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Social Mobility in Europe

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Abstract

The study of social mobility is concerned with the relationship between the class position an individual occupies and the class into which he or she was born. This book analyses social mobility in 11 European countries-Britain, France, Ireland, West Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Sweden, Norway, Poland, Hungary, and Israel-over the last 30 years of the twentieth century. We find that, during this period, countries converged in the shape of their class structure and in their patterns of social mobility. But as far as inequalities between people from different class origins in their access to better class positions are concerned, we could see no trends towards international convergence or divergence. We did, however, find a general decline in the strength of these inequalities in several countries, most notably in France and the Netherlands. Britain, however, along with Germany, proved to be an exception: here inequalities seem to have changed little, if at all, during the last years of the twentieth century. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy, for the future study of intergenerational inequality, and for the main theories that have hitherto guided mobility research.

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... A LTHOUGH many consider education a key promoter of social mobility across generations, sociological research shows that family background affects social class destinations even among individuals with similar levels of schooling (Breen and Jonsson 2005). Lower-class kids experience a penalty for their disadvantaged family background and have to attain more schooling on average than middleor upper-class kids if they are to attain similar social class positions (Erikson and Goldthorpe 1992;Ishidi, Müller, and Ridge 1995;Breen 2004;Bernardi and Ballarino 2016;Breen and Müller 2020). This direct effect of social origins indicates that the promises of an education-based meritocracy remain unfulfilled (Goldthorpe 2003). ...
... The Loglinear Model Following the notation in Breen (2004), the mobility table has I rows and J columns, where i = 1, . . . , I and j = 1, . . . ...
... In cross-national comparisons, researchers are often interested in summarizing in a single number the overall level of social fluidity. In class mobility research (Erikson and Goldthorpe 1992;Breen 2004;Breen and Müller 2020), this is achieved by comparing phi-parameters of the unidiff model. This model is a multiplicative model in which one country's overall fluidity is chosen as a reference and subsequently compared with the overall fluidity of other countries under the constraint that the pattern of log odds ratios in each country's mobility table is the same. ...
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Although sociologists have devoted considerable attention to studying the role of education in intergenerational social class mobility using log-linear models for contingency tables, indings in this literature are not free from rescaling or non-collapsibility bias caused by adjusting for education in these models. Drawing on the methodological literature on inverse probability reweighting, I present a straightforward standardization approach free from this bias. The approach reweighs in an initial step the mobility table cell frequencies to create a pseudo-population in which social class origins and education are independent of each other, after which one can apply any loglinear model to the reweighted mobility table. In contrast to the Karlson-Holm-Breen method, the approach yields coefficients that are comparable across different studies because they are unaffected by education's predictive power of class destinations. Moreover, the approach is easily applied to models for various types of mobility patterns such as those in the core model of fluidity; it yields a single summary measure of overall mediation; and it can incorporate several mediating variables, allowing researchers to control for additional merit proxies such as cognitive skills or potential confounders such as age. I illustrate the utility of the approach in four empirical examples.
... upward mobility -indeed increased in most industrialised countries. Today, however, the situation has fundamentally changed, with upward mobility declining in most Western countries, while the proportion of downward mobility is increasing (Erikson & Goldthorpe, 1993;Breen, 2004;Bukodi, Paskov & Nolan, 2019;Eurofound, 2017;Bukodi & Goldthorpe, 2022). This process is particularly true of post-socialist countries, including Hungary, where the total mobility rate has been steadily declining since the 1970s and where the proportion of downward mobility is also increasing (especially for men) (Andorka, 1982;Róbert & Bukodi, 2004;Bukodi & Goldthorpe, 2010;Jackson & Evans, 2017;Robert, 2018;Huszár et al., 2020;. ...
... Although some examples partly support the thesis of increasing social fluidity, others tend to highlight the high degree of stability of relative mobility. When there is a change, it does not seem to follow a definite direction, but rather seems to involve trendless fluctuation, which may mostly be explained by national characteristics and political factors (Erikson & Goldthorpe, 1993;Breen, 2004;Bukodi, Paskov & Nolan, 2019;Bukodi & Goldthorpe, 2019). For instance, in Hungary social fluidity increased until the 1980s (with slightly different dynamics regarding genders) and Hungary was among the most open countries in international comparison (Erikson & Goldthorpe, 1993;Róbert & Bukodi, 2004). ...
Article
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Public dialogue about social mobility in many countries has recently been dominated by the myth of meritocracy and uses a neo-liberal vocabulary of aspiration, ambition, and choice, considering mobility as an individual project of self-advancement involving moving up in the social hierarchy (Lawler & Payne, 2018; Friedman & Laurison, 2020). Meritocracy suggests that whatever your social position at birth, society ought to offer enough opportunity and mobility for ‘talent’, when combined with ‘effort’, to ‘rise to the top’. This idea is one of the most prevalent social and cultural tropes of our time (Littler, 2017). In this discourse, social mobility is the new panacea for wider historic and social ills, and the answer to the increase in classed and racialised inequalities. This special issue aims to challenge this widespread public and political discourse by deploying the sociological perspectives of social mobility and asking how (upward but also downward) mobility works, how fluid our contemporary societies are, what mobility means for those experiencing it, and what the social implications are of ‘individual […] success at the cost of collective failure’ (Reay, 2018). As an educational sociologist and academic with a working-class background, Diane Reay (2013) argues that ‘[a]t the collective level, social mobility is no solution to either educational inequalities or wider social and economic injustices. But at the individual level it is also an inadequate solution, particularly for those of us whose social mobility was driven by a desire to “put things right” and “make things better” for the communities we came from and the people we left behind.’ (Reay, 2013, p. 674). The papers in this issue are testimony to the theoretical stance that upward social mobility cannot be seen as an individual project but needs to be understood and analysed in the wider context of social inequalities (among others, Lawler & Payne, 2018; Friedman & Laurison, 2020; Bukodi & Goldthorpe, 2019). The authors tackle the topic of social mobility from two perspectives. The first group of the research papers measure and analyse social mobility processes using the conventional occupation and education indexes and the not-so-conventional ‘soft’ variables of the intergenerational transmission of parental capital(s) on mobility outcomes. Beyond these mainstream mobility studies, the second group of articles consists of ‘marginal research’ (Lawler & Payne, 2018), or small-scale investigations that provide readers with insights into how upwardly and downwardly mobile people experience mobility when they have to travel through social spaces, leaving behind one class and adjusting to life in another.
... On the one hand, the combination of traditional gender norms, a family-centred welfare regime, and a late and weak tertiarisation of the economy, have long inhibited mothers' participation in the labour market (Bettio and Villa, 1998;Saraceno, 1994). On the other hand, high levels of employment protection have contributed to greater stability in the labour market, particularly for women employed in the public sector (Breen, 2004;Solera, 2009). The next section reviews empirical studies on mothers' micro and meso-contexts and sets out expectations about their importance for employment decisions around childbirth. ...
... This framework has the potential to capture the multidimensionality and the complexity of mechanisms shaping transitions both out and back into the labour market following childbirth and periods of intensive childcare. This model is illustrated by drawing on quantitative longitudinal evidence from Italy -an interesting study context for its distinctive pattern of low female labour market participation but comparatively stable careers in full-time jobs for the select group of women who enter employment, as opposed to patterns of discontinuous or curtailed participation observed elsewhere in Europe (Breen, 2004;Solera, 2009). Most women who were employed before the birth of their child remained in employment (77%). ...
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This article studies mothers’ employment transitions around childbirth. It argues that leaving employment around childbirth and returning after an interruption might depend on multiple influences: the micro-context of individual and household characteristics, the meso-context of women’s jobs and the macro-context of broader cultural and institutional factors. This conceptual model is tested using data from the Italian Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) ‘Family and Social Subjects (2009)’ survey. The findings confirm that mothers’ transitions out of employment are shaped by micro-characteristics such as education, meso-characteristics such as status and security of prior jobs, and macro geographical and temporal factors. Subsequent returns to employment also reflect micro and macro influences, as mothers born before 1950, with low education, and large families are less likely to return; but they seem less dependent upon prior job characteristics. The research highlights the importance of considering multiple levels of influence to understand the enabling factors of maternal employment.
... As a valued life goal, status seekingthe desire to increase one's rank in the social hierarchy and thereby to gain social prestigeis conceptually different from both factual social mobility across generations, or the life course, (Breen 2004), and people's perception of being upwardly or downwardly mobile (Gugushvili 2021b). Status seeking is not only associated THIS MANUSCRIPT IS PUBLISHED AS: Delhey, J.;Schneickert, C.;Hess, S. & Aplowski, A. (2021): Who values status seeking? ...
... Understandably, the rising economic inequalities in many parts of the world have drawn the attention of social scientists, yet this preoccupation with economic inequality has diverted sociological interest from other social forces that might shape people's status experiences and motivation, among them human development (as shown here) but also value climates (Huberman et al. 2004;Steckermeier and Delhey 2019), and socio-cultural divisions (Delhey, Schneickert and Steckermeier 2017). Future research could also examine the role of contextual mobility (Breen 2004). Our findings about the effect of human development challenges the popular idea that prosperity instils an even greater desire for more in people, so that life inevitably becomes a hedonic treadmill (Frank 2000). ...
Article
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This article investigates for European societies the contextual conditions and social stratification of status seeking, defined as the desire to increase one’s rank in the social hierarchy and thereby to gain prestige. We explore diverging assumptions about (a) the level of status seeking across societies and (b) the social gradient of status seeking within them, derived from three prominent sociological theories: the income inequality thesis sensu Wilkinson and Pickett, the post-materialism thesis sensu Inglehart, and the status competition thesis sensu Bourdieu. We employ representative, high-quality data from the European Social Survey (ESS) 2018 for more than 45.000 individuals in 29 countries, which we analyse in a multilevel framework. We find evidence that socioeconomic development dampens status seeking while income inequality is less influential. Within societies, a higher rank in the stratification system, in particular a more favorable occupational class position and higher income, are associated with stronger status seeking. While our results for contextual conditions match post-materialism theory best, the results for social gradients conform best to status competition theory. Both findings question the current dominance of the inequality thesis as the stepping stone into status seeking research.
... In this approach, class boundaries are analysed essentially on the basis of the degree of class reproduction or, in other words, the opportunities that individuals have for social mobility. These studies (e.g., Breen, 2004) show that social fluidity has increased overall in Western countries, thereby weakening the boundaries between social classes. Nevertheless, patterns of social reproduction persist, which justifies the continued use of class analysis. ...
... Los indicadores sobre el origen de clase social se aplicaron a EGO; es decir, se relevó la posición ocupacional del principal sostén del hogar cuando la persona encuestada tenía 15 años, lo que permitió indagar pautas de movilidad social intergeneracional en perspectiva comparativa entre varones y mujeres, como se realiza actualmente en la bibliografía especializada (Breen, 2004;Breen y Muller, 2020;Solís y Boado, 2016;Jorrat, 2016;Jorrat y Benza, 2016;Dalle, 2018) Un tercer tipo de abordaje para superar las limitaciones del enfoque convencional: la consideración de las posiciones ocupacionales de los distintos miembros del hogar, principalmente el cónyuge en el caso de hogares con doble proveedor, fue descartada por limitaciones del tamaño del cuestionario y para optimizar la captación de los datos en el marco de una encuesta telefónica. ...
Article
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El objetivo es describir el diseño teórico-metodológico de una encuesta nacional sobre la estructura social de la Argentina y la recepción de iniciativas públicas implementadas durante la pandemia de COVID-19 (ESAyPP/PISAC-COVID-19). La encuesta indaga los efectos de la pandemia en dimensiones centrales de la reproducción social de los hogares, desde las perspectivas teóricas del análisis de clases sociales, el género, la inserción socio-residencial y el impacto de políticas públicas. El diseño e implementación de la ESAyPP/PISAC-COVID-19 tuvo un carácter federal pues articuló equipos de investigación de todas las regiones del país. Se trata de una encuesta de amplia cobertura con dominio de estimación por regiones que permite una perspectiva comparativa interregional.
... 8 Como puede observarse, sin embargo, esto no implica que cada posición se corresponda a un nivel determinado de ingresos o recursos, ya que la variabilidad, medida por el tamaño de las cajas, que representan el rango intercuartil, es considerable. Esto reafirma el hecho que la clase social, en tanto entidad teórica y metodológica, no es equiparable a las agrupaciones o deciles de ingresos o consumo, sino que es uno de los factores condicionantes en su distribución y, por lo tanto, nos permite dar cuenta de probabilidades típicas sobre las oportunidades de vida (Benza, 2014;Breen, 2004). Al interior de la clase media directivo-profesional son pequeñas las diferencias en los ingresos y en las puntuaciones medias de bienes que alcanzan los directores, profesionales y pequeños propietarios de empresas. ...
Article
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Resumen El artículo analiza los efectos de las desigualdades de clase social en Argentina hacia 2015 en tres dimensiones de las condiciones de vida: los ingresos, los bienes y los activos económico-financieros de los hogares. Como fuente de información utilizamos la Encuesta Nacional sobre la Estructura Social del Programa de Investigación sobre la Sociedad Argentina Contemporánea. Con base en el Clasificador Socio-Ocupacional (Torrado, 1998), elaboramos categorizaciones de clases y de trayectorias de movilidad. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas entre clases y también heterogeneidades internas según trayectorias intergeneracionales. Palabras clave: clases sociales; trayectorias; desigualdad; ingresos; bienes; activos Abstract The article analyzes the effects of social class inequalities on three dimensions of the living conditions in Argentina in 2014-2015: household income, durable consumer goods and economic-financial assets. We resorted to the National Survey on the Social Structure of the Research Program on Contemporary Argentine Society for data and based on the Socio-Occupational Classifier (Torrado,1998), we elaborated class and path classifications. The results show significant differences between classes and also internal heterogeneities according to intergenerational trajectories. Keywords: social classes; trajectories; inequality; income; goods; assets
... Prior studies on trends in social mobility compared these large-scale longitudinal studies in order to explore the influence of social class background on children's cognitive development (Blanden, Gregg, & Machin, 2005;Goldthorpe & Jackson, 2007;Tampubolon & Savage, 2012). Studies examined changes in educational inequalities (Breen, Luijkx, Muller, & Pollack, 2010;Shavit, Yaisch, & Bar-Haim, 2007) and changes in disparities in attaining advantageous occupational positions among original families (Erikson & Goldthorpe, 1992;Breen, 2004). ...
Article
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Theorists and researchers have been discussing the relationship between social class background and differences observed in cognitive ability test points of children from lower social class families and their middle or upper SES peers. It has been discussed that for a more detailed understanding of these cognitive inequalities, it appears necessary to move beyond boundaries of psychology and consider sociological conditions or contexts as well. It has been asserted that social class background characteristics affect general cognitive ability over time. The present study introduces research exploring the impact of social class background on cognitive abilities of children. In Britain, the 1958 National Child Development Survey (NCDS), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) and more recently, the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS 2000) conducted at the start of the 21st century are particularly relevant and nationally representative broad-based studies for exploring the impact of social class background on general cognitive abilities of children. It was observed that they provided scaled data and emphasized the impact of social class, particularly the role of parental education as an indicator of social class in surveys. Social class affected children’s cognitive abilities as early as primary school years and led to inequalities in their cognitive performance. Children from lower social class and lower socioeconomic status (SES) families suffered a clear disadvantage. Poor and disadvantaged conditions of the lower social class adversely impacted and impaired the cognitive ability of children. Given the fact that cognitive abilities play a role especially in later life, adverse impacts and impairment of cognitive abilities are regarded as alarming and undesirable situations in childhood.
... Cada clase social brinda probabilidades típicas de acceso a bienes, posiciones y destinos personales que derivan de un orden económico y de la magnitud y naturaleza del poder de disposición sobre bienes y servicios (Weber, 2002). Estos destinos probables se vincularían con la concreción de distintos logros individuales y las chances de concretar procesos de movilidad (Erikson y Goldthorpe, 1992;Breen, 2004) o credenciales educativas (Björklund y Salvanes, 2011), entre otros. ...
Article
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Este estudio aborda los efectos del territorio en la inserción ocupacional en el primer empleo de quienes habitan, en su adultez, en el Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Los datos provienen de una encuesta probabilística desde un enfoque de curso de vida, desarrollada por el Programa de Investigación sobre Análisis de Clases Sociales (IIGG-UBA) en 2015-2016, con una estrategia de análisis estadístico en dos etapas (descriptiva e inferencial); se concluye que la dimensión territorial influye en los procesos de estratificación, al condicionar el acceso y modificar las brechas de acceso al primer empleo, según la clase social de origen.
... On average, we can be certain that children and parents, and to a lesser extent cousins, grandchildren, and aunts/uncles (Hällsten & Kolk, 2022), will share socioeconomic traits. However, this process is also shaped by social mobility, which is comparatively high in Sweden (Breen, 2004). As a consequence there will still be considerable heterogeneity within kinship networks in terms of socioeconomic outcomes (cf. ...
Preprint
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Socioeconomic status influences demographic behavior. Moreover, socioeconomic status tends to correlate across generations. Consequently, kinship structures likely display social stratification. However, the processes of kinship stratification are intricate, and its prevalence and antecedents are rarely studied empirically. We have estimated socioeconomic differences in kinship in Sweden using administrative register data of the total Swedish population. We created kinship networks for the 1973 birth cohort and followed the growth and decline of kin from birth to age 45 of this birth cohort. We analyzed consanguineous kin, as well as spouses, reproductive partners, parents-in-law, and siblings-in-law. We calculated the difference in total kinship size across earnings and educational groups. We broke down the contributions of specific kin groups to this difference and also analyzed which demographic behaviors and generations contributed most to socioeconomic differences in kinship. Among men and women with low socioeconomic status (SES), higher fertility in earlier generations resulted in more kin than those with high SES. Among low SES men and siblings, lower fertility and union instability narrowed SES differences in the number of kin.
... Sociological hierarchies focus on occupational classes [28] which are qualitative in nature and therefore have only a subjective [6] direction of hierarchy so do not apply to our purely network topology approach. An example mobility measurement is the "Log-Multiplicative Layer Effect Model" [2] which compares two matrices (called "layers" or "generations") of class associations by assuming a uniform multiplicative association. This uniform association removes much of the much needed nuance between inter-generational class associations. ...
Preprint
The centrality of a node within a network, however it is measured, is a vital proxy for the importance or influence of that node, and the differences in node centrality generate hierarchies and inequalities. If the network is evolving in time, the influence of each node changes in time as well, and the corresponding hierarchies are modified accordingly. However, there is still a lack of systematic study into the ways in which the centrality of a node evolves when a graph changes. In this paper we introduce a taxonomy of metrics of equality and hierarchical mobility in networks that evolve in time. We propose an indicator of equality based on the classical Gini Coefficient from economics, and we quantify the hierarchical mobility of nodes, that is, how and to what extent the centrality of a node and its neighbourhood change over time. These measures are applied to a corpus of thirty time evolving network data sets from different domains. We show that the proposed taxonomy measures can discriminate between networks from different fields. We also investigate correlations between different taxonomy measures, and demonstrate that some of them have consistently strong correlations (or anti-correlations) across the entire corpus. The mobility and equality measures developed here constitute a useful toolbox for investigating the nature of network evolution, and also for discriminating between different artificial models hypothesised to explain that evolution.
... From the cultural perspective we should therefore find evidence of a more ascriptive class culture in Britain, resulting in continued identification with their class of origin by middle class people from working class origins. Because of the changing class structure accompanying the transition from industrial to post-industrial society, the latter represent the vast majority of social mobility cases from the post-war era through to the end of the twentieth century (Breen 2004). This could therefore account for the large size of the subjective working class compared with the occupational working class. ...
Article
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The sources, meaning and political implications of class identity are conditional on national context, reflecting the relative importance of cultural (status-related) versus economic (resource-related) influences on class identification. Unlike Danes, the majority of Britons continue to identify as working class. This difference between the two societies is robust across the span of 50 years of survey data analysed. It is unrelated to national variations in inequality, reflecting instead the far larger influence of an ascriptive source of identity, class origins, in Britain compared with Denmark, where current class remains the primary influence. The two societies in turn differ in the extent to which class identity is associated with economic or cultural politics. In Denmark, working class identification is associated with endorsement of redistribution, in Britain it is associated with opposition to immigration. High levels of working class identification in Britain therefore provide an augmented constituency for the radical right rather than the left. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed online at: https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2022.2039980 .
... In the research literature, single mothers are often presented in terms of poverty, disadvantage and exclusion, and are treated as one of the most vulnerable groups. However, we found that digital inequality among mothers is more likely to be explained by social and economic inequality (e.g., social class) (Breen & Breen Jr, 2004) than by difficulties and restrictions of single motherhood. According to our findings, socially and economically excluded single mothers are more likely to be digitally excluded (Helsper, 2012;Norris, 2001;Van Dijk, 2005;Witte & Mannon, 2010), than to exceed married mothers in digital uses and broaden their cultural and social perspectives through diversifying their sources of information and social networks .Thus our important theoretical implication is that in cases of digital inequality based on mothers' marital status, social stratification theory is a more applicable theoretical perspective than the social diversification hypothesis. ...
Article
Using data from large scale Annual Social Surveys of the CBS in Israel, the current research focused on patterns of digital inequality among Israeli mothers between 2014 and 2019. The main purpose of the current study was to investigate digital inequality among mothers based on their marital status when controlling for their socioeconomic status (SES) and to clarify whether the patterns of digital inequality are stable or changeable over time. Among both single and married mothers the highest adoption rates were found for seeking information and social media, while internet use for study and e-government services were the lowest. Digital inequality among mothers is best explained by social class, rather than by the difficulties and restrictions of single motherhood. Both groups of mothers were consistent in their pace of digital use adoption over time, so if effective intervention strategies are not introduced, between-group gaps will continue to exist. Policymakers' implementation of our specific recommendations may produce beneficial effects for the promotion of Internet use among single mothers.
... The same pattern exists in relation to expanding labour-market and educational opportunities (Erikson and Goldthorpe, 1992;Breen, 2004). During the period of expansion in higher-level jobs in the labour market, the relative chances of individuals from privileged class backgrounds (as opposed to those from more humble backgrounds) achieving a higher-level job remained significantly better. ...
Chapter
i>Social Class in Later Life: Power, Identity and Lifestyle provides the most up-to-date collection of new and emerging research relevant to contemporary debates on the relationship between class, culture and later life.
... Aside from the educational benefits, schools provide structure and stability in young people's lives, develop talents and abilities, and stimulate social skills through interactions with peers and teachers (Alexander et al., 2001;Breen, 2004;Hout & DiPrete, 2006;Bayrakdar & Guveli, 2020). The rapid shift to remote teaching and distance learning is expected to have had a significant impact on learning outcomes of children and adolescents, widening existing inequalities with potentially longlasting impacts on education and labor market outcomes. ...
Article
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To improve our understanding of the mental health consequences of the shift to distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examined which factors are associated with increased school-related stress in adolescents. The sample consists of 16,093 adolescents, aged 12 to 18, who were enrolled in secondary education in Flanders, Belgium in May 2020. Stepwise binomial logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between the (online) learning environment, family-, and peer-related factors and increased stress in adolescents, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results show that overcrowding, financial difficulties, and domestic violence are risk factors for increased stress, while social support and no material deprivation are protective factors. These findings suggest that, in addition to distributing the necessary materials for distance learning, also social policy efforts are required to compensate for the negative effects of distance learning. Without this, distance learning may fail to deliver equal educational opportunities and outcomes.
... Existe acuerdo en la comunidad científica sobre el fuerte papel que los antecedentes familiares juegan en la herencia de la clase social (Breen, 2004;Erikson y Goldthorpe, 1992) y educación (Björklund y Salvanes, 2011;Hauser y Featherman, 1976;Sieben, Huinink y de Graaf, 2001). En Argentina, pese a la expansión del sistema educativo, las desigualdades en términos relativos entre orígenes sociales no se redujeron, sino que se mantuvieron constantes en el tiempo (Jorrat, 2016, Dalle 2015; e, incluso, se ha destacado una mayor influencia del efecto de la educación materna en los destinos educativos de los hijos (Jorrat, 2010). ...
Article
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Resumen: El presente estudio analiza el desarrollo de las trayectorias educativas de los habitantes del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires en 2016. Específicamente, analizamos las particularidades que las trayectorias educativas entre los seis y treinta años tienen según la posición de clase de origen y el tipo de territorio habitado en la infancia o adolescencia. A su vez se realizó un análisis georreferenciado de la distribución poblacional según credenciales educativas en los distintos tipos de territorios, a través del uso del programa QGis. Los datos utilizados provienen de la «Encuesta: Reproducción y movilidad social en trayectorias familiares y cursos de vida (2015-2016)», PI-CLASES y datos provenientes del Censo Nacional de Personas, Hogares y Viviendas de 2010. Los hallazgos principales del estudio se centran en que los constreñimientos y limitaciones impuestas por la posición de clase de origen pueden verse reforzados o disminuidos según el nivel de desarrollo de cada territorio, imponiendo mayores obstáculos a quienes habitan territorios deficientes. Nuestros hallazgos reafirman la hipótesis de que los territorios tienen efectos en la estructura social y en la desigualdad educativa, desarrollándose como una de las bases de la desigualdad en la sociedad, al funcionar como un mecanismo para mantener, reforzar o reproducirla.
... Previous research has shown that social position is transmitted from one generation to another, affecting education (Björklund & Salvanes, 2011;Sieben et al., 2001), social class (e.g., Breen 2004;Erikson and Goldthorpe 1992), and income (Björklund et al., 2002;Mood, 2017). Parental socioeconomic resources have been shown to be 1 In this work, the term 'effect' does not imply causality, despite its definition as, e.g., 'something that inevitably follows an antecedent (such as a cause or agent)' (Merriam-Webster dictionary). ...
Thesis
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Wellbeing is one of the most studied topics in social sciences. Previous empirical findings suggest that particularly severe, repeated, or multiple negative exposures threaten wellbeing. Social scientific research on intergenerational inequalities, however, mostly builds on established social explanations, although using them in conjunction with psychological and biological explanations could improve the understanding of mechanisms and processes behind wellbeing. This dissertation examines the role of parental resources and early-life exposures in two interrelated indicators of wellbeing: socioeconomic resources and health. The focus is on the exposures in utero, childhood, and youth and their accumulation as mechanisms that may drive intergenerational processes. The four research articles examine: (I) the role of parental resources (education, occupational class, and income) at different ages during childhood and youth in adult socioeconomic position, (II) various educational outcomes and health (early disability pension) after parental death, focusing on variation in child outcomes by cause of death and parental resources, (III) educational differences in prenatal mental health and the role of childhood circumstances (parental mental health, occupational class, and child maltreatment), and (IV) how maternal education is related to early language development (vocabulary) alone and together with maternal depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy. School performance and language development are analysed as parts of the wellbeing processes over a life course. The articles use different linear regression models to examine longitudinal population registers with representative samples of the Finnish population and the FinnBrain Cohort Study linked to the Finnish registers.
... Intergenerational mobility concerns the transitions that take place in a social system from one generation to another and it has traditionally been used as a proxy for the measurement of social inequalities and social justice. The weaker the linkage between parents and siblings in their social outcome, the more mobile and "open" the society is [2]. From that point of view, the international research has focused on the study of intergenerational mobility the last decades, intending to answer if there is a convergence or divergence in the distributions of origins and destination and how mobility patterns have changed over time. ...
Conference Paper
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In the present paper, the degrees of intergenerational social mobility in Greece are investigated, in order to provide up-to-date evidence on the changes in the mobility patterns for both men and women aged between 30-60 years old. The main purpose is to examine the relationship between the socioeconomic status of parents and their children and the evolution of the mobility patterns between different birth cohorts. For the analysis, we use data drawn from the EU-SILC, and the European Socioeconomic Classification (ESeC) to measure the mobility between the social class of origin and destination. Applying the Markov system theory, and a wide range of measures and models, this work focuses on the magnitude and the direction of the movements that take place in the Greek labour market, as well as the level of social fluidity. Three-way Markov mobility matrices are presented, where the transition probabilities between the classes of origins and destination are calculated for different cohorts. A wide range of absolute and relative mobility rates, as well as distance measures are also estimated.
... Notes 1. In this paper we do not address any question related nor with social classes, which have been the subject of large attention by outstanding sociologists over the last decades (Breen 2004;Goldthorpe 2010;Goldthorpe and McKnight 2006;Wright 2009); neither with occupational classes, also an object of a burgeoning literature by labour economists (Rodríguez Menés and Oesch 2011; Vaughan-Whitehead, Vazquez-Alvarez, and Maitre 2016). Recognising the salient relevance of social and occupational classes, our research concentrates on the questions associated with changing income classes and its distributional impact. ...
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This article empirically addresses the issue of the economic decline of the middle class, often referred to as one of the driving forces behind recent trends of income inequality across developed economies. While the question has received great scholarly attention in the United States, there is a paucity of empirical studies explicitly focusing on Europe. Drawing on homogenized EU-SILC data from Eurostat database, we address the question of the 'squeezing' of the middle class for the countries comprising the EU15 over a relatively long period, spanning approximately the two last decades (1994-2016). We find stability at the EU15 level and great diversity across countries. We try to identify patterns common to clusters of countries looking for interactions between, on the one side, forces linked to globalization and the economic cycle and, on the other side, institutional settings and various features particular to some countries, without success. Results are at odds with theories predicting rising inequality and the decline of the middle class following globalization and technological change; on the contrary, they are consistent with the view that forces unique to individual countries play the leading role in explaining diversity between countries as well as general stability at the EU15 level.
Chapter
The centrality of a node within a network, however it is measured, is a vital proxy for the importance or influence of that node, and the differences in node centrality generate hierarchies and inequalities. If the network is evolving in time, the influence of each node changes in time as well, and the corresponding hierarchies are modified accordingly. However, there is still a lack of systematic study into the ways in which the centrality of a node evolves when a graph changes. In this paper we introduce a taxonomy of metrics of equality and hierarchical mobility in networks that evolve in time. We propose an indicator of equality based on the classical Gini Coefficient from economics, and we quantify the hierarchical mobility of nodes, that is, how and to what extent the centrality of a node and its neighbourhood change over time. These measures are applied to a corpus of thirty time evolving network data sets from different domains. We show that the proposed taxonomy measures can discriminate between networks from different fields. We also investigate correlations between different taxonomy measures, and demonstrate that some of them have consistently strong correlations (or anti-correlations) across the entire corpus. The mobility and equality measures developed here constitute a useful toolbox for investigating the nature of network evolution, and also for discriminating between different artificial models hypothesised to explain that evolution.KeywordsTime evolving networksEquality and mobilityHierarchyRanking
Article
Aims Socio-economic inequalities originate from several channels, one of which is family origins, with clear effects on people’s health. This paper aims to evaluate the role played by social mobility in determining health inequalities, relying on Blau and Duncan’s status attainment model and focusing specifically on two moments of social reproduction of inequalities: one inter-generational, based on the transmission of resources from the family of origin, the other intra-generational, related to the capitalisation of economic resources to maximise well-being. Methods Multi-group models of structural equations were used to examine the direct and indirect effects of parental cultural background, education and economic conditions of respondents on self-perceived health in 28 countries, relying on the European Social Survey ( N=38,879). Results Overall, the results confirmed the presence of an inter-generational transmission of social and health status. Different models of transmission of health inequalities emerged among the countries considered. Countries characterised by a social democratic welfare regime showed higher social mobility and fewer health inequalities, although in correspondence with a prominent role of economic factors in determining health conditions. On the other hand, in countries where social mobility is lower, health inequalities are more pronounced, yet driven by factors others than economics, such as socio-cultural origins. Conclusions The presence of a higher economic-health gradient in social democratic countries – notwithstanding their egalitarian and universal welfare policies – provides support for the existence of a Nordic paradox in relation to health inequalities.
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On the basis of the EGOS 2021 sub-plenary on ‘Professions and Inequality: Challenges, Controversies, and Opportunities’, the presenters and panellists wrote four short essays on the relationship between inequality as a grand challenge and professional occupations and organizations, their structures, practices, and strategies. Individually, these essays take an inquisitorial stance on extant understandings of (1) how professions may exacerbate existing inequalities and (2) how professions can be part of the solution and help tackle inequality as a grand challenge. Taken together, the discussion forum aims at advancing scholarly debates on inequality by showing how professions’ scholarship may critically interrogate extant understandings of inequality as a broad, multifaceted concept, whilst providing fruitful directions for research on inequality, their potential solutions, and the role and responsibilities of organization and management scholars.
Chapter
This chapter examines the intersections between human rights and social work in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). The social work profession, which has a relatively long tradition in BiH—having been introduced in 1958 by Communist political elites as an integral part of their modernist version of progress and development—is tasked with providing support to individuals and groups considered vulnerable. Traditionally, social work practice in BiH has focused on satisfying human needs and addressing social problems, and this dominant needs-based—rather than rights-based—understanding of the professional activity of social work was deeply reflected in theoretical debates as social work strove to achieve professionalization. This chapter explores how social work education and practice in a time of prolonged political, economic, and social uncertainty in BiH has also been influenced and shaped by human rights discourse, which is currently gaining prominence in international social work debates. The analysis herein will draw on empirical evidence from survey research with social work students, regarding their acquired understandings and knowledge of human rights issues, and qualitative interviews with social work practitioners meant to provide insight into how they translate fundamental human rights into social work practice. Ovo poglavlje istražuje intersekcije između ljudskih prava i socijalnog rada u Bosni i Hercegovini (BiH). Profesija socijalnog rada, s relativno dugom tradicijom u BiH—obrazovanje za socijalni rad uvel su 1958. godine komunističke političke elite kao sastavni dio njihove modernističke verzije napretka i razvoja—ima zadatak pružanja podrške pojedincima i skupinama koje se smatraju ranjivim. Tradicionalno, praksa socijalnog rada u BiH fokusirana je na zadovoljavanje ljudskih potreba i adresiranje društvenih problema. Ovakvo, na potrebama utemeljeno dominantno razumijevanje profesionalne djelatnosti socijalnog rada duboko se odražavalo i u teorijskim raspravama u period profesionalizacije socijalnog rada. Ovo poglavlje ispituje način na koji diskurs o ljudskim pravima, koji trenutno dobiva na značaju u međunarodnim raspravama o socijalnom radu, oblikuje obrazovanje i praksu socijalnog rada u BiH u uvjetima prolongirane političke, ekonomske i društvene neizvjesnosti. Analiza se temelji na empirijskim podacima dobivenim putem anketnog ispitivanja studenata socijalnog rada o stečenim zanjenjem i razumijevanjem pitanjima ljudskih prava, te kvalitativnih intervjua sa praktičarima socijalnog rada zarad sticanja uvida u način na koji profesionalci prevode temeljna ljudska prava u praksu socijalnog rada.
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This article is the second of two relating to an event at the University of Edinburgh to mark the coming retirement of Lindsay Paterson, Professor of Education Policy. Here Paterson outlines his views on the study of education, exploring the reasons why such study is central to academic enterprise, and considering the methods through which we can effectively understand it.
Article
This article is the first of two relating to an event at the University of Edinburgh to mark the coming retirement of Lindsay Paterson, Professor of Education Policy. Here three of Paterson’s close colleagues outline the very substantial contribution he has made to the study of Scotland, to understanding social inequality, and measuring the contribution of education to social mobility.
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Millions were affected by COVID-19 school closures, with parents and schools caught unprepared. Education is expected to play a role in creating equal opportunities, so transferring schooling responsibilities to families may have increased learning inequalities generated by family backgrounds. We examined the time students spent on home learning and explored the role of the schools’ distance teaching provision in explaining differences traditionally attributed to parental education, eligibility for free school meals, ethnic background and single parenthood. Using the Understanding Society COVID-19 dataset, we found children who received free school meals, single-parent families and children with parents with lower formal education qualifications and Pakistani or Bangladeshi backgrounds spent significantly less time on schoolwork. However, schools’ provision of offline and online distance teaching and homework checking significantly increased the time spent on learning and reduced some inequalities, demonstrating the policy relevance of digital preparedness to limit learning loss in school closures.
Book
John Goldthorpe is one of Britain's most eminent sociologists and a strong advocate of quantitative sociology. In this concise and accessible book, he provides a new rationale for recent developments in sociology which focus on establishing and explaining probabilistic regularities in human populations. Through these developments, Goldthorpe shows how sociology has become more securely placed within the 'probabilistic revolution' that has occurred over the last century in the natural and social sciences alike. The central arguments of the book are illustrated with examples from different areas of sociology, ranging from social stratification and the sociology of the family to the sociology of revolutions. He concludes by considering the implications of these arguments for the proper boundaries of sociology, for its relations with other disciplines, and for its public role.
Article
This research presents new evidence on the negative associations of the number of siblings and birth order with years of schooling among female and male Spanish cohorts born in the first six decades of the twentieth century. Special attention is given to unravelling the separate effects of both factors, sib size and birth order. Based on data from the 1991 Spanish Sociodemographic Survey (SDS), findings in Spain support the theoretical framework of the family conditional resource dilution model and indicate that both number of siblings and birth order have been important and relatively independent factors in reducing educational attainment. The association of family size and birth order with educational attainment was contingent to a significant extent on socio-economic status. Whereas the educational consequences of number of siblings are not uniformly distributed by social class, the results for birth order are much more homogeneous. This suggests that parents in high socioeconomic statuses were able to limit the effects of dilution induced by the number of siblings while the dynamics of the dilution of resources associated with the birth order depended, in part, on factors not entirely controllable by families.
Chapter
In this chapter, I discuss whether the mechanism generating social stratification changes when we consider the aging population as well as the change in the household structure. Three main topics are examined: (1) economic inequality in terms of income and savings, (2) the relationship between intergenerational occupational mobility and wealth inheritance, and (3) determinants of the economic well-being of the elderly, represented by the total value of household income and real savings. We found out that in the late-life stage, the demographic aspects such as marital status and sibling order, and relationships with other family members become important in determining economic well-being.
Chapter
This chapter examines change and stability in the pattern of intergenerational class mobility and the role of education in mobility in post-war Japan. There is no clear tendency towards greater openness in post-war Japan nor is there an increase in intergenerational rigidity in the 1990s and 2000s. The results of trend analyses are consistent with the stability hypothesis which predicted that the strength and pattern of association between class origin and class destination remain stable in industrial societies. Similarly, the associations between class origin and education and between education and class destination show stability in the post-war period. Taking the results of absolute and relative mobility rates altogether, the Japanese postwar mobility experience can be understood as a remarkably stable relative mobility regime within the context of rapidly changing class structure and educational expansion during the 60-year postwar period.
Article
This article offers a multidimensional, interdisciplinary and dynamic framework for understanding socio‐economic inequalities. It uses the tools of economic inequality measurement to demonstrate the link between interpersonal and categorical inequalities and to show the effect of progressive redistribution on both. It then presents two new concepts for analysing interactions between varieties of inequality: inequality re‐ordering is defined as a reduction in categorical or group inequalities that leaves interpersonal inequality unchanged, and inequality diversion is defined as a reduction in one form of inequality that increases another form of inequality. The argument that inequality diversion arises across economic and social dimensions is illuminated through two case studies: the transition to increasing meritocracy, and the relationship between professional female labour market participation and domestic service. Exploring these relationships is essential to a joined‐up approach to inequality reduction, enabling us to understand trade‐offs and complementarities in tackling inequalities, and to identify policies required to reduce them.
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The effects of education on social mobility are studied in Argentina, a country that has undergone unprecedented economic and political upheaval. Among the richest in the world at the beginning of the 20th century, it was ranked 60th by per capita GDP at the century’s end; a phenomenon known as “the Argentine Paradox”. The interrelationships between class origin, education, and class destination are all explored. Regarding educational inequalities and returns on education, no fluctuations towards a particular direction were identified, although returns on education changed according to social classes. We found, contrary to “popular wisdom”, that as access to education increased, social fluidity fell. Neither educational expansion nor educational inequalities contributed to social fluidity, and we added the possibility of a growing association between origin-destination, as educational levels improved.
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Changes over time in social-class inequality of educational attainment have been shown by previous research to depend on whether attainment is measured absolutely or relatively. The pioneering work in this respect by Bukodi and Goldthorpe found that inequality has fallen when attainment is measured absolutely (for example, as the percentage completing full secondary schooling) but has changed less when a relative measure is used (for example, reaching the top quarter of the distribution of attainment). Although absolute measures remain intrinsically interesting, insofar as they represent cognitive or cultural accomplishment, relative measures are more relevant for understanding the role of education in allocating people competitively to employment. Implicit in this previous research, as in much research on the connection between education and social mobility, is that the society over which the relative standing of qualifications is measured is the same as that in which they are used to gain social rewards, such as a job. When labour markets operate across educational borders, this assumption might be open to question. The present analysis investigates the interpretation of absolute and relative educational inequality by comparing England, Scotland and Wales, which have distinct education systems but a common labour market.
Article
At country-level, a host of evidence suggests there is a sizeable direct effect of social origin (DESO) on initial labour market outcomes, net of educational attainment. What is true at country-level is not always true below country-level, however. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Survey and the German Socio-Economic Panel, we show that variable spatial opportunity structures moderate the size of DESO at labour market entry, such that there are places where DESO disappears. Social origins assume greater importance as local labour market conditions deteriorate: in weak local labour markets, non-graduates are approximately 16 percentage points less likely to find employment if their parents are care workers rather than secondary school teachers, while graduates typically obtain first jobs that are 7–9 ISEI points lower in status. These findings highlight the distinctive geography of social stratification processes at labour market entry and potentially beyond.
Article
Although most studies of the transition from school to work take a snapshot perspective in examining economic returns to education, such returns evolve over an individual’s lifetime. We empirically test a theoretical formulation derived from the cumulative advantage mechanism about enduring life-cycle effects of educational mobility on income. We analyse income trajectories for all Danes born in 1960–1961, and we consider how the welfare state may counteract certain mechanisms of intergenerational transmission that give children with college-educated parents better opportunities in the labour market. We find only small direct effects of parental college attainment on earnings trajectories after we control for offspring college attainment. Thus, schooling acts as a powerful and enduring economic leveller of family background effects in Denmark. Our analyses also show direct effects on trajectories in property income derived from wealth, suggesting that the welfare state has a harder time equalising income from wealth than from earnings.
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A large body of often rather complex findings on intergenerational social mobility has by now come into existence but theoretical development has not kept pace. In this paper, focusing specifically on class mobility in European nations and the US, we aim, first of all, to identify the main empirical regularities that have emerged from research, making the now standard distinction between absolute and relative mobility. Next, we review previous theories of mobility, leading up to what we label as the liberal theory, and we note the difficulties now evident with the latter, associated with its functionalist basis. We then set out our own theory of intergenerational class mobility, grounded in the subjectively rational courses of action followed by the various actors involved. We seek to show how the empirical regularities described can in this way be accounted for, while pointing to additional evidence that supports the theory but also to ways in which it is open to further empirical test. Finally, we consider some more general implications of the theory and, on this basis, venture a number of – conditional – predictions on the future of class mobility in more advanced societies.
Chapter
Social mobility is typically analyzed as intra- or intergenerational movements between social positions that are assumed to be hierarchically ordered. The first systematic examination of horizontal and vertical stratification was made by Pitirim Sorokin in Social and Cultural Mobility in 1927. Positions located on similar levels with respect to income, living standard, prestige, occupational status, or educational privilege could be separated horizontally, and positions located on different levels on one or more of these dimensions were regarded as vertically separated. In the first postwar decades, social mobility was mainly analyzed as unidimensional and vertically ordered movement. Pierre Bourdieu's reconceptualization of the notion of “social space,” where the spatial dimensions are constructed from indicators on various forms of capital, led to a renewed interest in horizontal segmentation, mobility trajectories, and mobility barriers. From being almost forgotten, analyses of horizontal mobility and segmentation have enjoyed a renaissance in sociological research.
Conference Paper
The process of career development has been shown to be different for young people living in rural areas, as compared to those living in urban areas [1] [2]. This paper fills an important gap in the research literature by demonstrating the current need for tailored career education programs for students in rural and urban areas of Nova Scotia, Canada, especially as pertaining to ocean sciences and the marine industry. Here, we investigate data from a large study performed in Nova Scotia wherein students in grades 6-9 were asked about their career intentions and perceptions. Significant differences were noted between students living in urban and rural areas, especially regarding their readiness to begin thinking about a range of career paths. These differences can be leveraged with career education initiatives to improve career opportunities for rural students, and by extension, the local economy.
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The mechanisms linking parental resources to their children’s opportunities are of fundamental interest to sociologists. This study is the first to provide a dynamic life course assessment of the origin–education–destination triangle using causal mediation analysis. While the age-as-equalizer hypothesis suggests that for the highly educated, direct effects of social origin are high at young ages and decrease over the life course, the age-as-stratifier hypothesis suggests that for individuals with low educational attainment, direct effects of social origin are low at young ages and increase over the life course. Findings using panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are largely consistent with these hypotheses for various measures of social origin and social destination. Overall, this study demonstrates how causal mediation analysis provides precise effect definitions that allow scholars to assess mechanisms when status transmission processes depend on educational attainment.
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In recent years, multidimensional conceptualizations of social origin have become increasingsly common in social stratification research. We provide evidence on the associations between four origin measures, parents’ class, status, earnings and education on the one hand and the corresponding offspring measures on the other. We also extend previous research on differences in origin effects at different levels of the children’s educational attainment and compare the predictive power of the social origin measures with regard to children’s top and bottom attainments on all outcome variables. We use Norwegian administrative data for nearly 500,000 individuals born between 1961 and 1970. The analyses show that parents’ education is a much stronger predictor for all outcomes than are their social class and status positions – both taken separately and together. Parental education also outperforms parents’ earnings, except when the offspring variable is also earnings. Thus, parents’ premarket characteristics seem to be more important than their labour market achievements for their children’s outcomes. A second major finding is that the predictive power of social origins is often quite similar for advantaged and disadvantaged outcomes. However, bottom earnings are much less strongly associated with social origins than are top earnings.
Article
Este artículo analiza los patrones de desigualdad en la movilidad educativa intergeneracional absoluta y relativa desde una perspectiva comparativa, internacional y longitudinal, que explora patrones entre una selección de países de América Latina (Chile, México y Uruguay) y Europa (España, Suecia, Reino Unido y Alemania), a través de cohortes, regímenes de bienestar y fases de transformación de la estructura social y educativa. La metodología refrenda la relevancia de analizar la desigualdad social más allá de la desigualdad de condiciones, recuperando la trascendencia del estudio de la desigualdad de oportunidades en términos de movilidad educativa, su estructura y pautas de distribución entre los miembros y generaciones de una sociedad. En concomitancia, se privilegian los factores contextuales y temporales en la respuesta al comportamiento de la movilidad y fluidez educativa, con especial énfasis en descubrir como la experimentan hombres y mujeres y los nacidos en la cohorte más joven (generación joven). El análisis se encamina hacia el objetivo de dar respuesta a interrogantes como: ¿Qué patrones de movilidad y fluidez educativa caracterizan a las sociedades latinoamericanas y cuáles a las europeas? ¿Qué ofrece la comparación a través de las cohortes? ¿Ha experimentado la fluidez educativa intergeneracional una desaceleración hacia la cohorte de la generación joven? Se ponen a prueba hipótesis que permiten concluir respecto a la concentración de la fluidez educativa en la base y cumbre de la estructura educativa; la elevada reproducción en la base; la fluidez educativa constante; y la diferencia uniforme a través de las cohortes.
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Research on the direct effect of social origin (DESO) focuses on how background influences later labour market outcomes after accounting for education. Growing up in a household of low social origin might decrease the chances of certain future outcomes; however, the extent to which this matters is contingent on the economic cycle. Using the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and the European Social Survey (ESS) between 2002 and 2014, we analyse whether the gap in the DESO in terms of employment and earnings widened following the Great Recession for young adults (25-34) in France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Our results suggest that young adults of high social origin faced more disadvantages in terms of employment than young adults of low social origin in France, Spain and the United Kingdom. On the other hand, analyses show that young adults of low social origin experienced more disadvantages in terms of earnings than their counterparts of high social origin in Spain.
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Previous research on historical trends in the UK in social-class and sex inequality in educational attainment and in occupational opportunity is extended well into the present century by means of the UK Household Longitudinal Study, with a particular focus on variation among England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. In England, Wales and Scotland, class inequality of educational attainment declined during the transition to non-selective secondary schooling and to mass higher education. But the decline also was observed in Northern Ireland, which retained a selective system. The relationship between education and occupational destinations is then investigated for the same period of time. The use of recent data allowed this to be extended to the mature class destination even of the youngest cohort, who had experienced the stable system of comprehensive schools in the 1990s. Inequality of this opportunity also declined, but again with no particular connection to the educational reforms. Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2022.2026763 .
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p>The article investigates how personal technologies interact with the sociality of young people in a context of long-distance mobility. We focussed on a group of individuals–expatriates and internal migrants–who are highly mobile, multilingual, multicultural, sometimes also multinational, highly educated, and who extensively use personal technologies to support their sociality. The long-distance mobility of these young adults has been discussed so far in socio-economic terms, but scholars have substantially neglected to explore how these young persons manage their sociality and communication as well as the sustainability of their life in the long run. We adopted a qualitative approach and conducted 23 interviews with a convenience sample. The main results highlight three implications, due to the intensive use of personalised technologies: (a) when the spatial distance is great, close relationships are strengthened; (b) the relationships with new friends are evaluated less than those with the friends left behind; (c) the role played by digital media is only positive (not ambivalent as in sedentary contexts) since it is only thanks to these media that the young adults are able to manage their overall sociality. Moreover, these people tend to stay in a mobile status, which risks being detrimental for them. Finally, but not unexpectedly, mobile sociality emerges as a dimension full of tensions and contradictions.</p
Book
Debate surrounding the employability of graduates has been around for many decades, and interest in this area has grown particularly since the start of this century. Tackling this relevant area of scholarship, this book uses an innovative approach to analyse the relationship between the university and the labour market from different perspectives, taking into account both sociological and economic theories. Key areas explored include work transition, graduate employability, and the effects of public interventions/initiatives which are aimed at matching the competences of graduates to labour market needs. The chapters summarise several years of author original research, including study on the employability of graduates in Poland more specifically, and the effects of their public interventions to increase graduate employment and facilitate entry into the workforce (e.g. Commissioned Fields of Study, Competences Development Programme). More generally, university – labour market relations are analysed from three perspectives: micro (understood as individual characteristics shaping educational and occupational choices and decisions), and meso and macro (e.g. features of the education system and such as the strength of the signal sent by HE diplomas; the macroeconomic situation and the condition of the labour market and the state of debate on general and employability competences and its implications). The conclusions made are pertinent given ongoing debates around graduate mismatch in the labour market, as well as the questioning of tuition fees and the role of the university in society more broadly. The interdisciplinary nature of this book makes it of great interest to academics, researchers and postgraduate students in the areas of sociology, economy, public policy, and also to practitioners designing educational interventions themselves.
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We test a prediction of cumulative advantage theory about enduring life cycle effects of educational mobility on earnings. We identify four mobility groups by cross-classifying parental education (degree/no degree) by their offspring (degree/no degree) and study the long-term economic consequences of intergenerational educational mobility. Data for this study come from Swedish population registers covering birth cohorts between 1953 and 1955. We analyse earnings trajectories of Swedish men and women, in each educational mobility category, over most of their working-age life course. We find that the earnings trajectories cluster in two groups that reflect each’s educational destination, not their educational origin. These results suggest that mobility trajectories in the Swedish labour market do not follow any strong advantage pattern but instead are explained by the attainment of human capital. By contrast, complementary analyses of mid-life wealth, not necessarily derived in the labour market, suggest more support for cumulative advantage since those with high-educated parents have much higher levels of wealth. We argue that these contrasting results, between earnings and wealth, highlight the Swedish welfare regime’s effectiveness, particularly in regulating and suppressing inequality in the labour market.
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The study investigates the relationship between intergenerational social class mobility and subjective well-being in Japan. It considers the macro-social context and examines how socioeconomic changes affect the association between intergenerational social class mobility and life satisfaction. Based on data drawn from the Social Stratification and Social Mobility Survey from 1985 to 2015 for both males and females, we adopted the diagonal reference model to measure the effects of origin, destination, and mobility. We found that the life satisfaction of mobile members was mainly determined by their destination rather than their origin classes. We did not find additional mobility effects. The analysis confirmed that the effects of class mobility differed across cohorts and that there is a trend of the origin and destination weights. Those who were mobile in a period of recession tended to be more affected by their origin class than those who were mobile in a period of high or stable economic growth. Whereas these trends were confirmed for both males and females, it was more prominent among females. We found additional mobility effects on the youngest female cohort and identified that horizontal mobility harms life satisfaction for this cohort. We also found that the association between class mobility and life satisfaction changes according to the socioeconomic environment and that the mobility impacts differ by gender.
Article
Although the association between family social position and children’s educational achievement has been repeatedly shown, evidence of what explains this association has been more elusive. We put forward two broad theories which have come to dominate the literature: the ‘family investments model’ (FIM) and the ‘family stress model’ (FSM). Using longitudinal cohort data from Growing Up in Ireland, a nationally representative cohort study of young people and propensity score methods to adjust for selection bias, we show that a family’s experience of economic strain can significantly reduce child attainment in state exams at age 15. Together, FIM and FSM measures explain between 36 per cent and 47 per cent of the effect of change in economic strain, but the variables associated with FSM explain more of the effect for economic strain than change in the variables associated with FIM. These results add to mounting evidence that psycho-social processes are at least as important, if not more important than human capital processes in explaining the effects of low resources on child health, education, and social development.
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Using a set of national-sample data on occupational status change in a cross-section of 17 countries, we examined the hypothesized relationship between "level of industrialization" (measured by per capita energy consumption) and the circulatory rate of occupational mobility (defined in terms of the nonmanual-manual-farm classification). Results of the analysis indicated that cross-sectional variations in the rate of circulatory mobility per se were unrelated to the energy-consumption measure. Insofar as the rate of observed mobility covaried with energy consumption, it was because of historical features of the structure of production in the several countries--specifically, the extent to which productivity involved a large labor-intensive agricultural sector during the time of the fathers and the extent to which the structure of production (as represented in the distribution of occupational ranks) changed during the interval of the father-son comparisons.
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The aim of this paper is to examine whether a long-term trend can be identified in the mobility regime of French society from the middle of the century. It begins with a review of the international literature on temporal trends in social fluidity within modern societies. Analysing recent French research which has concluded that inequality of opportunity has remained unchanged in France during the last two decades, the paper argues that such a conclusion can only have resulted from the use of insufficiently powerful statistical techniques. The second part of the paper analyses father-son and father-daughter mobility tables drawn from national representative surveys carried out in 1953, 1970, 1977, 1985 and 1993 (N=35,741 for males and 18,484 for females). The use of log-linear and log-multiplicative models reveals that the statistical association (as measured with the logarithm of the odds ratio) between social origin and destination has declined steadily by 0.5% a year over a period of forty years. This finding highlights a slow but continuous trend towards a reduction in inequality of opportunity from the middle of the century. Of the twelve million French men and women between the ages of 35 and 59 who were in employment in 1993, nearly half a million would have belonged to different classes without this forty year increase in social fluidity. The paper concludes that the thesis of temporal invariance in the intergenerational mobility regime cannot be maintained for France, but that the reasons of this change still remain to be ascertained.
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This paper explores the differential permeability of three class boundaries - the boundaries determined by property, authority and expertise - to intergenerational mobility among men in four developed capitalist economies: the US, Canada, Norway and Sweden. In all four countries, the authority boundary is the most permeable to intergenerational mobility; in the two North American countries, the patterns of permeability of class boundaries are broadly consistent with the expectations of neo-Marxist conceptualization of class in the two Scandinavian countries, especially in Sweden, where the property and expertise boundaries do not differ significantly in their degree of permeability; the class boundary between workers and capitalists is less permeable than would be predicted from a strictly additive model of the permeability of the three dimensions of the class structure; and in the US and Canada, the patterns of class boundary permeability to mobility are similar to the patterns of permeability to friendship and cross-class marriages, while mobility patterns in Norway and Sweden differ from friendship and marriage patterns. -from Authors
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This article addresses the effects of economic and political change on social mobility in Hungary between 1910 and 1989 by investigating whether the effects of family background on schooling and the effects of family background and schooling on first occupation vary between periods in Hungary's twentieth-century history. For this purpose, we distinguish five periods: the long-lasting Depression (1910 to 1933), the period around the Second World War (1934 to 1948), the long 1950s (1949 to 1967), the period of reform socialism (1968 to 1982), and the decline of socialism (1983 to 1989). Using large-scale datasets from 1973, 1983, 1992 and 1993, we are able to investigate developments in the parameters of the status attainment model for about 75,000 men and women. We use spline regressions to find out whether trends in the effects vary between periods. Linear secular trends in the effects of family background and schooling do not predominate; spline models reveal discontinuities between periods. On the other hand, a trend from ascription to achievement both for men and women can be observed. In contrast to the general assumption, the most important deviation from the general trend has taken place in the years before the communist take-over.
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This paper offers a theory and an explicit mathematical model of a peasant revolution's effects on inequality and status inheritance. We predict that, when an exploited peasantry revolts and overthrows the traditional elite, (1) in the short run, peasants are better off, and both inequality and status inheritance decline. But human capital becomes more valuable, and revolution does not benefit the poorest of its supporters as much as those who were better off before. (2) In the long run, peasants still benefit. But revolution proves new opportunities for those with education, ability, luck, or other resources; therefore economic inequality, educational inequality, and status inheritance grow steadily among the peasantry. In many circumstances, inequality and status inheritance will also grow in the society as a whole and may eventually exceed their prerevolutionary levels. The theory applies not only to revolutions but also to the long-run effects of any economic or social change that reduces exploitation...
Article
Theories about change in social mobility regimes have been difficult to test because of a lack of genuinely comparable data for multiple time-points. This problem is overcome for two European nations, Sweden and England, by making use of eleven different data-sets with closely matched social class-codings, covering the period between the late 1960s and the late 1980s. Data on both men and women are used to investigate whether these two societies have become more open over the decades considered. A 'generic' hybrid linear-by-linear/topological log-linear model is introduced. It corroborates earlier findings that fluidity is higher in Sweden. When change in mobility parameters is tested for, some evidence of increased fluidity is detected, particularly for Swedish women in the late 1970s. There are also signs of increased fluidity characterizing the mobility regime of English men in the mid-1980s.
Article
This paper examines a set of seven tables that show the intergenerational social mobility of Norwegian men with respect to trends in relative mobility. The seven tables are constructed from the Norwegian Election Studies, a unique set of data covering a time-span of more than 30 years from 1957 to 1989. These tables are analysed by means of log-multiplicative and log-linear models in which relative social mobility is represented by parameters for class-specific immobility and scaled association. The model selection process ends with slight preference for the best trend model over a model of stability in relative mobility. The former model displays stable immobility parameters, and shows a linear downward trend in the scaled association since 1965, with a deviant low value for 1957, whereas in the stability model, both the immobility and the scaled association parameters are stable in the time-period covered by the study. The observed trend in the scaled association parameters could also be seen as a part of a cyclical pattern, which may result if the scaled association should increase in the future. If the hypothesis of a trend towards greater openness is correct, it should be observed first among young people. Re-estimating the models for men 40 years or younger separately does suggest that the model with a negative linear trend comes out strengthened in terms of fit, but the scaled association parameters show more variation around the estimated trend line. In conclusion, the study indicates a tendency towards less rigidity in the class structure, captured by the negative trend in the scaled association since 1965. This tendency is not found for the immobility parameters, which seem to be quite stable over time. These conflicting results, together with the relatively good fit of a model of stability in social fluidity, may alternatively be interpreted as 'trendless fluctuations' in relative mobility.
Article
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Article
In examining labour-market returns to educational performance it is necessary to understand the way in which those actors who govern access to such returns-namely employers-perceive and utilize measures of performance. We argue that this will be responsive to institutional features of the educational system and the labour market and the relationship between them. We illustrate our case through an examination of the way in which Irish employers make use of educational credentials in deciding which school leavers to employ and how much to pay them. We suggest that failure to take account of employers' perceptions and interpretations of educational qualifications is likely to distort our understanding of the way in which educational attainment is rewarded in the labour market and how this can vary between sectors within a country and between countries whose institutional arrangements are different.
Article
The outlines of major trends in the size and structure of the labour force in Israel are reviewed, and data are presented indicating the extent and directions of intergenerational occupational mobility of Jewish grooms marrying in Israel in 1955. With five occupational categories employed, only 43 per cent of the grooms reported themselves in the same occupational categories as their fathers, and 57 per cent of the sons reported themselves in different categories. Almost two-thirds of the sons of `skilled and semi-skilled' fathers report themselves in the same category and three-fifths of the farmers' sons are themselves farmers; but sons of `unskilled worker' fathers and of fathers in `clerical, sales, and commercial' occupations are more likely to be in the `skilled or semi-skilled' occupational category than in their fathers' occupational categories; and sons of `professional and technical workers' fathers are about as likely to be in `skilled or semi-skilled' occupations as in their fathers' occupational category. Comparative data are presented for separate geo-cultural origin and duration-of-residence sub-groups. The latter data indicate sharp variation in directions of intergenerational occupational mobility associated with geo-cultural origin and duration-of-residence in Israel.
Article
Intergenerational mobility has been seen as influenced by both level of economic development and political democracy. Here, with a sample of 24 countries, the first of these relationships is assessed. The observed effect of economic development (GNP/capita) on mobility we conclude to be a spurious consequence of the shape of the stratification system, indicated here by the shape of both reward distributions and occupational distributions. Some discussion precedes this analysis about how the shape of a stratification system should affect mobility. Some discussion follows about how the shape of the system must affect political democracy, and leads us to a partial reinterpretation of the findings of Rubinson and Quinlan (1977) on this topic.
Article
The proposition that social mobility increases with economic development has been widely accepted. However, it is one that can be construed in a number of quite different ways, which call for different kinds of empirical test. The comparative mobility data used in most tests thus far made have been seriously defective. More recent research, based on data of greater reliability, suggests that the proposition in all its versions should be viewed with some scepticism.
Article
This paper examines changes in the relationship between class origins and the position young people occupy one year after finishing post-primary education in the Republic of Ireland over the period 1984-1993. We find that class differentials in the position occupied after leaving school do not change over time, although, among young women, the relationship between educational attainment and the position occupied does change slightly. We show that the reason why this latter change can co-occur with an absence of change in class differences is because class origin effects on the position a school leaver occupies one year after leaving school are substantially independent of educational attainment effects. In other words, class differences in how young people fare after leaving school are only weakly mediated by education. Other channels of class influence must therefore be operating, and their cumulative impact is much greater than that of class based educational inequalities.
Article
In the present study we address the issue of ethnic-group occupational mobility. Utilizing data on the Israeli labor force for the years 1969 and 1982 we examine changes in the occupational distribution of four distinct groups: Jews of European/American origin, Jews of Asian/African origin, Israeli Arabs, and non-citizen Arabs from the West Bank and the Gaza District. Longlinear analysis is employed to distinguish between structural and compositional sources of group mobility. Our findings indicate that changes in the ethnicity-occupation relationship that took place over time were more strongly related to structural shifts than to compositional changes in the labor force. Analysis at the occupational level revealed considerable variation in ethnic mobility within and outside of occupations. Specifically, superordinate groups benefitted more from the structural and compositional changes than did other groups. While occupational differentiation between Asian/African Jews and European/American Jews did not change, differentiation between Jews and Arabs increased. These findings are discussed in light of sociological theories of mobility and ethnic organization of the labor market.
Article
Classes are held to have specific relations to labor and commodity markets, and these relations are thought to constrain the mobility chances of their members. Classes are also held to be unequal, though not necessarily strictly ordered in a hierarchy of advantage. The theorist of class mobility should distinguish between movement attributable to closeness on a vertical dimension and movement (or lack of it) attributable to specific class relations. This paper looks at all four combinations of vertical vs class-specific, and distributional vs exchange mobility, for men in three countries. While there is evidence of some inter-societal differences in both aspects of class-specific mobility, differences in vertical mobility are minute. The outstanding result of the analysis, however, is that 88% of all differences must be attributed to differences between occupational distributions. The analysis employs a "structured" approach to modeling which reflects the traditional concerns of mobility analysis.
Article
Krauze and Slomczynski (1986a) have proposed a non-negative decomposition of observed frequencies in a social mobility classification into "circulation" and "structural" components. In the present paper, we show that the Krauze-Slomczynski decomposition fails to satisfy minimal methodological requirements for cross-national comparisons. We explain why this decomposition cannot be used to test the Featherman-Jones-Hauser hypothesis of cross-national similarity in relative mobility chances. We also identify several questionable procedures in the empirical work of Slomczynski and Krauze (1987) and show how these procedures have affected their conclusions. In the second part of our paper, we discuss some advantages of the recently proposed Sobel-Hout-Duncan model in partitioning marginal effects in a mobility classification and use this model to embed the explanation of marginal effects in an illustrative analysis of cross-national variation in patterns of mobility. The results suggest that both economic and political development can reduce the strength of symmetric interactions between occupational origins and destinations. In addition, economic development increases asymmetric flows by upgrading and reshaping the occupational structure, whereas political development produces a net slowdown in some types of structurally induced mobility.
Article
This paper describes several ways in which the transformation of Hungarian social structure between 1938 and 1973 constrained changes in rates of intergenerational social mobility. Three concepts of ways in which shifts in the distributions of social origins and destinations can result in changes in the total rate of mobility-"discrepancy effects," "concentration effects," and "composition effects"-are discussed and shown to be represented in a multiplicative model commonly applied to mobility tables. By observing the changes in the expected percentage mobile when various constraints are added to this multiplicative model, the relative impact of each aspect of structural change becomes more apparent. Most of the change in Hungary, particularly between 1953 and 1973, is attributable to changes in structural constraints. Most of the change in mobility across economic classes was associated with changing origin-destination discrepancy effects, as were large portions of the changes in mobility across socioeconomic status levels and broad social strata. Changing concentration effects were less important, and mostly affected mobility across SES levels. Detailed composition effects were most important in conjunction with monotonic increases in mobility across SES levels.
Article
This study examines changes in the earnings gapbetween native-born Israeli Jewish men and women duringthe 1980s and early 1990s. The sample of native-bornIsraeli women was broken into two sub-groups: one of Western origin and the other of Easternorigin. Both were compared to the dominant group in theIsraeli labor market, namely native-born Jewish men ofWestern origin. Three Income Surveys were used for this purpose: 1982, 1987, and 1993. Theresults indicate that almost the entire gender-basedearnings gap is not due to productivity-relatedvariables, and that this figure has not changed muchduring this period.
Article
Status attainment in the Netherlands is analysed using both linear regression and multinomial logistic (MNL) regression for male labour-market cohorts between 1920 and 1990. The quasi row and columns 2 mobility model (Logan, 1983; Goodman, 1979) is included in the MNL model, and a stereotyped ordered regression model (Anderson, 1984; DiPrete, 1990) is used for the covariates. The regression analyses indicate that the effect of father's occupation becomes weaker for later entrants into the labour market and as work experience accumulates. The impact of education is not affected by entry year but only by work experience. The MNL models largely confirm the results of the regression analysis, but show that the weakening impact of father's occupation by entry year and experience is not due to an increased flow between occupational classes, but only to a reduced propensity to immobility.
Article
In this article we analyze the career mobility patterns of Italian men and women in a comparative and longitudinal perspective. First, we show that, compared to Germany, Great Britain and Sweden, Italy is characterized by a) the highest rates of intragenerational immobility; b) the lowest rates of downward mobility; and c) the lowest rates of long-range upward mobility. In other words, Italian employees are highly protected from demotion but, at the same time, do not have many chances to get on. Second, moving from a cross-sectional to a longitudinal perspective we analyze full job histories of Italian men and women aged 45+ in 1997. We find that a) most people spend their whole career in one occupational class or, if mobile, do not change their class position more than once; and b) those who are mobile during the life course tend to enter their "final" destination very early. We argue that the peculiar patterns of intragenerational mobility observed in Italy depend primarily on the structure of the productive system, the structure of the labor market, and the effects exerted by social origin and education on occupational chances.
Article
The changing nature of work is often supposed to be of consequence for interest formation and political alliances between social classes. Three hypotheses are tested: classes converge due to the deskilling of white-collar work or the upskilling of blue-collar work; lower white-collar workers essentially share the conditions of manual workers; the gender dimension cross-cuts the class dimension. Empirical analyses are carried out on the Swedish Level of Living Surveys in 1968, 1974, 1981 and 1991. The major trend is towards an upskilling, though jobs have not become less monotonous. There are signs of class convergence, e.g., in wages and authority, but sharp differences remain. While class divisions exist for both men and women, gender differences within classes are substantial for physical working conditions and market capacity. For several indicators, lower white-collar workers are exposed to similar conditions as manual workers while men in the highest stratum stand out as the consistently most privileged.
Article
Les AA. examinent les analyses de P. Saunders. Ce dernier avait propose une analyse de la societe britannique et s'etait interroge sur la nature meritocratique de celle-ci. Ils affirment que Saunders n'a pas etudie attentivement les travaux menes sur cette question. Ils montrent comment celui-ci definit la meritocratie comme liee a une situation sociale d'egalite des chances qui conduit a une inegalite des revenus. Ils soulignent qu'il met de cote le fait que l'egalite est un concept comparatif et discutent ses analyses statistiques. Ils montrent que les inegalites entre les classes sociales peuvent reduire a neant le principe meritocratique d'une egalite des chances ce que Saunders ne semble pas prendre en consideration. Ils affirment enfin que ce dernier n'a pas su analyser l'influence de l'origine sociale sur la destination de l'individu
Article
This paper presents new findings about English, French, and Swedish mobility tables from the early 1970s that were previously analyzed by Enkson, Gold thorpe & Portocarero and by Hope. The former analysis focused on nonvertical aspects of mobility, while the latter gave priority to vertical mobility. The reanalysis shows that the vertical dimension of mobility is stronger and more autonomous than one would conclude from earlier analyses. At the same time, it is necessary to introduce several parameters for class inheritance in order to fit the data, and these parameters account for more of the association between class origins and destinations than does the vertical aspect of class mobility Educational attainment accounts for part of the vertical aspect of mobility, but income and occupational prestige do not help to explain it. The new models provide direct evidence of a gradient in immobility across the three nations The present findings suggest complementarities between vertical and nonvertical models of class mobility.
Article
Researchers studying social mobility are often interested in examining both the association between origins and destinations and the relationship between the marginal distributions of origins and destinations. Often, this has resulted in an attempt to partition various models into components of, or derive indexes for, exchange/circulation mobility and structural mobility. As an alternative, or perhaps supplement, to such concerns, here the authors present a relatively simple but useful way to directly and simultaneously model the association between origins and destinations on one hand and, on the other hand, the relationship between origin and destination marginal distributions.
Article
This article develops several multidimensional multilinear association models for sociologists and other social science researchers to analyze the relationship between categorical variables in multiway cross-classification tables. The proposed multilinear approach not only provides satisfactory fit by conventional standards in the illustrative examples but also offers better understanding of the complex relationship between variables. This study highlights the relationship between two alternative decompositions in the multilinear framework-the PARAFAC/CANDECOMP and the Tucker 3-mode methods to decompose log-linear parameters-as well as the relationship between the multilinear approach and the log-multiplicative association models developed by Goodman and others. In addition, the author discusses empirical strategies to determine whether some or all cross-dimensional and other identifying restrictions can be relaxed in certain restricted models and to account for the proper degrees of freedom for these models.
Article
Models for the analysis of association (ANOAS) are applied to cross-classifications of highest degree obtained by father's occupation among a sample of French men and women born between 1920 and 1949. These models allow us to establish the relative orderings of backgrounds with respect to degree outcomes, and degree outcomes with respect to background. Tests for homogeneity in multiway tables are used to assess trends in the association of these variables over time, as well as similarities between the sexes. Results are instructive with respect to both substance—educational stratification in France—and method—practical issues in the use of ANOAS models in sociological research.
Article
A general "logistic-multiplicative" model is developed which incorporates variables besides origin category to predict destination category in occupational mobility tables. The additional variables can be continuous or categorical. The (partial) bivariate relationship between origin and destination can be modeled with any of the existing multiplicative mobility models. In an empirical example, two main results emerge: interactions off the main diagonal become insignificant with the introduction of education and race variables; main diagonal effects for one origin category become insignificant while those for other categories do not, suggesting that different mechanisms of status transmission are at work in different strata.
Article
The structure of intergenerational occupational mobility is analyzed using a new structural model based on log-linear analysis. This model differs from others in that it is derived from certain theoretical propositions concerning the roles of resources governing access to occupational positions. The model permits a decomposition of observed mobility structures into their two latent components: mobility mediated by generalized resources and mobility mediated by specific resources. This decomposition provides insights into generality and specificity in various structural characteristics of mobility such as channels of mobility, social distances in mobility, and barriers to mobility.
Article
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Article
This paper introduces new models for comparing several social mobility tables that provide various one-degree-of-freedom tests for two mobility tables on substantively meaningful structural components. These components include differences between mobility tables in (1) the strength of off-diagonal associations, (2) the strength of diagonal effects, and (3) the extent of structural mobility. Most of the models in this paper use association models and the Sobel-Hout-Duncan model but are specifically formulated to analyze three-way tables that have either nations or periods as the third dimension. American, British, and Japanese mobility tables are compared. Together, they show that equality of occupational opportunity is larger for the United States than for Great Britain, that Japan's mobility structure is closer to quasi-independence than that of the two other nations, and that Japan's mobility structure became more like that of the United States in 1975 rather than in 1955. These analyses also demonstrate that comparative mobility research based on indexing mobility has strong limitations.
Article
Recent critiques of the usefulness of the concept of class (Pahl 1989; Clark and Lipset 1991) have developed into more specific criticisms of the lack of theory underlying `class analysis' as practised by Goldthorpe and his associates (Pahl 1993; Rose 1993). In this paper we argue that an adequate theory of class needs to show why classes, defined in the particular way they are, have some claim to be a basis of social power of sufficient importance to justify the emphasis placed on them by class analysis. To answer this question requires that two things be demonstrated: first, that there is an association between class and a range of outcomes; and, second, that the mechanisms giving rise to such associations be specified. Class analysis has little difficulty in answering the first requirement but very great difficulties in satisfactorily addressing the second. In discussing these problems we seek to suggest fruitful future directions for the project of class analysis.
Article
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Article
In recent years a number of methods have been developed for introducing continuous covariates into mobility analyses and into the study of cross-classified data more generally. Drawing on the work of Logan, this article shows how McFadden's Conditional Logit Model can be used to fit existing log-linear models and can incorporate into them the effects of continuous covariates. The method is illustrated using a simple example.
Article
In this paper we employ Erikson and Goldthorpe's core model of social fluidity and a 'measured variable' approach to analyse trends in social mobility among men in the Republic of Ireland. Our analyses provide no evidence that the changes associated with industrialization have led to the increases in social fluidity predicted by the liberal theory of industrialism. The measured-variable approach we employ consistently provides a better fit to the Irish data than the core model. The application of the former model points to a degree of importance of the hierarchy dimension which is not captured adequately by the core model. It also suggests that the well-known distinctiveness of the Irish social mobility regime is open to explanation in terms of general dimensions rather than the peculiarities of the Irish case.
Article
The paper studies the educational reforms and expansions (comprehensivization) of Sweden and Norway after 1900 and their effects upon the populations’ general attainment levels and the distributions of attainments according to gender, class, cultural origin and geographical background. The Norwegian developments were much more uneven than the Swedish. It is shown that the great changes in attainment levels and attainment distributions in Norway during the most recent period were caused partly by the lower secondary education reforms around 1970. However, the Norwegian reform of the upper secondary school was largely ineffectual.
Article
This is a study in political anthropology. The feudal-bourgeois characteristics of the groups which dominated the Arab national movement and the socialist workers'ideology that was central to Zionism in Palestine during most years of the British mandate are discussed briefly. The main part of the study analyzes the circumstances underlying the rise of a new Arab class formation and the meaning of a struggle for minority rights within Israel where the state employs political and other means, and ideological mystifications, in order to deny the implications of this Arab class and national reality.