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Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

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... Verbal short-term memory, working memory and visuospatial memory were assessed at all measurement points. Verbal short-term memory was assessed with the Forward digit span subtest (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2010) and an analogous Word recall task created for this project. Working memory was assessed with Backward digit span (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2010) and analogous Word recall tasks. ...
... The score was the number of correct trials. Processing speed was assessed with the WISC-IV Symbol Search subtest (Wechsler, 2010) at all measurement points. Additionally, two tasks of identification of letters and numbers were used in Grade 2 fall and spring. ...
... General Intelligence was measured using the Verbal Similarities and Performance Matrix subtests of WISC-IV (Wechsler, 2010) in Grade 2 fall. The score used as a measure for IQ was the mean of the two tasks. ...
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This study examined the identifiability and early cognitive and motivational markers of low reading and arithmetic fluency. Comparisons of these characteristics between Finnish third graders (n = 197) with low fluency in reading, arithmetic, or both revealed, first, that the majority of third graders with low arithmetic fluency showed low arithmetic skills already at first-grade spring, whereas children with low reading fluency were identified from the second-grade fall onward. Second, all groups with low fluency showed low rapid automatized naming and counting skills across the primary school years, while in other cognitive skills these groups showed different patterns. Third, all groups with fluency problems demonstrated low self-efficacy and self-concept in the domain in which they had difficulties. The present findings enhance understanding about the emergence, stability and potential early cognitive and motivational markers of single and comorbid fluency problems in reading and arithmetic.
... This explorative study is to the best of our knowledge the first worldwide to use the applied measurements to assess possible changes in attention after target shooting practice. The study aims to explore possible changes from pre-to post-tests on four subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) ( Wechsler, 2009 ) for the intervention group and the control group, and as well to compare the two groups. ...
... Measurements . To assess attention, we applied four subtests from the fourth edition of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) ( Wechsler, 2009 ): Digit Span Total , Digit Symbol/Coding , Symbol Search , and Letter-Number Sequencing . In addition to Digit Span Total , the parts Digit Span Forward and Digit Span Backward were used. ...
... This was difficult for intervention as well as control students. It may be added that, compared to norms ( Wechsler, 2009 ), 17 of the 22 participants had T1 achievements corresponding to mean achievements of children 6-8 years old. Related to the learning context in grades 5-10 (ages 10-15) it is understandable that the mismatch between actual capacity and expected capacity according to age, could contribute to students' feelings of being uncomfortable in the classroom (cf. ...
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Impaired attention is a burden for many students in educational settings. This study examined effects of target shooting practice in weekly sessions for 7 months in 12 students with attention problems. The design included objective tests giving quantitative pre- and post-data, as well as qualitative data from individual post interviews. Intervention students increased their ability to: register and immediately recall information; screen out distracting stimuli; and maintain attention on tasks. Qualitative findings supported the test results. Mixed factorial ANOVA tests showed no statistically significant improvements in 10 control students. Discussions are guided by the Mirsky model of attention and highlight neurofeedback and individual support. The findings suggest that the sequential order in target shooting may fit students with poor attention.
... We also chose commonly used measures that have been validated in, or used with, racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples of young children. Specifically, we converted 4 child-friendly tasks to assess young children's EF skills remotely -the Day/Night Stroop ( Gerstadt et al., 1994 ) and Dimensional Card Change Sort (DCCS; Zelazo, 2006 ) tasks, which relied on visual stimuli and verbal responses from children; the Forward and Backward Digit Span tasks ( Wechsler, 1991 ) that relied solely on verbal stimuli and responses; and the Revised Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, a global selfregulation measure, the instructions for which were delivered verbally and demonstrated to children visually (see Remote Child Measures section for a full description of task conversion). ...
... Therefore, in the current study, we tested the feasibility of converting and administering a remote battery of EF measures to a diverse sample of preschool students in their homes (55% Black, 33.7% White, 7.9% biracial, 2.2% "other," 1.1% Asian/Pacific Islander; 7.2% Latine). These tasks were converted from widely used EF tasks [Day/Night Stroop Task ( Gerstadt et al., 1994 ); Dimensional Card Change Sort Task (DCCS; Zelazo, 2006 ); Digit Span ( Wechsler, 1991 )] and a global self-regulation measure that requires the use of multi-ple EF skills [Revised Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task (HTKS-R; McClelland et al. 2014 )]. Specifically, we examined the task distributions, central tendencies, and dispersions of all of our converted EF tasks. ...
... Short-Term and Working Memory. The Digit Span task ( Wechsler, 1991 ) was administered to measure children's shortterm and working memory capacity, as the task requires the storage, maintenance, and manipulation of information stored in short-term memory. This task was composed of 2 sections in which the instructor said a list of numbers and the participant was asked to recite the numbers. ...
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Research and development on remote assessments and services have been slowly progressing over the past decade in the areas of telehealth, telemedicine, and psychological e-Visits. However, much less research has focused on understanding whether neuropsychological and educational assessments can be converted for remote use with young children. In the present study, we tested the feasibility of administering a remote battery of executive function (EF) tasks to preschool students. These tasks were converted from widely used EF assessments and were administered to children in their homes remotely via Zoom Video Communications web conferencing services. Based on our experiences in the field, we described the task conversion process; highlighted the unique challenges and solutions to obtaining accurate and reliable data remotely; and presented psychometric findings from a preliminary study of 97 preschool students (Mage = 53.2 months; 53% Female; 55% Black, 33.7% White, 7.9% biracial, 2.2% "other", 1.1% Asian/Pacific Islander; 7.2% Latine). Results revealed that the remotely assessed Day/Night Stroop task, Dimensional Card Change Sort (DCCS) task, Revised Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS-R) task, and Digit Span Forward task demonstrated strong evidence of normality, were highly reliable, and were related to children’s academic achievement. Further, associations between our remote EF measures and standardized tests of academic achievement were stronger for math than for reading achievement. Overall, this study represents a first step towards developing a protocol for task conversion and remote administration of EF measures with young children.
... Dimensional Card Change Sort (DCCS; Zelazo, 2006) tasks, which relied on visual stimuli and verbal responses from children; the Forward and Backward Digit Span tasks (Wechsler, 1991) that relied solely on verbal stimuli and responses; and the Revised Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, a global self-regulation measure, the instructions for which were delivered verbally and demonstrated to children visually (see Remote Child Measures section for a full description of task conversion). ...
... Therefore, in the current study, we tested the feasibility of converting and administering a remote battery of EF measures to a diverse sample of preschool students in their homes (55% Black, 33.7% White, 7.9% biracial, 2.2% "other", 1.1% Asian/Pacific Islander; 7.2% Latine). These tasks were converted from widely used EF tasks [Day/Night Stroop Task (Gerstadt et al., 1994); Dimensional Card Change Sort Task (DCCS; Zelazo, 2006); Digit Span (Wechsler, 1991)] and a global self-regulation measure that requires the use of multiple EF skills [Revised Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task (HTKS-R;McClelland et al. 2014)]. Specifically, we examined the task distributions, central tendencies, and dispersions of all of our converted EF tasks. ...
... Short-Term and Working Memory. The Digit Span task (Wechsler, 1991) was administered to measure children's short-term and working memory capacity, as the task requires the storage, maintenance, and manipulation of information stored in short-term memory. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research and development on remote assessments and services have been slowly progressing over the past decade in the areas of telehealth, telemedicine, and psychological e-Visits. However, much less research has focused on understanding whether neuropsychological and educational assessments can be converted for remote use with young children. In the present study, we tested the feasibility of administering a remote battery of executive function (EF) tasks to preschool students. These tasks were converted from widely used EF assessments and were administered to children in their homes remotely via Zoom Video Communications web conferencing services. Based on our experiences in the field, we described the task conversion process; highlighted the unique challenges and solutions to obtaining accurate and reliable data remotely; and presented psychometric findings from a preliminary study of 97 preschool students (Mage = 53.2 months; 53% Female; 55% Black, 33.7% White, 7.9% biracial, 2.2% "other", 1.1% Asian/Pacific Islander; 7.2% Latine). Results revealed that the remotely assessed Day/Night Stroop task, Dimensional Card Change Sort (DCCS) task, Revised Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS-R) task, and Digit Span Forward task demonstrated strong evidence of normality, were highly reliable, and were related to children’s academic achievement. Further, associations between our remote EF measures and standardized tests of academic achievement were stronger for math than for reading achievement. Overall, this study represents a first step towards developing a protocol for task conversion and remote administration of EF measures with young children.
... Cognition. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third edition (WISC-III) [50] measured Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Intelligence (VIQ), Performance Intelligence (PIQ), Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization and Processing Speed. Raw scores of the WISC-III were converted to age-related norm scores (mean = 100, SD = 15) [50]. ...
... The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third edition (WISC-III) [50] measured Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Intelligence (VIQ), Performance Intelligence (PIQ), Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization and Processing Speed. Raw scores of the WISC-III were converted to age-related norm scores (mean = 100, SD = 15) [50]. The Kaufmann Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II) was used to assess sequential processing (verbal span and auditory working memory) and simultaneous processing (visuospatial functioning) [51]. ...
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The presence of neurocognitive and behavioral problems are common features in various neurogenetic disorders. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), these problems have been linked to mutations along the dystrophin gene affecting different brain dystrophin isoforms. However, comparable cognitive and behavioral problems have been found in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). This study aims to assess disorder specific differences in cognition and behavior between DMD and NF1. Retrospective data of 38 male patients with DMD were aged-matched with data of 38 male patients with NF1. Patients of both groups underwent neurocognitive assessment for regular clinical care. Intellectual abilities, sequential and simultaneous processing, verbal memory and sustained attention were evaluated. In addition, parents and teachers completed behavioral questionnaires. Males with DMD exhibited low intellectual abilities and sequential processing problems, but these outcomes not significantly differed from males with NF1. Simultaneous processing, verbal memory and sustained attention outcomes were equal for both groups. Outcomes of questionnaires displayed higher rates of aggressive behavior (13.2%) in DMD, whereas in NF1 higher rates of problems with thinking (15.8%), withdrawn (10.5%) and social behavior (10.5%) were noticed. In the neurogenetic disorders DMD and NF1, on average overlapping cognitive and behavioral problems are noticed, suggesting that these are not only caused by gene mutations resulting in a lack of one specific protein.
... To be included in the study, the participants had to meet the following criteria: they had to be between 7 and 11 years of age and monolingual native Finnish speakers with no developmental disorders, no language disorders, no learning disorders, no head injuries, and with normal hearing and normal vision or vision corrected to normal with eyeglasses. In addition, the participants were screened with behavioural pre-tests and had to meet the following criteria to be included in the study: a score of not below 1.33 standard deviations in each of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2010) subtests included in the study, i.e. they needed to score a minimum of 6 standard points (age corrected score, M = 10, SD = 3) in Block Design, Digit Span, Coding, and Vocabulary. Out of the 42 children who volunteered, 37 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. ...
... During the skill testing, the participant sat in a quiet room with the researcher. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2010) and in particular its subtests Block Design, forward and backward Digit Span, Coding, and Vocabulary were used to assess perceptual reasoning skills, auditory short-term memory, eye hand coordination and processing speed, and vocabulary, respectively. The testing took one hour. ...
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Digital games may benefit children’s learning, yet the factors that induce gaming benefits to cognition are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of digital game-based learning in children by comparing the learning of foreign speech sounds and words in a digital game or a non-game digital application. To evaluate gaming-induced plastic changes in the brain, we used the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response that reflects the access to long-term memory representations. We recorded auditory brain responses from 37 school-aged Finnish-speaking children before and after playing a computer-based language-learning game. The MMN amplitude increased between the pre- and post-measurement for the game condition but not for the non-game condition, suggesting that the gaming intervention enhanced learning more than the non-game intervention. The results indicate that digital games can be beneficial for children’s speech-sound learning and that gaming elements per se, not just practice time, support learning.
... As part of children's cognitive development, the importance of pattern understanding has resulted in a common profiling tool in order to measure the cognitive and reasoning development of children. So much so that different psychological tests involve a variety of patterning tasks as part of their study area (e.g., Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983;Raven et al., 1992;Wechsler, 1991). With regard to mathematics development, the literature documents a similar situation, with studies on number patterns (Baroody et al.,2015;Zazkis & Liljedahl, 2002), growing/shrinking patterns (English & Warren, 1998;Papic, 2015), spatial/geometric patterns (Hendricks et al., 2006), repeating patterns (Rittle-Johnson et al., 2019;Threlfall, 1999), structural generalizations (determining pattern rules, Callejo et al., 2019;Economopoulos, 1998;Rivera, 2013;Zazkis & Liljedahl, 2002) or abstract language patterns . ...
... Tal es la importancia del reconocimiento de patrones que su comprensión es una herramienta habitual utilizada para medir el desarrollo cognitivo e intelectual del niño y la identificación de perfiles evolutivos. Tanto es así, que diferentes test psicológicos incluyen una amplia variedad de tareas de reconocimiento de patrones de repetición como parte de su evaluación (por ejemplo, Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983;Raven et al., 1992;Wechsler, 1991). Con respecto al desarrollo matemático, la literatura documenta una situación similar, con estudios sobre patrones numéricos (Baroody et al.,2015;Zazkis & Liljedahl, 2002), patrones de crecimiento/decrecimiento (English & Warren, 1998;Papic, 2015), patrones espaciales/ geométricos (Hendricks et al., 2006), patrones de repetición (Rittle-Johnson et al., 2019;Threlfall, 1999), estructuras generalizables (determinación de reglas en patrones, Callejo et al., 2019;Economopoulos, 1998;Rivera, 2013;Zazkis & Liljedahl, 2002) o patrones con lenguaje abstracto . ...
Article
Patterning, as a component of early mathematic knowledge, is a common activity carried out at elementary levels in which children are not equally successful. This study aimed to measure different variables affecting performance on patterning tasks in early childhood. For this purpose, the success of Pre-K (N = 33), K (N = 31) and first-grade (N = 33) children when solving 14 repeating-pattern tasks, which varied in complexity, was analysed. The results revealed no significant differences between core-2 and core-4 length patterns, and greater success with patterns involving size. The study also introduces distractors, as a novel factor, in the patterning activities related to the presence of contradictory or surplus data. The impact of each factor and the relations between complexity and difficulty on the patterning tasks are discussed in order to contribute to the design of teaching itineraries.
... General cognitive development, used as background information, was evaluated with the Finnish edition of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence -Third Edition (WPPSI-III) or with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). Three subtests for Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) (block design, matrix reasoning, and picture completion) and two for Verbal IQ (VIQ) (information and vocabulary) formed Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) with a mean (SD) of 100 (15) (Wechsler et al., 2009;Wechsler, 2010). The internal consistency of the WPPSI is excellent for both subtests (0.83-0.95) and composite scores (0.89-0.95) and interrater reliability (0.92-0.99). ...
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Aim This study investigated minor impairments in neurological, sensorimotor, and neuropsychological functioning in extremely preterm-born (EPT) children compared to term-born children. The aim was to explore the most affected domains and to visualize their co-occurrences in relationship maps. Methods A prospective cohort of 56 EPT children (35 boys) and 37 term-born controls (19 boys) were assessed at a median age of 6 years 7 months with Touwen Neurological Examination, Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (MABC-2), Sensory Integration and Praxis Test (SIPT), and a Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, 2nd edition (NEPSY-II). Altogether 20 test domains were used to illustrate the frequency of impaired test performances with a bar chart profile and to construct relationship maps of co-occurring impairments. Results The EPT children were more likely to perform inferiorly compared to the term-born controls across all assessments, with a wider variance and more co-occurring impairments. When aggregating all impaired test domains, 45% of the EPT children had more impaired domains than any term-born child (more than five domains, p < 0.001). Relationship maps showed that minor neurological dysfunction (MND), NEPSY-II design copying, and SIPT finger identification constituted the most prominent relationship of co-occurring impairments in both groups. However, it was ten times more likely in the EPT group. Another relationship of co-occurring MND, impairment in NEPSY-II design copying, and NEPSY-II imitation of hand positions was present in the EPT group only. Interpretation Multiple minor impairments accumulate among EPT children at six years, suggesting that EPT children and their families may need support and timely multi-professional interventions throughout infancy and childhood.
... General intellectual abilities were assessed using age-appropriate Wechsler Intelligence Scales. 19 Scores of the Verbal Comprehension Index or verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), Perceptual Reasoning Index or nonverbal performance IQ (PIQ), and Working Memory Index (WMI) were reported. Considering the language domain, patients also performed picture naming, semantic, word repetition, and syntactic comprehension tasks from the ELOLA (Evaluation du Langage Oral de L'Enfant Aphasique), 20 BILO (Bilan Informatis e de Langage Oral), 21 or NEPSY 22 batteries, depending on the patient's age and evaluation available. ...
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BACKGROUND Rasmussen encephalitis is a rare chronic neurological pathology frequently treated with functional hemispherectomy (or hemispherotomy). This surgical procedure frees patients of their severe epilepsy associated with the disease but may induce cognitive disorders and notably language alterations after disconnection of the left hemisphere. OBSERVATIONS The authors describe longitudinally 3 cases of female patients with Rasmussen encephalitis who underwent left hemispherotomy in childhood and benefited from a favorable cognitive outcome. In the first patient, the hemispherotomy occurred at a young age, and the recovery of language and cognitive abilities was rapid and efficient. The second patient benefited from the surgery later in childhood. In addition, she presented a reorganization of language and memory functions that seem to have been at the expense of nonverbal ones. The third patient was a teenager during surgery. She benefited from a more partial cognitive recovery with persistent disorders several years after the surgery. LESSONS Recovery of cognitive functions, including language, occurs after left hemispherotomy, even when performed late in childhood. Therefore, the surgery should be considered as early as possible to promote intercognitive reorganization.
... The children were divided into separate groups according to age. The age groups consisted of 11 CI and 11 NH preschoolers (under the age of 6 years 9 months) and 10 CI and 11 NH schoolchildren (over the age of 6 years 9 months; see Table 1 Kirk et al., 1974) was administered to assess the children's verbal short term memory, and at T2, their non-verbal visuoconstructive performance was assessed with the block design task (Wechsler, 2010). For the CI vs. NH preschoolers, no group differences were observed for the digit span task at T1 [t(20) = -1.87, ...
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Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate speech processing development in children with normal hearing (NH) and cochlear implants (CI) groups using a multifeature event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Singing is associated to enhanced attention and speech perception. Therefore, it’s connection to ERPs was investigated in the CI group. Methods The paradigm included five change types in a pseudoword: two easy- (duration, gap) and three difficult-to-detect (vowel, pitch, intensity) with CIs. The positive mismatch responses (pMMR), mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a and late differentiating negativity (LDN) responses of preschoolers (below 6 years 9 months) and schoolchildren (above 6 years 9 months) with NH or CIs at two time points (T1, T2) were investigated with Linear Mixed Modeling (LMM). For the CI group, the association of singing at home and ERP development was modeled with LMM. Results Overall, responses elicited by the easy- and difficult to detect changes differed between the CI and NH groups. Compared to the NH group, the CI group had smaller MMNs to vowel duration changes and gaps, larger P3a responses to gaps, and larger pMMRs and smaller LDNs to vowel identity changes. Preschoolers had smaller P3a responses and larger LDNs to gaps, and larger pMMRs to vowel identity changes than schoolchildren. In addition, the pMMRs to gaps increased from T1 to T2 in preschoolers. More parental singing in the CI group was associated with increasing pMMR and less parental singing with decreasing P3a amplitudes from T1 to T2. Conclusion The multifeature paradigm is suitable for assessing cortical speech processing development in children. In children with CIs, cortical discrimination is often reflected in pMMR and P3a responses, and in MMN and LDN responses in children with NH. Moreover, the cortical speech discrimination of children with CIs is develops late, and over time and age, their speech sound change processing changes as does the processing of children with NH. Importantly, multisensory activities such as parental singing can lead to improvement in the discrimination and attention shifting toward speech changes in children with CIs. These novel results should be taken into account in future research and rehabilitation.
... In contrast with attachment measures, full-scale IQ scores from standard intelligence batteries are extremely reliable, in childhood as well as adulthood (test-retest reliabilities > .90; see Jensen, 1998;Roid, 2003;Wechsler, 2008Wechsler, , 2014. The validity of full-scale IQ is also high; correlations with the latent g factor are typically around .85-.90 (Jensen, 1998). ...
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In this paper we offer a new perspective on the relations between attachment and intelligence, a topic that has received relatively little attention in the recent decades of attachment research. Based on a review of relevant empirical work, a reanalysis of published data, and novel theoretical arguments, we advance a revised model of attachment and intelligence that challenges a number of widespread assumptions in the field. Specifically, we argue that attachment in infancy and childhood is influenced by general intelligence (with lower cognitive ability in ambivalent and disorganized categories compared with secure and avoidant ones), and that attachment states of mind in adulthood show a parallel pattern (with lower cognitive ability in preoccupied and unresolved/unclassifiable categories). The partially genetic correlation between parent and child intelligence gives rise to a previously unrecognized causal pathway linking parents' states of mind to children's attachment; parental intelligence also predicts aspects of sensitivity and mentalizing, and thus exerts an additional indirect influence on children's attachment. Our revised model suggests that intelligence likely contributes to the "transmission gap" between parental state of mind and child attachment; it also offers a novel (partial) explanation of the increased levels of parent-child concordance observed in older children.
... WAIS also provides measures of working memory index (WMI), reflecting the ability to retain and manipulate information over a short period, and processing speed index (PSI), reflecting mental speed. Participants younger than 16 years completed the equivalent Wechsler Intelligence scale for Children (WISC) (39). Participants enrolled in the POMS study completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) (40), a shorter form of the WAIS/WISC which provides comparable results (41), as well as the WAIS/WISC subtests necessary to measure PSI and WMI. ...
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Silent cerebral infarction (SCI) is the most commonly reported radiological abnormality in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and is associated with future clinical stroke risk. To date, there have been few histological and quantitative MRI studies of SCI and multiple radiological definitions exist. As a result, the tissue characteristics and composition of SCI remain elusive. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate the composition of segmented SCI lesions using quantitative MRI for R 2 * and quantitative magnetic susceptibility mapping (QSM). 211 SCI lesions were segmented from 32 participants with SCA and 6 controls. SCI were segmented according to two definitions (FLAIR+/–T1w-based threshold) using a semi-automated pipeline. Magnetic susceptibility (χ) and R 2 * maps were calculated from a multi-echo gradient echo sequence and mean SCI values were compared to an equivalent region of interest in normal appearing white matter (NAWM). SCI χ and R 2 * were investigated as a function of SCI definition, patient demographics, anatomical location, and cognition. Compared to NAWM, SCI were significantly less diamagnetic (χ = –0.0067 ppm vs. –0.0153 ppm, p < 0.001) and had significantly lower R 2 * (16.7 s ⁻¹ vs. 19.2 s ⁻¹ , p < 0.001). SCI definition had a significant effect on the mean SCI χ and R 2 * , with lesions becoming significantly less diamagnetic and having significantly lower R 2 * after the application of a more stringent T1w-based threshold. SCI-NAWM R 2 * decrease was significantly greater in patients with SCA compared with controls (–2.84 s ⁻¹ vs. –0.64 s ⁻¹ , p < 0.0001). No significant association was observed between mean SCI–NAWM χ or R2 * differences and subject age, lesion anatomical location, or cognition. The increased χ and decreased R 2 * in SCI relative to NAWM observed in both patients and controls is indicative of lower myelin or increased water content within the segmented lesions. The significant SCI–NAWM R 2 * differences observed between SCI in patients with SCA and controls suggests there may be differences in tissue composition relative to NAWM in SCI in the two populations. Quantitative MRI techniques such as QSM and R 2 * mapping can be used to enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology and composition of SCI in patients with SCA as well as controls.
... Here, only socio-demographic and neuroimaging information was used to pursue the study primary objective. Exclusion criteria were intelligence quotient (IQ) < 70 based on Wechsler intelligence scales for adults/children (WAIS/WISC) [ 27,28 ] diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy or other neurological disorders, history of head trauma, severe visual, auditory, or language comprehension deficits, number of gestation weeks < 34. The research protocol was approved by the competent Research Ethical Committee in accordance with the 2013 Fortaleza version of the Helsinki Declaration and subsequent amendments. ...
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The brain intrinsic organization into large-scale functional networks, the resting state networks (RSN), shows a complex inter-individual variability, consolidated during development. Nevertheless, the role of genetic and environmental factors on developmental brain functional connectivity (FC) remains largely unknown. Twin design represents an optimal platform to shed light on these effects acting on RSN characteristics. In this study, we applied statistical twin methods to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans from 50 young twin pairs (age range 10-30 years) to explore developmental determinants of brain FC. FC features at multiple spatial scales were extracted and tested for applicability of classical ACE and ADE twin design. Epistatic genetic effects were also assessed. In our sample, genetic and environmental effects on the brain functional connections largely varied between brain regions and FC features, showing good consistency at multiple spatial scales. Although we found selective contributions of common environment on temporo-occipital connections and of genetics on frontotemporal connections, the predominant effect on FC link- and node-level features was related to unique environment. Our results showed that developmental age is characterized by complex relationships between genetic and environmental factors and functional brain connections, suggesting a predominant role of unique environment on multi-scale RSN characteristics.
... Parental SES were recorded at the 14 and 19 year follow-up visits, based on a combination of education and occupation of both parents according to Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of Social Positioning [24]. At 14 years of age, cerebral palsy (CP) was diagnosed by project paediatricians and IQ was estimated by using two subscales of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -third edition; Vocabulary and Block Design [25]. Low estimated IQ more than two standard deviations (SD) below the mean in the control group and/or presence of CP was defined as having a disability. ...
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Background Preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight < 1500 g) is associated with health problems later in life. How VLBW individuals perceive their physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important to understand their putative burden of disease. Previous studies have shown mixed results, and longitudinal studies into adulthood have been requested. This study aimed to investigate differences in HRQoL between preterm VLBW and term born individuals at 32 years of age, and to study changes in HRQoL from 20 to 32 years. Methods In a geographically based longitudinal study, 45 VLBW and 68 term born control participants completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) at 32 years of age. Data from three previous timepoints was also available (20, 23 and 28 years of age). The SF-36 yields eight domain scores as well as a physical and a mental component summary. Between-group differences in these variables were investigated. We also performed subgroup analyses excluding individuals with disabilities, i.e., cerebral palsy and/or low estimated intelligence quotient. Results At 32 years of age, the physical component summary was 5.1 points lower (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6 to 1.6), and the mental component summary 4.1 points lower (95% CI: 8.4 to − 0.3) in the VLBW group compared with the control group. For both physical and mental component summaries there was an overall decline in HRQoL from 20 to 32 years of age in the VLBW group. When we excluded individuals with disabilities (n = 10), group differences in domain scores at 32 years were reduced, but physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, and role-emotional scores remained lower in the VLBW subgroup without disabilities compared with the control group. Conclusion We found that VLBW individuals reported lower HRQoL than term born controls at 32 years of age, and that HRQoL declined in the VLBW group from 20 to 32 years of age. This was in part, but not exclusively explained by VLBW individuals with disabilities.
... The 4-year assessment was based on the Stanford-Binet IQ scale. Full scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Wechsler, 1949), which contained 7 subtests that evaluate different areas of cognition including verbal (VIQ) (information, comprehension, digit span, vocabulary) and performance intelligence (PIQ) (picture arrangement, block design, coding). The Information, Comprehension, and Vocabulary subtests of Verbal IQ tap verbal comprehension, and the Digit Span subtest taps working memory. ...
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Extensive research has been conducted on the effect of mothers’ socialization on their children’s cognitive test scores. But less is known about the relation between mothers’ race/ethnicity and the performance of children from interracial families. It has been proposed by Willerman et al. (1974) that cognitive scores of interracial children will be more similar to those of the mother’s race/ethnic group. This is because the mother is the main agent of socialization in youth and adolescence and, as such, the mother provides most of the environmental stimulation. Using the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) and the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS: 2009) data, the current study re-analyzes Willerman et al.’s (1974) observation that mother’s race is a strong determinant of the child’s cognitive ability. In both datasets, we did not find consistent support for the mother’s involvement hypothesis. Furthermore, in the CPP, which was analyzed prior by Willerman et al. (1974), it was found that the earlier superior IQ scores of interracial children of White mothers at age 4 eventually fade out at age 7. Alternative theories are considered.
... These neuropsychological assessments were carried out at the end of a one-week washout period if the child was on medication prior to inclusion in the study. In addition to the measures of EF, IQ (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ) was evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-III/IV) [32]. ...
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The neural orphan G protein coupled receptor GPR88 is predominant in the striatum and cortex of both rodents and humans, and considered a potential target for brain disorders. Previous studies have shown multiple behavioral phenotypes in Gpr88 knockout mice, and human genetic studies have reported association with psychosis. Here we tested the possibility that GPR88 contributes to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the mouse, we tested Gpr88 knockout mice in three behavioral paradigms, best translatable between rodents and humans, and found higher motor impulsivity and reduced attention together with the reported hyperactivity. Atomoxetine, a typical ADHD drug, reduced impulsivity in mutant mice. Conditional Gpr88 knockout mice in either D1R-type or D2R-type medium spiny neurons revealed distinct implications of the two receptor populations in waiting and stopping impulsivity. Thus, animal data demonstrate that deficient GPR88 activity causally promotes ADHD-like behaviors, and identify circuit mechanisms underlying GPR88-regulated impulsivity. In humans, we performed a family-based genetic study including 567 nuclear families with DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. There was a minor association for SNP rs2036212 with diagnosis, treatment response and cognition. A stronger association was found for SNP rs2809817 upon patient stratification, suggesting that the T allele is a risk factor when prenatal stress is involved. Human data therefore identify GPR88 variants associated with the disease, and highlight a potential role of life trajectories to modulate GPR88 function. Overall, animal and human data concur to suggest that GPR88 signaling should be considered a key factor for diagnostic and treatment of ADHD. Mutant mouse behavior and human genetic data concur to suggest that the orphan receptor GPR88 contributes to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
... shows normal size and symmetry of the mandible and maxilla, normal symmetry of the velum, no tongue atrophy or fasciculations, etc.), and had no history of neurologic dysfunction, head injury, or autism spectrum disorder per parent report. Nonverbal cognitive ability is reported in Table 1 and was assessed using either the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale -Third Edition (Burgemeister et al., 1972), Primary Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (Ehrler & McGhee, 2008), or Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence -Third Edition (administered by a licenced school psychologist; Wechsler, 1991). All participants with PD and participants with TD showed average receptive language abilities on the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language -Third Edition (TACL-3; Carrow-Woolfolk, 1999); see, Table 1. ...
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This multiple case pilot study explored how nonword imitation influences articulatory and segmental performance in children with and without speech disorder. Eight children, ages 4- to 8-years-old, participated, including two children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), four children with phonological disorder (PD), and two children with typical development (TD). Tokens included two complexity types and were presented in random order. Minimal feedback was provided and nonwords were never associated with a referent. Kinematic and transcription data were analysed to examine articulatory variability, segmental accuracy, and segmental variability in session 1 and session 5. Descriptive statistics, percent change, effect sizes, and Pearson correlations are reported. In session 1, the two participants with CAS showed high articulatory variability, low segmental accuracy, and high segmental variability compared to the participants with PD and TD. By session 5, both participants with CAS, two with PD, and one with TD showed increased articulatory variability in the lowest complexity nonword. Segmental accuracy remained low and variability remained high for the two participants with CAS in session 5, whereas several participants with PD and TD showed improved segmental performance. Articulatory and segmental variability were not significantly correlated. The results of this study suggest that motor practice with minimal feedback and no assignment of a lexical referent can instantiate positive changes to segmental performance for children without apraxia. Positive changes to segmental performance are not necessarily related to increased articulatory control; these two processing levels can show distinct and disparate learning trajectories.
... The verbal subscale included five mandatory tests: information, similarities, arithmetic, vocabulary, and comprehension. The performance subscale included five mandatory tests: object assembly, coding, block design, picture arrangement, and picture completion, and the full scale is the sum of the verbal and performance subscales [11]. ...
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Cognitive impairment, growth faltering and stunting are pervasive in many countries. mostly causes are unknown. Role of intestinal inflammation in such cases should be minded especially in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed serum markers of inflammation, fecal markers of intestinal inflammation and serum micronutrients in cases with aged 1 to 10 years who suffer from moderate or severe malnutrition “weight-for-age z-score and height-for-age z- Score (WAZ or HAZ) less than -2 SD”. Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler intelligence scale for preschool and school children, Bayley scale III. 55.6% of preschool cases were below average or had mild or moderate intelligence retardation while 24.5% of school cases and 5% of children below 2 years were below average regarding cognitive functions. Cases showed statistically significant reduction of vitamin D, zinc and iron as compared to control. Serum markers of inflammation (alpha 1- glycoprotein (a1-AGP), endotoxin core protein (EndoCAB)) and fecal markers of intestinal inflammation (alpha 1 antitrypsin (AAT) and neopterin (NEOP)) were significant higher in cases than controls. School children showed negative correlation between processing functions and( a1-AGP), positive correlation between perceptual reasoning and serum vitamin A. Children below 2 years, showed negative correlations between motor function and (AAT), (a1-AGP), tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-a) and (EndoCAB), positive correlation between language and serum zinc. In conclusion, our study showed impaired neurocognitive and psychomotor functions in malnourished stunted children. Also, vitamins and minerals deficiency and increased markers of intestinal inflammation were observed in cases compared to healthy control.
... IQ was assessed using age-appropriate full-scale Wechsler tests of intelligence (Wechsler, 2002(Wechsler, , 2003(Wechsler, , 2008. Most of the participants were assessed with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Forth Edition, and some were assessed with Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Forth Edition. ...
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Girls and boys might differ in autistic symptoms and associated cognitive difficulties such as executive function (EF). We investigated sex differences in the relationship between parent rated EF and autistic symptoms in 116 children and adolescents (25 girls) aged 5–19 years with an intelligence quotient above 70 and an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. They were rated with the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) and the autism diagnostic interview revised (ADI-R). We found a positive association between EF and the ADI-R domains of reciprocal social interaction ( p < 0.001) and communication ( p = 0.001) in girls, while these relationships were small and non-significant in boys. Our results provide a greater understanding of the sex-specific characteristics of children and adolescents with ASD.
... Visual Symbol Search Visual Symbol Search (VSS) paradigm is a computerized version of a clinical assessment to measure processing speed (Symbol Search Subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV (WISC-IV) (Wechsler & Kodama, 1949)) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) (Wechsler, 1955)). Participants are shown 15 rows at a time, where each row consists of two target symbols, five search symbols and two additional symbols that contain respectively the words "YES" and "NO". ...
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The collection of eye gaze information provides a window into many critical aspects of human cognition, health and behaviour. Additionally, many neuroscientific studies complement the behavioural information gained from eye tracking with the high temporal resolution and neurophysiological markers provided by electroencephalography (EEG). One of the essential eye-tracking software processing steps is the segmentation of the continuous data stream into events relevant to eye-tracking applications, such as saccades, fixations, and blinks. Here, we introduce DETRtime, a novel framework for time-series segmentation that creates ocular event detectors that do not require additionally recorded eye-tracking modality and rely solely on EEG data. Our end-to-end deep learning-based framework brings recent advances in Computer Vision to the forefront of the times series segmentation of EEG data. DETRtime achieves state-of-the-art performance in ocular event detection across diverse eye-tracking experiment paradigms. In addition to that, we provide evidence that our model generalizes well in the task of EEG sleep stage segmentation.
... The test was developed to determine the intelligence level of children aged 6-16 years by Wechsler in 1949 and the revised one was developed in 1974 (30,31). The scale was adapted into Turkish by Savasir and Sahin (32). ...
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Objective: This study aimed to compare the motor skills of children with specific learning disorders (SLD) with those of typically developing children, controlling for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Second, we aimed to examine the relationship between motor skills and children's academic achievement. Method: The sample consisted of 57 children with SLD (63.2% males, mean age=9.52±0.94), and 30 children as a control group (66.7% males, mean age=9.68±1.08). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version, Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT), Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07), and Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale-IV (SNAP-IV) were used. Results: Of children with SLD, 87.7% had any comorbid psychiatric disorder, mainly ADHD (78.9%). The SLD group had lower scores on both the DCDQ'07 total score and all subtests, but the statistical difference remained only in the DCDQ'07 total score and Fine Motor and Handwriting (FMHW) subtest after controlling for the SNAP-IV scores. Children with SLD scored lower than the control group on the nondominant hemisphere and assembly subtests of PPT, and significant differences remained after controlling for SNAP-IV scores. Academic achievement and motor skills were not correlated in the SLD and control groups, but the FMHW subtest showed the strongest correlation (r=0.618, p<0.001) with the grade point average in the entire sample. SNAP-IV total score and having an SLD diagnosis were predictive of the DCDQ'07 total score according to regression analysis. Conclusion: Many children with SLD suffer from motor skill problems, and comorbid ADHD symptoms contribute significantly to them.
... Discrepancy meant when a child who was tested to be normal in intelligence received a failing grade in course evaluation (either Chinese, arithmetic, or science). Per routine practice in our clinic, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) 22 (Taiwanese version available since 1997) was administered for cognitive assessment. ...
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Objective: This study attempts to evaluate whether there are attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtype differences regarding psychiatric features, comorbidity pattern and parenting stress profiles in an Asian population. Methods: A total of 182 ADHD children and their primary caretakers recruited from a university-affiliated hospital were surveyed. Subjects were two groups of preadolescent (6 to 12 years old) ADHD children: children with ADHD-inattentive subtype (n ‫؍‬ 58) and ADHD-combined subtype (n ‫؍‬ 124). Various information was collected and compared, including the child's characteristics (current age, gender, number of family members, age at ADHD diagnosis, duration of pharmaceutical intervention, psychiatric co-morbidities, and intelligence quotient); the primary caretaker's characteristics, and profiles obtained with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Results: Group comparison showed that these two subtypes were statistically distinguishable from each other in total scores on the PSI, four subscale scores on the PSI, the child's age at diagnosis, and comorbidity profiles (all p < .05). Parents of children of the combined subtype experienced higher parenting stress and felt their children displayed qualities that made it difficult for them to fulfill their parenting roles. School failure (p ‫؍‬ .001) and anxiety disorders (p ‫؍‬ .022) were significantly more prevalent in the inattentive subtype children, while oppositional defiant disorder was significantly more present in the combined subtype children (p ‫؍‬ .000). Conclusions: Our findings supported the cross-cultural equivalence of the nosological distinction in ADHD subtypes. The need for specific clinical intervention according to the subtype difference was stressed. (J Dev Behav Pediatr 28:369-375, 2007) Index terms: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, subtype, parenting stress, comorbidity. Attenti on-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder of children, affecting approximately 5% of the school-age population and accounting for over 40% of clinic referrals. 1 ADHD is characterized by an inability to marshal and sustain attention, modulate activity level, and moderate impulsive actions. The disorder results in maladaptive behaviors that are inconsistent with age and developmental level. ADHD typically starts in early childhood and is associated with progressive functional impairment, including school dys-function, problems with peer interaction, family conflict, poor occupational performance, injuries, antisocial behavior , traffic violations, and accidents. 2 Furthermore, ADHD often occurs with other psychiatric illnesses such as mood, anxiety, and disruptive behavior disorders. 3 The reported rates of ADHD comorbidity vary from 18% to 35% in pediatric practice, 4,5 and 50% to 90% in psychiatric practice. 6 The high comorbidity of ADHD with other psychiatric disorders strongly suggests complex epistatic or pleiotropic effects acting in common with environmental influences. 7 Reviews of family aspects of ADHD reported conclusively that the presence of ADHD in children was associated to varying degrees with disturbances in family and marital functioning, disrupted parent-child relationships, reduced parenting self-efficacy, and parental psychopa-thology. 8 Research in the area of parenting stress of ADHD has relied heavily on the Parenting Stress Index developed by Abidin, 9 which assessed stress across domains of child, parent, and interaction characteristics. As early as 1983, Mash and Johnson 10 reported that parent-ing stress in all domains was significantly elevated in mothers of children with ADHD. Similar elevations in parenting stress associated with ADHD have been demonstrated across child age, for both boys and girls and for children with different levels of symptomatology. 8,11-13 Nevertheless, research has also demonstrated no significant change of parenting stress levels in families after satisfactory treatment for ADHD symptoms using medication , behavioral, combined, and community care modalities. 14 Hence, the developmental mechanisms underlying the association between ADHD and parenting stress are still unclear. The universal use of a psychiatric classification system (i.e., DSM-IV-TR), divides ADHD into three subtypes ac
... According to his parents, their child's mental abilities were also evaluated (they provided us with his previous report evaluation), and he achieved a total intelligence quotient (IQ) score of 57 to 60 on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III). 13 He had epilepsy, which was diagnosed by a neurologist when he was 12 years old. He had been on antiepileptic medicine for several years and had no seizure activity. ...
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Dandy–Walker malformation is a group of brain malformations that sometimes present with psychotic features, violent and impulsive behavior, or mood symptoms. Here, we present a case report of a patient with Dandy–Walker malformation who presented with intermittent explosive disorder. A young man, aged 18 years, was brought to the author’s hospital [Hamad Medical Corporation] with anger outbursts, irritable mood, and violent behavior. His magnetic resonance imaging scans showed typical alterations of Dandy–Walker malformation. He also had mild intellectual disabilities and epilepsy. After a few weeks of treatment with sodium valproate 1000 mg/day and risperidone 2 mg/day, his condition improved, and his violent behavior was significantly reduced in 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year of follow-up. There is broad consensus that Dandy–Walker malformation is associated with psychosis and other behavioral abnormalities because of a possible disruption in the prefrontal, thalamic, and cerebellar circuits. The link between Dandy–Walker malformation and intermittent explosive disorder may help us understand this type of brain malformation as a potential psychiatric comorbidity.
... Memory.Digits Span Test (WISC-3R;Wechsler 1991). This test examined short-term auditory memory. ...
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Background Many studies have examined which kindergarteners’ skills best predict reading acquisition later at school. Most of these studies focused on emergent literacy skills such as letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and oral language abilities as the basis for reading acquisition. Additionally, several studies have also found cognitive skills such as memory, executive functions, and visual processing to be related to reading abilities. Although much research has been devoted to the connection between these two types of skills and reading, the relationship between the emergent literacy and cognitive skills has not been widely investigated. Objective The current study aimed to examine the contribution of different cognitive skills to emergent literacy and to explore the cognitive profile of children with low and high emergent literacy skills. Methods The study was conducted among 125 Hebrew-speaking kindergarten children. Cognitive measures including memory, speed of processing (SOP), executive functions, visual perception, and attention were collected, as well as literacy measures such as phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and vocabulary. Results The research findings indicated a very strong association between the cognitive measures and the literacy measures. Children with low emergent literacy skills exhibited lower cognitive abilities. In addition, a significant association was found between visual perception, rapid naming, inhibition, and emergent literacy. Conclusions These findings suggest that literacy knowledge associated with basic cognitive skills, which play an important role in its development.
... Questions about age, sex assigned at birth and whether the participant lived in a two or single-parent family were included in the application form of the clinic. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Wechsler et al., 2005), was standardized administered in one of the van der Vaart et al. ...
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Background: Gender incongruent children report lower self-perception compared to the norm population. This study explored differences in self-perception between children living in their gender role assigned at birth and children living in their experienced gender role. Method: The self-perception questionnaire was administered to 312 children referred to the Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria ‘Amsterdam UMC’. Social transition status was determined by parental interviews. 2 (social transition) by 2 (sex assigned at birth) ANCOVA’s were conducted. Results: Children living in their assigned gender role reported comparable self-perception to children living in their experienced gender role. Birth assigned girls living in their assigned gender role reported poorer self-perception on ‘athletic competence’, compared to girls living in their experienced gender role. Birth assigned boys living in their assigned gender role reported poorer on ‘scholastic competence’ and ‘behavioral conduct’ compared to boys living in their experienced gender role. Conclusions: Social transition did not show to affect self-perception. Self-perception was poorer for birth assigned boys living in their experienced gender role. For birth assigned girls this was reversed. Future studies should give more insight in the role of social transitions in relation to child development and focus on other aspects related to self-perception.
... IQ was assessed using the Revised Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WISC-R). Full-scale IQ was estimated from the two subscales that showed the highest correlation (r ¼ 0.90), specifically the vocabulary subscale which reflects verbal abilities and the block design subscale which reflects spatial abilities 15,16 (Table 1). ...
... See Table 1 for subtests included in each Ancillary Index Scale. Of the current ancillary index scales, the General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) were first described in relation to the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III; Wechsler, 1991). These have been retained across the revisions and three new ancillary index scales were added to the WISC-V. ...
Article
Ancillary index scales provide assessment professionals the opportunity to conduct a more comprehensive interpretation of a student's performance on the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC‐V); however, little is known about the performance of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on these scales. The ASD special group population from the standardization sample of the WISC‐V and their demographically matched controls were included in the study (total n = 124; mean age = 11.5 years). The results of a discriminant analysis revealed that the Auditory Working Memory Index, the Cognitive Proficiency Index, and the Full‐Scale IQ were the best at discriminating among the different groups suggesting that the various groups perform differently on these indexes. School psychologists should calculate all ancillary index scales to obtain the most comprehensive understanding of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of a child with ASD. Comprehensive assessment of the cognitive abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder is essential to understand their intellectual strengths and weaknesses. This includes administering supplemental subtests of the WISC‐V to calculate all the available ancillary index scores. Comprehensive assessment of the cognitive abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder is essential to understand their intellectual strengths and weaknesses. This includes administering supplemental subtests of the WISC‐V to calculate all the available ancillary index scores. When comparing children with ASD to their neurotypical peers, the Auditory Working Memory Index and Cognitive Processing Index accounted for the most group difference. These findings are consistent with historically reported weaknesses in processing speed and working memory for children with ASD. When comparing children with ASD to their neurotypical peers, the Auditory Working Memory Index and Cognitive Processing Index accounted for the most group difference. These findings are consistent with historically reported weaknesses in processing speed and working memory for children with ASD.
... The main conclusion was that MITP-M improved cognitive outcome at 5 years corrected age. At 7 and 9 years of age, the intervention group scored consistently higher on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) [9]. However, the only significant difference was found on the Verbal Comprehension Index at 7 years of age [10]. ...
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Intervention in families with preterm infants.
... The main conclusion was that MITP-M improved cognitive outcome at 5 years corrected age. At 7 and 9 years of age, the intervention group scored consistently higher on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) [9]. However, the only significant difference was found on the Verbal Comprehension Index at 7 years of age [10]. ...
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The Tromsø Intervention Study on Preterms (TISP) randomized 146 preterm born children (<2000 g) either to the Mother-Infant Transaction Program-Modified (MITP-M, n = 72) or to a preterm control group (n = 74). In addition, 75 full-term babies were followed up until 9 years of age. TISP was conducted at the University Hospital Northern Norway (UNN) and only infants who did not have congenital anomalies and families where the mothers’ native language was Norwegian were included. The study investigates the effect of MITP-M on cognitive and social development including behavioral problems, quality of life and stress in the family. The results have so far been published in various journals. The aim of this article is to give a comprehensive overall presentation of the main findings and discuss implications for clinical practice and further research. Parents in the intervention group were superior in “reading” their infants’ temperament, and at 3, 5 and 7 years of age the intervention group scored significantly higher on well-known tests of cognitive outcome. At 9 years of age, the intervention group had fewer attentional problems, better school achievements and a better quality of life. From the first year onwards, mothers and fathers in the intervention group reported lower levels of stress than parents of in the preterm control group.
... Children's cognitive development was assessed by local psychologists when children were 60 months of age using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition (WPPSI-III) (Wechsler, 1991). The WPPSI was adapted to the Bangladeshi context and has been shown to be locally acceptable (Aboud, 2007). ...
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There is strong support for the view that children growing up in low‐income homes typically evince poorer performance on tests of inhibitory control compared to those growing up in higher income homes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of the work documenting this association has been conducted in high‐income countries. It is not yet known whether the mechanisms found to mediate this association would generalize to children in low‐ and middle‐income countries, where the risks of exposure to extreme poverty and a wide range of both biological and psychosocial hazards may be greater. We examined relations among early adversity, neural correlates of inhibitory control, and cognitive outcomes in 154 5‐year‐old children living in Dhaka, Bangladesh, an area with a high prevalence of poverty. Participants completed a go/no‐go task assessing inhibitory control and their behavioral and event‐related potential responses were assessed. Cortical source analysis was performed. We collected measures of poverty, malnutrition, maternal mental health, psychosocial adversity, and cognitive skills. Supporting studies in high‐income countries, children in this sample exhibited a longer N2 latency and higher P3 amplitude to the no‐go versus go condition. Unexpectedly, children had a more pronounced N2 amplitude during go trials than no‐go trials. The N2 latency was related to their behavioral accuracy on the go/no‐go task. The P3 mean amplitude, behavioral accuracy, and reaction time during the task were all associated with intelligence‐quotient (IQ) scores. Children who experienced higher levels of psychosocial adversity had lower accuracy on the task and lower IQ scores.
... missingness is structural rather than due to sample attrition, we consider the missing data missing at random and our approach using Bayesian estimation efficiently handles this missingness. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence III (WASI-III; Wechsler, 1999) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III; Wechsler, 1991) were administered to operationalize performance IQ (P-IQ) at wave-1 and wave-2. The P-IQ subscale is a measure of perceptual organization and processing speed (Strauss et al., 2006) which was scored as age normed T-scores with a higher score indicating better functioning. ...
Article
Background Childhood maltreatment (CM), executive functions (EFs), and psychiatric disorders all correlate highly. Changes in EFs during adolescence related to CM present a possible mediating mechanism for the development of psychiatric disorders, yet no study has analyzed this longitudinally while comparing predictive capacity of different CM factor structures. We hypothesized that changes in EFs from adolescence to adulthood would mediate, in part, associations between CM, internalizing disorders (INT), and anti-social personality disorder (ASPD) while different subtypes of CM would differentially predict INT and ASPD. Objective This study longitudinally examined the mediating effects of EFs on associations between CM, INT, and ASPD while comparing prediction of two CM factor structures. Participants High-risk subjects selected for drug use in adolescence (N = 658) from mean ages 16 to 23. Methods A Bayesian structural equation model was deployed to analyze change in EFs as a mediator of the relationship between CM and adult INT and ASPD. CM was measured using two factor structures: a single overall factor and four correlated factors representing CM subtypes. Results CM significantly predicted INT and ASPD but there was no evidence that the relationship was substantially mediated through EFs. High correlations among subtypes of CM limited the unique predictions of each subtype on INT and ASPD. Conclusion In this high-risk sample, the collinearity of CM subtypes obscured their predictions of outcome measures supporting the use of one CM factor. EFs did not significantly mediate associations between CM and psychiatric disorders, but further research on these relationships is warranted.
... None of the participants reported having any other medical problems. Their language development was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) (Wechsler, 2010) and the Picture Vocabulary Test -Revised (PVT-R) (Ueno et al., 2008). WISC-IV has four sub-indices (see Table 1). ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the linguistic factors involved in stuttering among Japanese-speaking preschool children. The participants included 10 Japanese children who stutter, with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months. Speech samples comprised spontaneous conversations of the participants with their parents for about 20 minutes. We compared the percentages of the occurrence of stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs) at the word and sentence levels, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results showed no significant differences in SLDs based on syllable structure when comparing light and heavy syllables and comparing consonants and vowels in the initial position of each content word. SLDs occurred more frequently in the initial than non-initial position of words and in longer rather than shorter words. Additionally, SLDs occurred more frequently in sentences that contained more 'bunsetsu' (a kind of linguistic unit in Japanese). Our study is the first to show that both word and sentence-level factors could contribute to SLDs in preschool children who stutter in agglutinating languages, such as Japanese. This aspect is rarely reported in psycho-linguistic studies based on stuttering occurrence in inflecting languages , such as English.
... Sardunya adasında yaşayan iki dilli grup toplum dili olan İtalyanca dışında Sardunyaca da bilen çocuklardan, tek dilli grup ise sadece İtalyanca bilen çocuklardan oluşturulmuştur. Grupların bilişsel kontrol, çalışma belleği, problem çözme ve üst dil farkındalığı (metalinguistic awareness) performansı, WÇZÖ (Wechsler, 1974) testi bataryasının 4 alt testi (Küplerle Desen, Sayı Dizisi, Aritmetik ve Sözcük Dağarcığı) aracılığıyla ölçülmüş ve karşılaştırılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda, her iki azınlık grubunun da küplerle desen alt testinde, tek dilli yaşıtlarından daha başarılı oldukları bulunmuştur. ...
... The cognitive function of children was evaluated using the Kaufman Assessment Battery, which included Atlantis, Word order and Pattern reasoning tests (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004) and additional tests, included were Verbal fluency, Kohs block design and Coding tests (Kohs, 1923;Korkman et al., 2001;Wechsler, 1991). These assessments have undergone adaptation and validation for the Indian setting (Malda et al., 2008). ...
Article
Studies from high-income countries report associations of preeclampsia (PE) with reduced cognitive function and adverse behavioural outcomes in children. We examined these associations in Indian children aged 5-7 years. Children of mothers with PE (n=74) and without PE (non-PE; n=234) were recruited at delivery at Bharati Hospital, Pune, India. The cognitive performance was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery and additional tests including Verbal fluency, Kohs block design, and Coding A (from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). The parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess children’s behavioral characteristics. Scores were compared between children from PE and non-PE groups, and associations analyzed further using regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. After adjusting for age, sex, socio-economic status and maternal education, children of PE mothers had lower Kohs block design scores (adjusted odds ratio per score category 0.57, [95% CI 0.34-0.96] p=0.034; 0.62 [95%CI (0.36, 1.07), p=0.09 on further adjustment for birth weight and gestation) compared to children of mothers without PE. In the SDQ, there was a lower prevalence of abnormal ‘conduct problem’ scores in PE group than non-PE group (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.83, p=0.018, in the fully adjusted model); there were no differences for other behavioral domains. This preliminary study in Indian children suggests that fetal exposure to maternal PE may have an adverse impact on visuo-spatial performance but does not adversely affect behavior. Further studies with larger sample sizes are essential to understand effects of maternal PE on cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children.
Article
Aim: Very low birth weight (VLBW:<1500g) is associated with risk of adverse long-term outcomes, including mental health problems. We assessed whether self-reported mental health differed between young adults born preterm with VLBW and term-born controls. We also examined changes in mental health from 14 to 26 years. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 61 VLBW and 88 control participants completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at 26 years. Group differences were analysed by linear regression with adjustment for sex and parental socioeconomic status. Longitudinal changes from 14 to 26 years were analysed using linear mixed model. Results: Mean total difficulties score was 1.9 (95%CI:0.5 to 3.5) higher in the VLBW than in the control group. Internalising and its subscale emotional problems, as well as externalising and its subscale hyperactivity/inattention symptoms were higher in the VLBW group. From 14 to 26 years, changes in emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, externalising problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviour differed between the groups. Conclusion: At 26 years, VLBW participants had more self-reported mental health difficulties than controls. Emotional symptoms increased from 14 to 26 years in the VLBW group, whereas hyperactivity and inattention did not decrease with age as it did in the control group.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training on the performance of response inhibition and sustained attention of students with mathematical problems. The research method in terms of goal was practical and semi-experimental with a pretest-posttest design with a control group. The statistical population of the study was all students with mathematical disorders in Tehran who were studying in the academic year 2018-2019. The sample of this study included 24 elementary school students with mathematics problems who were randomly selected and divided into a control group (12 subjects) and an experimental group (12 subjects). Their intelligence and mathematical abilities were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Iran Key Math Diagnostic Test. The experimental group participated in 25 sessions of 50 to 60 minutes duration in the intervention program. For the development of response inhibition and maintenance of attention, the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Stroop test, a subscale of the CNS Vital Sign (CNSVS) battery, were used. Data were analyzed with SPSS22 software and using analysis of covariance tests. The results of ANCOVA indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in terms of the concussion error of the Stroop test (p<0.05). Continuing with the power test, the difference between the experimental group and the control group was significant (p< 0.05) after omitting the pretest effect in the omission and concussion error. Overall, the results show that computer-based cognitive training had a significant effect on response inhibition and attention maintenance of students with math problems.
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The relationship between structural variability in late-developing association cortices like the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and the development of higher-order cognitive skills is not well understood. Recent findings show that the morphology of LPFC sulci predicts reasoning performance; this work led to the observation of substantial individual variability in the morphology of one of these sulci, the para-intermediate frontal sulcus (pimfs). Here, we sought to characterize this variability and assess its behavioral significance. To this end, we identified the pimfs in a developmental cohort of 72 participants, ages 6–18. Subsequent analyses revealed that the presence or absence of the ventral component of the pimfs was associated with reasoning, even when controlling for age. This finding shows that the cortex lining the banks of sulci can support the development of complex cognitive abilities and highlights the importance of considering individual differences in local morphology when exploring the neurodevelopmental basis of cognition.
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Kültür bir toplumun tüm değerlerini oluşturan; aktarılabilen, yenilenen, geçmişten günümüze kadar gelen tüm yapıtaşlarıdır. Ülkemiz kültürel çeşitliliği zengin olan bir ülkedir. Araştırmaya Türkiye’nin farklı bölgelerindeki devlet üniversitelerinde öğrenim gören 278 müzik öğretmeni adayı katılmıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı müzik öğretmeni adaylarının sahip olduğu Çokkültürlü Kişilik, Değerler, Kültürel Zekâ Düzeyleri ve Yerel Müziklere İlişkin Görüşlerinin incelenmesidir. Araştırmada müzik öğretmeni adaylarının çokkültürlü kişilik değerleri ve kültürel zekâ yapılarının; cinsiyet, sınıf, yaş, üniversite, mezun olunan lise türü, ailede müzik ile ilgilenen birisinin olup olmaması, dinlenilen müzik türü, çalgı, aile gelir düzeyi, anne ve baba eğitim durumuna göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığına ilişkin değişkenlere göre, yerel müziklere olan yaklaşımları ve görüşleri ele alınarak farklılık durumları incelenmiştir. Karma araştırma yöntemlerinden yakınsayan paralel desenle yürütülmüştür. Veriler Kişisel Bilgi Formu, Çokkültürlü Kişilik, Değerler ve Kültürel Zekâ Ölçeği ve Yerel Müziklere İlişkin Görüşme Formuyla toplanmıştır. Nicel verilerin analizinde Betimsel analiz, Bağımsız Grup t-testi, Tek Yönlü Varyans Analizi (ANOVA), Kruskal Wallis-H Testi, Pearson Korelasyon Katsayısı kullanılmıştır. Nitel verilerin analizi fenomenoloji deseniyle yürütülmüştür. Araştırmanın sonucunda müzik öğretmeni adaylarının değerleri; cinsiyete göre toplumsal değer alt boyutunda kızların lehine, yaşa göre, insan onuru alt boyutu 27 yaş ve üzeri olanlar lehine, üniversiteye göre, kariyer değerleri ve maneviyat alt boyutunda anlamlı şekilde farklılaştığı görülmüştür. Algılanan gelir düzeyine göre yüksek gelir düzeyine sahip bireyler lehine materyalist değerler alt boyutu ve orta ve az gelir düzeyine sahip bireyler lehine romantik değerler alt boyutlarında anlamlı farklılıklar bulunmuştur. Değerler ölçeğinin materyalist değerler alt boyutuna göre, okuma yazma bilmeyen babaya sahip öğrencilerin ve lisans eğitimi almış babalara sahip öğrencilere göre anlamlı düzeyde farklılık gösterdiği görülmüştür. Dinlenilen müzik türüne göre, maneviyat alt boyutu, ailede müzikle ilgilenen birinin olması değişkenine göre, özgürlük alt boyutu ve çalgıya göre ise yaylı çalgı grubu için gözlenen maneviyat değeri tuşlu çalgılara göre anlamlı bulunmuştur. Çokkültürlü kişilik yapılarıyla ilgili olarak; cinsiyet değişkeninin, kültürel empati alt boyutu kızların lehine anlamlı ve yüksek olduğu bulunmuştur. Esneklik alt boyutunda 18-21 yaş grubu ile 21-24 yaş grupları arasında anlamlıdır. Duygusal denge alt boyutu müzik öğretmeni adaylarının baba eğitim düzeylerine göre istatiksel olarak anlamlı olduğu vi görülmüştür. Tercih edilen müzik türüne göre esneklik alt boyutunda ve ailede müzikle ilgilenenlerin olması da sosyal girişkenlik alt boyutunda anlamlı düzeyde farklılaştığı görülmüştür. Kültürel Zekâ Ölçeğinin üstbiliş ve biliş alt boyutuna göre; ailede müzikle uğraşan birilerinin olup olmaması istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bulunmuştur. Çokkültürlü Kişilik Ölçeği’nin alt boyutları arasındaki ilişkinin pozitif yönlü ve anlamlı olduğu, diğer alt boyut çiftleri arasındaki ilişkileri gösteren korelasyon değerleri ise pozitif yünlü ve istatistiksel olarak (p<0.01) düzeyinde anlamlı olduğu görülmüştür. Kültürel Zekâ Ölçeği’nin alt boyutlarının kendi aralarındaki ilişkileri pozitif yönlü ve anlamlı olarak bulunmuştur. Değerler Ölçeğinin Toplumsal Değer alt boyutu ile Kültürel Zekâ Ölçeğinin Üstbiliş (p<0.01) ve Biliş (p<0.05) alt boyutları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ve pozitif yönlü ilişkisi olduğu görülmüştür. Aynı şekilde Kariyer değerleri alt boyutu ile Kültürel zekanın Üstbiliş (p<0.01), Biliş (p<0.01) ve Davranış (p<0.05) alt boyutları arasında de anlamlı düzeyde ilişkiler belirlemiştir. Değerler ölçeğinin fütüvvet alt boyutu ile kültürel zeka ölçeğinin alt boyutlarının tamamı arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ilişkiler belirlenmiştir. Araştırmanın nitel kısmında, müzik öğretmeni adaylarının yerel müziklere ilişkin son derece olumlu yaklaşımlarının olduğu toplumsal değerler, kültürel aidiyet, yakınlık, empati, açıklık gibi duyguların ön planda olduğu görülmüştür. Araştırmanın nitel bulgularının nicel bulguları desteklediği görülmüştür. Elde edilen bulgular alanyazın çerçevesinde tartışılarak müzik öğretmeni adaylarına ve araştırmacılara çeşitli öneriler sunulmuştur.
Preprint
Previous studies suggest that structural alteration of the corpus callosum, i.e., the largest white matter commissural pathway, occurs after a preterm birth in the neonatal period and lasts across development. The present study aims to unravel corpus callosum structural characteristics across childhood and adolescence in very preterm (VPT) individuals, and their associations with general intellectual, executive and socio-emotional functioning. Neuropsychological assessments, T1-weighted and multi-shell diffusion MRI were collected in 79 VPT and 46 full term controls aged 6 to 14 years. Volumetric, diffusion tensor and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) measures were extracted on 7 callosal portions using TractSeg. A multivariate data-driven approach (partial least squares correlation) and an age normative modelling approach were used to explore associations between callosal characteristics and neuropsychological outcomes. The VPT and a full-term control groups showed similar trends of white-matter maturation over time, i.e., increase FA and reduced ODI, in all callosal segments, that was associated with increase in general intellectual functioning. However, using age-related normative modelling, findings show atypical pattern of callosal development in the VPT group, with reduced callosal maturation over time that was associated with poorer general intellectual and working memory functioning, as well as with lower gestational age. Highlights Callosal development was explored in full-term and very preterm (VPT) aged 6 to 15 years Neuropsychological, callosal volumetric, tensor and NODDI measures were used Age-related normative modelling revealed atypical callosal development in VPT In VPT, atypical callosal maturation was associated with poorer cognitive functioning In VPT, greater prematurity was associated with increased atypical callosal maturation CRediT roles Vanessa Siffredi: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Software; Visualization; Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Maria Chiara Liverani: Data curation; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Writing - review & editing. Dimitri Van De Ville: Methodology; Resources; Software; Supervision; Writing - review & editing. Lorena G. A. Freitas: Data curation; Writing - review & editing. Cristina Borradori Tolsa: Investigation; Project administration; Resources; Supervision; Validation; Writing - review & editing. Petra Susan Hüppi: Conceptualization; Funding acquisition; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Supervision; Validation; Writing - review & editing. Russia Hà-Vinh Leuchter: Conceptualization; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Supervision; Validation; Writing - review & editing.
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The University of California at Los Angeles-Young Autism Project (UCLA-YAP) provides one of the best known and most researched comprehensive applied behavior analysis-based intervention models for young children on the autism spectrum. This paper reports a systematic literature review of replication studies over more than 30 years. The data show that the relatively high-intensity UCLA-YAP model can be greatly beneficial for children on the autism spectrum, particularly with regards to their cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior. This review concludes that, while more research is always welcome, the impact of the UCLA-YAP model on autism interventions is justified by more than 30 years of outcome evidence.
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Very preterm (VPT) children and adolescents show executive, behavioural and socio-emotional difficulties that persists into adulthood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) in improving these competencies in VPT young adolescents using a randomised controlled trial design. 56 young adolescents aged 10–14 years, born before 32 gestational weeks, were randomly assigned to an “intervention” or a “waiting” group and completed an 8-week MBI in a cross-over design. Executive, behavioural and socio-emotional competencies were assessed at three different time points via parent and self-reported questionnaires, neuropsychological testing and computerised tasks. The data were analysed using an intention-to-treat approach with linear regression modelling. Our findings show a beneficial effect of MBI on executive, behavioural and socio-emotional competencies in VPT young adolescents measured by parent questionnaires. Increased executive competencies were also observed on computerised task with enhanced speed of processing after MBI. Two subgroups of participants were created based on measures of prematurity, which revealed increased long-term benefits in the moderate-risk that were not observed in the high-risk subgroups of VPT young adolescents. MBI seems a valuable tool for reducing detrimental consequences of prematurity in young adolescents, especially regarding executive, behavioural and socio-emotional difficulties. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials, NCT04638101. Registered 20 November 2020—Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT04638101.
Article
Objectives: Increasing evidence suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study is a systematic review of rates of depression in autistic children and adolescents, without intellectual disability. Design: Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, a total of 14,557 studies were identified through five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, ERIC, PsycINFO, and Web of Science). Methods: Articles were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria and 10% double coded at each stage. Nineteen studies met criteria and were retained in the review. Result: The reported rates of depression in autistic children and adolescents varied from 0% to 83.3%. We discuss these findings in relation to method of report (self/informant, interview/questionnaire), recruitment status (clinical/community recruited), and age (pre-pubertal/adolescent). Conclusion: Rates of depression vary considerably across studies and do not show a particular pattern in relation to methodology, or age. Our research joins a crucial call to action from the research community for future research to improve the identification of depression in autism, which in turn will aid our understanding of the potentially different characterization and manifestation of depression in autism, to ultimately improve assessment and treatment of depression in autistic children and adolescents. Practitioner points: Rates of depression in autistic children and adolescents vary and do not show a particular pattern in relation to methodology or age. Our research joins the call to action from the research community for future research to improve the identification of depression in autistic children and adolescents, which in turn will aid understanding of depression in autism, and ultimately improve assessment and treatment of depression in autistic children and young people. The development of new measures of depression, specifically designed with, and for, children and adolescents with autism, is warranted.
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