitation management of older people in Residential Aged Care Facilities. Nurse initiation of complementary therapies will see timely and expedient management of agitation for older people. Therapies can be implemented with relative ease and low cost to the facility.
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Essential oil from roots of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small from Bangladesh was examined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen compounds were identified in root oil. The compositions of oil varied qualitatively and quantitatively. Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash belonging to the family Poaceae and commonly known as 'Khas-Khas' in Bangladesh and India. It is a perennial grass with thick fibrous adventitious roots (Ghani 2003). This species is native of Indian subcontinent and has been introduced in many tropical countries. Roots are stimulant, tonic, cooling, stomachic, diuretic, antispasmodic and emmenagogue, and used in fevers, inflammations and irritability of stomach. Essence of the root is used to check vomiting in cholera. Smoke of grass is inhaled to relieve headache (Ghani 2003). Apart from its use as insect repellent and soil erosion management tool, vetiver grass has numerous traditional uses such as root paste for headaches and leaf paste for rheumatism and sprains. Commercial uses of vetiver grass mainly pertain to the extraction of vetiver oil through distillation of the roots. Vetiver oil has extensive applications in the soap and cosmetic industries, food flavoring and is also used as anti-microbial and anti-fungal agent in the pharmaceutical industry (Kindra and Satayanaraya 1978). This oil is principally used in high class perfumery where its persistent odour makes it of great value as a fixative in
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Seven components have been identified including caryophyllene oxide (24.14%), caryophyllene (22.19%), limonene (21.79%) and myrcene (9.02%), as significantly dominating compounds of essential oil from inflorescences of Spilanthes calva DC. from Bangladesh investigated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.
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Complementary therapy has received great interest within the field of dementia treatment and the use of aromatherapy and essential oils is increasing. In a growing population where the majority of patients are treated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, the efficacy of treatment is short term and accompanied by negative side effects. Utilisation of complimentary therapies in dementia care settings presents as one of few options that are attractive to practitioners and families as patients often have reduced insight and ability to verbally communicate adverse reactions. Amongst the most distressing features of dementia are the behavioural and psychological symptoms. Addressing this facet has received particular interest in aromatherapy trials, with a shift in focus from reducing cognitive dysfunction to the reduction of behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia. To assess the efficacy of aromatherapy as an intervention for people with dementia. ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialized Register, was searched on 26 November 2012 and 20 January 2013 using the terms: aromatherapy, lemon, lavender, rose, aroma, alternative therapies, complementary therapies, essential oils. All relevant randomised controlled trials were considered. A minimum length of a trial and requirements for follow-up were not included, and participants in included studies had a diagnosis of dementia of any type and severity. The review considered all trials using fragrance from plants defined as aromatherapy as an intervention with people with dementia and all relevant outcomes were considered. Titles and abstracts extracted by the searches were screened for their eligibility for potential inclusion in the review. For Burns 2011, continuous outcomes were estimated as the mean difference between groups and its 95% confidence interval using a fixed-effect model. For Ballard 2002, analysis of co-variance was used for all outcomes, with the nursing home being treated as a random effect. Seven studies with 428 participants were included in this review; only two of these had published usable results. Individual patient data were obtained from one trial (Ballard 2002) and additional analyses performed. The additional analyses conducted using individual patient data from Ballard 2002 revealed a statistically significant treatment effect in favour of the aromatherapy intervention on measures of agitation (n = 71, MD -11.1, 95% CI -19.9 to -2.2) and behavioural symptoms (n = 71, MD -15.8, 95% CI -24.4 to -7.2). Burns 2011, however, found no difference in agitation (n = 63, MD 0.00, 95% CI -1.36 to 1.36), behavioural symptoms (n = 63, MD 2.80, 95% CI -5.84 to 11.44), activities of daily living (n = 63, MD -0.50, 95% CI -1.79 to 0.79) and quality of life (n = 63, MD 19.00, 95% CI -23.12 to 61.12). Burns 2011 and Fu 2013 found no difference in adverse effects (n = 124, RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.15 to 6.46) when aromatherapy was compared to placebo. The benefits of aromatherapy for people with dementia are equivocal from the seven trials included in this review. It is important to note there were several methodological difficulties with the included studies. More well-designed, large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed before clear conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness of aromatherapy for dementia. Additionally, several issues need to be addressed, such as whether different aromatherapy interventions are comparable and the possibility that outcomes may vary for different types of dementia.
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Essential oil from roots of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small from Bangladesh was examined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen compounds were identified in root oil. The compositions of oil varied qualitatively and quantitatively.
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Objective and Design: To evaluate potential anti-inflammatory properties of tea tree oil, the essential oil steam distilled from the Australian native plant, Melaleuca alternifolia.¶Material and Methods: The ability of tea tree oil to reduce the production in vitro of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human peripheral blood monocytes was examined.¶Results: Tea tree oil emulsified by sonication in a glass tube into culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) was toxic for monocytes at a concentration of 0.016% v/v. However, the water soluble components of tea tree oil at concentrations equivalent to 0.125% significantly suppressed LPS-induced production of TNFα, IL-1β and IL-10 (by approximately 50%) and PGE2 (by approximately 30%) after 40 h. Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry identified terpinen-4-ol (42%), α-terpineol (3%) and 1,8-cineole (2%, respectively, of tea tree oil) as the water soluble components of tea tree oil. When these components were examined individually, only terpinen-4-ol suppressed the production after 40 h of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and PGE2 by LPS-activated monocytes. Conclusion: The water-soluble components of tea tree oil can suppress pro-inflammatory mediator production by activated human monocytes.
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The sedative properties of the essential oil of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller) and of its main constituents--linalool and linalyl acetate--were investigated in mice followed up in a series of experimental procedures. The significant decrease in the motility of female and male laboratory animals under standardized experimental conditions is found to be closely dependent on the exposure time to the drugs. Nevertheless after an injection of caffeine into mice a hyperactivity was observed which was reduced to nearly a normal motility only by inhalation of these fragrance drugs. In particular the correlation of the motility of the animals to linalool in serum is experimentally proven, thus furnishing evidence of the aromatherapeutical use of herbal pillows employed in folk medicine since ancient times in order to facilitate falling asleep or to minimize stressful situations of man.
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Synopsis In the present study, the percutaneous absorption of the essential oil of lavender from a massage oil was investigated. It was shown that lavender oil penetrates the skin of a male subject. Within five minutes of finishing, the massage traces of linalool (1) and linalyl acetate (2) as the main constituents of lavender oil could be detected in the blood. After 20 minutes, 100 ng/ml for 2 and 121 ng/ml for 1 showed up as the maximum concentration. Within 90 minutes, most of the lavender oil was eliminated. The sedative and relaxing effect of lavender oil after a massage may be based on two different ways of incorporation: the inhalation of fragrant molecules and the penetration through the skin.
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Agitation was studied in 66 nursing home residents from two nursing units for agitated, cognitively deteriorated elderly. The frequency of occurrence of manifestations of various agitated behaviors was documented by nursing home staff using a seven-point was frequency rating scale. Additionally, the factors of age, cognitive level, activities of daily living (ADL) functioning, frequency of waking up at night, and medication for agitation were monitored, and nurses' attributions for agitation in each individual were reported. Results indicated that: agitated behaviors were strongly interrelated; specific nonaggressive behaviors, such as pacing and constant request for attention, occurred most frequently; in this very agitated and cognitively deteriorated group, agitated individuals did not differ from nonagitated persons in age, cognitive level, and waking up at night; agitated individuals received more medication for agitation and had a higher incidence of falls as compared with nonagitated people; and the most frequent medications given for agitation were thioridazine and haloperidol. The study is viewed as a preliminary effort to understand the phenomenon of agitation. Results serve as indicators for future research and demonstrate the widespread implications of research for handling and preventing agitation as well as for policy planning with regard to placement and reimbursement.
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Matricine and its transformation product chamazulene are constituents of chamomile extracts. Both have been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. Since preparations from chamomile are used for the treatment of inflammatory skin and bowel diseases, we studied the effects of these compounds on the leukotriene production in neutrophilic granulocytes. Chamazulene inhibited the formation of leukotriene B4 in intact cells and in the 105,000 x g supernatant fraction in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values were 15 and 10 microM, respectively. Matricine showed no effect up to 200 microM. Chamazulene (IC50: 2 microM), but not matricine, blocked the chemical peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Additionally, matricine (up to 200 microM) had no effects on the cyclooxygenase and 12-lipoxygenase activities in human platelets. Therefore, it is concluded that chamazulene, but not matricine, may contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of chamomile extracts by inhibiting the leukotriene synthesis and additional antioxidative effects.
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The gastric cytoprotective effect of beta-caryophyllene, an anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene, was investigated in rats. The oral administration of beta-caryophyllene to rats significantly inhibited gastric mucosal injuries induced by necrotizing agents such as absolute ethanol and 0.6 N HCl, although it failed to prevent water immersion stress- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. In addition, this compound hardly affected the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin. Thus, beta-caryophyllene elicited anti-inflammatory effects without any indication of gastric mucosal damage typical of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Furthermore, this compound manifested cytoprotective effects, rendering the two-dimensional efficacious beta-caryophyllene to be a clinically safe and potentially useful agent.
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This study explored the effect of expressive physical touch with verbalization (EPT/V) on anxiety and dysfunctional behavior in patients with dementia using a one group repeated measures design. The study findings are that (1) anxiety is lower immediately following EPT/V and (2) EPT/V causes decreasing episodes of dysfunctional behavior. Therefore, it behooves caregivers and family members to use expressive physical touch and verbalization when caring for these patients, since it is cost-effective, simple to learn and practice and it is most effective in improving and maintaining patient's high quality of life.
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An n = 1 clinical trial of the effectiveness of aromatherapy on motivational behaviour in a dementia care setting was undertaken using an AB design. Baseline data were recorded for two months, followed by two months of treatment data. Findings showed a statistically significant improvement in motivational behaviour associated with the use of aromatherapy.