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Dentofacial Aesthetics and Quality of Life

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Abstract

This article reviews, from the socio-psychological perspective on physical attractiveness, recent research on the psychosocial impacts of dental aesthetics. Research on personal impression forming suggests that visual perceptions of detrimental dental conditions might lead to conclusions about social impairments of the target person. Consumers conform considerably with professional assessment of dental aesthetics. Psychosocial impacts of dental appearance in childhood include teasing by peers. Existing research suggests that dental aesthetics contributes to psychosocial well-being of both children and adults. The concept of public self-consciousness is introduced for explaining differences in subjective psychosocial impacts of malocclusion. A promising research direction is the investigation of the relationship between dental aesthetics and oral health behavior, and further development and application of dental aesthetics-related quality-of-life measures is warranted. In addition a description of the behavioral signs of overconcern with dental aesthetics is given to facilitate its recognition and professional psychological attention.

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... Alterations in any one of these attributes may affect facial attractiveness and influence how individuals are perceived by society and how they perceive themselves. The impact of dentofacial attractiveness on social judgements of personal characteristics and social interactions of children [3][4][5] and adults [3,5,6] has been well documented. People are more likely to make negative judgments of social and intellectual competence based on altered dental appearance. ...
... Alterations in any one of these attributes may affect facial attractiveness and influence how individuals are perceived by society and how they perceive themselves. The impact of dentofacial attractiveness on social judgements of personal characteristics and social interactions of children [3][4][5] and adults [3,5,6] has been well documented. People are more likely to make negative judgments of social and intellectual competence based on altered dental appearance. ...
... Both mothers and fathers expressed concerns about their children feeling different and shared similar concerns in relation to the impact of these dental anomalies on their affected children. This study agrees with the contemporary literature demonstrating that dentofacial aesthetics is considered important during childhood starting from a very early age and without any gender difference [5,25,26]. This study revealed parents' beliefs on an increased worldwide media driven social expectation of white well aligned teeth that extends to affect young children which correlates to previous reports in adolescents and adults [3,[27][28][29]. ...
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This qualitative study was conducted to explore parental attitudes and values regarding aesthetics and treatment needs of children in primary dentition affected by AI and DI. A purposive sample of parents of young children attended two focus groups: mothers (n = 7) and fathers (n = 6). A topic guide with open-ended questions was formulated and standardised photographs showing primary teeth affected by varying severity of AI/DI and photographs of different aesthetic treatments were utilised to stimulate discussion. Data was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A cross-sectional thematic analysis was performed which identified six main themes; the impact on affected children, the impact on parents, the life course of the disease, coping mechanisms, treatment need, and experience of treatment. Parents believed that young children were aware of their altered dental appearance. A feeling of guilt was evident among fathers affected by the same condition. Most parents sought dental treatment before starting school due to worries of bullying at school. Parents appeared to rely solely on the professional advice of the paediatric dentist in making all treatment related decisions. The personal experience of parents affected by AI/DI played a pivotal role in parent’s judgements of their children’s teeth and perceived need for treatment.
... Dental extraction [9]. ...
... Education is one way by which selfesteem may be enhanced. Thus, it is possible that the attainment of higher education may indirectly improve self-satisfaction with tooth colour [9]. Another study by Xiao [10] and others reported that dental aesthetic satisfaction in a Chinese population was correlated with education level, but not with age and gender [10]. ...
... [1][2][3][4][5][6] There are social implications of having a beautiful smile. [6][7][8][9][10] It has been shown to significantly influence how a person may be perceived in a social context. 1 An attractive smile is thought to enhance a person's interpersonal relationships, employment prospects, and financial success. 6,7,[9][10][11][12][13] Indeed, clinicians may notice improvements in a patient's Objective The aim of this study was to investigate how the lips and teeth may affect the perceived aesthetics of a given smile. ...
... [6][7][8][9][10] It has been shown to significantly influence how a person may be perceived in a social context. 1 An attractive smile is thought to enhance a person's interpersonal relationships, employment prospects, and financial success. 6,7,[9][10][11][12][13] Indeed, clinicians may notice improvements in a patient's Objective The aim of this study was to investigate how the lips and teeth may affect the perceived aesthetics of a given smile. Lips and teeth were collectively assessed in different fields of view to see how they may contribute to smile aesthetics. ...
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Objective The aim of this study was to investigate how the lips and teeth may affect the perceived aesthetics of a given smile. Lips and teeth were collectively assessed in different fields of view to see how they may contribute to smile aesthetics. The perception of 'beauty' was assessed to determine whether differences existed between; dentists, non-dentists, males and females. Methods Five subjects were photographed to produce the following views: 1) retracted anterior teeth; 2) lips at rest; 3) zoomed smile; and 4) smile showing the lower face. Images were compiled in a survey questionnaire and shown to respondents who ranked the subjects in order of aesthetic appeal. Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) and median rank scores were used to determine the statistical significance. Results All groups demonstrated statistically significant agreement in the perception of beauty. Both the teeth and lips seemed to contribute similarly to the attractiveness of a smile. Dentists seemed to be more influenced by teeth in a zoomed smile view, however, this was negated when viewing a broader field of view. All other groups showed no difference in perception of aesthetics with changing field of view. Conclusion Both lips and teeth seem to contribute to the aesthetic appeal of a smile. Dentists may have a tendency to place a disproportionate weight to teeth when assessing a smile close up.
... [29] However, the SI and PI are subjective and may be related to other psychological dimensions such as self-consciousness. [30] DSC was significantly higher in the "married/in a relationship group," whereas the SI and PI were higher for the "single" group. This is an important finding as physical attractiveness could influence social interactions, and for those who are single, the psychosocial impact could be much higher. ...
... Patients presenting an overconcern about dental malalignment of minor clinical significance may be classified as displaying a syndrome of "appearance anxiety" or body dysmorphic disorder. [30] Such psychological problems would have to be approached carefully and may even be beyond the scope of orthodontic interventions. The findings of this study should be considered in the context of its limitations. ...
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Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) determine the orthodontic treatment need in a university adult population, (2) estimate the self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment, and (3) to assess the self-reported psychosocial well-being and its association with treatment need. Subjects and Methods: Eighty-seven adults (20–70 years of age) comprising academic and corporate staff from a health science university participated in this study. The esthetic component of index of orthodontic treatment need (AC of IOTN) was used to determine the orthodontic treatment need, and a simple questionnaire was used for data on sociodemographics and self-perceived need. Psychosocial well-being was measured through the self-rated Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire. Data was analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis tests with statistical significance set as P < 0.05. Results: Thirteen people (14.9%) had an orthodontic treatment need by AC of IOTN, whereas 40 (46%) perceived a need for orthodontic treatment. Age, gender, ethnicity, or marital status was not associated with treatment need. Those who had no need for treatment measured by the AC of IOTN scored significantly higher on the dental self-confidence (DSC) domain (P = 0.009) and significantly lower in the psychosocial impact domain (P = 0.048) when compared to those with treatment need. The self-perceived need was significantly associated with DSC (P = 0.000), social impact (P = 0.002), psychosocial impact (P = 0.003) as well as the esthetic concern domain (P = 0.012). Conclusion: The orthodontic treatment need perceived by the adults in this study was higher with significant impact on the psychosocial well-being. Orthodontic treatment for the patient based on the assessment of psychosocial impact would be beneficial in addressing patient's perspectives of treatment need.
... It has been shown that deviant dental appearance is a reason for teasing by peers at school and in other social situations. 47 Also, children in the orthodontic group belonged to higher-income families, with expectations of self-image enhancement after orthodontic treatment tending to be higher, and this might have influenced their esthetics self-perceptions. 39,47 Multivariate analysis showed that adolescents from the group that sought orthodontic treatment were 3.1 times more likely to have negative impacts on their quality of life, independent of their decay experience, severity of the malocclusion, and esthetic impairment. ...
... 47 Also, children in the orthodontic group belonged to higher-income families, with expectations of self-image enhancement after orthodontic treatment tending to be higher, and this might have influenced their esthetics self-perceptions. 39,47 Multivariate analysis showed that adolescents from the group that sought orthodontic treatment were 3.1 times more likely to have negative impacts on their quality of life, independent of their decay experience, severity of the malocclusion, and esthetic impairment. This supports other researchers' findings in various populations-that quality of life outcomes are related not only to health and disease factors but also to subjective experiences and feelings about these factors. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL) in adolescents who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison between these adolescents and their age-matched peers who were not seeking orthodontic treatment provided an assessment of the role of OHQOL in treatment seeking. The sample consisted of 225 subjects, 12 to 15 years of age; 101 had sought orthodontic treatment at a university clinic (orthodontic group), and 124, from a nearby public school, had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group). OHQOL was assessed with the Brazilian version of the short form of the oral health impact profile, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment need. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that those who sought orthodontic treatment reported worse OHQOL than did the subjects in the comparison group (P <0.001). They also had more severe malocclusions as shown by the index of orthodontic treatment need (P = 0.003) and greater esthetic impairment, both when analyzed professionally (P = 0.008) and by self-perception (P <0.0001). No sex differences were observed in quality of life impacts (P = 0.22). However, when the orthodontic group was separately evaluated, the girls reported significantly worse impacts (P = 0.05). After controlling for confounding (dental caries status, esthetic impairment, and malocclusion severity), those who sought orthodontic treatment were 3.1 times more likely to have worse OHQOL than those in the comparison group. Adolescents who sought orthodontic treatment had more severe malocclusions and esthetic impairments, and had worse OHQOL than those who did not seek orthodontic treatment, even though severely compromised esthetics was a better predictor of worse OHQOL than seeking orthodontic treatment.
... The self perceived dental irregularity and negative impact of dental aesthetics might effect social interactions, level of self confidence and psychology of an individual. Different results of psychosocial attractiveness research suggest that the perception of one's own physical appearance is often associated with concerns about other people's reactions and a negative body concept 13 , which additionally discourage efforts to maintain or enhance the physical condition by health behaviors. It has been shown, for instance, that minor dental esthetic impairment in young adults was associated with social apprehension, appearance disapproval, and appearance-related insecurity 14,15 . ...
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Introduction: Malocclusion is not a disease but a set of dental deviations, which may have a negative effect on
... Prominence of teeth is the most mocked feature of childhood, Shaw et al 2 in a study found that 7% children reported that they were repeatedly teased because of their teeth. However dental esthetics is a significant factor in child's social life as teasing is often directed at the dental appearance, and it may have a marked upsetting effect on child's well-being 3 . In a study carried out at Agha Khan University Hospital, 70.5% of subjects reporting to orthodontics department were having class II malocclusion 4 hence major concern behind seeking orthodontic treatment is prominence of teeth that appears as a relative feature in presence of retrognathic mandible. ...
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Objective: This study compared the positional changes in mandibular condyle before and after treatment with functional appliances. Study Design: Comparative, cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, Rawalpindi, from Dec 2016 to Dec 2018. Methodology: In this study patients opting for orthodontic treatment in Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry (AFID) and falling on our inclusion criteria were selected and were compared for pre and post treatment positional changes of condyle associated with twin block/bionator therapy, by comparing lateral cephalometric changes. Results: Age range was 11 years to 15 years, with mean of 12.02 ± 1.05. Changes in condyle position with respect to midface were found to be significant with a mean of 2.20 ± 2.97, p<0.001 between pre and post treatment values. Changes in condyle position with respect to anterior cranial base were also significant reported by a mean pre and post treatment difference of 2.09 ± 1.23, p<0.001. Orientation of long axis of condyle with posterior cranial base was also significantly changed with a mean difference of 5.11 ± 4.19, p<0.001. Conclusion: Condyle was displaced posteriorly with respect to anterior cranial base as well as midface. Vis-à-vis the orientation of long axis of mandibular condyle, it attains a more upright position post treatment, with respect to cranial base.
... Adolescents perceived those having ideal smiles to be more athletic and more popular, and to have better leadership abilities than those with non-ideal smiles [2]. Unattractive children become targets for bullying and teasing [3] because they are perceived to lack desirable characteristics assumed to be possessed by attractive individuals [4]. These victims are more likely to be shyer in public as well reticent and reluctant to reveal their teeth. ...
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(1) The aim of the study was to investigate the association between age, gender, and the component of psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics (PIDAQ) in Malaysian young people. (2) Cross-sectional data on the PIDAQ (comprised of dental self-confidence, social impact, psychological impact, and aesthetic concern variables) of Malaysian youth (n = 1425) recruited through multi-stage sampling were analyzed for mediation and moderated mediation analyses using the PROCESS macro on SPSS software. (3) Participants (mean age 16.0 ± 2.8) represented 54.8% of girls and 45.2% of boys. In the mediation model, psychological impact and aesthetic concern completely mediated the effects of social impact on dental self-confidence. In the moderated mediation model, social impact directly influenced dental self-confidence amongst participants at one standard deviation below the sample mean age and among boys. However, psychological impact completely mediated the influence of social impact on dental self-confidence amongst participants at the sample mean age and at one standard deviation above the sample mean ages, and among girls. Neither age nor gender moderated the effect of aesthetic concern on dental self-confidence. (4) Age and gender moderated the influence of social impact and psychological impact on dental self-confidence.
... This literature indicates that perception of space closure is a multidisciplinary approach. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Conclusion General dentists showed a different perception for space closure, whether it be in the anterior or the posterior region of the oral cavity. The majority of the general dentists opted for orthodontics as a method of space closure when the spacing is more generalized. ...
... A estética possui um papel muito importante nas relações sociais e na autoestima das pessoas 5 devido ao impacto do processo erosivo tornar o elemento dental mais susceptível aos desgastes mecânicos, acelerando o processo de perda de tecido dentário 9 . Além disso, estudos prévios sugerem 9,10 que pode haver uma relação entre bruxismo e refluxo gastroesofágico, ou ainda os associam a outras condições, como a depressão e ansiedade 9 . ...
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Atualmente, a Odontologia proporciona através do uso de técnicas diretas em resina composta, a possibilidade de tratamentos conservadores, que são capazes de cumprir com a demanda estética e funcional dos pacientes. Esse relato de caso descreve um tratamento estético e funcional de dentes superiores anteriores visando fechamentos de diastemas e reanatomizações dentais. Paciente, 24 anos, sexo masculino, apresentava desgaste dental leve associado à presença de bruxismo e refluxo gastroesofágico. A escolha de tratamento priorizou a conservação dos tecidos duros através do clareamento dental, uso de restaurações diretas em resina composta nanohíbrida (Harmonize, Kerr) e a instrução ao paciente para estar em constante acompanhamento multiprofissional visando o controle de suas condições médicas e odontológicas. O resultado apresentado foi satisfatório, reproduzindo boa estética, promovendo saúde, função e proteção contra futuros desgastes. Assim, restaurações diretas realizadas em resina composta nanohíbrida utilizando uma matriz BRB constituem uma opção de tratamento viável e satisfatório para tratar casos de fechamentos de diastema e reanatomizações dos dentes anteriores.
... 16 Some individuals with minor malocclusions are not happy with their dental appearance, but the contrary is also true. 17 Thus, orthodontists and laypersons may disagree when evaluating the necessity and/or the improvement with orthodontic treatment. Since no single element is responsible for the whole face's attractiveness, knowing each component's weight to the overall evaluation by laypersons is significant, especially the smile, to quantify the influence of orthodontic treatment on facial beauty. ...
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Objectives: Esthetics is the main reason for seeking orthodontic treatment, demonstrating the importance of smile attractiveness in human relations. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the influence of the smile and other facial components on overall facial attractiveness. Methods: Eight laypersons evaluated the attractiveness of 60 adults (30 men, 30 women) before orthodontic treatment using a visual analog scale. Pearson and stepwise correlations were carried out between the smiling face’s attractiveness and the attractiveness of the facial components: upper two-thirds, lower third, and smile. Results: For the entire sample, strong to moderate correlations were found between facial attractiveness and the smile (r = 0.71), the lower third (r = 0.70), and the upper two-thirds of the face (r = 0.42). When divided by gender, the facial parts’ correlation values were moderate and similar among each other in men, while in women, the face showed strong correlations with the smile (r = 0.83) and the attractiveness of the face’s lower third (r = 0.75). Conclusions: In general, correlations were found between the attractiveness of the smiling face and the components. In males, the lower third of the face accounted for 66% of the variation in facial attractiveness. In females, 83% of the variance in facial attractiveness could be ascribed to smile, with the value increasing only to 86% when the upper two-thirds were added.
... 7,8 Malocclusions influence the perception of attractiveness, intelligence, personality, and behaviors. 9,10 Individuals with a normal occlusion are considered more attractive, intelligent, pleasant and extroverted; anterior crossbites lead to negative perceptions, and people with several diastemas are seen as the least conscientious and agreeable. 9 A recent study of the effect of teeth arrangement on human resources personnel showed that people with ideal smiles were considered smarter and more appropriate for the job. ...
Article
Introduction: Esthetic improvement is a key motivator in undergoing orthodontic treatment. This study aims to quantify the contribution of the smile and other facial components to the overall esthetics of attractiveness. Methods: The attractiveness of 60 subjects (30 men, 30 women), aged 18-35 years, before orthodontic treatment, was retrospectively evaluated by 8 laypersons using the Visual Analog Scale. Pearson and stepwise correlations were calculated between the attractiveness of the smiling face and the attractiveness of facial components; namely the smile, nose, eyes, hair, chin, eyebrows, and skin. Results: A strong correlation between the face and smile attractiveness was found (r = 0.71) for the whole sample. No significant correlations were found between attractiveness and the other facial components. When divided by gender, the smile (r = 0.70) and the eyes (r = 0.51) correlated with the attractiveness of the smiling face for men. For women, the face registered a significant correlation with the smile (r = 0.83) and the skin (r = 0.37). Conclusions: In general, smile attractiveness was strongly correlated with the attractiveness of the smiling face, which is the only significant component. For men, the smile was responsible for 49% of the variation in the attractiveness of the smiling face, the eyes for 22%, and the hair for 6%. For women, 69% of the variation in facial attractiveness could be attributed to smile.
... Young adults have a more stable self-confidence than adolescents, but are still concerned about physical appearance when compared to other individuals' views. 18 Both populations are considered to be favorable age groups for the investigation of aesthetic perceptions and OHRQOL results. ...
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Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türk adolesanlarda ve genç erişkinlerde maloklüzyonun psikososyal etkisi ile objektif ortodontik tedavi ihtiyacı arasındaki ilişkiyi değerlendirmektir.Gereç ve Yöntem: Çalışma örnekleminde 152 adolesan (yaş ortalaması 14.91) ve 48 genç yetişkin (yaş ortalaması 21.83) vardı. Katılımcılardan “Diş Estetiğinin Psikososyal Etkileri Anketi (PIDAQ)'' yanıtlamaları istendi. Objektif tedavi ihtiyacı, deneyimli bir klinisyen tarafından, ortodontik tedavi ihtiyacı indeksinin (IOTN) estetik bileşeni (AC) kullanılarak değerlendirildi. Bulgular: İstatistiksel analizler, adolesanlar ile genç yetişkinler arasında PIDAQ ve AC skorlarında anlamlı bir fark olmadığını ortaya koydu. Adolesanlarda ve genç erişkinlerde PIDAQ ve AC skorlarında anlamlı bir cinsiyet farklılığı yoktu. Sadece adolesan kadınlarda PIDAQ skoru ile AC değeri arasında pozitif bir ilişki bulundu (r= 0.263, p=0.012).Sonuç: Maloklüzyonun adolesanlar ve genç erişkinlerde benzer derecede psikososyal etkileri vardır. Kadın adolesanlar, diş görünümlerinin daha fazla farkında görünmektedirler ve adolesan erkeklerden daha yüksek psikososyal etkiler hissetmektedirler.
... The relationship between orofacial aesthetics and quality of life (QoL) has been a central research focus in dentistry, particularly in orthodontics. 1,2 Individual dissatisfaction with dental appearance due to dental irregularities or malocclusions negatively affects social and psychological parameters. 3 Aesthetic impairments arising from malocclusions are usually not accompanied by pain, loss, and/or damage to anatomical structures, and these effects may start during childhood and progress through adulthood if not treated promptly. ...
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Abstract The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetic Questionnaire (PIDAQ) is an instrument that measures several aspects of oral health-related quality of life, as it relates to patients with dental aesthetic impairments. However, the PIDAQ was developed for orthodontic patients, who typically have aesthetic concerns that differ from those of prosthodontic patients. The aim of this study was to develop an Indonesian version of the PIDAQ, focused on prosthodontic patients. The questionnaire was translated into Indonesian, back-translated, pretested, and cross-culturally adapted. We carried out qualitative interviews of 20 subjects, age 24–72 years and with equal proportion of gender. All patients were undergoing aesthetic prosthodontic treatments, and the questions focused on the perceived psychosocial impact of treatment. Following reconciliation by an expert committee, on the basis of the original version, the questionnaire was translated, back- translated, and the outcomes of the qualitative interviews were used to finalize the revised instrument. A modification of three additional items and adjustment of responses was made to accommodate the appropriate within target settings. After the pretesting, the adapted Indonesian PIDAQ emerged as an instrument that was easy to use with adult and elderly patients undergoing prosthodontic treatments. However, further analyses of the questionnaire's psychometric properties are needed to confirm its validity and reliability in target settings. Clinical article (J Int Dent Med Res 2019; 12(2): 655-662)
... 8 Moreover, people with highly aesthetic dentitions are more prone to value dental health. 9 It is important to note that the facial aesthetic perception differs among individuals and is often affected by their own experiences, and the influence from society and culture. 10 Also, the amount of change can be so extreme that people would desire a body different from the conventional human body. ...
Article
Jewellery along with other personal effects have been used for human identification and acknowledged in the INTERPOL (The International Criminal Police Organization) DVI (disaster victim identification) forms. It is hypothesised that modified oral jewellery has scope as a unique personal effect that can be used in combination with other identifiers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the opinions on the use of modified tooth/oral jewellery items among 90 subjects. The secondary aim was to create and suggest an elaborated oral charting system to document oral jewellery and tooth modifications and respective abbreviations. A number of 30 dental students, 30 dentists and 30 designers/tattoo & piercing artists (groups G1, G2 and G3) responded to online closed-ended surveys (versions V1, V2 and V3). As results, G1 considered jewellery ‘fashion/contemporary’ (77%), unique and accepted the idea of wearing a customised oral jewellery (equally 47%). G2 considered oral jewellery as ‘disgusting/vile fashion’ (46.66%), unique (60%) and person’ (60%). 53% accepted the idea of presenting oral jewellery to their patients. G3 associated it to ‘a sign of rebellion’ (53.3%), unique (40%) and accepted the idea of making customised oral jewellery (50%)Preferable designs were tooth jewel (G1), implant with Hallmark (G2) and fixed tooth ring (G3). As conclusions, oral jewellery and piercings are highly acceptable by the dental students but the uniqueness of oral jewellery was more recognized by the dentists. Modified oral jewellery has been fairly accepted among all but the design varied. A recording of those by the dentist could potentially aid in forensic dental identifications. Therefore, an elaborated oral charting system to document oral jewellery and tooth modifications and respective abbreviations were also suggested to grant a useful reason to this fashion.
... Smile is a combination of factors that depends on tooth shape, position, size, colour and gingival display. 1 A study conducted by Ulrich klages found that quality of life is greatly compromised for individuals with high Public self-conscious if they experience any variation from ideal dental appearance but this effect was smaller for individuals with low public self-consciousness. 2 Miller stated that the trained and observant eye readily detects what is out of balance, out of harmony with its environment. 3 Dental professionals critically judge dental aesthetics by focussing at the features that make smile less pleasing. ...
... Various studies and researches been conducted and proved that the patient having higher self-confidence and improved their body image and appearances when they having excellent dental aesthetics. (3,4) It was shown that individuals that are satisfied with their own physical appearance tend to be more successful in social contact. ...
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There are various anthropometric measurements available to evaluate the reliability of Berry's biometric index in two different population groups for selection and arrangement of artificial teeth. Berry's biometric Index (BBI) is one of the method to measure the size of anterior tooth. It is measured by measuring the bi-zygomatic width of patient which is divided by 16. To evaluate and determine the reliability of Berry's biometric Index in Two Different Population groups, native Indian and native Malaysian. A total of 100 participants, in which 50 Malaysian and the other 50 Indian were participated in this study. The measurements were taken by using a vernier caliper. The measurements were divided into extra oral and intra oral. The extra oral is the bizygomatic width. The intra oral is the width of the maxillary central incisor. By using Berry's Index formula, the size of the width of central incisor tooth can be determined. For Indian population, the mean values for extraoral width is 0.9202cm. Meanwhile for the intraoral measurement is 0.8266cm. For Malaysians population, the mean values for extraoral width is 0.8024cm. Meanwhile for the intraoral measurement is 0.7526cm. The standard deviation between the measurement of the actual width and the formulated width is only 0.0071 for Malaysian population and 0.0134 for Indian population. The result show a good positive correlation between the upper central incisor and the Berry's biometric measurement in Malaysian population (r=0.97) compared to Indian population (r=0.83). The selection of maxillary central incisor by Berry's Index formulae is a useful method as only a slight difference between the actual lengths of the tooth and the formulated one, which is the standard deviation between the measurement of the actual width and the formulated width. Therefore, Berry's Index formula are proven reliable.
... In a review of dentofacial aesthetics and quality of life 18 , it was concluded that almost one-third of people might tend to overrate their own dental appearance while 1 in 7 might be over-concerned compared to a professional opinion. A study comparing before-and-after bleaching treatment reported that problems with smiling decreased from 9.8% to 3.3% 19 . ...
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It aims to evaluate the association between dental appearance and Oral Health Related Quality of Life. Fifteen primary care services with dental services were selected in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Individuals were interviewed from a random sampling of households in the catchment area of the health centres. The outcome was having an OHIP14 score >0 (any impact). The main exposures included self-reported tooth colour and position, perception of oral health and concern with dental aesthetics. Data were analysed with stepwise logistic regression. Of 1943 individuals contacted, 433 used public dental services in the last year. Seventy-three percent had some impact on quality of life, 35.2% and 47.5% reported stained and crowded teeth, respectively. Also, 22.2% had already tried bleaching their teeth. Individuals concerned with colour were 2.56 times (95% CI: 1.34-4.89) more likely to report any impact after adjusting for number of teeth, smoking and education. Concerns about tooth position, reporting stained or crowded teeth, age, sex and income were not significant (p>0.30). There is a direct and independent association between concerns with tooth colour and quality of life. The effect of tooth colour on quality of life may be mediated by individuals’ perceptions of aesthetics.
... Children learn that the bad guys in movies have ugly faces and crooked teeth. Television and magazines link good looks and straight teeth with inherent goodness, popularity and sociability (Klages & Zentner, 2007, p. 105). ...
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Mismanaging the pursuit of happiness causes negative psychological effects such as stress and disappointment. The resultant stress often manifests itself as psychological and physical health problems. We explore the problems of measuring happiness according to materialistic wealth and demonstrate that misinterpreting happiness can lead to a stress inducing pursuit. The happiness that human beings pursue is often material-based hedonism whereas eudaimonic happiness has been shown to be a by-product of the pursuit of meaningful activities. Pursuing a predefined happiness, the failure to achieve it and the resistance to it can create stress induced psychosomatic health problems; temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are one such example. Masticatory myofascial pain syndrome is a form of TMD that has a strong association to psychological stress. In this paper the research on TMD associated facial pain across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups is utilized to compare an objective, stress related physiological disorder with happiness data. We also discuss how the pressures of pursuing socially determined aesthetic happiness such as conforming to society’s expectations of smile and facial aesthetics can drive people to make surgical or orthodontic changes. This review proposes that pursuing happiness has the propensity to cause not only psychological stress but also negative behaviors. We aim to encourage further scientific research that will help to clarify this philosophical pursuit.
... [30,31] It was not surprising to find that those children who sought orthodontic treatment had more negative OHRQoL impacts since these conditions may cause discomfiture at school and other social situations. [32] In this study, orthodontic treatment needs had almost similar impact on the OHRQoL of both males and females. This is in concordance with the study done by Feu et al. [9] and in contrast to the studies done by Tung and Kiyak [33] and Oliveira and Sheiham [11] who demonstrated that children with definitive treatment need had no overall health impact. ...
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The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using short form (SF) of child oral health impact profile (COHIP) in children aged 11-15 years who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison was done between these children and age-matched peers who never had or sought orthodontic treatment. This cross-sectional study included 227 children aged 11-15 years. A total of 110 participants had sought orthodontic treatment at KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research (orthodontic group) and 117 participants from a nearby school who had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group). OHRQoL was assessed with the SF of the COHIP, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment needs. Data presentation and statistical analysis were performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (Version 19, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The Chi-square test and Fischer exact tests were used to analyze the qualitative data. Children with little to borderline treatment needs have a better quality of life when compared to children with definitive treatment needs (P = 0.049). No statistically significant difference in COHIP-SF scores was found between boys and girls (P > 1.000). In the orthodontic group, children with little to borderline treatment needs were 4.8 times (P = 0.037) more likely to report better OHRQoL when compared to children with definitive treatment needs. Children who sought orthodontic treatment had lower quality of life scores than those who never had or never sought treatment.
... Satisfaction with physical appearance is very personal because individuals react differently in relation to their own physical appearance. These differences can be explained by the so-called self-consciousness, which comprises two subcomponents: private and public self-consciousness (Klages and Zentner 2007). It is possible that the present sample had low self-consciousness, since no statistically significant difference was found between DAI categories especially for SI and AC scales. ...
Conference Paper
Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) is an important aspect of health outcomes and its assessment must be done by validated instruments. The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) is an OHRQoL instrument that assesses the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics. It was validated for use on 18 to 30 years Brazilian young adults. Objective: To assess the reliability of the Brazilian version of the PIDAQ for use on Brazilian adolescents. Method: The questionnaire was filled out by 194 individuals (90 boys and 104 girls), attending public elementary school in Belo Horizonte, southeastern Brazil. The adolescents responded the questionnaire a second time after a two-week interval. Parents/guardians and adolescents who agreed to participate by signing a statement of informed consent were included in the study. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (109/08). The SPSS software program (version 17.0) was used for the data analysis. Results: The reliability of the instrument (Cronbach's alpha = 0.64) and the test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.74) were satisfactory. Conclusion: The results suggest that the Brazilian version of PIDAQ has satisfactory reliability for use in 11-14-year-olds in Brazil.
... Satisfaction with physical appearance is very personal because individuals react differently in relation to their own physical appearance. These differences can be explained by the so-called self-consciousness, which comprises two subcomponents: private and public self-consciousness (Klages and Zentner 2007). It is possible that the present sample had low self-consciousness, since no statistically significant difference was found between DAI categories especially for SI and AC scales. ...
Article
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Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is an important aspect of health outcomes and its assessment should be made using validated instruments. The psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (PIDAQ) is an OHRQoL instrument that assesses the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics was developed and validated for use on young adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability, validity, and applicability of the PIDAQ for young adults in Brazil. After translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the questionnaire was completed by 245 individuals (124 males and 121 females) aged 18–30 years from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In order to test discriminant validity, the subjects were examined for the presence or absence of malocclusion based on the dental aesthetic index criteria. Dental examinations were carried out by a previously calibrated examiner [weighted kappa = 0.64–1.00, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.78–1.00]. Internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha of the subscales was between 0.75 and 0.91 and test–retest reliability was assessed using the ICC, which ranged from 0.89 to 0.99 for dental self-confidence and social impact, thereby revealing satisfactory reliability. Discriminant validity revealed that subjects without malocclusion had different PIDAQ scores when compared with those with malocclusion. The results suggest that the Brazilian version of the PIDAQ has satisfactory psychometric properties and is thus applicable to young adults in Brazil. Further research is needed to assess these properties in population studies.
Chapter
Aside from being connected to fundamental biological functions, orofacial features have substantial psychosocial impacts on individuals’ lives, including interpersonal relationships, social interaction, and displays of emotion. The chapter focuses on orthognathic surgery as an approach to improve function and aesthetics in individuals with orofacial/dentofacial discrepancies and outlines the many positive outcomes of orthognathic surgery on psychosocial outcomes demonstrated by research studies. It also outlines some of the limitations of the research to date and future potential areas of interest. In conclusion, it is recommended to take a multidisciplinary approach to orthognathic surgery, including thorough psychological assessment and follow-up.KeywordsOrthognathic surgeryOrofacial featuresPsychosocial impactsJawAesthetic phoneticsSleep apneaDentofacial deformities
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Statement of problem Multiple esthetic width proportions have been described for maxillary anterior teeth. However, the esthetic characteristics of each have not been compared simultaneously to determine which proportion is preferred by dentists and laypersons. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preferences of dentists and laypersons with respect to internationally recognized dental esthetic proportions. It also sought to determine whether a relationship existed among dentists' preferences as per their specialty and among laypersons as per their academic field. Material and methods Two smile images, one male and one female, were digitally modified to meet the golden proportion and the recurring esthetic dental (70%) and golden percentage. The 2 resulting sets of images (original images and digitally altered ones) were presented to dentists and laypersons through a Web-based survey site. The Pearson chi-squared and Fisher tests were used to assess the differences in the esthetic preferences among the groups (α=.05). Results A total of 363 answers were obtained from dentists and 750 from laypersons. Both groups considered recurring esthetic dental to be the most esthetic proportion and golden proportion to be the least esthetic proportion. The dentists' preferences as per their specialty followed the same trend, whereas the laypersons' preferences were more scattered according to their academic field. The recurring esthetic dental proportion was preferred in images of both sexes, golden proportion smiles were the least preferred for female smiles, and golden percentage was the least preferred for male smiles. Conclusions The results obtained indicated that the preferred esthetic proportion both for dentists and laypersons was the recurring esthetic dental 70%, with the dentists’ specialty or laypersons branch of knowledge not affecting choice.
Article
Objective To assess whether subject gender influences aesthetic opinion when altering the width of maxillary lateral incisors. Method Photographs of a male and a female smile, displaying only the lips and teeth, were digitally altered to produce images where the maxillary lateral incisor was proportioned 52%, 57%, 62%, 67%, 72% and 77% in relation to the width of the maxillary central incisor. The image was then made symmetrical. One hundred participants (50 male and 50 female) were asked to rank each set of photographs from 'most' to 'least attractive'. Result The 57% lateral incisor was considered the 'most attractive' with the 77% lateral incisor the 'least attractive' however no statistically significant difference existed with relation to subject or rater gender. Conclusion Neither the 'golden proportion' nor the 'Recurrent Aesthetic Dental' ('RED') proportion was deemed the most attractive. As subject gender did not have a significant effect, dentists should work to create aesthetic results on an individual basis, operating within a so-called 'golden range'.
Article
Introduction: Recently, greater emphasis has been placed on smile esthetics in dentistry. Eye tracking has been used to objectively evaluate attention to the dentition (mouth) in female models with different levels of dental esthetics quantified by the aesthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). This has not been accomplished in men. Our objective was to determine the visual attention to the mouth in men with different levels of dental esthetics (IOTN levels) and background facial attractiveness, for both male and female raters, using eye tracking. Methods: Facial images of men rated as unattractive, average, and attractive were digitally manipulated and paired with validated oral images, IOTN levels 1 (no treatment need), 7 (borderline treatment need), and 10 (definite treatment need). Sixty-four raters meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the data analysis. Each rater was calibrated in the eye tracker and randomly viewed the composite images for 3 seconds, twice for reliability. Results: Reliability was good or excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.6-0.9). Significant interactions were observed with factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer method for density and duration of fixations in the interactions of model facial attractiveness by area of the face (P <0.0001, P <0.0001, respectively), dental esthetics (IOTN) by area of the face (P <0.0001, P <0.0001, respectively), and rater sex by area of the face (P = 0.0166, P = 0.0290, respectively). For area by facial attractiveness, the hierarchy of visual attention in unattractive and attractive models was eye, mouth, and nose, but for men of average attractiveness, it was mouth, eye, and nose. For dental esthetics by area, at IOTN 7, the mouth had significantly more visual attention than it did at IOTN 1 and significantly more than the nose. At IOTN 10, the mouth received significantly more attention than at IOTN 7 and surpassed the nose and eye. These findings were irrespective of facial attractiveness levels. For rater sex by area in visual density, women showed significantly more attention to the eyes than did men, and only men showed significantly more attention to the mouth over the nose. Conclusions: Visual attention to the mouth was the greatest in men of average facial attractiveness, irrespective of dental esthetics. In borderline dental esthetics (IOTN 7), the eye and mouth were statistically indistinguishable, but in the most unesthetic dental attractiveness level (IOTN 10), the mouth exceeded the eye. The most unesthetic malocclusion significantly attracted visual attention in men. Male and female raters showed differences in their visual attention to male faces. Laypersons gave significant visual attention to poor dental esthetics in men, irrespective of background attractiveness; this was counter to what was seen in women.
Article
Objective: Orofacial esthetics raises psychosocial issues. The purpose was to create and validate new short instrument for psychosocial impacts of altered smile esthetics. Materials and methods: A team of an orthodontist, two prosthodontists, psychologist, and a dental student generated items that could draw up specific hypothetical psychosocial dimensions (69 items initially, 39 in final analysis). The sample consisted of 261 Caucasian subjects attending local high schools and university (26% male) aged 14 to 28 years that have self-administrated the designed questionnaire. Factorial analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlation, paired samples t-test and analysis of variance were used for analyses of internal consistency, construct validity, responsiveness, and test-retest. Results: Three dimensions of psychosocial impacts of altered smile esthetics were identified: dental self-consciousness, dental self-confidence and social contacts that can be best fitted by 12 items, 4 items in each dimension. Internal consistency was good (α in range 0.85-0.89). Good stability in test-retest was confirmed. In responsiveness testing, tooth whitening induced increase in dental self-confidence (P = 0.002), but no significant changes in other dimensions. Conclusion: The new instrument, Smile Esthetics-Related Quality of Life (SERQoL), is short and has proven to be a good indicator of psychosocial dimensions related to perception of smile esthetics. Clinical significance: Smile Esthetics-Related Quality of Life questionnaire might have practical validity when applied in esthetic dental clinical procedures.
Research
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A newer version of the Polish text which has been published (in somewhat shortened form) as two English-language papers: "Facial attractiveness: General patterns of facial preferences" and "Facial attractiveness: Variation, adaptiveness and consequences of facial preferences".
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The commissioning of future dental services is once again in the spotlight as we move into the transition phase before the full effect of the commissioning boards comes in April 2013. The delivery of specialist orthodontic care has been particularly badly disrupted over the past 18 months with gross variations in the way in which procurement exercises have been undertaken by some primary care trusts. As a consequence, the British Orthodontic Society (BOS) has received complaints from both patients and specialists focusing on the disruption to the delivery of services and continuity of patient care.
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Abstrakt: Atrakcyjność twarzy była przedmiotem rozważań już w starożytności, ale naukowe badania nad nią pochodzą głównie z ostatniego ćwierćwiecza. Badania te dowiodły, że istnieje szereg, często mierzalnych, własności twarzy, które wpływają atrakcyjności twarzy. Przeciętność proporcji oraz symetria twarzy są preferowane przypuszczalnie dlatego, że sygnalizują zdrowie genetyczne i wysoką tzw. stabilność rozwojową. Mężczyźni preferują silnie sfeminizowane twarze kobiet, ponieważ oznaczają one wysoki stosunek poziomu estrogenu do testosteronu, a zatem sprawność reprodukcyjną kobiety. Natomiast kobiety preferują umiarkowany stopień maskulinizacji twarzy mężczyzn, ponieważ znaczna maskulinizacja sygnalizuje wysoki poziom testosteronu, a zatem słabo wykształcone pro-rodzinne cechy osobowości. Z podobnych przyczyn mężczyźni preferują brak owłosienia twarzy kobiet, a kobiece preferencje dla zarostu twarzy mężczyzn są niejednolite. Czysta (tzn. pozbawiona brodawek itp.) skóra twarzy jest atrakcyjna u obu płci. Ponadto mężczyźni preferują u kobiet skórę jasną i gładką (tzn. bez zmarszczek). Korzystny wpływ na atrakcyjność twarzy ma też pozytywny wyraz twarzy. Wiele z wyżej wymienionych cech (przede wszystkim stan skóry i proporcje twarzy) wpływa na postrzegany wiek, a ten z kolei wpływa na atrakcyjność twarzy. Szczególnie mężczyźni silnie preferują młodo wyglądające twarze kobiet. Badania pokazują, że preferencje względem twarzy w dużej mierze są kryteriami rozpoznawania wartościowych, z reprodukcyjnego punktu widzenia, partnerów. Preferencje te mają zatem charakter adaptacji, choć w niektórych przypadkach istotną rolę mogą także odgrywać nie-adaptacyjne mechanizmy związane z ogólnymi sposobami funkcjonowania mózgu. W niniejszej pracy dużo miejsca poświęcono wewnątrz-i międzypopulacyjnej zmienności preferencji, związkowi pomiędzy atrakcyjnością twarzy a wartością partnerską, biologicznym i społecznym konsekwencjom atrakcyjności oraz wiarygodności adaptacyjnego rozumienia preferencji względem twarzy. Wyniki badań skłaniają do następujących wniosków: (1) Istnieje wiele czynników przyczyniających się do międzyosobniczej zmienności postrzegania atrakcyjności twarzy, np. wiek, płeć, jakość biologiczna, stan fizjologiczny, osobowość i sytuacja życiowa osoby oceniającej twarze, a także poprzednio oglądane twarze, podobieństwo pomiędzy ocenianą twarzą a twarzą sędziego, oraz znajomość właściciela twarzy i wiedza o nim. (2) Międzypopulacyjne podobieństwo w postrzeganiu atrakcyjności twarzy jest znaczne i ma podłoże zarówno biologiczne jak i kulturowe. (3) Osoby o atrakcyjnych twarzach mają więcej partnerów seksualnych, biorą ślub młodszym wieku i rzadziej pozostają starymi pannami / kawalerami. Z tych powodów mają oni większy sukces reprodukcyjny niż osoby nieatrakcyjne. (4) Atrakcyjność twarzy jest rzetelnym wskaźnikiem jakości biologicznej jej właściciela, np. odporności na pasożyty, sprawności fizycznej, sprawności reprodukcyjnej, długowieczności, inteligencji, zdrowia psychicznego, a także mniejszej liczby mutacji. (5) Całościowo, badania empiryczne potwierdzają tezę, że preferencje w odniesieniu do twarzy są biologicznymi adaptacjami, to znaczy, wykształciły się one na drodze ewolucji biologicznej, ponieważ pomagały w wyborze partnera o dobrych genach lub pożądanej osobowości. Słowa kluczowe: atrakcyjność twarzy, atrakcyjność fizyczna, preferencje estetyczne, twarz człowieka, piękno.
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Background Dental malocclusion is a highly prevalent health condition in adolescence. Patients seek treatment primarily for aesthetic reasons. Therapy benefits are regarded, in the first place, to be psychosocial in nature. Therefore, it is mandatory to consider the perspective of the patient in treatment planning and control using a dental-aesthetics-related quality of life measure. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) developed in adult samples including the subscales Dental Self-Confidence, Social Impact, Psychological Impact and Aesthetic Concern is also applicable in adolescents aged 11 years and above. The psychometric properties were examined across three age-groups (11–12, 13–14, 15–17 year olds) with respect to factorial invariance, internal consistency, temporal stability, discriminant validity and gender- or age-associated scale mean differences and item response bias. Method Participants were 1,112 adolescents recruited from 4 institutions: orthodontic and dental practices, schools, and youth clubs. They answered the 23 partially reformulated items of the PIDAQ. Subjective and dentist evaluations of dental occlusion were assessed using the Perception of Occlusion Scale and the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Both indices were aggregated to one Malocclusion Index (MI-S and MI-D). Results The fit indices using confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the factor structure and factor loadings underlying the PIDAQ items were invariant across ages (comparative fit index = 0.91, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.04). Internal consistency and temporal stability were adequate within the age-groupings (Alpha = 0.71–0.88; intra-class correlations = 0.82–0.96). Adolescents with severe compared to slight malocclusion according to both self-evaluation and dentist evaluation were found to differ in all PIDAQ subscales at a level of p
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Dossier Esthétique Les seniors sont réticents à porter un appareil multibague peu esthétique. Le système Invisilign sans attaches ni fils permet d'ali-gner progressivement les dents grâce à une série de gouttières amovibles en résine. Chacune d'entre elles se porte pendant deux ou trois semaines. Elle corrige progressivement la position des dents jusqu'à leur place définitive, mais présente l'inconvénient du port permanent à l'exception des repas et du brossage. Totalement transparent, ce traitement orthodontique permet de garder le sourire. Il est très apprécié des adultes mais n'est indiqué que pour de légères malocclusions et sous le contrôle d'un praticien averti. Cependant, les altérations liées à la sénescence sont multiples chez le senior : dents abrasées, restaurations inadaptées, encom-brements dentaires, défauts d'alignements gingivaux, résorption osseuse (verticale et horizontale), récessions gingivales, édente-ments non compensés, diastèmes. Les indications esthétiques et fonctionnelles de traitements orthodontiques sont donc nom-breuses (4, 6, 9, 10) : correction de la position verticale des dents antérieures (cas clinique n°1), alignement des dents altérés par l'âge (cas cliniques n° 2 et 3), fermeture des embrasures gingi-vales, modification des espaces interdentaires pour de futures res-taurations prothétiques, ouverture d'un espace pré-implantaire, amélioration du support osseux ou correction des défauts osseux (cas clinique n° 4). Les indications sont aussi : augmentation de la quantité osseuse pour l'aménagement du futur site implantaire (éruption forcée), correction des migrations dentaires sur un paro-donte réduit (cas clinique n° 5). Docteur en chirurgie dentaire, spécialiste en orthopédie dento-faciale À la différence d'un article de forme conventionnelle, il nous a semblé préférable de répondre aux questions que se posent les omnipraticiens sur les indications et les objectifs d'un traitement d'orthodontie chez les seniors. Chez ces patients, le traitement orthodontique s'inscrit souvent dans un cadre multidisciplinaire. Différents exemples de traitements orthodontiques illustrent la variété des situations cliniques rencontrées. EST-IL POSSIBLE DE PROPOSER UN TRAITEMENT ORTHODONTIQUE AUX SENIORS ? L'orthodontie a longtemps été considérée comme une spécialité qui se limite à la prise en charge des enfants et des adolescents. Les connaissances sur la physiologie et la biomécanique du tissu osseux, les progrès technologiques font que le traitement ortho-dontique chez le senior est devenu une étape souvent incon-tournable dans la pratique moderne. Les cabinets d'orthodontie évaluent entre 10 à 15 % de seniors dans leur patientèle. Ce chiffre est en constante progression. La demande est d'autant plus forte que les moyens et les techniques rendent le traitement ortho-dontique peu visible (brackets transparentes) voire indécelable (technique linguale, Invisalign) (8).
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The oral-facial region is usually an area of significant concern for the individual because it draws the most attention from other people in interpersonal interactions and is the primary source of vocal, physical, and emotional communication. As a result, patients who seek orthodontic treatment are concerned with improving their appearance and social acceptance, often more than they are with improving their oral function or health. Enhancing these aspects of quality of life is an important motive for undergoing orthodontic treatment. Regardless of age, patients' and their parents' or caregivers' expectations about improvements in oral function, esthetics, social acceptance, and body image are important for both general dentists and orthodontists to consider when advising patients about these procedures and during the treatment process. This review of research on the impact of conventional and surgical orthodontics on quality of life examines the association between oral health-related quality of life and severity and type of malocclusion, as well as the impact of treatment and patient characteristics on quality of life. The article will emphasize the importance of clinicians' having a clear understanding, before initiating treatment, of their patients' quality of life and their expectations about improvements in specific domains of quality of life.
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To investigate whether the oral health of young male adults was related to (1) the degree of self-perceived malocclusion, (2) the degree of experienced negative psychosocial impact of dental esthetics, and (3) the history of orthodontic treatment and its duration. The study subjects were 470 male naval recruits undergoing a routine dental health checkup. They answered the Perception of Occlusion Scale (POS) and Negative Impact of Dental Aesthetics Scale (NIDAS). The Approximal Plaque Index (API), the Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI), and the number of decayed teeth (DT) and missing teeth (MT) were examined by a staff dentist. Statistical procedures were one-way analyses of variance in the API and SBI and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and chi(2) tests in DT and MT as dependent variables. (1) The subjects ranging within the upper POS quartile scored higher on the SBI (contrast: P = .003) and DT (P = .002) than did those in the lower POS quartiles. (2) In contrast to the subjects reporting minor negative impacts in the NIDAS, those with strong impacts had higher scores on the API and MT (each P < .001). (3) In the subjects with a history of orthodontic treatment lasting 30 months and longer, lower API (P < .05), SBI and DT (each P = .002), and MT (P = .007) scores were found than in the subjects without previous orthodontic treatment. The results suggest that self-perceived dental irregularity and negative impact of dental esthetics might affect oral health, whereas previous extensive orthodontic treatment may have favorable effects by improving dental health compliance.
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Proposes a conceptual framework for defining and assessing basic social skills derived from the attempts of social personality psychologists to measure individual differences in nonverbal communication skills. Preliminary testing resulted in the development of a 105-item, pencil-and-paper measure of 7 basic dimensions of social skills, the Social Skills Inventory (SSI). In a series of validation studies using 149 undergraduate students, the SSI demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity in relation to other measures of nonverbal social skill and traditional personality scales (e.g., the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire [16PF], the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale). Scores on the SSI also predicted some social group memberships, typical social behaviors, and the depth of social networks. Evidence suggests that the SSI could prove to be a valuable tool for research in personality and social psychology and for work in applied settings. (57 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews research on general facial attractiveness and explores issues related to specific types of dental-facial disfigurement that require substantial involvement of dental specialists. The psychosocial impact of various types of impairment is discussed. Misrepresentations about the etiology and effects of dental-facial impairments persist among the public and contribute to the negative influence that such impairments can have on evaluation of facial appearance. Surgical and orthodontic treatment can significantly improve self-perceptions of dental-facial appearance and some aspects of self-image. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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To examine: i) the mean changes in adolescent females' body mass index (BMI), global self-esteem, physical self-perceptions, social physique anxiety, physical activity, and dietary restraint; ii) the stability of measuring self-perceptions, BMI, self-esteem, physique anxiety, activity, and dietary restraint; and iii) the relationships among changes in these variables over 12 months. 631 female adolescents (15-16 years old) involved in a two-year study of self-report measures completed validated questionnaires in high school classroom settings. There were small but significant group increases in BMI and social physique anxiety and significant decreases in sport, conditioning, and strength physical self-perceptions and physical activity. Stability analysis indicates moderate to strong stability for all variables. Change analyses indicated that BMI, due to its high stability, is a poor predictor of change in all variables. Stronger significant correlations were noted between change in body appearance self-perceptions and change in social physique anxiety (r=-0.54) and dietary restraint (r=-0.27). There was also a significant relationship between change in physical activity and the physical self-perceptions, although conditioning was the only significant (p<0.05) predictor of change in physical activity (beta=0.340). Physical self-perceptions are a stronger predictor of change in physical activity, dietary restraint, and social physique anxiety compared to BMI. This demonstrates the importance of physical self-perceptions when investigating health-related behaviours associated with dieting and physical activity. The decline in physical activity and increase in BMI is an ongoing concern, as is the link between body appearance self-perceptions and dietary restraint and social physique anxiety.
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This study examined possible determinants of some of the health behaviors of larger women. Specifically, it was of interest to discern if affect (depression, social physique anxiety) mediated the relationship between self-conceptions (global self-worth, perceived physical appearance) and behavior (disordered eating, physical activity). The investigation was grounded in the model of self-worth forwarded by Harter (1987). A total of 71 overweight or obese women agreed to participate in the study. Data collection involved a researcher meeting individually with each of the participants to record physical assessments as well as responses to a packet of self-report questionnaires. A series of canonical correlation analyses were then conducted to test each of the three conditions for mediation effects outlined by Baron and Kenny (1986). Results suggested that indeed the set of self-conceptions indirectly influenced the set of behaviors via the set of affect variables. Surprisingly, however, involvement in physical activity failed to contribute to the multivariate relationships. The findings further our understanding of how self-conceptions are related to behavior and highlight the value of examining multiple health behaviors in parallel.
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The relationship between appearance anxiety, perceptions of physical attractiveness, and health-related behaviors was investigated. Participants' responses to the Appearance Anxiety Scale, Self-Esteem Scale, Manifest Anxiety Scale, and items referring to health-related practices and to self-perception and metaperspectives of attractiveness were correlated. Results indicated that (a) appearance anxiety was associated with an individual's self-esteem and general anxiety level, (b) both men and women shared similar perceptions about their attractiveness as a function of their levels of appearance anxiety, (c) women were concerned about same-sex peers' perception of their physical attractiveness, (d) men engaged in health-related practices as a function of appearance anxiety, and (e) after partialling out general anxiety and self-esteem, appearance anxiety was still strongly related to self-perception and metaperspectives of attractiveness.
Article
The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reproducible index of orthodontic treatment priority. After reviewing the available literature, it was felt that this could be best achieved by using two separate components to record firstly the dental health and functional indications for treatment, and secondly the aesthetic impairment caused by the malocclusion. A modification of the index used by the Swedish Dental Health Board was used to record the need for orthodontic treatment on dental health and functional grounds. This index was modified by defining five grades, with precise dividing lines between each grade. An illustrated 10-point scale was used to assess independently the aesthetic treatment need of the patients. This scale was constructed using dental photographs of 12-year-olds collected during a large multi-disciplinary survey. Six non-dental judges rated these photographs on a visual analogue scale, and at equal intervals along the judged range, representative photographs were chosen. To test the index in use, two sample populations were defined; a group of patients referred for treatment, and a random sample of 11–12-year-old schoolchildren. Both samples were examined using the index and satisfactory levels of intra- and inter-examiner agreement were obtained.
Article
This review demonstrates that the physical attractiveness stereotype established by studies of person perception is not as strong or general as suggested by the often-used summary phrase what is beautiful is good. Although subjects in these studies ascribed more favorable personality traits and more successful life outcomes to attractive than unattractive targets, the average magnitude of this beauty-is-good effect was moderate, and the strength of the effect varied considerably from study to study. Consistent with our implicit personality theory framework, a substantial portion of this variation was explained by the specific content of the inferences that subjects were asked to make: The differences in subjects' perception of attractive and unattractive targets were largest for indexes of social competence; intermediate for potency, adjustment, and intellectual competence; and near zero for integrity and concern for others. The strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype also varied as a function of other attributes of the studies, including the presence of individuating information.
Article
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a preoccupation with an imagined or minimal defect in appearance. Virtually any body part can be the focus of concern, although preoccupations with the hair, nose and skin are particularly common. Associated features include repetitive and often ritualistic behaviours, such as mirror checking and requests for reassurance, as well as ideas or delusions of reference. The degree of impairment associated with the disorder is variable, but most patients experience significant functional impairment as a result of their concerns. While this often secret disorder has been described for more than a century and reported around the world, it has received little empirical investigation. Nonetheless, emerging data suggest that BDD is frequently a chronic disorder that usually begins during adolescence. Psychiatric hospitalisation and suicide attempts are common in patients with BDD. Disorders that are frequently comorbid include major depression, social phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The prevalence of BDD among patients with other psychiatric disorders, such as atypical depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia, appears to be relatively high. The majority of patients with BDD seek often costly nonpsychiatric therapies, such as surgical or dermatological interventions. These approaches are usually unsuccessful. In contrast, preliminary data from noncomparative studies suggest that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors are often, and perhaps preferentially, effective in the treatment of BDD. Other preliminary data suggest that cognitive-behavioural strategies may also be useful. There are virtually no data on treatment-resistant BDD, but certain pharmacological approaches including augmentation, combination and switching strategies are sometimes effective. Further investigation of all aspects of this understudied disorder is greatly needed. Aspects that require particular attention are the epidemiology, clinical features, relationship to other psychiatric disorders, biology and, ultimately, aetiology and treatment response.
Article
Results from an investigation of the relationship between habitual awareness of oneself as a social object (Public self-consciousness) and speed of processing information about the overt self are reported. Since high public self-consciousness subjects report themselves to be concerned about their physical appearance, they were expected to have more readily retrievable evaluative judgments concerning their physical characteristics. Consistent with this prediction, high compared to low public consciousness subjects required significantly less time to report their evaluations of eleven of their physical features. In a second study, high public self-consciousness was shown to be positively related to judged physical attractiveness in two geographically diverse samples. The quicker evaluations of the high public self-consciousness group were discussed in terms of information processing model recently described by Markus (1977).
Article
High self-monitoring (SM) subjects were hypothesized to be more aware than low SM subjects of their impressions on others. Female subjects were videotaped and then predicted their impressions on anyone who viewed the film. The tapes were evaluated by 10 judges, and their impressions were compared with the subjects' predictions. Results showed that high SM subjects were somewhat better than low SM subjects at predicting their impressions, but the difference between groups was not reliable. A 4-item, factor analytically derived SM subscale labeled Acting and the Public Self-Consciousness Scale did differentiate subjects, such that high scorers on both measures were more accurate than low scorers in predicting their impressions on the judges. In addition, high actors left more favorable impressions on the judges. Implications of the multidimensionality of the SM Scale were discussed.
Article
Several studies confirm the operation of contextual contrast effects on judgments of the physical attractiveness of others. The present experiment was conducted to determine whether contrast effects also occur on self-evaluations of physical attractiveness. Fifty-one female college students rated their own attractiveness and body-parts satisfaction following exposure to same-sexed stimulus persons who either were not physically attractive, were physically attractive, or were designated as attractive professional models. The predicted contrast effect was supported for self-perceived attractiveness but not for body satisfaction. Consistent with social comparison theory, subjects gave lower self-ratings in the attractive versus the not attractive and the professionally attractive stimulus context. Correlational analyses also indicated that self-rated attractiveness was related to several personality variables.
Article
Are some individuals more apt to alter their physical appearance to seem more attractive? The current research investigated individual differences in the use of makeup. Women who were particularly concerned about their appearance (those high in public self-consciousness) wore more makeup and were more apt to believe that makeup enhances their social interactions. Implications of the current research for Self-Consciousness findings are discussed.
Article
The approach/avoidance of self-awareness was assessed in a naturalistic setting for individuals surreptitiously rated as low, medium, or high in physical attractiveness. As hypothesized, selective exposure to self-awareness increased as a linear function of physical attractiveness level Results were interpreted as providing additional evidence for self-awareness exposure effects.
Article
Examined whether physically attractive stimulus persons, both male and female, are (a) assumed to possess more socially desirable personality traits than physically unattractive stimulus persons, and (b) expected to lead better lives (e.g., be more competent husbands and wives and more successful occupationally) than unattractive stimulus persons. Sex of Subject * Sex of Stimulus Person interactions along these dimensions also were investigated. Results with 30 male and 30 female undergraduates indicate a "what is beautiful is good" stereotype along the physical attractiveness dimension with no Sex of Judge * Sex of Stimulus interaction. Implications of such a stereotype on self-concept development and the course of social interaction are discussed.
Article
Constructed a 30-item questionnaire of appearance anxiety (AAN) and administered the scale to nearly 300 university students. The AAN scale was internally consistent, and 2-wk test–retest reliability was .89. Sex differences in AAN were found, with women scoring higher than men on this measure. For women, AAN correlated negatively with global self-esteem and positively with shyness, social avoidance and distress, and public self-consciousness. A further study found that individuals high in AAN, especially women, described a past history of others making disparaging remarks about their appearance, reported being unsatisfied with their appearance as children, and reported not dating as often or being involved in a heterosexual relationship in high school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Considers the conditions which cause the consciousness to focus on the self as an object. The theory that self-awareness has motivational properties deriving from social feedback is discussed and considered with relation to conformity, attitude-behavior discrepancies, and communication sets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Demonstrates that the physical attractiveness stereotype established by studies of person perception is not as strong or general as suggested by the often-used summary phrase what is beautiful is good. Although Ss in these studies ascribed more favorable personality traits and more successful life outcomes to attractive than unattractive targets, the average magnitude of this beauty-is-good effect was moderate, and the strength of the effect varied considerably from study to study. Consistent with the authors' implicit personality theory framework, a substantial portion of this variation was explained by the specific content of the inferences that Ss were asked to make: The differences in Ss' perception of attractive and unattractive targets were largest for indexes of social competence; intermediate for potency, adjustment, and intellectual competence; and near zero for integrity and concern for others. The strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype also varied as a function of other attributes of the studies, including the presence of individuating information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Meta-analysis was used to examine findings in 2 related areas: experimental research on the physical attractiveness stereotype and correlational studies of characteristics associated with physical attractiveness. The experimental literature found that physically attractive people were perceived as more sociable, dominant, sexually warm, mentally healthy, intelligent, and socially skilled than physically unattractive people. Yet, the correlational literature indicated generally trivial relationships between physical attractiveness and measures of personality and mental ability, although good-looking people were less lonely, less socially anxious, more popular, more socially skilled, and more sexually experienced than unattractive people. Self-ratings of physical attractiveness were positively correlated with a wider range of attributes than was actual physical attractiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the development of a scale to assess individual differences in self-consciousness. Construction of the scale involved testing the 38 initial items with 130 female and 82 male undergraduates. A principal components factor analysis of the data yielded 3 factors accounting for 43% of the variance: Private Self-Consciousness, Public Self-Consciousness, and Social Anxiety. The final version of the scale, which contained 23 items, was administered to several groups of undergraduates (N = 668) to obtain norms, test-retest (2 wks), subscale correlation, and reliability data. Test-retest reliabilities were .84 for the Public Self-Consciousness scale, .79 for the Private Self-Consciousness scale, .73 for the Social Anxiety scale, and .80 for the total score. Public Self-Consciousness correlated moderately with both Private Self-Consciousness and Social Anxiety, while the correlation of Private Self-Consciousness with Social Anxiety fluctuated around zero. No sex differences in scores were observed. Implications for research and therapy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the self-fulfilling influences of social stereotypes on dyadic social interaction. Conceptual analysis suggests that a perceiver's actions based upon stereotype-generated attributions about a specific target individual may cause the behavior of that individual to confirm the perceiver's initially erroneous attributions. A paradigmatic investigation of the behavioral confirmation of stereotypes involving physical attractiveness (e.g., "beautiful people are good people") is presented. 51 male "perceivers" interacted with 51 female "targets" (all undergraduates) whom they believed to be physically attractive or physically unattractive. Tape recordings of each participant's conversational behavior were analyzed by naive observer judges for evidence of behavioral confirmation. Results reveal that targets who were perceived (unknown to them) to be physically attractive came to behave in a friendly, likeable, and sociable manner in comparison with targets whose perceivers regarded them as unattractive. (42 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Abstract Growing recognition that quality of life is an important outcome of dental care has created a need for a range of instruments to measure oral health-related quality of life. This study aimed to derive a subset of items from the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) - a 49-item questionnaire that measures people's perceptions of the impact of oral conditions on their well-being. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from an epidemiologic study of 1217 people aged 60+ years in South Australia. Internal reliability analysis, factor analysis and regression analysis were undertaken to derive a subset (OHIP-14) questionnaire and its validity was evaluated by assessing associations with sociodemographic and clinical oral status variables. Internal reliability of the OHIP-14 was evaluated using Cronbach's coefficient α. Regression analysis yielded an optimal set of 14 questions. The OHIP-14 accounted for 94% of variance in the OHIP-49; had high reliability (α=0.88); contained questions from each of the seven conceptual dimensions of the OHIP-49; and had a good distribution of prevalence for individual questions. OHIP-14 scores and OHIP-49 scores displayed the same pattern of variation among sociodemographic groups of older adults. In a multivariate analysis of dentate people, eight oral status and sociodemographic variables were associated (P<0.05) with both the OHIP-49 and the OHIP-14. While it will be important to replicate these findings in other populations, the findings suggest that the OHIP-14 has good reliability, validity and precision.
Article
ABSTRACT In this study we compared the ability of narcissism and self-esteem to predict positive illusions in self-evaluations of intelligence and physical attractiveness in a sample of 146 college students. Narcissism predicted both types of illusion for males and females; self-esteem predicted intelligence self-illusion for males. Both males and females overestimated their own intelligence, with males, but not females, also overestimating their attractiveness. Positive illusions for intelligence and attractiveness were correlated. Males showed greater positive illusions than females, with this effect at least partly attributable to observed gender differences in narcissism.
Article
Objective The current study investigates covariation bias (illusory correlation) in the perceived association between happiness and body type, as well as the association between covariation bias and eating disorder symptoms.Method Undergraduate women (n = 186) rated pictures of women on a variety of attributes, including happiness, degree of overweight, and attractiveness. Later, they were asked to judge the level of covariation between these attributes that was present in the stimuli that they had rated. Participants also completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Self-Report Questionnaire (EDE-Q).ResultsParticipants reported that there was a negative association between weight and happiness in the stimuli that they had rated, even though the true correlation in the data was zero. This covariation bias was stronger among participants with higher levels of eating disorder symptoms.DiscussionThe results suggest a cognitive bias that may play a role in maintaining and enhancing concerns about shape and weight in symptomatic women. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Progress in understanding sex stereotypes has been impeded by the failure of researchers to address two critical conceptual questions: What is a sex stereotype? How do sex stereotypes function in social cognition and behavior? As a step toward answering the first question, the meaning of the term sex stereotype was considered. On the basis of points of agreement among extant conceptual definitions of the construct stereotype (in both the female-male and ethnic relations literatures), a generic definition of sex stereotypes is proposed: the structured sets of beliefs about the personal attributes of women and of men. In order to relate sex stereotypes more closely to research and theory on normal psychological processes, this basic definition is recast in terms of the person perception construct, implicit personality theory: the structured sets of inferential relations that link personal attributes to the social categories female and male. Two studies are presented to illustrate the utility of this translation. The remainder of the article addresses the second question. Here we offer preliminary ideas regarding a more general cognitive—social psychological framework for the study of sex stereotypes. Stereotype and stereotyping are distinguished, and each is discussed in light of relevant research in cognitive and social psychology.
Article
In an experimental investigation the aesthetic effect of various malocclusions of the front teeth was investigated. By the method used in this study only unconscious reactions of the observers were obtained. In this way the significance of tooth position in the aesthetic appearance of the face could be determined. The results indicate that tooth position is an important factor for the overall aesthetic impression of the human face. The positional anomalies of front teeth lead to a significant deterioration in the appearance.
Article
The aim of the present study was to explore the putative relationship between dental aesthetics and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), taking into consideration the potential direct and moderating influence of private and public self-consciousness. The subjects of this cross-sectional survey were 148 university students. Dental aesthetics were assessed by means of the aesthetic component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). OHRQoL was estimated using a modification of the scales 'social appearance concern' and 'appearance disapproval', and a novel dental self-confidence scale. In addition, the private and public self-consciousness scales were used. Two-factor analyses of variance were carried out with high and low levels of dental aesthetics and private and public self-consciousness as the independent variables and the OHRQoL scales as the dependent variables. It was found that dental aesthetics had a direct effect on all OHRQoL scale values. Private self-consciousness was related to social appearance concern, while public self-consciousness was associated with both social appearance concern and appearance disapproval. An interaction effect was identified which showed that the impact of dental aesthetics on social appearance concern was stronger in respondents with high private and public self-consciousness than in low scoring subjects. The findings of the study suggest that minor differences in dental aesthetics may have a significant effect on perceived OHRQoL. This effect was more significant in subjects with high self-consciousness.
Book
Este libro trata principalmente sobre una aproximación al procesamiento de información en el análisis de la conducta humana. Contiene: Antecedentes; La Información y el Uso de Esquemas de Reconocimiento; Atención y Motivación; Esperanza y la Decisión de Retraer la Reafirmación; Implicaciones en Problemas Específicos de Psicología Individual y Social.
Article
The prevalence of malocclusion, the need for and the demand for orthodontic treatment was studied in a randomly selected adult Swedish population > or = 20 years of age. Nine-hundred-and-twenty subjects were examined of whom 669 had their own teeth in occlusion. From those a group of 157 subjects was selected on the basis of objective need and/or subjective demand for orthodontic treatment. The various regimens of treatment required in this group were investigated. The prevalence of malocclusion ranged from 17 to 53 per cent in the various age groups. The spectrum of malocclusion was similar to that previously reported in Swedish children. The awareness of their malocclusion was higher among younger than older subjects and among those who had severe malocclusion. Objective treatment need, evaluated by two experienced orthodontists, was estimated at 11 per cent of the total population, whilst orthodontic treatment was requested by approximately 5 per cent of the population studied.
Article
In orthodontic counselling an understanding of how individuals perceive their occlusal features is important to ensure effective communication and for provision of adequate advice on treatment need. The purpose of the present study was to assess personal and parental awareness of malocclusion in children, and to examine whether agreement existed between children and their parents on assessments of malocclusion traits. Of 104 randomly selected fourth-grade children 99 presented themselves at a public dental clinic. Ninety-three accompanying parents attended. Awareness was assessed by comparing the opinion of parents and children on the presence or absence of anterior malocclusion with direct measurements on dental study casts. The subjects' abilities to identify a polaroid of the child's dentition in a panel of 17 alternative photographs were also used as a measure of awareness. The findings revealed a moderate level of awareness among both the children and their parents. About half of the children and the parents identified the child's photograph on the first attempt. About three-quarters of the traits recorded as marked/severe malocclusion and about half of the mild/moderate traits were recognized. A significant association existed between the number of correct reports on traits given by the children and the parents. However, agreement across professional, child, and parental assessments varied for the different traits. The results indicated that the individual's comprehension of professional terms may be unclear and that professionally defined cut-off points often do not coincide with norms existing within the actual family unit.
Article
The relation of childhood and early adolescent social experiences with young women's concern over physical appearance (appearance anxiety) in late adolescence and early adulthood was examined. Female under-graduates completed questionnaires assessing appearance anxiety and a questionnaire assessing childhood and early adolescent experiences hypothesized to relate to appearance anxiety as well as current behaviors hypothesized to reflect it. The results suggest that appearance anxiety in women is related to reported negative social experiences in childhood and early adolescence. These experiences were suggested to lead to dissatisfaction with their childhood and early adolescent appearances which in turn was related to appearance anxiety in late adolescence and early adulthood. Appearance anxiety was also found to be related to current social experiences. The most obvious manifestation of appearance anxiety in young women was relatively greater reported attention to improving their appearance.
Article
Information about the individual perception of a patient's own occlusion is considered of importance in orthodontics. One hundred thirty young adults (mean age, 18.1 years) were clinically examined and interviewed with the purpose of relating self-awareness and satisfaction to the actual occlusal status and determining whether dissatisfaction is based on realistically perceived anomalies. From study casts taken at the time of examination, six anterior traits were recorded as either malocclusion, minor deviation, or near-ideal occlusion according to two sets of criteria. Self-awareness was assessed by analyzing agreement between the subjects' reports on the presence of the six traits and the corresponding recordings. Satisfaction was evaluated from three questions with fixed alternative answers. The majority of the young adults (63%) were characterized as having near-ideal occlusion or only minor deviations. Only mild and moderate malocclusions were present in the sample since severe malocclusions are routinely treated during childhood. The subjects were generally aware of anterior traits. Almost all the subjects (98%) with near-ideal occlusion or minor deviations expressed satisfaction. Malocclusion was present in 14 of the 16 subjects who were dissatisfied, and dissatisfaction was based on realistically perceived anomalies. However, traits rated as malocclusion were present in 30% of the satisfied subjects, which may in part be explained by the mild degree of malocclusion in the sample. Awareness of occlusal traits varied among the satisfied subjects.
Article
The usefulness of a social cognitive approach to compliance with brushing and flossing behavior recommendations was tested with 39 patients recruited from the State University of New York at Buffalo Periodontal Disease Clinical Research Center. Participants completed mailed study instruments assessing Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action variables, Bandura's self-efficacy variables, and frequency of brushing and flossing behavior. Results indicated positive attitudes, beliefs, and norms for brushing and flossing and positive intentions to brush but less intention to floss. Hierarchical regression analyses supported the basic usefulness of the theory of reasoned action for oral health behavior reports. Addition of self-efficacy variables to theory of reasoned action variables significantly increased the explained variance of brushing and flossing behavior reports. These results establish a strong basis for future clinical studies investigating social cognitions and the prediction of oral health behavior.
Article
The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reproducible index of orthodontic treatment priority. After reviewing the available literature, it was felt that this could be best achieved by using two separate components to record firstly the dental health and functional indications for treatment, and secondly the aesthetic impairment caused by the malocclusion. A modification of the index used by the Swedish Dental Health Board was used to record the need for orthodontic treatment on dental health and functional grounds. This index was modified by defining five grades, with precise dividing lines between each grade. An illustrated 10-point scale was used to assess independently the aesthetic treatment need of the patients. This scale was constructed using dental photographs of 12-year-olds collected during a large multi-disciplinary survey. Six non-dental judges rated these photographs on a visual analogue scale, and at equal intervals along the judged range, representative photographs were chosen. To test the index in use, two sample populations were defined; a group of patients referred for treatment, and a random sample of 11-12-year-old schoolchildren. Both samples were examined using the index and satisfactory levels of intra- and inter-examiner agreement were obtained.
Article
A sample of 207 patients and their respective parents were surveyed to assess the influence various occlusal anomalies and other factors had had in stimulating a desire for orthodontic treatment. From the results obtained it is thought that more attention should be given to the particular occlusal and aesthetic deviations which are causing concern to the patient: assumptions based purely upon the presenting occlusal condition should be avoided. It was shown that for the majority of patients the provision of orthodontic care was dictated largely by aesthetics but that the general dental practitioner exerted an appreciable influence on patient acceptance of treatment.
Article
The purpose of the study was to determine whether the social attractiveness of a young adult would be influenced by his or her dentofacial appearance. Black and white photographs of an attractive male, an unattractive male, an attractive female, and an unattractive female were obtained and modified so that, for each face, five different photographic versions were available. In each version, the face was standardized except that a different dentofacial arrangement was demonstrated. These were normal incisors, prominent incisors, absence of upper left lateral incisor, severely crowded incisors, and unilateral cleft lip. Eight hundred young adults were shown one of the twenty photographs and asked to estimate the represented individual's social characteristics along a number of bipolar scales. Each photograph was viewed by a different group of forty young adults, equally divided as to sex. Their impressions of the depicted individuals' social attractiveness were recorded on visual analogue scales. The experimental procedure was such that the effect and interaction of different levels of facial attractiveness, different dentofacial arrangements, sex of the photographed individual, and sex of the judge could be analyzed. Faces displaying a normal incisor relationship gained the most favorable ratings for eight of the ten characteristics examined, and in four of these differences across the range of dental conditions were statistically significant. These were perceived friendliness, social class, popularity, and intelligence. The prominent incisor condition was rated highest for compliance and honesty, while the condition representing a unilateral cleft consistently attracted low ratings. Background facial attractiveness of either the male or female stimuli was often more assertive than the individual dental condition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Long-term psychosocial effects of malocclusion should be studied longitudinally from childhood to adulthood in orthodontically untreated populations. In 1965-66, the occurrence of morphologic traits of malocclusion was recorded in 977 Danish adolescents who had no access to organized orthodontic care. In a follow-up study 15 years later, a questionnaire was mailed to the subjects; this contained general questions about body image and specific inquiries concerning self-perception and social implications of dental appearance. The response rate was 86%. Ten percent had received orthodontic treatment. In the remaining individuals, only one entry among thirteen items of body image--the teeth--was rated significantly less satisfactory by subjects with malocclusion at adolescence than by subjects without malocclusion at adolescence. The lowest ratings were observed in subjects with extreme maxillary overjet, extreme deep bite, and crowding. Highly significant differences were found between the two groups (subjects with and without malocclusion) in recalling adolescent awareness of malocclusion, dissatisfaction with the appearance of the teeth, and unfavorable appearance of the teeth compared with those of peers. Schoolmates' teasing occurred seven times more often in the presence of malocclusion. Differences were less marked in the perceptions of the same individuals in adulthood. However, in both adolescence and adulthood unfavorable perceptions of the teeth were expressed significantly more often by subjects with extreme maxillary overjet, extreme deep bite, and crowding. No association was found between malocclusion and present occupational status. It was concluded that certain malocclusions, especially conspicuous occlusal and space anomalies, may adversely affect body image and self-concept, not only at adolescence but also in adulthood.
Article
This study examined the value of SLT as a model for predicting levels of dental hygiene behaviors. The brushing and flossing frequency of 131 adults was measured both retrospectively (via questionnaire) and prospectively (via self-monitoring records). Two types of SLT variables--expectations and environmental influences--were reliably related to dental hygiene behaviors. Such variables (for example, self-efficacy expectations and the dental behaviors of significant others) accounted for up to 38% of the variance in brushing frequency and 33% of the variance in flossing frequency. Overall, a SLT model appears to hold promise for identifying psychosocial variables that are related to dental hygiene behaviors. The findings suggest that educational programs intended to increase the frequency of such behaviors should focus on increasing self-efficacy, reducing structural and life-style barriers to adherence, and involving significant others in educational efforts.
Article
69 SS DESCRIBED APPROXIMATELY 10 DIFFERENT PERSONS THEY KNEW BY SELECTING PERSONALITY TRAIT NAMES FROM A LIST SUPPLIED BY E. A MEASURE OF TRAIT COOCCURRENCE FOR EACH PAIR WAS DERIVED AND USED IN KRUSKAL'S MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING PROGRAM. THE FIT FOR THE 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL CONFIGURATIONS FELL IN THE "FAIR-TO-GOOD" RANGE WITH ADDITIONAL DIMENSIONALITY ADDING LITTLE TO THE GOODNESS OF FIT. THE 2 CONFIGURATIONS WERE INTERPRETED BY FINDING AXES IN THE CONFIGURATIONS WHICH CORRESPONDED TO INDEPENDENTLY MEASURED PSYCHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TRAITS AND LOCATED BY MULTIPLE-REGRESSION TECHNIQUES. 2 CONNOTATIVE PROPERTIES, GOOD-BAD AND HARD-SOFT, PROVIDED A SATISFACTORY INTERPRETATION OF THE 2-DIMENSIONAL CONFIGURATION; 2 DENOTATIVE PROPERTIES, SOCIAL DESIRABILITY AND INTELLECTUAL DESIRABILITY, PROVIDED AN ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATION OF THIS CONFIGURATION. THE SAME CONNOTATIVE AND DENOTATIVE PROPERTIES WERE FOUND IN THE 3-DIMENSIONAL CONFIGURATION; THERE WAS ALSO EVIDENCE OF A 3RD CONNOTATIVE PROPERTY, ACTIVE-PASSIVE. IMPLICATIONS FOR IMPRESSION FORMATION ARE DISCUSSED. (25 REF.)
Article
The aim of the study was to explore the extent to which deviant dental features may expose children to ridicule and embarrassment. In the first part of the study, 531 school children were interviewed about their experience of nicknaming, teasing and harassment and it appeared that for teasing in particular, dental features could provide a significant target for abuse. The findings were also related to a teacher's brief assessment of the child's personality. In the second part of the investigation, the salience of dental features to children was examined by asking 82 children to respond to a cine film showing 12 children's faces and it appeared that in general, the more deviant the dental arrangement, the more salient will it be. In discussion however, it is considered that many other characteristics of an individual child will influence not only the abuse which he may attract but also the nature of his response.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the social attractiveness of a child would be influenced by his or her dentofacial appearance. Black and white photographs of an attractive boy and girl and an unattractive boy and girl were obtained and modified so that, for each face, five different photographic versions were available. In each version, the child's face was standardized except that a different dentofacial arrangement was demonstrated. These were normal incisors, prominent incisors, a missing lateral incisor, severely crowded incisors, and unilateral cleft lip. Each photograph was viewed by a different group of forty-two children and forty-two adults, equally divided as to sex. Their impressions of the depicted child's social attractiveness were recorded on visual analogue scales. The experimental procedure was such that the effect and interaction of different levels of facial attractiveness, different dentofacial arrangements, sex of the photographed child, and sex of the judge could be analyzed. The hypothesis that children with a normal dental appearance would be judged to be better looking, more desirable as friends, more intelligent, and less likely to behave aggressively was upheld.