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Screencast Tutorials Enhance Student Learning of Statistics

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  • University of North Georgia, United States

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Although the use of computer-assisted instruction has rapidly increased, there is little empirical research evaluating these technologies, specifically within the context of teaching statistics. The authors assessed the effect of screencast tutorials on learning outcomes, including statistical knowledge, application, and interpretation. Students from four sections of a psychology course in statistics were randomly assigned to a control text tutorial or an experimental video tutorial group and were tasked with completing a novel statistics problem. Previous math experience, math and computer anxiety, and course grades were also controlled. The results demonstrate that screencast tutorials are an effective and efficient tool for enhancing student learning, especially for higher order conceptual statistical knowledge compared to traditional instructional techniques.
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Teaching of Psychology
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DOI: 10.1177/0098628311430640
2012 39: 67Teaching of Psychology
Steven A. Lloyd and Chuck L. Robertson
Screencast Tutorials Enhance Student Learning of Statistics
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Technology And Teaching
Screencast Tutorials Enhance Student
Learning of Statistics
Steven A. Lloyd
1
and Chuck L. Robertson
1
Abstract
Although the use of computer-assisted instruction has rapidly increased, there is little empirical research evaluating these
technologies, specifically within the context of teaching statistics. The authors assessed the effect of screencast tutorials on learn-
ing outcomes, including statistical knowledge, application, and interpretation. Students from four sections of a psychology course
in statistics were randomly assigned to a control text tutorial or an experimental video tutorial group and were tasked with
completing a novel statistics problem. Previous math experience, math and computer anxiety, and course grades were also
controlled. The results demonstrate that screencast tutorials are an effective and efficient tool for enhancing student learning,
especially for higher order conceptual statistical knowledge compared to traditional instructional techniques.
Keywords
statistics, screencasting, vodcasting, podcasting
According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2009), 73.5% of people
3 or older live in a household with Internet access, with a rising
trend in the use of mobile media devices (61%) and podcast
downloading (27%) for people 18–29 (Madden & Jones,
2008), and more than 80% of college students in the United
States own at least one portable audio system capable of
downloading audio and sometimes video files (Lum, 2006).
In addition, the use of classroom technology, including
podcasting, vodcasting, and screencasting, is on the rise in
higher education. Some institutions have wholeheartedly
embraced this technology and have launched massive cam-
paigns to incorporate podcasting into the curriculum with
demonstrated success (Fernandez, Simo, & Sallan, 2009).
Podcasting describes a form of downloadable audio files
compatible with MP3 players that has been used for many years
by institutes of higher learning to deliver or rebroadcast course
content and/or supplemental materials (Donnelly & Berge,
2006; Hammersley, 2004). It is associated with numerous
positive learning outcomes affecting a wide range of learners
across a number of educational settings (i.e., enhanced learn-
ing, increased satisfaction, motivation and engagement, and
positive impacts on course-related attitudes and anxiety
reduction; Evans, 2008; Hew, 2009; McKinney, Dyck, &
Luber, 2009).
Technological developments and increased accessibility to
the Internet and mobile media devices coupled with increased
software usability and institutional support have led to rapid
developments in computer-assisted instruction on college
campuses (Campbell, 2005). Therefore, the use of traditional
podcasting in the classroom is being replaced by enhanced
podcasting and vodcasting, which provide expanded media
options for delivering course content. These forms of media are
available on demand to mobile media devices, creating a new
form of portable learning (i.e., m-learning) that has the advan-
tage of expanding ‘the space’ in which learning takes place
(Donnelly & Berge, 2006).
There is a large gap between learning theory and teaching
practices, which is especially evident when the research involves
technological innovations directed toward college students (Fer-
nandez et al., 2009). This gap is evident from the paucity of
empirical research evaluating the impact of technologies on
learning (Fernandez et al., 2009; Hew, 2009), specifically within
the context of teaching statistics (Garfield & Ben-Zvi, 2007).
There are special issues to consider when teaching statistics
to undergraduate students. In addition to heightened anxiety
toward math, students resist learning statistics, reporting that
it is difficult and not applicable to their chosen career. This is
particularly troubling since negative cognitions and affect are
related to statistics performance (Feinberg & Halprin, 1978) and
given the importance of learning advanced concepts and the
application of statistical knowledge for the undergraduate psy-
chology major (American Psychological Association, 2007).
1
North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA, USA
Corresponding Author:
Steven Lloyd, Department of Psychology, North Georgia College & State
University, Dahlonega, GA 30597
Email: salloyd@northgeorgia.edu
Teaching of Psychology
39(1) 67-71
ª The Author(s) 2012
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The GAISE Report and the National Science Foundation
provide suggestions for teachers of statistics geared toward
specific learning goals, including promoting statistical literacy
and thinking, using real data, promoting active learning, using
technology for developing concepts and analyzing data, and
using varied assessment (Franklin & Garfield, 2006; Hall &
Rowell, 2008). Computer-assisted instruction and web-based
technologies can promote active, task-based learning as well
as student independence and conceptual learning in statistics,
especially when they are grounded in cognitive learning theory
(Lovett & Greenhouse, 2000; U.S. Department of Education
[DOE], 2009).
Screencasting, defined as capturing what you do on the com-
puter screen with synched audio commentary (Udell, 2004), is
a real-time format that can be disseminated as enhanced pod-
casts or vodcasts and provides a medium for demonstrating
algorithms for problem solving, software instructions, and
errors while also providing interpretation-based conceptual
understanding in an active learning format. Screencasting
encourages meaningful learning according to the cognitive
theory of multimedia learning, which suggests that multimodal
information presented as combinations of narration and anima-
tion, when appropriately temporally and spatially sequenced,
self-paced, coherently communicated, and stated in a conversa-
tional manner, leads to problem-solving transfer in novel
situations and encourages active cognitive processing and
cognitive load reduction to promote deeper learning (Mayer,
Fennell, Farmer, & Campbell, 2004; Mayer & Moreno, 2003).
Given the need for empirical research on new instructional
technologies, specifically within the context of statistical instruc-
tion, we set forth to determine the impact of a supplemental
vodcast tutorial, which was designed according to multimedia
learning theory recommendations, on objective learning out-
comes in reference to statistical knowledge, application, and
interpretation. Our results reveal that vodcasting is an effective
and efficient tool for enhancing student learning, especially for
higher-order conceptual statistical knowledge.
Method
Participants
A total of 53 students from four sections of an upper
level psychology course in statistics participated. Stratified
randomization was used to assign participants to experimental
conditions based on gender. The sample consisted of predomi-
nantly young (R ¼ 20–50, M ¼ 23.45, SD ¼ 4.83), Caucasian
(91%, n ¼ 48), upper level (junior or senior class status; 100%,
n ¼ 53), female (81%, n ¼ 43) psychology majors (81%, n ¼
43) from a public university in the southeastern United States.
All participants had taken a prerequisite course in elementary
statistics, but the groups did not differ in the number, type, or
level of additional math courses they had taken or completed
(p > .05).
All procedures were performed in accordance with the
university’s institutional review board guidelines.
Materials and Procedures
Psychological scales. A 10-item Math Anxiety Scale (MAS;
Betz, 1978) and a 6-item Computer Anxiety Scale (CAS;
Lester, Yang, & James, 2005) were administered during the
first week of the semester.
Screencast tutorials. A screencast tutorial was created using
iShowU (www.shinywhitebox.com) and iMovieMaker and was
served as a vodcast. The tutorial demonstrated the following
steps of statistical analysis: data entry, conducting an indepen-
dent samples t test analysis, and working with output files
in SPSS. The completed tutorial was 11.55 min in length. The
control group was given a packet of material taken from an SPSS
user guide, which covered the same content and included screen
shots of the same SPSS environment demonstrated in the screen-
cast tutorial (Kirkpatrick & Feeney, 2006). Participants in both
groups were given 12 min to review their tutorials.
Statistical problem set. The statistical problem set necessitated
an independent samples t test analysis. The raw data were
listed, and the participants performed analyses using SPSS
(v. 16.0). They were given 25 min to complete the task in
Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the time allotted to complete
the task was increased to 55 min, and participants were allowed
to review the video or text tutorial at the time of testing.
Scoring the statistical problem set. There were 10 possible
points for this exercise. A point was awarded for correctly
reporting the mean (Group 1), standard deviation (Group 1),
mean (Group 2), standard error of the mean (Group 2), standard
error of the mean difference score, t obtained, and p value. A
point was also awarded for correctly rejecting the null hypoth-
esis, using the correct reporting format, and stating the correct
conclusion. Screencapture and mousecapture (iShowU) were
used to record participants as they solved the problem. The
number of mouse clicks executed and the time to complete the
assignment were extracted from these recordings.
Results
Experiment 1
The experimental group did not differ in self-reported
computer anxiety, t(29) ¼ 0.886, p ¼ .383, or math anxiety,
t(29) ¼ 0.190, p ¼ .851, as measured by the CAS and the MAS,
respectively. Although the MAS scores were positively corre-
lated to CAS scores, r(29) ¼ .385, p ¼ .032, neither the MAS
score, r(29) ¼ –.198, p ¼ .287, nor the CAS scores, r(29) ¼
.009, p ¼ .963, were correlated with final course grades.
The screencast tutorial group took less time to complete
the statistical problem (M ¼ 15.20, SE ¼ 0.70) than the text
tutorial group (M ¼ 18.06, SE ¼ 0.67), t(29) ¼ 2.950, p ¼
.006 (Figure 1). The screencast tutorial group also scored
higher on the statistical problem set (M ¼ 7.27, SE ¼ 0.30) than
did the text tutorial group (M ¼ 4.5, SE ¼ 0.55), t(29) ¼ 4.347,
p < .001 (Figure 2). In addition, the time to task completion
68 Teaching of Psychology 39(1)
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negatively correlated with total score on the problem set, r(29)
¼ –.510, p ¼ .003.
The screencast tutorial group outscored the text tutorial
group on several individual questions, including correctly stat-
ing the mean (Group 2; M ¼ 1.00, SE ¼ 0 and M ¼ 0.75, SE ¼
0.11, respectively), t(29) ¼ 2.163, p ¼ .039, the t obtained
(M ¼ 1.00, SE ¼ 0 and M ¼ 0.38, SE ¼ 0.13, respectively),
t(29) ¼ 4.836, p < .001, the p value (M ¼ 0.73, SE ¼ 0.12 and
M ¼ 0.25, SE ¼ 0.11, respectively), t(29) ¼ 2.973, p ¼ .006,
and the standard error of the mean difference score (M ¼
1.00, SE ¼ 0 and M ¼ 0.50, SE ¼ 0.13, respe\ctively), t(29)
¼ 3.746, p ¼ .001, and correctly rejecting the null hypothesis
(M ¼ 0.47, SE ¼ 0.13 and M ¼
0.06, SE ¼ 0.06, respectively),
t(29) ¼ 2.802, p ¼ .009 (Table 1). The ability to correctly reject
the null hypothesis was positively correlated with the total
score on the problem set, r(29) ¼ .412, p ¼ .021.
Experiment 2
Given additional time to solve the problem (55 min vs. 25 min
in Experiment 1) and the ability to review the video or
text tutorial at the time of testing, the screencast group (M ¼
7.27, SE ¼ 0.27) outperformed the text tutorial group (M ¼
5.36, SE ¼ 0.85), t(20) ¼ 2.15, p ¼ .044 (Figure 2), but the time
to task completion did not differ between the video group (M ¼
38.00, SE ¼ 2.92) and the text group (M ¼ 34.27, SE ¼ 3.33),
t(20) ¼ 0.841, p ¼ .41 (Figure 1). Differences in specific test
questions included the ability to correctly state the value of t
obtained, t(20) ¼ 2.39, p ¼ .027, and the standard error of the
mean difference score, t(20) ¼ 2.39, p ¼ .027 (see Table 2).
The most efficient strategy to solve the statistical problem
was predetermined. Neither the video tutorial group (M ¼
229.80, SE ¼ 26.14) nor the text tutorial group (M ¼ 228.67,
SE ¼ 29.81) used efficient strategies, nor did they differ from
one another, t(20) ¼ 0.029, p ¼ .98.
Discussion
Despite the rise in online instruction, there are few empirical,
methodologically sound studies assessing web-bas ed
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Exp 1 Exp 2
Ex
p
eriment
Text
Screencast
**
Figure 1. Total time to complete a statistics exercise (min) for each
treatment condition and for each experiment
Error bars represent standard error.
*p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Exp 1 Exp 2
Ex
p
eriment
Text
Screencast
*** *
Figure 2. Total score on a statistics exercise (out of 10 points) for
each treatment condition and for each experiment
Error bars represent standard error.
*p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001
Table 1. Experiment 1
Screencast Text
Measure NM SE M SE t(29) p
Time to complete (min) 31 15.2 0.70 18.06 0.67 2.95 .006
Total score (out of 10) 31 7.27 0.30 4.5 0.55 4.35 <.001
Specific questions
a
Correct Group 2 mean 31 1.00 0 0.75 0.11 2.16 .039
Correct SE of the M
difference
31 1.00 0 0.53 0.52 3.75 .001
Correct t value 31 1.00 0 0.38 0.13 4.84 <.001
Correct p value 31 0.73 0.12 0.25 0.11 2.97 .006
Correct rejection of null 31 0.47 0.13 0.06 0.06 2.80 .009
a. Correct response ¼ 1, incorrect response ¼ 0.
Lloyd and Robertson 69
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technologies in the classroom (DOE, 2009). Our study adds to
this modest literature by demonstrating positive learning gains
for students using a supplemental screencast tutorial in an under-
graduate statistics course, especially on higher-order conceptual
knowledge involving statistical literacy and the application of
statistical knowledge to draw inferences about the data. Our
findings are in line with those of Basturk (2005), who showed
learning gains after computer-assisted instruction using SPSS,
especially for inferential statistics.
The participants in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 differed
in the amount of time they had to complete the problem set. The
screencast tutorial group performed at a similar level, albeit
significantly higher than the text tutorial group, regardless of
time on task. The text tutorial group improved with expanded
time, but significant differences were still apparent in their
ability to apply some higher-order conceptual knowledge of
statistics. The groups did not differ in time spent solving the
problem set in Experiment 2, but both groups spent more time
completing the problem set in Experiment 2 than they did in
Experiment 1.
According to the cognitive theory of multimedia learning,
the mind is a dual-channel, limited-capacity, active processing
system, which benefits from learning strategies utilizing cogni-
tive load reduction and multimodal learning, especially for
semantic memory encoding and accessibility for working
memory in problem-solving transfer (Mayer, 2001). Automati-
city, increasing what you know about the topic, and developing
and working through a systematic plan also improve problem
solving (Ashcraft, 2006). Empirical evidence supports a multi-
media effect for retention and problem-solving transfer
(Mayer, 2001) with a potential to help the learner develop cor-
rect conceptual mental models (Alessi & Trollip, 2001) and
analogies for problem solving (Leighton & Sternberg, 2003)
and suggests that additional time on task reduces one or more
cognitive barriers through the use of multimodal media.
However, we show that the use of screencast tutorials remained
beneficial over the text tutorials regardless of time on task.
When granted more time on the task, the screencast tutorial
group performed an equal number of mouse clicks as the text
tutorial group, but neither group used efficient strategies. These
data suggest that the video tutorial group were not just
following algorithms based on rote memorization but that their
demonstrated enhanced learning arose from better conceptual
understanding and problem-solving transfer.
This study provides support for the use of computer-assisted
technology in teaching statistics to undergraduate psychology
students. These results are extremely relevant given the chal-
lenges that instructors face in teaching statistics, especially
considering its importance in the undergraduate psychology
curriculum. Future studies should consider whether the use of
vodcasting provides the same benefits when used to supple-
ment an entire course, perhaps in out-of-class, nonproctored
labs or asynchronous online environments.
Acknowledgments
The authors wish to acknowledge the following people for their
assistance in the preparation of this article: Catherine Ashley, Kelly
Cate, and Ashley Marascalco.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to
the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Funding
The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the
research and/or authorship of this article: This research was supported
by grants from the NGCSU QEP and the NGCSU CTLE.
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Lloyd and Robertson 71
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... Prior studies have shown that course content can be delivered effectively through the use of DL tools (Lloyd & Robertson, 2012). Accordingly, effective DL in general means covering the course's theoretical and practical materials, as well the course syllabus, to achieve the course's learning objectives and outcomes (Elhaty et al., 2020;Mayer & Moreno, 2003). ...
... Accordingly, effective DL in general means covering the course's theoretical and practical materials, as well the course syllabus, to achieve the course's learning objectives and outcomes (Elhaty et al., 2020;Mayer & Moreno, 2003). For instance, Lloyd and Robertson (2012) found that 74% of students understood the theoretical course content, while the students' satisfaction with practical materials achieved a very low level of satisfaction (37%). On the one hand, Draus et al. (2014) found that TL is more effective than DL in achieving the course's learning outcomes. ...
... Elhaty In terms of understanding the theoretical content (S11 mean), respondents across all countries believe that there is no difference between DL and TL in relation to understanding the theoretical content, with means for all of the countries very close to 3, which means that "DL and TL are the same." Our findings are broadly in line with those of Lloyd and Robertson (2012), who found that students are not satisfied with their outcomes in relation to practical materials, while there is a high degree of satisfaction for theoretical content. ...
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Screencast is a digital video and audio recording of what occurs on a presenter's computer screen which gives learners the chance to control the pace at which they learn; thereby influencing their academic performance positively. Despite these benefits of screencast in enhancing teaching and learning in distance learning programmes, they are being adopted in Nigerian higher institutions. The research adopted the mix-method approach , using quantitative and qualitative data analyses with 50 undergraduates forming the sample for the study. Two research instruments were used to gather data in the study, namely Educational Technology Achievement Test and Screencast Attitude Questionnaire. The former was tested using split-half reliability statistics and yielded a value of 0.727, while the latter was subjected to Cronbach's Alpha reliability statistics and yielded a value of 0.662. The research questions were answered using mean while research hypotheses 1-3 were tested using ANCOVA. Findings of this study showed that: (i) there was significant difference in the performance of the experimental and the control 133 group in favor of the experimental group; (ii) there was no significant difference in the mean score performance of male and female undergraduates exposed to screencast; (iii) the undergraduates that were exposed to screencast had positive attitudes toward the use of podcast; (iv) there was significant difference in the retention-test performance of the experimental and the control group in favour of the experimental group. Based on the findings, it was recommended that courseware developers should develop and utilize screencast to supplement course materials.
... In recent years, the multimedia video lecture has gained prominence as a teaching format in university education [1], a trend that was accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic [2]. The widespread adoption of multimedia video lectures and other "asynchronous" learning material has been extensively documented in prior research [3][4][5][6][7][8]. While some educators have expressed concern that pre-recorded multimedia lectures are not as effective as face-to-face instruction [9,10], a large body of empirical research now advocates their effectiveness as educational tools [3][4][5][6][7][8]. ...
... The widespread adoption of multimedia video lectures and other "asynchronous" learning material has been extensively documented in prior research [3][4][5][6][7][8]. While some educators have expressed concern that pre-recorded multimedia lectures are not as effective as face-to-face instruction [9,10], a large body of empirical research now advocates their effectiveness as educational tools [3][4][5][6][7][8]. Importantly, the effectiveness of multimedia lectures is predicated on good course content and pedagogy, when multimedia instruction is grounded in a sound theoretical framework that is supported by empirical evidence [11,12]. ...
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The purpose of this transaction log analysis was to evaluate university students’ engagement behaviours with a catalogue of multimedia lectures. These lectures incorporated selected instructional design principles from the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML). Specifically, thirty-two multimedia lectures which differentially employed the signalling, segmenting and embodiment principles from the CTML were delivered to a cohort of 92 students throughout an academic trimester. Engagement with each multimedia lecture was measured in three domains: affective engagement was measured using a Likert-style survey that accompanied each multimedia lecture; behavioural engagement was measured using the web logs provided by YouTube Studio analytics (average watch time); cognitive engagement was measured using students’ average score on a quiz that accompanied each multimedia lecture. Separate multiple linear regression analyses for measures of affective, behavioural and cognitive engagement revealed that multimedia lectures that ‘stacked’ the instructional design principles of embodiment (whereby the lecture was interspersed with clips of an enthusiastic onscreen instructor), segmenting (where lectures were divided into shorter, user-paced segments) and signalling (where onscreen labels highlighted important material) increased measures of engagement, including overall watch time, number of survey submission and number of quiz attempts ( P < 0.05). There was no association between any of the tested principles and students’ quiz scores or their responses on the Likert-style survey. This study adds to the available literature demonstrating the effectiveness of the signalling, segmenting and embodiment principles for increasing learner engagement with multimedia lectures.
... Screencasting allows instructors to record an activity on a computer screen and simultaneously capture the audio explanation and then place the finished recording, often augmented with visual captions, on a website for distribution and access (Morris & Chikwa, 2014). Since the technology first become available, screencasts have been widely used for teaching a variety of topics and subjects, such as student research, assistive technologies, nursing, programming, instructional design, (Sugar et al., 2010), database applications (Tekinarslan, 2013), anatomy (Pickering, 2017), referencing skills (Stagg et al., 2013) and statistics (Lloyd & Robertson, 2012). Screencasts are notably useful in demonstrating step-by-step instructions for specific software programs or activities that involve a sequence of steps (Peterson, 2007). ...
... Screencasts are notably useful in demonstrating step-by-step instructions for specific software programs or activities that involve a sequence of steps (Peterson, 2007). Since the emergence of screencasting, numerous studies have extolled the benefits of well-constructed screencasts that increase student learning, develop knowledge and skills, reduce cognitive overload, and offer an engaging and effective method for students to learn where they can access the content anytime and repeat as often as they like (Lloyd & Robertson, 2012;Mayer & Moreno, 2003;Fallon et al., 2018;Morris & Chikwa, 2014). Sugar et al. (2010) analyzed 37 screencasts of instructions in order to develop a framework of five effective instructional strategies: provide an overview; describe the procedure; present the concept; focus attention; and elaborate the content. ...
... Drama-based pedagogy has been repeatedly shown to engage learners in academic, affective and aesthetic learning through dialogic meaning-making (Dawson & Lee, 2016). Furthermore, several metaanalyses have shown that technology can enhance learning (Means et al., 2010;Schmid et al., 2014), and that the use of videos can be a highly effective educational tool (Allen & Smith, 2012;Kay, 2012;Lloyd & Robertson, 2012;Rackaway, 2012;Hsin & Cigas, 2013;Stockwell et al., 2015). While there is an abundance of evidence in the use of arts-based mediums to support workforce learning and development, this mainly stems from the education system. ...
... In addition, the integration of explainer videos into a learning process, for instance, by incorporating learning tasks, is a criterion for success (Altmann & Nückles, 2017;Webb et al., 2006). Lloyd and Robertson (2012) suggest that procedural knowledge may be better gained from explainer videos as compared to print media. For learning physics, explainer videos are effective in imparting declarative knowledge: The explained principle can be used after the video to explain the examples that are shown in the video. ...
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Studies have shown the potential of explainer videos. An alternative is a written explanation, as found in science textbooks. Prior research suggests that instructional explanations sometimes lead to the belief that a topic has been fully understood, even though that is not the case. This ‘illusion of understanding’ may be affected by the medium of the explanation. Also, prior studies comparing the achievement from explainer videos and writen explanations come to ambiguous results. In the present experimental study (video group: nV = 78, written explanation group nW = 72), we compared the effects of an explainer video introducing the concept of force to a written explanation containing the script of the video, as though it is a page from a textbook. Both groups achieved comparable degrees of declarative knowledge, however, the written explanation video had a significantly higher belief of understanding (partial η2 = 0.043) that did not correspond with their actual learning progress. Consequences of this may include lower cognitive activation and less motivation in science classrooms if learning environments exclude further learning tasks that allow for a more realistic picture of understanding. That might suggest that it is sometimes potentially harmful to leave physics learners to their own devices with instructional material.
... [15,16] Video could serve as a very effective educational tool. [17][18][19][20][21] Video could increase student involvement in the learning process [21] and visualize complex phenomena. [22] It also helped students memorize educational materials in the long term since humans have limited memory. ...
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Background: Adolescent health and nutrition contribute to the intergenerational cycle of undernutrition. Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of audiovisual education on adolescent knowledge and attitude toward the intergenerational cycle of undernutrition. Material and methods: A clustered quasi-experimental study with a pre-and posttest design in Kulon Progo District, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Participants were female adolescent students enrolled in Grade 7 at two junior high schools in Sentolo (n = 120) and Kalibawang (n = 96) subdistricts. We provided six topics related to adolescent health and nutrition throughout six online meetings for the intervention and control groups. In addition, the intervention group received audiovisual education through recorded videos, whereas the control group received education through e-leaflets following the online meetings. We assessed adolescent knowledge and attitude during pre-and posttest evaluations using Google Forms. Paired t-test was performed to analyze the data. Results: Both audiovisual and e-leaflet educations increased adolescent knowledge and attitude. Adolescents who received audiovisual education had significantly higher knowledge (P = 0.046) and attitude (P = 0.034) scores than adolescents who received education through e-leaflets. Conclusions: The audiovisual education intervention improved adolescent knowledge and attitude toward the intergenerational cycle of undernutrition than using e-leaflets.
... Based on each objective, the student will select the variable, decide the statistical test to use, and run the analysis with the Epi info software. Visualization of statistical analysis screencast was found to be more effective compared to the reading of hardcopy guides (26). In our lesson plan, the teacher will first perform and visualize the process with the projector to enhance learning. ...
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Research methodology and statistical training are relevant to both undergraduate and postgraduate healthcare students. Medical educators play a crucial role to provide well-planned, effective training on statistics, which should be student-centered to equip the skill in data analysis and interpretation. In order to deliver effective teaching or training, educators use the instructional design models and integrate them into the curriculum. In this article, Gagne's theory of nine-step instructional model design is applied to the biostatistics training of undergraduate medical students. It will provide a sample framework for future statistical training programmes.
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The skill of operating a multimedia device is important in ensuring that the learning and teaching process is in full swing. However, it is less serious because the problem of operating a multimedia device is usually handed over to technical workers in an organization. Indirectly it will cause disruption to the learning and teaching process itself. This research paper focuses on the impact of the use of SOP video that has been developed on the skills of operating multimedia equipment among disabled students in Community College in Perak. To overcome this problem, the multimedia equipment handling SOP video was developed based on Multimedia Learning Cognitive Theory which focused on the principle of Reducing Outside Processing. The SOP video handling of this multimedia equipment was tested for respondents with disability students in three Community College in Perak. The findings from the questionnaire were adapted from the PSSUQ questionnaire and the questionnaire on the effectiveness of short courses at the Malaysian Community College. The results of the study showed that the abnormalities of the students were able to operate multimedia equipment more effectively after using the multimedia equipment SOP video than before using them. Overall, the students are able to handle multimedia equipment if they are given accurate information and suit their needs and requirements. Hence, accurate and appropriate presentation of information is especially important to students with disabilities.
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All over the country, college faculty and administrators are plugging themselves into one of the newest--and hottest--technologies in an effort to better connect with students: podcasting. National studies show that more than 80 percent of college students own at least one device that can download and play recordings, and proponents of podcasting as a teaching tool point to the popularity and portability of these devices to support their positions. Students are listening to class podcasts in the car, at the gym, and often more than once, they say. Critics, meanwhile, say that podcasting merely spoon-feeds education to a generation that has grown dependent on entertainment-driven gadgets at the expense of reasoning, creativity, and problem solving. Some faculty also fear students will not go to class if they know they can rely on recorded lectures. But many teachers are convinced that podcasting is beneficial to students.
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Investigated factors related to the prevalence and intensity of math anxiety in college students. 652 Ss in 2 math courses and 1 psychology course at a large university were tested on the Math Anxiety scale (part of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales), the A-Trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Spielberger's Test Anxiety Inventory. Results indicate that math anxiety occurs frequently among college students and that it is more likely to occur among women than among men and among students with inadequate high school math backgrounds. Higher levels of math anxiety were related to lower mathematics achievement test scores, higher levels of test anxiety, and higher levels of trait anxiety. Implications for the identification and treatment of math-anxious students and for the process of educational/vocational counseling are discussed. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)