Article

Blood pressure-lowering properties of chokeberry (Aronia mithurinii, var. Viking)

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Abstract

The blood pressure-lowering properties of lyophilized chokeberry juice and polyphenols were monitored using in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition measurement and a 10day in vivo study with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Juice and polyphenols indicated weak ACE-inhibitory activity. The IC50 values for polyphenols and juice were 1.5–2.5 and 4.5mg dry matter/ml, respectively. In the SHR study the blood pressure-lowering effects of juice and polyphenol extract seemed to be short-term and were generally highest after 3h from administration (50mg/kg/day) when mean reductions in systolic blood pressure were 20±8 and 15±7mmHg, respectively. Corresponding mean decreases in diastolic blood pressure were 23±6 and 13±2mm Hg in juice and polyphenol groups, respectively. It was concluded that both chokeberry juice and polyphenols had blood pressure-lowering effects. We hypothesize that chokeberry polyphenols enhance endothelial nitric oxide production with an ACE-independent mechanism, e.g. by activation of endothelial nitric oxidase enzyme; this is yet to be verified.

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... It is namely consumed as a fresh fruit or processed in the form of juice, jam, tea, liqueur and wine [1]. Chokeberry was used in European and North American traditional folk medicine as an antisclerotic agent and as a medicament against high blood pressure, while native Americans have used chokeberry for the treatment of cold [1,2]. The chemical composition of berries (the extract or freshly pressed juice) indicates that chokeberry is a good source of nutrients containinga high level of polyphenols, namely phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavanones [1][2][3][4][5]. ...
... Chokeberry was used in European and North American traditional folk medicine as an antisclerotic agent and as a medicament against high blood pressure, while native Americans have used chokeberry for the treatment of cold [1,2]. The chemical composition of berries (the extract or freshly pressed juice) indicates that chokeberry is a good source of nutrients containinga high level of polyphenols, namely phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavanones [1][2][3][4][5]. The contribution of the phenolic compound content to an intensive antioxidant activity has already been reported [6]. ...
... Polyphenols of chokeberry were reported to have the antioxidant, antiradical [1,5,9], antimutagenic [10] and antiinflammatory activity [11,12]. They might also have blood pressure lowering properties [2], reduce total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride level [1] which all contribute to significant cardioprotective effects. A great number of investigations indicate that the extracts of this plant show the antitumor activity [1,10,[13][14][15], as well as the hepatoprotective [4] and gastroprotective effect [16]. ...
... For example, oral administration of a polyphenolic-rich fruit beverage to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) resulted in decreased blood pressure (Gunathilake et al., 2013). Chokeberry juice and its polyphenols at a dose of 50 mg kg À1 body weight/day were also reported to produce substantial reductions in SHR blood pressure (Hellstrom et al., 2010). However, a recent report on a leaf (Ocimum gratissimum) polyphenol extract indicated decreased blood pressure only at a high dose of 500 mg kg À1 body weight of SHR (Shaw et al., 2017). ...
... This protease inhibition would have increased as the level of polyphenol addition was raised from 1% to 3%, hence the associated decreases in measured ACE-inhibitory activity. ACE-inhibitory activities of polyphenol-fortified breads are scarce but previous works have also shown various inhibitory activities of polyphenol extracts from chokeberry (Hellstrom et al., 2010), Ocimum gratissimum leaves (Shaw et al., 2017) and other leafy vegetables (Oboh et al., 2016). ...
... The long-lasting (up to 24 h) reductions in MAP and SBP of the vegetable-fortified breads suggest that the polyphenols were not rapidly cleared from the blood, which could provide effective daily management of blood pressure. The values obtained in this work are similar to the À20 mmHg SBP reductions reported after oral administration of 50 mg chokeberry polyphenols/kg SHR body weight (Hellstrom et al., 2010). This is because 100 mg of the vegetable-enriched breads produced about twice the SBP reduction reported for 50 mg chokeberry polyphenols. ...
Article
This study investigated the potential cardiovascular health benefits of leavened bread produced from wheat flour that contained 1%, 2% and 3% additions of leafy vegetable powders obtained from Amaranthus viridis (AO), Solanum macrocarpon (SM) or Telfairia occidentalis (TO). Dried breads were extracted with water at 60 °C followed by analysis for total polyphenolic content (TPC), as well as in vitro inhibitions of angiotensin-converting enzyme and renin activities. HPLC analysis of the bread extracts indicated the presence of mainly rutin, gallic acid, myricetin and caffeic acid. TPC of the vegetable-fortified breads was significantly (P < 0.05) higher (5.8–7.6 mg gallic acid equivalent, GAE/g) than that of control bread (5.5 mg GAE/g). Oral administration of 100 mg dried extract/kg body weight to spontaneously hypertensive rats led to reductions (up to 42 mmHg) in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure in comparison with 20 mmHg for the control bread.
... These findings are consistent with the literature data. The blood pressure-lowering properties of the juice used in our study are in accordance to those obtained by Hellstrom et al. (2010) (39) with a lyophilized chokeberry juice (Aronia mitchurinii) and polyphenols in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Dietary supplem-entation with extract of the black chokeberry reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients after myocardial infarction (38), as well as in patients with metabolic syndrome (40,41). ...
... These findings are consistent with the literature data. The blood pressure-lowering properties of the juice used in our study are in accordance to those obtained by Hellstrom et al. (2010) (39) with a lyophilized chokeberry juice (Aronia mitchurinii) and polyphenols in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Dietary supplem-entation with extract of the black chokeberry reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients after myocardial infarction (38), as well as in patients with metabolic syndrome (40,41). ...
... (35,38,(42)(43)(44). It can be explained by the inhibition of the activity of angiotensin l-converting enzyme by the chokeberry extracts (39,45). It is known that the chokeberry preparations could protect the coronary arteries (46) and heart muscle (38) from the oxidative damage. ...
Article
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Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott) has been traditionally used for centuries in the herbal medicine of the Native North Americans considering the numerous pharmacological activities. The aim of this research was to analyze the effects of the chokeberry juice on the cardiovascular activity, in order to authenticate the use of Aronia melanocarpa as a functional food. Nevertheless, the antioxidative properties of chokeberry juice were determined by DPPH method and the β-carotene/linoleic acid model system, to prove the estimated activity of the juice. The significant antioxidative activity was confirmed. The concentration of choke-berry that inhibited 50 % of DPPH free radicals (IC50) was 1.25 ± 0.08 mg/ml. In β-carote-ne/linoleic acid model system IC50 was achieved by concentration of 1.73 ± 0.07 mg/ml. The effects of chokeberry juice on the blood pressure and heart rate in anaesthetized rabbits were performed. The results demonstrated the reduction of the blood pressure (EC50 value of 195.63 ± 14.45 mg/kg, the concentration which elicited 50 % of maximal response) and heart rate (EC50 value of 171.71 ± 11.21 mg/kg) in the animals. The administration of the chokeberry juice could produce hypotension and negative chronotropic effects. However, it is necessary to conduct the study in human population to confirm those findings.
... Modern interest in the health effects of Aronia from the medical community has been the focus of many peer reviewed studies (Gasiorowski et al., 1997; Faff and Frankiewicz-Jozko, 2003; Olas et al., 2008; Szajdek and Borowska, 2008; Kedzierska et al., 2009; Broncel et al., 2010; Chrubasik et al., 2010; Hellstrom et al., 2010; Kokotkiewicz et al., 2010; Olas et al., 2010). Historically, Aronia has been used by Native Americans for cold remedies and gastrointestinal problems (Smith, 1933; Kindscher and Hurlburt, 1998). ...
... Historically, Aronia has been used by Native Americans for cold remedies and gastrointestinal problems (Smith, 1933; Kindscher and Hurlburt, 1998). More recently, the most promising studies have focused on the impacts chokeberry's antioxidants have on cardiovascular diseases (Hellstrom et al., 2010) and cellular oxidative stress (Jurgonski et al., 2008). There is also some evidence Aronia anthocyanins have anti-mutagenic properties (Gasiorowski et al., 1997). ...
... 1933; Kindscher and Hurlburt, 1998). More recently, the most promising studies have focused on the impacts chokeberry's antioxidants have on cardiovascular diseases (Hellstrom et al., 2010) and cellular oxidative stress (Jurgonski et al., 2008). There is also some evidence Aronia anthocyanins have anti-mutagenic properties (Gasiorowski et al., 1997). Hellstrom et al., (2010studied anti-sclerotic properties of chokeberry juice. In Russia and Eastern Europe, folklore prescribed Aronia for the treatment of hypertension. ...
Article
Aronia (Medik.), commonly known as chokeberry, is a taxonomically misunderstood genus currently experiencing a renaissance in North America as both an ornamental and fruit crop. Three species of chokeberry are commonly accepted as native in North America: A. arbutifolia (L.) Pers. red chokeberry; A. melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot, black chokeberry; and A. prunifolia (Marshall) Rehder, or purple chokeberry. In Europe a fourth species of human origin is recognized as Aronia mitschurinii (A.K.Skvortsov & Maitul.), or cultivated, black-fruited Aronia. It is widely speculated that this genotype originated in the early 20th century with Russian pomologist Ivan Michurin, as the product of his experiments in wide hybridizations. In my research I attempt to determine the feasibility of this hypothesis by exploring Aronia’s crossing capabilities and testing the relationships of A. mitschurinii to wild Aronia species and several other Pyrinae genera using amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) analysis. Successful seed formation was achieved between maternal diploid A. melanocarpa and Malus domestica, Photinia serrulata, Sorbus, and ×Sorbaronia. Clustering of AFLP similarity data using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) identified A. mitschurinii as distinct from wild Aronia spp., placing it on a branch with ×Sorbaronia fallax and ×Sorbaronia ‘Ivan’s Beauty’. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) clustered A. mitschurinii apart from wild Aronia spp., and demonstrated a relationship between Sorbus aucuparia, ×Sorbaronia fallax, and Aronia. Bayesian analysis revealed A. mitschurinii to possess genetic influence from the genus Sorbus subgenus Sorbus.
... They are native to northeastern North America and now grow throughout Europe [2]. ...
... Wild shrubs are usually found growing in wet woods or swamps. They are often used as ornamental plants or for commercial production of berries [1,2]. Aronia is hardy up to USDA zone 4, which means it can survive temperatures as low as -40 °F [3]. ...
Article
Aronia is a deciduous shrub native to the northeastern United States, with many varieties of berry colors. They are colloquially known as chokeberries and they are typically utilized to make wine, jam, juice, tea and extracts. These berries are known to contain many polyphenols, and this research examined a subclass called anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are pigment molecules common to all higher plants which change color from red to purple to blue depending on pH. It is believed that these pigments are used to attract animals to the fruit for seed dispersal and they are known to protect cells from light damage by absorbing UV rays. Anthocyanins are also antioxidants and have analgesic, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. There is little data published on the relative concentrations of anthocyanins found in these berries. The aim of this research was to establish a working procedure to identify and quantify anthocyanins found in Aronia using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) via modified methods in the peer reviewed literature. The compounds were extracted using methanol acidified with citric acid. These samples were then compared to four analytical standards, which were cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-xyloside and pelargondin-3-glucoside. A multi-step gradient was utilized with the eluents A: acetonitrile and B: 0.1% trifluouroacetic acid and detected compounds at a wavelength of 520 nm. The data produced from this research will be useful for identifying and quantifying anthocyanins in berries and value added product.
... Similar results were obtained in our previous study with chokeberry fruit extract tested in spontaneously hypertensive rat model where cyanidin-3-O-galactoside was found as a predominant compound [6]. Moreover, Hellstrom et al. (2010) [29] also found cyanidin-3-O-galactoside as the most abundant in lyophilized chokeberry juice. Extract described byĆujić et al. (2018) [6] as well as by Ciocoiu et al. (2013) [30] contained rutin, hyperoside, and quercetin as dominant flavonoids similarly as we found for our sample. ...
... Similar results were obtained in our previous study with chokeberry fruit extract tested in spontaneously hypertensive rat model where cyanidin-3-O-galactoside was found as a predominant compound [6]. Moreover, Hellstrom et al. (2010) [29] also found cyanidin-3-O-galactoside as the most abundant in lyophilized chokeberry juice. Extract described byĆujić et al. (2018) [6] as well as by Ciocoiu et al. (2013) [30] contained rutin, hyperoside, and quercetin as dominant flavonoids similarly as we found for our sample. ...
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BACKGROUND: Phytotherapy has an important role in the functional gastrointestinal and motility disorder prevention and treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aims of our study were to analyze the chemical composition and the antispasmodic activity of the dry black chokeberry ethanolic extract, waste extract and the juice in the isolated rat ileum. METHODS: The anthocyanins and flavonoids quantification was carried out by the spectrophotometric method using the HPLC instrument. The study examined the influence of the chokeberry preparations and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, the main anthocyanin compound, on the spontaneous, acetylcholine and KCl-induced ileum smooth muscle contraction, as well as on the contractions induced by histamine, CaCl2 and BaCl2 and contractions in the presence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME). RESULTS: In all the examined preparations, the most abundant compounds were anthocyanins, especially cyanidin heterosides. The highest content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was found in the chokeberry waste extract. Among the chokeberry preparations, the ethanolic extract had the highest flavonoid concentration. The chokeberry preparations and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside in a concentration dependent manner significantly relaxed the rat ileum spontaneous and induced contractions. The results demonstrated that the nitric-oxide pathway was not involved in the relaxant activity of the chokeberry extracts and juice. CONCLUSIONS:The study demonstrated that the chokeberry preparations were able to relax contractions in the isolated rat ileum. Keywords: Chokeberry extract, chokeberry waste extract, chokeberry juice, spasmolytic activity, motility disorders, smooth muscle.
... Proanthocyanidins are composed of (−)-epicatechin and trace amounts of (+)-catechin, which may occur only at the end of a molecular chain of proanthocyanidins. Individual subunits are linked by C4  C6 and C4  C8 bonds [64][65][66]. ...
... The mDP of proanthocyanidin in fruits was 19-59; in juice it was 12-52 and in pomace it was 18-34 [11,13,40,45,53,65]. Hellström et al. [66] observed an exceptionally high degree of proanthocyanidin polymerisation in chokeberry juice and extract (mDP > 100). In chemical terms, proanthocyanidins are oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ol, linked by B-type and A-type bonds. ...
Article
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Black chokeberry (Aronia melnocarpa) is a source of many bioactive compounds with a wide spectrum of health-promoting properties. Fresh, unprocessed chokeberry fruits are rarely consumed due to their astringent taste, but they are used in the food industry for the production of juices, nectars, syrups, jams, preserves, wines, tinctures, fruit desserts, jellies, fruit teas and dietary supplements. Polyphenols are biofactors that determine the high bioactivity of chokeberries, some of the richest sources of polyphenols, which include anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. Chokeberry fruit and products have great antioxidant and health-promoting potential as they reduce the occurrence of free radicals. This publication reviewed the scientific research regarding the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant potential of chokeberry fruits, products and isolated compounds. These findings may be crucial in future research concerning chokeberry based functional food products. Chokeberry fruits can be considered as promising component of designed food with enhanced antioxidant potential. However, like other plants and medicinal products of natural origin, black chokeberry requires extensive studies to determine its antioxidant potential, safety and mechanisms of action.
... It was pointed out that chokeberry juice exhibited an important ACE inhibitory activity while chokeberry polyphenol fractions performed lower activity. Authors remarked that the ACE inhibitory activity of chokeberry might be affected by non-phenolic compounds in the juice [107]. In a similar study, Sikora et al. observed weak in vitro ACE inhibitory activity for chokeberry extract. ...
... In vivo (rats) ↓ systolic and diastolic blood pressure [107] Blueberry Cardiovascular system/hypertension ...
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Along with the increased knowledge about the positive health effects of food bioactives, the eating habits of many individuals have changed to obtain higher nutritional benefits from foods. Fruits are among the most preferred food materials in this regard. In particular, berry fruits are important sources in the diet in terms of their high nutritional content including vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Berry fruits have remedial effects on several diseases and these health-promoting impacts are associated with their phenolic compounds which may vary depending on the type and variety of the fruit coupled with other factors including climate, agricultural conditions, etc. Most of the berries have outstanding beneficial roles in many body systems of humans such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. Furthermore, they are effective on some metabolic disorders and several types of cancer. In this review, the health-promoting effects of bioactive compounds in berry fruits are presented and the most recent in vivo, in vitro, and clinical studies are discussed from a food science and nutrition point of view.
... The high contents of phenolics and anthocyanins in black chokeberry fruit may contribute to potential health benefits (4). Black chokeberries have been reported to have anticancer and antimutagenic activities, as well as beneficial properties related to blood pressure and cardiovascular disease (5,6). ...
Article
Optimal drying techniques for maintaining high levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in black chokeberries were investigated. Effects of 3 drying methods on total bioactive compound contents and in vitro antioxidant activities in 80% ethanol extracts were evaluated. Fresh black chokeberries were dried using sun-drying, freeze-drying, and oven-drying. Highest amounts of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were detected in freeze-dried black chokeberry extracts after sun and oven-drying. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), and superoxide anion scavenging activities in black chokeberry extracts were also evaluated. Freeze-dried berries produced strongest antioxidant activities. Freeze-drying was the optimal drying method for maintaining high levels of bioactive compounds in 80% ethanol extracts of dried black chokeberries.
... The solution was prepared daily (stable for at least 24 h) and contained < 0.05 µg Cd/L. The concentration of the aqueous solution of AME was chosen based on the available literature data [15,41] to reach polyphenol intake markedly higher than the recommended daily consumption, but not too high. In our study, there was no positive control since, until now, there was no effective chelating therapy for Cd. ...
Article
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Recently, we demonstrated in a rat model that consumption of a polyphenol-rich extract obtained from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa could protect from cadmium-induced disorders in bone turnover and changes in bone mineral status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the osteoprotective effect of this extract is mediated by the oxidative defense system. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, total antioxidative and oxidative status, hydrogen peroxide, and markers of oxidative protein, lipid, and DNA damage were determined in bone tissue at the distal femoral epiphysis of female Wistar rats receiving 0.1 % aqueous A. melanocarpa extract (prepared from the lyophilized commercial extract containing 65.74 % of polyphenols) as the only drinking fluid and/or cadmium in the diet (1 and 5 mg/kg) for 3, 10, 17, and 24 months. The total oxidative and antioxidative status of the serum was also evaluated. The administration of A. melanocarpa extract provided significant protection from cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the bone and serum, and from lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to the protein and DNA in the bone tissue. Numerous correlations were noted between indices of the oxidative/antioxidative bone status and markers of bone metabolism previously assayed in the animals receiving A. melanocarpa extract. The results allow the conclusion that the ability of A. melanocarpa extract to mediate the oxidative defense system and prevent oxidative modifications of protein, lipid, and DNA in the bone tissue plays an important role in its osteoprotective action under exposure to cadmium. The findings provide further evidence supporting our suggestion that chokeberry may be a promising natural agent for protection against the toxic action of cadmium in women chronically exposed to this metal. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
... 란드), "Kurkumacki" (필란드), "Hugin" (스웨덴), "Fertodi" (헝가리), "Aron" (덴마크) 등이고, 이중 "Viking"과 "Nero"는 북미의 식물 목록에서 흔히 볼 수 있는 품종들이다 (Kulling and Rawel 2008 (Slimestad et al. 2005;Rop et al. 2010;Hellstrom et al. 2010;Jakobec et al. 2012;Girones-Vilaplana et al. 2012). 또한 적자색의 색소는 천연염료로도 손색이 없어 현재 유럽 과 미국 등에서 천연염료로 인기가 많다 (Strigl et al. 1995 (Kim et al. 1981;Kang and Moon 2001;Moon et al. 2010). ...
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Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, Black chokeberry) is an important cash crop in domestic agriculture. We investigated the effects of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation and rooting using in vitro tissue culture. The most effective shoot multiplication was observed on WPM (woody plant medium) supplemented with 1.0 mg/L zeatin (8.3±1.0 shoots/explant), while the highest rooting rate was obtained from half-strength WPM with 3.0 mg/L IBA (8.8 roots/explant). The rooted plantlets all survived in the artificial soil mixture (with a mixture of peat moss : perlite : vermiculite, 1:1:1, v/v/v) and grew up relatively uniform, ranging from 14 to 16 leaves, 8 to 10 cm in stem height, and 2.3 to 2.8 mm in stem diameter. While experimenting with 5 different varieties of Aronia, we found out that each variety had different characteristics of shoot proliferation and rooting. The total numbers of proliferated shoots per variety is as follows: 17.4±0.8 for Nero, 14 to 15 for Purple and Mackenzie, and 10 for both Viking and Odamamachiko. Rooting rates were also various depending on the variety: 88% of Odamamachiko, 80% of Viking and Purple, and 76% of Nero and 60% of Mackenzie shoots rooted. The survival rate of the rooted plantlets was from 92% to 100%, varying by type. Further growth appeared to be better in auxin-Treated plantlets, compared to untreated ones. Our results showed the possibility of establishing an effective in vitro micropropagation system for Aronia melanocarpa.
... Antihypertensive Leaf Polyphenol Extracts of antihypertensive drugs has been associated with negative side effects such as rashes, edema, dry coughing and erectile dysfunction (Abassiet al., 2009;Blumentalset al., 2003;Fogariet al., 2001;Gunkelet al., 1996;Tenenbaumet al., 2000). Therefore, natural alternative therapies such as peptides (Aluko, 2015) and polyphenols (Hellstrom et al., 2010;Kivimaki et al., 2013;Shaw et al., 2017) with potential fewer negative side effects have been suggested as effective antihypertensive agents. Traditionally, green leafy vegetables have been used as spice in foods or for culinary purposes while vegetable extracts have formed part of folk medicine agents used to treat or manage different human diseases (Farombi and Owoeye, 2011). ...
... The solution was prepared daily (stable for at least 24 h) and contained < 0.05 µg Cd/L. The concentration of the aqueous solution of AME was chosen based on the available literature data [15,41] to reach polyphenol intake markedly higher than the recommended daily consumption, but not too high. In our study, there was no positive control since, until now, there was no effective chelating therapy for Cd. ...
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Recently, using a rat model of low-level lifetime human exposure to cadmium (Cd), we have revealed that consumption of a polyphenol-rich extract from Aronia melanocarpa berries (AMPE) prevented gastrointestinal absorption and accumulation in the body of this toxic metal [1] and Cd-induced disorders in bone metabolism [2] as well as improved the antioxidative bone status [3]. In this study it was investigated whether AMPE may prevent Cd-induced lipid peroxidation in the bone tissue. F2-isoprostanes (F2-isoP) and lipid peroxides (LPO) were determined, as markers of lipid peroxidation, in the distal femur epiphysis (trabecular bone region) of female Wistar rats administered a 0.1% water AMPE (containing 61.24 ± 0.01% of polyphenols and characterized by a potent free radical scavenging capability – 75.01 ± 0.19%) or/and 1 mg Cd/kg diet for up to 24 months. Moreover, a correlation between Cd concentration and the extent of lipid peroxidation in the bone was evaluated. The exposure to Cd increased the bone concentration of F2-isoP (already after 3 months), but had no impact on LPO concentration. AMPE administration under the exposure to Cd completely prevented the Cd-induced increase in F2-isoP concentration. A positive correlation was noted between the bone concentrations of Cd and F2-isoP. Based on the results it can be concluded that consumption of AMPE may protect from lipid peroxidation in the bone tissue under low chronic exposure to Cd. The present study provides further evidence that A. melanocarpa berries seem to be good candidates for investigation of their possible prophylactic use in humans exposed to Cd. Acknowledgement: This study was financially supported by the Grant (No. N N405 051140) from the National Science Centre (Poland). References: [1] Brzoska MM et al. Curr Drug Targets, in press, doi: 10.2174/1389450116666150102121708. [2] Brzoska MM et al. Chem Biol Interact, 2015; 229: 132 – 146. [3] Brzoska MM et al. Planta Med, 2014; 80: 1425.
... 작용을 하는 것으로 알려져 있다 (8,9). 아로니아의 항산화 활성은 아로니아에 함유된 페놀화합물의 영향을 받으며, 항돌연변이 활성 (11), 혈압저하 (12), 암세포 저해작용 ( ...
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To investigate biological activities in Aronia melanocarpa various drying methods were employed such as vacuum freeze drying, hot air drying and cold air drying. DPPH radical scavenging activity and ABTS radical scavenging activity of vacuum freeze dried Aronia melanocarpa was higher than hot and cold air dried Aronia melanocarpa. Vacuum freeze drying method showed the greatest contents of total phenol (15.34 g GAE/100 g), flavonoid (3.10 g GE/100 g) and tannin (2.46 g TE/100 g). Total anthocyanin content decreased to 163.52 mg C3G/100 g and 50.15 mg C3G/100 g for hot and cold air drying, respectively. Vacuum freeze-dried method increased the total anthocyanin content (743.09 mg C3G/100 g) when compared with fresh Aronia melanocarpa (163.52 mg C3G/100 g). Total proanthocyanidin content of vacuum freeze dried Aronia melanocarpa has increased to 6.21 g CE/100 g more than eight times compared with fresh Aronia melanocarpa (0.71 g CE/100 g). Chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid content of vacuum freeze dried Aronia melanocarpa were higher than hot air dried and cold air dried Aronia melanocarpa, increasing about three times compared with fresh Aronia melanocarpa. These results suggested that vacuum freeze drying is optimal drying method to enhance biological activities in Aronia melanocarpa. 아로니아는 북아메리카와 캐나다가 원산지로 장미과에 속하며, Aronia melanocarpa(Michx.) Ell(blak chokeberry)와 Aronia arbutifolia(L.) Pers(red chokeberry) 두 가지 종을 포 함한다(1,2). 아로니아는 베리 특유의 떫은맛과 향기로 인 해 주스, 시럽, 와인과 같은 가공제품에 혼합되어 사용되어 왔지만, 최근에는 아로니아의 건강 증진 효과로 인해 아로 니아에 관한 관심이 증가하고 있는 실정이다(1). 소비자들 은 식품에 포함된 산화방지성분이 암, 심혈관계질환, 관절 염 발생 및 노화를 억제할 수 있다는 사실을 인지하고 식단 에 식물성 생리활성물질을 포함시키고 있다(3). 많은 식품 들은 자유라디칼의 소거 및 증식 억제에 중요한 역할을 하는 페놀, 안토시아닌, 플라보노이드 화합물 등과 같은 “뉴트라슈티컬(nutraceuticals)”을 포함하고 있는데, 그 중에 서도 베리류는 천연 산화 방지제 역할을 하는 것으로 알려 져 있다(3). 베리류 중에서도 아로니아는 상대적으로 높은 항산화력을 지닌 것으로 알려져 있으며, 안토시아닌과 페 놀산의 풍부한 자원으로 다른 베리류들과 페놀 화합물 함량 을 비교한 결과에서 안토시아닌 함량이 우세한 것으로 보고 된 바 있다(4-7). 안토시아닌은 식물계 수용성 색소의 구성 성분으로, 항산화 활성, 혈관 보호 작용 등 건강에 유익한 작용을 하는 것으로 알려져 있다(8,9). 아로니아의 항산화 활성은 아로니아에 함유된 페놀화합물의 영향을 받으며, 항돌연변이 활성(11), 혈압저하(12), 암세포 저해작용(13) 이 있는 것으로 보고된 바 있다.
... Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) has many healthpromoting properties and helps prevent a number of civilisational diseases, such as hypertension (Hellstr€ om et al., 2010), gastric sicknesses (Matsumoto et al., 2004), inflammation (Larrosa et al., 2010) and some types of cancer (Berm udez-Soto et al., 2007a,b). Consumption of chokeberry products delays ageing processes, helps prevent the onset of ageing eye diseases (e.g. ...
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A semi-industrial spray drying process of chokeberry juice concentrate using maltodextrin was analysed. The influence of the content and dextrose equivalent (DE) of maltodextrin, inlet air temperature and rotary disc atomiser speed was studied on the physicochemical properties of the obtained powders. The size and structure of the powder particles, bulk density, moisture content, flowability, yield and total polyphenol content were analysed. An increase in carrier content from 50% to 70% caused a 4.9% increase in total polyphenol retention, better flowability (Hausner ratio decrease of 0.17) and greater yield of the powder (60%). An increase in the drying temperature (150-170 °C) caused larger particle size and improved powder flowability but also resulted in greater loss of total polyphenols. A decrease in rotary atomiser speed (11 000-15 000 rpm) had a moderate influence on particle size and improvement in flowability but had no effect on polyphenol retention. Changes in the DE (8-22) of maltodextrin as a carrier indicated a moderate growing dependence on particle size and worse flowability.
... Properties of black chokeberries are extensively documented, and growing numbers of preclinical and clinical experiments have been directed to support the positive activities of A. melanocarpa. A. melanocarpa extracts and juices show anticancer, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and immunomodulatory activities in animal and cellular models[8][9][10][11][12]. Fruit juice of A. melanocarpa showed gastroprotective activity against an indomethacin-induced ulcer model in rats[13]. ...
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Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell. belongs to the Rosaceae family. The purpose of this study is to explore the gastroprotective effect of theAronia melanocarpahydro-alcoholic extract (AMHAE) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in a rat model. Different concentrations (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of AMHAE, or 30 mg/kg of omeprazole, significantly inhibited the gastric injury formation. The ethanol-induced ulcer group showed significant increases of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), and interleukin (IL)-4. However, AMHAE (200 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly reversed the altered pathophysiological levels of these biomolecules to near normal stages. The gastroprotective activity of AMHAE was abolished by pretreatment with l-NAME, naloxone, capsazepine, and indomethacin, demonstrating the participation of nitric oxide (NO), opioids, TRPV (vanilloid receptor-related transient receptor potential), and prostaglandins in AMHAE-assisted gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric injuries. This gastroprotective effect of AMHAE might be due to the downregulation of TNF-α-based NF-κB, MCP-1 signaling and strong antioxidant properties.
... rine olumlu etkilere sahip oldukları birçok araştırıcı tarafından belirlenmiştir (Chen ve Chen 2013; Vauzour ve ark. 2010; Williams ve ark. 2004). Fenolik bileşenlerin kanser hücrelerini inhibe ettiği, antimutajenik aktiviteye ve kan basıncını düşürücü etkiye sahip olduğu, kardiyovasküler riski azalttığı bildirilmiştir (Bermúdez-Soto ve ark. 2007; Hellström ve ark. 2010; Jia ve ark. 2012; Ju ve ark. 2012; Naruszewicz ve ark. 2007; Seeram ve ark. 2006). ...
... They found reduction of systolic and diastolic pressures after treatment with Aronia melanocarpa extract. Other authors showed decreased blood pressure in SHR after the commercial Aronia melanocarpa extract Aronox treatment [32]. The hypotensive effect was revealed also by Naruszewicz [33] in patients after myocardial infarction with statin therapy and by Tjelle [34] in hypertensive volunteers. ...
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Aronia melanocarpa has attracted scientific interest due to its dense contents of different polyphenols. We aimed to analyse effects of Aronia melanocarpa (AME) extract on blood pressure (BP), lipid peroxidation, cytokine level, total NOS activity in the left ventricle (LV), and aorta of L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. 12-week-old male WKY rats were assigned to the control group and groups treated with AME extract (57.90 mg/kg/day), L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), or combination of L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and AME (57.90 mg/kg/day) in tap water for 3 weeks. NOS activity, eNOS protein expression, and conjugated diene (CD) concentration were determined in the LV and aorta. After 3 weeks of L-NAME treatment, BP was increased by 28% and concomitant treatment with AME reduced it by 21%. NOS activity of the LV and aorta in the L-NAME group was decreased by about 40%, while AME increased it almost on the control level. AME-induced eNOS upregulation may contribute to increase NOS activity. Moreover, AME decreased CD concentration in the LV and aorta and TNF- α and IL-6 production in the plasma were increased by L-NAME treatment. In conclusion, our results showed that active substances of Aronia melanocarpa may have a positive effect on blood pressure, NOS activity, and proinflammatory processes in L-NAME-induced hypertension.
... Similar results were observed in 10 day study with spontaneously hypertensive rats -chokeberry juice caused short-term blood pressure lowering effects when administered in dose of 50 mg/kg/day. Mean reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 20±8 and 23±6 mm Hg, respectively [40]. Studies on the inhibitory effect on angiotensin convertase were also performed. ...
Article
The role of polyphenols in the cardiovascular diseases prevention is still a matter of scientific discussion. However, recent clinical studies indicate that intake of anthocyanins and in a lesser extent procyanidins can participate in prevention of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) are known to be a reach source of these polyphenols. Moreover, its extracts were shown to express strong anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxant and antithrombotic properties. The aim of the review is to summarize the results of the hitherto research regarding the biological effects at the molecular and clinical level.
... rine olumlu etkilere sahip oldukları birçok araştırıcı tarafından belirlenmiştir (Chen ve Chen 2013; Vauzour ve ark. 2010; Williams ve ark. 2004). Fenolik bileşenlerin kanser hücrelerini inhibe ettiği, antimutajenik aktiviteye ve kan basıncını düşürücü etkiye sahip olduğu, kardiyovasküler riski azalttığı bildirilmiştir (Bermúdez-Soto ve ark. 2007; Hellström ve ark. 2010; Jia ve ark. 2012; Ju ve ark. 2012; Naruszewicz ve ark. 2007; Seeram ve ark. 2006). ...
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Özet: Bu çalışmada Ardahan bölgesinde yetişen 26 elma çeşidinde toplam fenolik madde içeriği, toplam antosiyanin içeriği, suda çözünebilir kuru madde (SÇKM), pH, titre edilebilir asitlik, toplam askorbik asit içeriği ve antioksidan kapasitesi belirlenerek çeşitlerin besleyici değeri ortaya çıkarılmıştır. SÇKM içeriği yüksek, asitlikleri düşük olan çeşitler Şah Elması ve Dervişbey, SÇKM içeriği düşük ve asitliği yüksek olan çeşit ise Mahara olarak belirlenmiştir. Limon Elması ve Yabani Elma'nın biyoaktif bileşik içeriğinin ve meyve kalitesinin diğer çeşitlere oranla düşük olduğu tespit edilmiştir. İçi kırmızı Uruset çeşidinin toplam fenolik madde ve antosiyanin içeriği ile antioksidan kapasite yönünden, Mahara çeşidinin ise askorbik asit içeriği yönünden diğer çeşitlerden zengin oldukları belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, bölgede yetişen çeşitlerin yüksek besleyici değere ve antioksidan kapasiteye sahip oldukları ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Bu bakımdan meyvelerin içerdikleri sağlığa faydalı bileşiklerden ötürü fonksiyonel gıda kaynağı olarak özellikle kabuklarıyla birlikte tüketilmeleri önerilmektedir. Abstract: In this study, total phenol content, total anthocyanin content, ˚Brix, pH, titrable acidity, total ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity in the 26 apple cultivars cultivated in Ardahan City were determined and nutritional value of the apples were revealed. The varieties with high brix content and low acidity were determined as Şah Elması and Dervişbey, the cultivar with low brix content and high acidity was determined as Mahara. It was determined that the bio-active component content and fruit quality of Limon Elması and Yabani Elma were lower compared to the other cultivars. Uruset cultivar with red penetralia was determined to be richer in terms of total phenol content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity compared to the other cultivars and the Mahara cultivar was determined to be richer in terms of ascorbic acid content compared to the other cultivars. Consequently, it was revealed that the cultivars cultivated in the region have high nutritional value and antioxidant capacity. In this respect it is suggested to consume those especially with their peels on as a functional food resource due to the healthy compounds they contain.
... Hellström et al. reported low ACE inhibition of chokeberry juice and polyphenol extract activity, despite observed hypotensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. 29 Besides polyphenols, other constituents could contribute to hypotensive effects. Determination of chemical composition Data are presented as geometric mean and 95th confidence intervals derived from log-normal values. ...
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Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between intake of foods rich in antioxidants and lower incidence of cardiovascular disease development. Polyphenols are considered the most abundant and important dietary antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice consumption on 24-h ambulatory monitored blood pressure (BP) level in subjects with no pharmacologically treated high normal BP or grade I hypertension. Twenty-three subjects (12 men and 11 women) aged 33-67 were enrolled and instructed to consume 200 mL of juice daily for 4 weeks. Participants were divided in two groups, based on prevalence of sympathetic or parasympathetic activity. Measurements of biochemical parameters and heart rate variability analysis were also applied. At the end of the intervention period, average 24-h and awake systolic and diastolic BP were significantly decreased (P<.05). This was more pronounced in the group with prevalence of sympathetic activity. Significant reduction in triglyceride level (P<.05) and a reducing effect on total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also found. Obtained results indicate a positive impact of regular chokeberry juice consumption on BP and lipid status in pharmacologically untreated hypertensive subjects.
... The acidity type and amount is a criterion for the deterioration in the foods (Cemeroğlu and Acar, 1986;Schobinger, 1988;Savran, 1999;Cemeroğlu et al., 2004). It was determined that the phenolic compounds inhibit the cancer cells, have antimutagenic activity and reducing effect on blood pressure and decrease the cardiovascular risk (Seeram et al., 2006;Bermúdez-Soto et al., 2007;Naruszewicz et al., 2007;Hellström et al., 2010;Jia et al., 2012;Ju et al., 2012). ...
Article
Some horticultural characteristics and bioactive contents of some local apple genotypes grown in Bolu province located in western black sea region were investigated. Along with the horticultural characteristics (fruit weight, width etc.), the phenolic spectrum and organic acids as bioactive content were determined. Among major phenolic compounds, catechin, chlorgenic acid, gallic acid, phloridzin and rutine content varied between 10.84- 5.16 mg 100 ml⁻¹; 25.16-7.17 mg 100 ml⁻¹; 7.35- 1.42 mg 100 ml⁻¹; 6.12-1.18 mg 100 ml⁻¹ and 5.16-1.01 mg 100 ml⁻¹, respectively. The dominant organic acids were malic acid and fumaric acid among the organic acids. When the apple genotypes were evaluated overall in terms of horticultural properties and bioctive contents; it is suggested that 14BL02, 14BL09, 14BL06 and 14BL01 genotypes displayed superior properties and they may create a significant genetic resource to be use them in breeding activities in apple in future. © 2018, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.
... Aronia is known as a "super fruit" because it is a good source of bioactive phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (2,3). It has various health benefits such as anticancer and antimutagenic activities, as well as blood pressure lowering properties (2)(3)(4)(5). Aronia was introduced in Korea 5∼6 years ago and the growing areas are increasing in several regions. Aronia is being evaluated as a potential new fruit for use in natural colorants, juices, and as a source of ingredients with good antioxidant activities in several processed foods (6)(7)(8). ...
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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growing regions on quality characteristics, total bioactive compound contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity in aronia. Aronia grown in 3 different regions (Sangjoo, Ulju, and Youngcheon) in Korea was obtained and used fresh or as a freeze-dried powder. No statistically significant differences were observed for moisture, ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents in aronia sampled from the 3 different regions. Aronia grown in Sangjoo had the highest total acid content and the lowest sugar content and pH value. Conversely, aronia grown in Youngcheon possessed the lowest total acid content and the highest sugar content and pH value. Aronia grown in Sangjoo possessed relatively high levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as high antioxidant activity in comparison with aronia produced in other regions. Aronia grown in Youngcheon scored the highest for taste and overall acceptability in sensory evaluations, which may be related to the high sugar content and pH, and the low total acidity of the fruits. It is possible that higher sugar contents and pH, and lower total acidity in the aronia grown in Youngcheon result in more preferable sensory characteristics. However, they also contain relatively low levels of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and have low antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays.
... In accordance with our previous results [53], we found that the commercially available juices contain mainly epicatechine and ten times less catechin. There are data for a notably high degree of proanthocyanidin polymerization in chokeberry juices and extracts [54], which may explain the higher levels of their monoand oligomeric forms [15,39]. In the tested juices, the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins varied from 8.1% to 19.9% and from 33.7% to 29.3%, respectively (Figure 1). ...
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Aronia melanocarpa L. (black chokeberry), belonging to the Rosaceae family, contains high amounts of polyphenolics and therefore exhibits one of the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities among berry fruits. Chokeberries are used in the food industry for juice, nectar, and wine production and as colorants. We aimed to compare the phytochemical composition of three chokeberry juices commercially available in the local market as sources of beneficial phytochemicals. Using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, we performed the identification and quantitation of polar compounds and polyphenolics. The concentrations of 13 amino acids, including 6 essential amino acids, 10 organic acids, 20 sugar alcohols and derivatives, 14 saccharides, 12 fatty acids and esters, and 38 polyphenols, were estimated. One of the analyzed juices had the highest polyphenolic content (5273.87 ± 63.16 µg/mL), possibly due to 2.9 times higher anthocyanin concentration compared to anthocyanins in other tested juices. This study provides new data concerning phytochemical composition in terms of amino acids, organic acids, sugar acids, fatty acids and their esters, and polyphenols as phytocomponents of commercially available chokeberry juices. Results show that after all processing techniques and possibly different plant growth conditions, chokeberry juices are a valuable source of health-promoting phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, pro-anthocyanins, and anthocyanins, thus considering them as functional foods. We demonstrated a diversity of the active substances in bioactive foods marketed as "same"; therefore, the standardized therapeutic effect could be expected only by the utilization of food supplements with guaranteed constant content.
... Antihypertensive Leaf Polyphenol Extracts of antihypertensive drugs has been associated with negative side effects such as rashes, edema, dry coughing and erectile dysfunction (Abassiet al., 2009;Blumentalset al., 2003;Fogariet al., 2001;Gunkelet al., 1996;Tenenbaumet al., 2000). Therefore, natural alternative therapies such as peptides (Aluko, 2015) and polyphenols (Hellstrom et al., 2010;Kivimaki et al., 2013;Shaw et al., 2017) with potential fewer negative side effects have been suggested as effective antihypertensive agents. Traditionally, green leafy vegetables have been used as spice in foods or for culinary purposes while vegetable extracts have formed part of folk medicine agents used to treat or manage different human diseases (Farombi and Owoeye, 2011). ...
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The antihypertensive effects of aqueous polyphenol-rich extracts of Amaranthusviridis (AV) and Telfairiaoccidentalis (TO) leaves in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. The dried vegetable leaves were extracted using 1:20 (leaves:water, w/v) ratio for 4 h at 60 °C. Results showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher polyphenol contents in TO extracts (80–88 mg gallic acid equivalents, GAE/100 mg) when compared with the AV (62–67 mg GAE/100 mg). Caffeic acid, rutin and myricetin were the main polyphenols found in the extracts. The TO extracts had significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vitro inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity while AV extracts had better renin inhibition. Oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to SHR led to significant (P < 0.05) reductions in systolic blood pressure for the AV (−39 mmHg after 8 h)and TO (−24 mmHg after 4 and 8 h).The vegetable extracts also produced significant (P < 0.05) reductions in diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate when compared to the untreated rats. Thus both the AV and TO leaf extracts have the potential to be used as antihypertensive agents, especially the AV, which produced persistent long-lasting effect over a 24 h period.
... In Russia and Lithuania, the cultivated black chokeberry fruits were used as adjuvant treatment for high blood pressure and as anti-atherosclerotic agent [22]. Other uses include treatment of hemorrhoids, achlorhydria, avitaminosis and convalescence [17]. ...
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Cardiovascular diseases represent the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Obesity, sedentary life style, diet, smoking and stress are the principal inducers of hypertension, endothelium dysfunction and insulin resistance in the developed countries. The latest in vitro and in vivo studies on different type of extracts obtained from black-fruited Aronia highlight its excellent cardioprotective actions for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. So, this chapter aims to bring an up-to-date regarding the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antiplatelet, blood pressure, glucose and lipid reduction properties of black-fruited Aronia, as a possible new therapeutic strategy for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular pathologies.
... For comparison, Chaenomeles seeds had on average more TPC than jackfruit seeds (27.7 mg GAE/g seeds) but less than longan, avocado or tamarind seeds (62.6; 88.2 and 94.5 mg GAE/g seeds, respectively) (Soong and Barlow, 2004). Moreover, it can be noted that the content of PAC monomers and polymers is similar to their content in grape seeds (Tkacz et al., 2019a), but they are characterized by a much higher degree of polymerization, characteristic for example for chokeberry fruit (Hellström et al., 2010). Hence, given the significant health benefits of consuming PACs, such as protective action against cardiovascular ailments, metabolic disorders and oncogenic events (Rauf et al., 2019), Chaenomeles seeds can be a rich source of these compounds, e.g. for the production of PAC-rich extracts. ...
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The nutritional prohle of seeds from eighteen Chaenomeles species and cultivars was determined using ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). This is the hrst comprehensive attempt to determine the prohle and content of sugars, organic acids, polyphenols, triterpenes, tocochromanols and minerals in Chaenomeles japonica, speciosa and superba seeds. C. japonica wild #3 seeds were characterized by the highest content of sugars (37.32 mg/g seeds, the dominant sugar was glucose) and organic acids (68.22 mg/g seeds, the highest share from galacturonic acid). The most abundant in phenolic compounds was C. speciosa 'Nivalis' (80.90 mg/g seeds), and the polymeric proanthocyanidins were the dominant group in the total phenolic content. The research revealed that Chaenomeles seeds contain 13 different triterpenes and oleanolic acid accounted for an average of 50% of their total content. Furthermore, they contained 296−1375 μg of amino acids, 1.65–18.9 μg of tocopherols, and 0.25–2.71 μg of tocotrienols per g of seeds. The seeds are a source of all essential amino acids, and alpha homologs dominate among tocochromanols. Moreover, Chaenomeles seeds are low in sodium, but high in potassium (up to 5434 μg/g seeds) and are a good source of microelements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn). Therefore, they can be considered as a source of compounds with nutritional and pharmaceutical uses.
... Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure. Hellström et al. [108] found using spontaneously hypertensive rats, that aronia polyphenols may affect NO production by activating endothelial nitric oxidase enzyme (independently of ACE). Varela et al. [109] reached similar conclusions. ...
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Epidemiological studies have emphasized the association between a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and a lower frequency of occurrence of inflammatory-related disorders. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) is a valuable source of biologically active compounds that have been widely investigated for their role in health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that consumption of these fruits is associated with significant improvements in hypertension, LDL oxidation, lipid peroxidation, total plasma antioxidant capacity and dyslipidemia. The mechanisms for these beneficial effects include upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, decreased oxidative stress, and inhibition of inflammatory gene expression. Collected findings support the recommendation of such berries as an essential fruit group in a heart-healthy diet. The aim of this review was to summarize the reports on the impact of black chokeberry fruits and extracts against several cardiovascular diseases, e.g., hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, as well as to provide an analysis of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of these fruits in the abovementioned disorders.
... However, on the other hand, the level of CAT activity was unexpectedly inhibited by the treatment [103]. [103,119,124]. In addition to the further-observed decreases in the serum level of endothelin-1 in patients in the study of Broncel et al., and the high correlations between the ACE activity and blood pressure in the study of Sikora et al., these suggests a favorable hypotensive action of chokeberry polyphenols [103,119]. ...
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Cyanidin 3-O-galactoside (Cy3Gal) is one of the most widespread anthocyanins that positively impacts the health of animals and humans. Since it is available from a wide range of natural sources, such as fruits (apples and berries in particular), substantial studies were performed to investigate its biosynthesis, chemical stability, natural occurrences and content, extraction methods, physiological functions, as well as potential applications. In this review, we focus on presenting the previous studies on the abovementioned aspects of Cy3Gal. As a conclusion, Cy3Gal shares a common biosynthesis pathway and analogous stability with other anthocyanins. Galactosyltransferase utilizing uridine diphosphate galactose (UDP-galactose) and cyanidin as substrates is unique for Cy3Gal biosynthesis. Extraction employing different methods reveals chokeberry as the most practical natural source for mass-production of this compound. The antioxidant properties and other health effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-toxicity, cardiovascular, and nervous protective capacities, are highlighted in purified Cy3Gal and in its combination with other polyphenols. These unique properties of Cy3Gal are discussed and compared with other anthocyanins with related structure for an in-depth evaluation of its potential value as food additives or health supplement. Emphasis is laid on the description of its physiological functions confirmed via various approaches.
... h metabolic syndrome consumed black chokeberry extract (3 × 100 mg day −1 ) for 2 months, and the results were indicative of reduction in LDL, cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure. The chokeberry extract reduced the activity of ACE by 26% in the first month and 30% after the second month of consumption(Sikora, Broncel, & Mikiciuk-Olasik, 2014).Hellström et al. (2010) pointed to the slight inhibition of ACE activity by mixture of black chokeberry polyphenols in rats. They assumed that these compounds might have an impact on NO production via ACE-independent mechanism and by stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide enzyme. This statement affirmed the study in which black chokeberry extract was effectiv ...
Article
Hypertension is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease and causes widespread morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although several antihypertensive drugs have been proposed for management of high blood pressure, changing lifestyle, including diet, has attracted interest recently. In this sense, consumption of fruits and vegetables, which are rich in vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals, has been assigned as an efficient therapeutics. Berry fruits contain various bioactive compounds with potential health implications such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. The main mechanisms responsible for antihypertensive activity mainly arise from the activity of flavonoids, minerals, and vitamins, as well as fibers. The objective of this review is to provide a summary of studies regarding the effect of berry fruits on the hypertensive animals and humans. The mechanisms involved in reducing blood pressure by each group of compounds have been highlighted. It can be concluded that berries' bioactive compounds are efficient in mitigation of hypertension through improvement of vascular function, angiotensin-converting enzyme's (ACE) inhibitory activity, increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, and nitric oxide (NO) production, besides anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. These fruits can be considered as potential sources of invaluable compounds for development of antihypertensive foods and pharmaceuticals.
... Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) is a fruit with various health-promoting properties. It prevents diseases of affluence, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes and some types of cancer [4][5][6][7]. The consumption of chokeberry products delays ageing processes, prevents age-related eye diseases such as macular disorders and helps to maintain good night vision and visual acuity [8]. ...
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This paper analyses the semi-industrial process of spray drying chokeberry juice with carbohydrate polymers used as a carrier. Tapioca dextrin (Dx) was proposed and tested as an alternative carrier and it was compared with maltodextrin carriers (MDx), which are the most common in industrial practice. The influence of selected process parameters (carrier type and content, inlet air temperature, atomiser speed) on the characteristics of dried chokeberry powder was investigated. The size and microstructure of the powder particles, the bulk and apparent density, porosity, flowability, yield and bioactive properties were analysed. In comparison with MDx, the Dx carrier improved the handling properties, yield and bioactive properties. An increase in the Dx carrier content improved the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, flowability and resulted in greater yield of the powder. An increase in the drying temperature increased the size of particles and improved powder flowability but it also caused a greater loss of the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The rotary atomizer speed had the most significant effect on the bioactive properties of obtained powders, which increased along with its growth. The following conditions were the most favourable for chokeberry juice with tapioca dextrin (Dx) as the carrier: inlet air temperature, 160 °C; rotary atomizer speed, 15,000 rpm; and Dx carrier content, 60%.
... Aronia is known to have a higher content of polyphenols, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanones than the other berries (Koponen et al., 2007;Slimestad et al., 2005;Wu et al., 2004). Aronia is known to have excellent in antioxidant activity, and is highly effective in preventing arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes (Girones-Vilaplana et al., 2012;Hellstrom et al., 2010;Jakobek et al., 2012). Like other general fruits and vegetables, aronia may have different physiologically active substances, or exhibit antioxidant activity based on the cultivation environment such as temperature, rainfall, and sunshine in the cultivation area or during the cultivation period (Jeong et al., 2016;Tolic et al., 2015). ...
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This study aimed to compare the bioactive substances and antioxidant activities of aronia grown in Korea and Poland, and thus to provide basic data for its future use as a processed food. The powders of three types of aronia, each from Korea and Poland, were extracted with distilled water and 80% ethanol at 25°C and 80°C, respectively, and the total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents were evaluated. Additionally, the antioxidant activities were compared with DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing power depending on the extraction temperature and extraction solvent. The total polyphenol content was higher in the 80% ethanol extracts than the water extracts, in the six samples from Korea and Poland. The total polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in water extracts at 80°C than at 25°C, and at 80°C in 80% ethanol. The anthocyanin content in the other five samples showed a similar tendency except for sample E, which had the highest anthocyanin content, based on 80% ethanol extract. The 80% ethanol extract showed higher antioxidant activity than water extract and in the aronia water extract, the antioxidant activity of the sample extracted at 80°C was higher than that of the 25°C extract at the same concentration. Based on these findings, it was confirmed that the antioxidative activity of Korea aronia was either similar to that of the Polish variant or was slightly higher.
... On the contrary, in healthy rats SAE did not affect blood pressure. This is in line with the data that both Aronia berries and Aronia polyphenol extracts reduce quite effectively both SBP and DBP in spontaneously hypertensive rats [19]. The proposed mechanism might be through inhibition of the kidney renin-angiotensin system [20]. ...
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The aim of our study was to examine the effects of different dietary strategies, high-fat (HFd) or standard diet (Sd) alone or in combination with standardized oral supplementation (0.45 mL/kg/day) of Aronia melanocarpa extract (SAE) in rats with metabolic syndrome (MetS). SAE is an official product of pharmaceutical company Pharmanova (Belgrade, Serbia); however, the procedure for extraction was done by EU-Chem company (Belgrade, Serbia). Rats were divided randomly into six groups: control with Sd, control with Sd and SAE, MetS with HFd, MetS with HFd and SAE, MetS with Sd and MetS with Sd and SAE during 4 weeks. At the end of the 4-week protocol, cardiac function and liver morphology were assessed, while in the blood samples glucose, insulin, iron levels and systemic redox state were determined. Our results demonstrated that SAE had the ability to lower blood pressure and exert benefits on in vivo and ex vivo heart function. Moreover, SAE improved glucose tolerance, attenuated pathological liver alterations and oxidative stress present in MetS. Obtained beneficial effects of SAE were more prominent in combination with changing dietary habits. Promising potential of SAE supplementation alone or in combination with different dietary protocols in triggering cardioprotection should be further examined in future.
... Similarly, a decrease in blood pressure level, which was significant for DBP, was observed after a 6-weeklong consumption of chokeberry juice in men with mild hypercholesterolemia [17]. Recent studies reported vasorelaxing properties of polyphenols which are most likely based on the stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis in vascular endothelium [46,47]. In addition, blood pressure lowering effects of aronia products were considered to be an outcome of other activities as well, including the inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme and antioxidative effects [48]. ...
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The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45-65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4 kg/m(2) and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1 cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100 mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity.
... Polyphenols are a class of phytochemicals that have been shown to have potential utilization as antihypertensive agents because of their ability to inhibit ACE and renin activities (Shaw et al., 2017;Xie and Zhang, 2012). In fact, blood pressure-reducing effects have been demonstrated for various polyphenol-rich foods Gunathilake et al., 2013;Hellstrom et al., 2010;Hobbs et al., 2012;Igwe et al., 2017;Kivimaki et al., 2013) and polyphenol concentrates (Olarewaju et al., 2018;Shaw et al., 2017). Solanum macrocarpon (SM) also known as gboma eggplant is a vegetable crop grown in the non-arid parts of Africa mainly for its edible leaves and fruits (Bukenya-Ziraba and Bonsu, 2004). ...
Article
The aim of this work was to determine the ability of polyphenol-enriched aqueous vegetable leaf extracts to ameliorate blood pressure and heart rate dysfunctions in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Solanum macrocarpon (SM), a common edible vegetable leaf in West Africa was cultivated using varying levels (0-80 kg/ha) of urea that was applied at planting (T1) or 2 weeks after planting (T2). In vitro analysis showed that total polyphenolic compounds varied from 489.87 ± 5.66 to 513.56 ± 1.42 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry wt of extract. Rutin, caffeic acid and myricetin were the major polyphenols quantified in the extracts. All the extracts inhibited in vitro activities of renin and angiotensin converting enzyme to varying extents. Two extracts (SM40T1 and SM80T2) were orally administered to SHRs at 100 or 500 mg/kg body wt. Results showed that systolic blood pressure was reduced to a similar level by SM40T1 (10.8 mmHg) and SM80T2 (10.5 mmHg) for the 100 mg/kg body wt dose; the 500 mg/kg body wt dose produced similar values. Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were also depressed by the two extracts with similar effects observed for both doses. We conclude that the leaf extracts could serve as potential ingredients to formulate antihypertensive functional foods and nutraceuticals.
... Lower systolic blood pressure compared to the control group of rats (Park and Park 2011;Hellstrom et al., 2010) Cardioprotective effects Fruit juice Treatment of hyperlipidemia in rats ...
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Only a small number of plants have been widely used regularly for food, fibers, shelter, industrial, cultural and medicinal purposes. The remaining plant diversity, terrestrial or marine, is underutilized. We summarize previous research done on the various aspects of North American native plant Aronia, which has many compounds in the berries and leaves that are potentially beneficial for human health. Berries can be processed into many value- added products giving a boost to the local economy. Micromorphological studies indicate three types of trichomes present on the leaves that are positive to diphenyl boric acid-β-ethylamino ester (DPBA) reaction suggesting presence of secondary metabolites. These features can help taxonomists to solve classification problems among various Aronia species and trichomes can be utilized for biotransformation studies. We conclude that Aronia berries and leaves are rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid content that enables the plant to register higher antioxidant activity in comparison to many other culinary herbs and medicinal plants in use. A systematic study covering agronomy, phytochemistry, product development and economic return potential is suggested based on a review of literature.
... Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) is a rich source of valuable nutrients, among other things, vitamins and polyphenols. It is also characterized by a high content of antioxidants, which have a positive influence on improving eyesight as well as lower blood pressure [1,2] and lead to early inhibition of cancerogenic stages [3][4][5]. The basic antioxidants that can be found in chokeberry fruit are anthocyanins [6]. ...
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The study concentrates on researching possibilities of using computer image analysis and neural modeling in order to assess selected quality discriminants of spray-dried chokeberry powder. The aim of the paper is the quality identification of chokeberry powders on account of their highest dying power, the highest bioactivity, as well as technologically satisfying looseness of the powder. The article presents neural models with vision techniques backed up by devices such as digital cameras, as well as an electron microscope. The reduction in size of input variables with PCA has an influence on improving the processes of learning data sets, thus increasing the effectiveness of identifying chokeberry fruit powders included in digital pictures, which is shown in the results of the conducted research. The effectiveness of image recognition is presented by classifying abilities, as well as low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), for which the best results are achieved with a typology of network type Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). The selected networks type MLP are characterized by the highest degree of classification at 0.99 and RMSE at 0.11 at most at the same time.
... However, the combination of individual polyphenol fractions enabled ACE inhibition at EC 50 = 1.6 mg/ml. Hellström et al. (2010) observed a slight inhibition of ACE by a mixture of black chokeberry polyphenols, without synergistic effect. The authors of the study found that black chokeberry polyphenols may affect NO production independently of ACE, e.g. by activation of endothelial nitric oxidase enzyme in spontaneously hypertensive rats. ...
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Background: Black chokeberry fruits (Aronia melnocarpa)are used in the food industry for the production of juices, preserves, tinctures, fruit teas and dietary supplements. Fresh, unprocessed black chokeberry fruits however are rarely consumed due to their bitter taste, resulting from the presence of a significant amount of polyphenols. Polyphenols are biofactors that determine the high activity of black chokeberries, including proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols, and flavanols. Black chokeberry fruit and products have great health-promoting potential as they reduce the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Many studies showed the beneficial effects of black chokeberries in frequent co-morbidities such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity, glucose metabolism disorders, proinflammatory conditions and thrombosis risk. Black chokeberry has the probable potential to inhibit the development of various types of cancers, including leukaemia, breast and intestinal cancer as well as cancer stem cells. Scope and approach: This publication reviewed the scientific research regarding the health benefits of black chokeberry fruits and isolated compounds. These findings may be essential in future research with regard to black chokeberry based functional food products. Key findings and conclusions: Black chokeberry can be considered as promising component of novel food with increased biological potential. However, like other highly bioactive plants and products of natural origin, black chokeberry requires wide-ranging studies on humans to determine its safety, efficacy, as well as mechanisms of action.
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Dietary polyphenols are non-essential phytonutrients that are extensively metabolized upon consumption. We hypothesized that the bioavailability of polyphenol metabolites is more important than unmetabolized polyphenols for the health promoting effects of polyphenol-rich foods. First, we developed a more complete polyphenol profile for almond, by characterizing its extensively metabolized polyphenol composition. In almond, hydrolysable tannin content was 54.7 ± 2.3 mg ellagic acid and 27.4 ± 7.3 mg gallic acid per 100 g almond among varieties. Resveratrol-3-O-glucoside was identified in almond extracts, with 7.19–8.52 μg/100 g almond. Second, we determined the efficiency by which aronia berry polyphenols are metabolized in an acute pharmacokinetic study in humans. Polyphenol metabolites constituted at least 99% of the total polyphenol pool measured in plasma and urine. Third, we determined the association between aronia polyphenol metabolites and changes in key biomarkers of CVD risk in an intervention study. Former smokers, which were at greater risk for CVD, consumed aronia berry extract for 12 wk. Aronia consumption reduced fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC) level by 8% during the 12-week treatment compared with placebo group, and reduced plasma LDL-C level by 7% and 11% at both 6 wks and 12 wks compared with placebo group. In addition, participants in the aronia group who showed the largest decreases in TC had stronger correlations of urinary peonidin-3-O-galactoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside than those who did not respond to the intervention. Thus, this study demonstrated that the cholesterol-lowering activity of polyphenol rich foods is associated in-part with its tissue metabolites.
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Previous studies suggest that consumption of chokeberries may improve cardiovascular disease risk factor profiles. We hypothesized that chokeberries (Aronia mitschurinii) have beneficial effects on blood pressure, low-grade inflammation, serum lipids, serum glucose, and platelet aggregation in subjects with untreated mild hypertension. Totally 38 subjects were enrolled into a 16-wk. single blinded crossover trial. The subjects were randomized to use cold-pressed 100% chokeberry juice (300 ml/day) and oven-dried chokeberry powder (3 g/day) or matched placebo products in random order for 8 weeks each with no washout period. The daily portion of chokeberry products was prepared from approximately 336 g of fresh chokeberries. Urinary excretion of various polyphenols and their metabolites increased during the chokeberry period, indicating good compliance. Chokeberries decreased daytime blood pressure and low-grade inflammation. The daytime ambulatory diastolic blood pressure decreased (−1.64 mmHg P = .02), and the true awake ambulatory systolic tended to decrease (−2.71 mmHg, P = .077) and diastolic (−1.62 mmHg, P = .057) blood pressure. The concentrations of interleukin (IL) 10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) decreased (−1.9 pg/ml, P = .008 and −0.67 pg/ml, P = .007, respectively) and tended to decrease for IL4 and IL5 (−4.5 pg/ml, P = .084 and −0.06 pg/ml, P = .059, respectively). No changes in serum lipids, lipoproteins, glucose and in vitro platelet aggregation were noted with the chokeberry intervention. These findings suggest that inclusion of chokeberry products in the diet of subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure has minor beneficial effects on cardiovascular health.
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Background Cardiovascular disorders are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the globe. Hypertension is the main risk factor that contributes to the development of many diseases. The use of herbal therapies, medicinal plants and their derivatives for remedying and managing hypertension is well recognized and popular among a wide part of the world population. Methods The aim of the current review was to collect, treat, and critically analyze the published research relative to experimental and clinical investigations which have studied the blood pressure lowering abilities of medicinal plant derivatives in the last decade. This review was organized into three principal axes; the first axis was attributed to the in vivo and in vitro experimental studies; the second treated the clinical trials; while, the last one is devoted to analyze the mechanisms of action underlying the therapeutic antihypertensive effectiveness of phytochemicals. Results Different types of extracts and isolated molecules obtained from a large variety of species demonstrated their efficiency in improving raise of blood pressure either experimentally or clinically. Medicinal species such as garlic (Allium sativum), celery (Apium graveolens), Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) and Ginseng (Panax) are among the most common and therapeutically used plant derivatives for controlling hypertension while Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Rosaceae are among the botanical families which were frequently studied in the last decade. Whereas, isolated compounds such as allicin and apigenin have received more interest in this field. Recent evidence from clinical trials suggests that a wide variety of herbal preparations and plant extracts or natural isolated compounds have a favorable therapeutic impact on blood flow. Interestingly, phytochemicals can either act directly on blood vessels via a vasorelaxant effect involving a variety of signaling cascades or indirectly through inhibiting or stimulating a diversity of systems such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), renin angiotensin system (RAS) or the diuretic activity. Hence, based on the findings of the present review medicinal plant derivatives could be used as preventive and curative agents in the case of cardiovascular disorders, particularly hypertension and could play a promoting function for the discovery of new antihypertensive agents. Conclusion In conclusion, the analysis of the published data shows that a great effort remains to be done to investigate the medicinal plants cited as antihypertensive through published ethnopharmacological surveys. The analysis of the literature in this field shows the lack of standardization at the level of experimental study methods as well as the need to study purified molecules. Moreover the mechanistic studies when they exist remain in the whole partial. On the other hand few advanced clinical studies have been conducted. Finally the determination of the efficacy/safety ratio remains absent in almost all studies.
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Aronia melanocarpa berries (chokeberries) constitute a very rich source of numerous substances exerting a beneficial impact on health, including mainly polyphenols (proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids), possessing antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anticancer, antiatherosclerotic, hypotensive, antiplatelet, and antidiabetic properties. Thus, the consumption of products made from chokeberries is of vital importance for health maintenance and protection. Nowadays, due to the growing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases and ubiquitous human exposure to numerous man-made and naturally occurring toxic substances, some of which are dangerous even at low amounts, it is very important to look for effective means of health protection. An important role in this regard may be played by A. melanocarpa berries; however, up to now the attention of scientists, nutritionists, and health practitioners has been focused mainly on the effectiveness of chokeberry products in the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases, while only little attention has been paid to the possibility of their use to counteract the adverse health effects of exposure to xenobiotics. That is why in this review article the main interest has been focused on the possibility of using chokeberries in the protection against unfavorable health effects caused by the action of substances to which humans may be exposed environmentally and/or occupationally. The available experimental data indicate that not only the fruit but also the leaves of A. melanocarpa and their products may be effective means for prevention and treatment of the effects of toxic action of some xenobiotics in humans; however, further studies on this subject are necessary.
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The phytochemicals and antioxidative potency in ten old apple varieties cultivated in Austria were characterized. The apple varieties were tested for contents of polyphenolic compounds, sugars and organic acid with the liquid chromatography method, and antioxidative activity with the ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. A total of 31 polyphenols, including 13 flavanols, 5 phenolic acids, 10 flavonols, 1 anthocyanin, and 2 dihydrochalcones were determined. The average content of polyphenols was 2294.25 mg/100 g dw (dry weight) with high ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays (mean 5.05, 5.85 and 3.38 mmol Trolox (TE)/100 g dw). In turn, the amount of sugar in the old apple varieties was ranged from 261.68 to 429.56 mg/g dw, and organic acids from 42.76 to 112.51 mg/g dw. The statistical method of PCA successfully selected old apple varieties cultivated in Austria that contained the highest levels of bioactive compounds, antioxidative potency, organic acid and low level of sugars varieties such as ‘Brünnerling Type 1’, ‘Croncels Type 2’, ‘Brünnerling Type 4’, and ‘Goldgelbe Sommerrenette’.
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Hypertension is a critical health problem and worse other cardiovascular diseases. It is mainly of two types: Primary or essential hypertension and Secondary hypertension. Hypertension is the primary possibility feature for coronary heart disease, stroke and renal vascular disease. Herbal medicines have been used for millions of years for the management and treatment of hypertension with minimum side effects. Over aim to write this review is to collect information on the anti-hypertensive effects of natural herbs in animal studies and human involvement as well as to recapitulate the underlying mechanisms, from the bottom of cell culture and ex-vivo tissue data. According to WHO, natural herbs/shrubs are widely used in increasing order to treat almost all the ailments of the human body. Plants are the regular industrial units for the invention of chemical constituents, they used as immunity booster to enhance the natural capacity of the body to fight against different health problems as well as herbal medicines and food products also. Eighty percent population of the world (around 5.6 billion people) consume medicines from natural plants for major health concerns. This review provides a bird’s eye analysis primarily on the traditional utilization, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological values of medicinal herbs used to normalize hypertension i.e. Hibiscus sabdariffa , Allium sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Apium graveolens, Bidenspilosa, Camellia sinensis, Coptis chinensis, Coriandrum sativum, Crataegus spp., Crocus sativus, Cymbopogon citrates, Nigella sativa, Panax ginseng,Salviaemiltiorrhizae, Zingiber officinale, Tribulus terrestris, Rauwolfiaserpentina, Terminalia arjuna etc. Graphic Abstract
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Terminalia superba Engler & Diels (Combretaceae) est utilisée en médecine traditionnelle au Cameroun pour les soins d'hypertension artérielle (HTA). L'objectif du travail de cette thèse a été d'apporter des bases scientifiques à son utilisation traditionnelle. Nous avons évalué les effets d'un extrait aqueux de T. superba chez des rats normaux ou soumis à deux modèles d'HTA secondaire : l'HTA induite par le glucose et l'HTA induite par l'éthanol. L'extrait aqueux exerce un effet hypotenseur, antihypertenseur et antioxydant. Quatre extraits de T. superba : l'extrait aqueux (AQU), au méthanol (MET), au chlorure de méthylène (MC) et au méthanol/chlorure de méthylène (MCM) ont des effets vasodilatateurs les anneaux aortiques isolés de rat, dénués ou non d'endothélium vasculaire et contractés à la phénylephrine ou au chlorure de potassium. L'extrait MC est le plus actif et réduit les flux calciques. L'extrait MC a exercé un effet anti-hypertenseur chez le rat spontanément hypertendu, une diminution du stress oxydatif, une amélioration de la fonction endothéliale. Il n'a affecté ni la diurèse, ni l'activité des cytochromes P450 3A hépatiques. Les extraits AQU et au MC se sont révélés faiblement toxiques, avec des DLso respectivement supérieures à 5000 mg/kg et 2000 mg/kg. L'extrait MC aux doses de 300 et de 600 mg/kg a révélé des zones de congestion vasculaires et d'inflammations réversibles après arrêt du traitement. Ce travail a validé sur le plan pharmacologique l'utilisation de T. superba comme traitement alternatif à l'HTA. Il sera question d'identifier les composés purs à l'origine de l'activité cardio-vasculaire de la plante, et à poursuivre les études toxicologiques.
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Beneficial effects of aronia phenolics are determined by their interactions with dietary fibers, such as beta-glucan. The aim of this research was to study interactions between aronia phenolics and beta-glucan by investigating the adsorption process. Phenolic compounds were extracted from aronia, analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and adsorbed onto beta-glucan at pH 1.5. The adsorption data were modeled by using Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Hill isotherms with a novel non-linear regression developed especially for adsorption isotherms. Aronia phenolics adsorbed onto beta-glucan in amounts 31-250 mg/g (individual anthocyanins), 44-123 mg/g (individual flavonols), and 51 mg/g (neochlorogenic acid). The correlation between adsorption capacities and phenolic content was high (r 2 =0.94), which suggested that the adsorption might be concentration dependent. Modeling with a novel non-linear regression allowed more precise determination of adsorption isotherm parameters. Furthermore, there was a correlation between maximum adsorption capacities predicted by models and measured adsorption capacities (r 2 0.76, 0.81, and 0.34 for Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushevich, Hill isotherms, respectively). The suggested bonds involved in interactions are non-covalent bonds (H bonds, Van der Waals forces). Principal component analysis showed that anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids could differently behave in the adsorption process, which could be due to differences in the chemical structures (ionic nature of anthocyanins, nonionic nature of flavonols and phenolic acids at low pH). In conclusion, aronia phenolics interacted with beta-glucan by adsorbing onto its surface, and the novel modeling developed by our team was helpful in the interpretation of this process. Interactions should be further studied due to their importance for the beneficial effects of aronia.
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The potential beneficial effects of chronic consumption of dried chokeberry fruit extract (DCE) were evaluated in the present in vivo study. The study concentrates on haemodynamic parameters, lipid profile and oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats. DCE was characterized by HPLC/DAD method and individual anthocyanins, phenolic acids, and flavonoids were determined. Four week administration of DCE, rich in polyphenols, especially anthocyanins, significantly reduced systolic (P < 0.05), pulse pressure (P < 0.05) compared to control group, probably via significantly increased diuresis (P < 0.05). Significant decrease of plasma and erythrocytes TBARS was also found in the treated group. DCE consumption reduced lipid peroxidation through improving plasma FRAP reducing (P < 0.01). The activity of SOD in the treated group had been significantly lower (P < 0.01) compared to the control group. These results suggest that DCE could exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and has a potential as a nutritional supplement in arterial hypertension.
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Due to outstanding nutritional and health benefits, and also to its ornamental value, black chokeberry was gaining recently high interest from the small fruit growers in Europe. Together with vegetative propagation, in vitro micropropagation from meristems and adventitious shoots offers suitable methods for the rapid clonal propagation of new or improved cultivars, to provide sufficient quantities of planting material to the growers and to accelerate the establishment of large black chokeberry plantings. In this respect, different concentrations of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and indole butyric acid (IBA) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Lee-Fossard (LF) basic culture media, respectively, were assessed for their effects on adventitious shoot regeneration of the black chokeberry cultivar 'Nero'. The ability of callus formation and shoot regeneration from petiole segments was assessed using various combinations of BAP (2.5; 5.0; 10 mg L–1), 2,4-D (0.25; 0.5; 1.0 mg L–1), and IBA (0.25; 0.5; 1.0 mg L–1). Data on callus formation and shoot regeneration were recorded after 60 days of culture. The highest percentage of black chokeberry petiole explants forming callus (100%) was found in treatments containing a combination of 2.5 mg L–1 of BAP, 0.25 mg L–1 of 2,4-D, and 0.25 mg L–1 of IBA in MS medium. The only growth regulators combination which resulted in 100% petiole explants forming callus on both MS and LF media was 5 mg L–1 of BAP, 0.5 mg L–1 of 2,4-D, and 0.5 mg L–1 of IBA. Adventitious shoot regeneration from petiole-derived callus was high in treatments with 10 mg L–1 and 1.0 mg L–1 IBA, on both MS and LF basic media. Excepting the cytokinin-auxin combination of 2.5 mg L–1 of BAP, 0.25 mg L–1 of 2,4-D and 0.25 mg L–1 of IBA, shoot regeneration from petioles of 'Nero' cv. was better on MS medium. However, the best adventitious regeneration and the highest number of shoots formed per explant ocurred by direct organogenesis. Thus, an average number of 4.3 shoots per petiole explant was achieved through direct organogenesis on MS medium supplemented with BAP at 5 mg L–1, 0.5 mg L–1 of 2,4-D, and 0.5 mg L–1 of IBA.
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The feasibility of incorporating aronia powder (AP) as a value-added food ingredient into convenient food products was investigated using cookie as a model system. AP was incorporated into cookies at amounts of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% (w/w) based on total weight of wheat flour. The pH level of cookie dough decreased significantly with increasing levels of AP (P0.05). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities were significantly elevated by AP addition, and they increased significantly as AP concentration increased in the formulation (P
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Soy-based diets reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats, but apparently not in hypertensive humans. In the present study, the antihypertensive potential of soy milk (500 mL twice daily) compared with cow's milk was investigated in a 3-mo double-blind randomized study of 40 men and women with mild-to-moderate hypertension. Before initiation of the study, urinary isoflavonoids (measured by HPLC) were undetectable in most cases (for genistein, they were always <100 micromol/L). After 3 mo of soy milk consumption, systolic blood pressure decreased by 18.4 +/- 10.7 mmHg compared with 1.4 +/- 7.2 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure decreased by 15.9 +/- 9.8 mmHg vs. 3.7 +/- 5.0 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001) and mean blood pressure decreased by 16.7 +/- 9.0 mmHg compared with 3.0 +/- 4.6 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001). Urinary genistein was strongly (r = -0.588) and significantly (P = 0.002) correlated with the decrease in blood pressure, particularly for diastolic values. In conclusion, chronic soy milk consumption had modest, but significant hypotensive action in essential hypertensive subjects. This hypotensive action was correlated with the urinary excretion of the isoflavonoid genistein.
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Tea is rich in polyphenols, which have activities consistent with blood pressure-lowering potential. The effects of long-term regular ingestion of tea on blood pressure remain uncertain. We investigated the relationships of tea intake and a biomarker of exposure to tea-derived polyphenols (4-O-methylgallic acid) with blood pressure in a cross-sectional study of 218 women > 70 y old. Clinic blood pressures were measured and tea intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall; 4-O-methylgallic acid was measured for the same period in a 24-h urine sample. Mean (95% CI) daily tea intake was 525 (475, 600) mL. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 138.1 (135.6, 140.6) and 73.5 (72.1, 74.9) mm Hg. Higher tea intake and higher 4-O-methylgallic acid excretion were associated with significantly lower systolic (P = 0.002 and P = 0.040, respectively) and diastolic (P = 0.027 and P < 0.001, respectively) blood pressures. A 250 mL/d (1 cup) increase in tea intake was associated with a 2.2 (0.8, 3.6) mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure and a 0.9 (0.1, 1.7) mm Hg lower diastolic blood pressure. The observed associations for both tea intake and 4-O-methylgallic acid are consistent with the hypothesis that long-term regular ingestion of tea may have a favorable effect on blood pressure in older women.
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In 1959, during the testing of the accuracy of a new blood pressure measurement apparatus for rats, a spontaneously hypertensive rat (Aoki SHR) was discovered among ten Wistar rats supplied from the Animal Center of Kyoto University. It was thought that the hypertension may be of genetic orign. In order to prove this hypothesis I began breeding the hypertensive male rat with a normotensive female rat to obtain genetically hypertensive rats. Many of the rats in the first generation had a blood pressure elevation with age and subsequently developed hypertension. The rats from the first generation with the highest blood pressure were selected and inbred to obtain genetically hypertensive rats. After the third generation, all rats obtained by the selective inbreeding method developed hypertension without any special manipulation or experimental maneuvers. The fact that the SHR strain was obtained by only three repetitive selective inbreeding suggests that there are a few major hypertension genes and the genes are the primary cause of the blood pressure elevation in SHR.
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Hydrolysates of whole bovine plasma and its separated proteins, albumin and globulins, which inhibit the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) were prepared by enzymic hydrolysis with several proteases available for industrial use. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitory peptides from plasma proteins most efficiently and the Alcalase hydrolysate of albumin showed the most high activity (IC50=0.56 mg/ml). Sequential ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate with MW cut-off 10 000, 3000 and 1000 resulted in increased activity of each filtrate up to IC50 of 0.12 mg/ml. Sephadex G-25 gel chromatography of the hydrolysate eluted a peptide fraction below MW 1000 of the most potent activity (IC50=0.09 mg/ml). The hydrolysate was compared with the tryptic hydrolysate of casein considering the practical production of a functional food material in industry. The former was found to be more advantageous to separate the purified peptide fraction by industrial processes.
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Black chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott (Rosaceae), was investigated for its flavonoid content. The flavanone eriodictyol 7-O-β-glucuronide (1) together with the quercetin derivatives 3-O-(6″-O-β-arabinosyl-β-glucoside) (2), 3-O-(6″-α-rhamnosyl-β-galactoside) (3), 3-O-(6″-α-rhamnosyl-β-glucoside) (4), 3-O-β-galactoside (5) and 3-O-β-glucoside (6), were detected in the fruits and flower umbels. The rare compounds 1–3 were isolated and structurally elucidated by use of 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments together with electrospray mass spectrometry. Compounds 4–6 were characterized by co-chromatography and by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The black chokeberries contained >71 mg flavonols per 100 g fresh weight.
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The vasorelaxing properties of chocolate and wine might relate to the presence of phenolic compounds. One of the potential mechanisms involved is stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, as NO is a major regulator of vasodilatation. This study aimed to develop an in vitro assay using the hybrid human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to rapidly screen phenolic compounds for their NO-stimulating potential. The assay was optimized, and a selection of 33 phenolics, namely, procyanidins, monomeric flavan-3-ols, flavonols, a flavone, a flavanone, a chalcone, a stilbene, and phenolic acids, was tested for their ability to enhance endothelial NO level. Resveratrol, a well-known enhancer of NO level, was included as a positive control. Of the 33 phenolics tested, only resveratrol (285% increase in NO level), quercetin (110% increase), epicatechingallate (ECg) (85% increase), and epigallocatechingallate (EGCg) (60% increase) were significant (P <or= 0.05) enhancers. Procyanidins showed a nonsignificant tendency to elevate NO level. Concentration-dependent correlations between enhanced NO level and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression were demonstrated for the three polyphenols tested (resveratrol, ECg, and EGCg). Thus, an easy screening tool for change in cellular NO level was developed. Use of this assay showed that only a limited number of phenolic compounds might enhance NO level with an increased amount of eNOS enzyme as a possible contributing mechanism.
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This study developed a method for the determination of extractable and unextractable proanthocyanidins. Extractable proanthocyanidins were separated according to their degree of polymerization using normal phase HPLC. Unextractable proanthocyanidins were measured after acid-catalyzed depolymerization as flavan-3-ols (terminal units) and benzylthioethers (external units). Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used for the identification of proanthocyanidins in the samples. Hubaux-Vos detection limits were 0.01-0.15 ng/injection for extractable proanthocyanidins, with recovery rates from 69 to 91%. Detection limits for unextractable proanthocyanidin derivatives were 0.002-0.035 ng/injection with 80% recovery. The developed method was applied to the analysis of several fruit and berry samples. Results showed great variation in the proportion of unextractable proanthocyanidins in total proanthocyanidin content between samples, being highest in the green variety of table grape (63%) and lowest in the apple cultivar 'Valkeakuulas' (4.1%). The method reported herein is reliable and gives valuable information on the nature of proanthocyanidins in plant-derived foods.
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It is known that obesity, sodium intake, and alcohol consumption factors influence blood pressure. In this clinical trial, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, we assessed the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. We enrolled 459 adults with systolic blood pressures of less than 160 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressures of 80 to 95 mm Hg. For three weeks, the subjects were fed a control diet that was low in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, with a fat content typical of the average diet in the United States. They were then randomly assigned to receive for eight weeks the control diet, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, or a "combination" diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and with reduced saturated and total fat. Sodium intake and body weight were maintained at constant levels. At base line, the mean (+/-SD) systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 131.3+/-10.8 mm Hg and 84.7+/-4.7 mm Hg, respectively. The combination diet reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.5 and 3.0 mm Hg more, respectively, than the control diet (P<0.001 for each); the fruits-and-vegetables diet reduced systolic blood pressure by 2.8 mm Hg more (P<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure by 1.1 mm Hg more than the control diet (P=0.07). Among the 133 subjects with hypertension (systolic pressure, > or =140 mm Hg; diastolic pressure, > or =90 mm Hg; or both), the combination diet reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 11.4 and 5.5 mm Hg more, respectively, than the control diet (P<0.001 for each); among the 326 subjects without hypertension, the corresponding reductions were 3.5 mm Hg (P<0.001) and 2.1 mm Hg (P=0.003). A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods and with reduced saturated and total fat can substantially lower blood pressure. This diet offers an additional nutritional approach to preventing and treating hypertension.
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Over the past 50 years various animal models of hypertension have been developed, predominantly in the rat. In this review we discuss the use of the rat as a model of hypertension, and evaluate what these models have taught us. Interestingly, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is by far the most widely used rat model, although it reflects only a rare subtype of human hypertension, i.e. primary hypertension that is inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Many other aspects of the etiology of hypertension are found in other rat models, but these models are less frequently employed. The widespread use of the SHR suggests that this rat model is often chosen without considering alternative (and possibly better suited) models. To illustrate the importance of the choice for a particular model, we compared the natural history and response to antihypertensive drugs in different rat models of hypertension (SHR, Dahl, deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt, two-kidney one-clip, transgenic TGR(mRen2)27. This revealed that the outcome of hypertension can be similar in some respects, as all models exhibit cardiac hypertrophy, and all demonstrate impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations. However, the more severe forms of end-organ damage such as heart failure, stroke and kidney failure, occur only in some models and then only in a subset of the hypertensive rats. The effects of antihypertensives varies even more in the different models: antihypertensive treatment only attenuates end-organ damage if it decreases blood pressure. Moreover, if a given antihypertensive is effective, it sometimes even attenuates end-organ damage in nonhypotensive doses. On the other hand, some agents do decrease blood pressure but do not prevent end-organ damage (e.g. hydralazine in SHR). Furthermore, not all classes of antihypertensives are equally effective in all rat models of hypertension: endothelin-receptor antagonists are not effective in SHR, but have beneficial effects in the DOCA-salt model. The comparison of models, and the comparison of treatment effects suggests that end-organ damage critically depends upon not only on the stress imposed by high blood pressure and its underlying biochemical disturbance, but also upon the ability of the organism to recruit adequate 'coping' mechanisms. These coping mechanisms deserve greater attention, as failure to recruit such mechanisms may indicate an increased risk. The current development of transgenic techniques will provide new opportunities, to develop specific models to address this balance between stress and coping.
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Twenty plants used by traditional healers in South Africa for the treatment of high blood pressure were investigated for their anti-hypertensive properties, utilizing the angiotensin converting enzyme assay. A hit rate of 65% was achieved, with the highest inhibition (97%) obtained by Adenopodia spicata leaves. A further seven plants exhibited an inhibition greater than 70% and five more over 50%. The leaves of the plants showed the greatest levels of inhibition. There was little difference in the overall hit rate between ethanolic and aqueous extracts, although in most cases there was a marked difference in activity between aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the same species. Plants exhibiting inhibition levels greater than 50% were further tested for the presence of tannins in order to eliminate possible false positives. Active plants that did not contain tannins were Agapanthus africanus, Agave americana, Clausena anisata, Dietes iridioides, Mesembruanthemum spp., Stangeria eriopus and Tulbaghia violacea.
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MeOH extracts, fractions and pure substances from Musanga cecropioides, Cecropia species and Crataegus oxyacantha /C. monogyna were screened by using an in vitro bio-assay based on the inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE), as measured from the enzymatic cleavage of the chromophore-fluorophore-labelled substrate dansyltriglycine into dansylglycine and diglycine. Phenolic acids showed no significant ACE-inhibition whereas flavonoids and proanthocyanidins demonstrated inhibitory activity at 0.33 mg/ml using this test system.
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The effects of short-term oral administration of red wine polyphenolic compounds on hemodynamic parameters and on vascular reactivity were investigated in rats. Endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle contractility were studied in association with the induction of gene expression in the vascular wall. Rats were treated daily for 7 days by intragastric administration of either 5% glucose or red wine polyphenolic compounds (20 mg/kg). Administration of these compounds produced a progressive decrease in systolic blood pressure, which became significantly different on day 4. Aortas from rats treated with red wine polyphenolic compounds displayed increased endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine that was related to increased endothelial NO activity and involved a mechanism sensitive to superoxide anion scavengers. However, no increase in whole-body oxidative stress has been observed in rats treated with red wine polyphenolic compounds, as shown by plasma glutathione assay. Also, in the aorta, red wine polyphenolic compounds increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and increased the release of endothelial thromboxane A(2), which compensated for the extraendothelial NO-induced hyporeactivity in response to norepinephrine, resulting from enhanced inducible NO synthase expression. The present study provides evidence that short-term oral administration of red wine polyphenolic compounds produces a decrease in blood pressure in normotensive rats. This hemodynamic effect was associated with an enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation and an induction of gene expression (of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) within the arterial wall, which together maintain unchanged agonist-induced contractility. These effects of red wine polyphenolic compounds may be a potential mechanism for preventing cardiovascular diseases.
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The beneficial effect of ACE inhibitors in hypertension and heart failure may relate, at least in part, to their capacity to interfere with bradykinin metabolism. In addition, recent studies have provided evidence for bradykinin-potentiating effects of ACE inhibitors that are independent of bradykinin hydrolysis, i.e. ACE-bradykinin type 2 (B(2)) receptor 'cross-talk', resulting in B(2) receptor upregulation and/or more efficient activation of signal transduction pathways, as well as direct activation of bradykinin type 1 receptors by ACE inhibitors. This review critically reviews the current evidence for hydrolysis-independent bradykinin potentiation by ACE inhibitors, evaluating not only the many studies that have been performed with ACE-resistant bradykinin analogues, but also paying attention to angiotensin-(1-7), a metabolite of both angiotensin I and II, that could act as an endogenous ACE inhibitor. The levels of angiotensin-(1-7) are increased during ACE inhibition, and most studies suggest that its hypotensive effects are mediated in a bradykinin-dependent manner.
Article
The tannins are natural polyphenols, able to precipitate water-soluble alkaloids and possess an inhibitory action on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). We identified 18 polyphenolic compounds (tannins) from Chinese herbs and examined the in vitro effects of these tannins on ACE activity, including determination of the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50), specificity and mode of inhibition. We also assessed the in vivo inhibitory effect of the tannins on angiotensin I-induced blood pressure elevation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Nine tannins with an IC50 <200 microM for ACE inhibitors were identified belonging to three tannin classes: caffeoylquinates, flavan-3-ols and gallotannins. In vitro, we found caffeoylquinates chelate the ACE zinc cofactor. Two of the flavan-3-ols: epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-O-methylgallate, and one of gallotannin: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose were non-specific inhibitors because also reduced the activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin. The ACE inhibition of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose was also reduced after addition of bovine serum albumin, suggesting a non-specific mode of action. In vivo, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose and epigallocatechin-3-O-methylgallate had a strong dose-dependent hypotensive effect reducing the blood pressure significantly in the SHR with infusion of the angiotensin I. These findings indicate that some of the tannins isolated from herbs inhibit ACE activity non-specifically. The ACE inhibitory effect of these tannins may explain the hypotensive effects of some traditional Chinese herbs.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover affected ambulatory blood pressure and forearm vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal type 2 diabetic women. Sixteen postmenopausal type 2 diabetics treated with diet or oral hypoglycaemic therapy completed a randomized double-blind crossover trial of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover (approximately 50 mg/day) for 4 weeks compared to placebo. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure recordings and forearm vascular responses to acetylcholine, nitroprusside and L-nitromonomethylarginine (L-NMMA) were measured at the end of each treatment period. Mean daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower during isoflavone therapy compared to placebo (-8.0 +/- 3.4 and -4.3 +/- 1.9 mmHg respectively, p < 0.05). The increase in forearm vascular resistance following L-NMMA was significantly greater during isoflavone supplementation (20.9 +/- 6.5) than placebo (3.7 +/- 2.9 arbitrary units, p < 0.05), suggesting an improvement in basal endothelial function. Plasma lipoproteins, glycated haemoglobin and forearm vascular responses to acetylcholine and nitroprusside did not differ significantly between isoflavone and placebo therapy. Isoflavone supplementation from red clover may favourably influence blood pressure and endothelial function in postmenopausal type 2 diabetic women.
Article
Butein (3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone), a plant polyphenol, has been known to elucidate endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In the present study, the hypotensive effect of butein and its possible mechanism, especially an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect, were investigated. Intravenous injection of butein lowered the arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats in a dose-dependent manner. The plasma ACE activities were significantly inhibited by the addition of butein in a dose-dependent manner, the IC(50) value of which was 198 microg/ml (730 microM). Moreover, angiotensin I-induced contraction was markedly attenuated by prior exposure of endothelium-intact aortic rings to butein, but angiotensin II-induced contraction was not altered. These results suggest that butein has a hypotensive effect, at least in part, via the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme.
Article
A male rat with spontaneously high systolic blood pressures of 150 to 175 mmHg persisting for more than one month and a female rat with blood pressures slighty above the average, 130 to 140 mmHg, were selected from among 68 Wistar strain rats in normal condition and mated to obtain F1 rats. Of these F1 rats, males and females with hypertension (blood pressure exceeding 150 mmHg) persisting for more than a month (mostly over 2 months) were mated to produce F2 rats. The procedure was repeated to obtain F3, F4, F5 and F6 rats totaliag 380 animals. The weights and blood pressures (by the tail-water-plethysmographic method) were measured once weekly biginning at 4 weeks of age, and the results can be summarized as follows : 1. In body weight, the F rats showed little difference from the normal controls. 2. The blood pressures of F rats rose with age and from generation to generation, increasing significantly above those of normotensive controls of the same age after 20 weeks of age among female F1, after 15 weeks among male F1 and also male and female F2, and after 10 weeks among all F3 to F6 rats. E. g., the average systolic blood pressure of F5 at 25 weeks of age was 206+__-18.5 mmHg in the male and 193+__-20.5 mmHg in female rats. The blood pressures of normotensive controls remained at 131 to 136 mmHg in the male and 130 to 135 mmHg in female rats after 10 weeks of age. 3. Many F rats showed spontaneous hypertension. The incidence of the spontaneous occurrence of hypertension increased, and the development of hypertension occurred at younger ages from generation to generation. All of the F3 to F6, rats developed spontaneous hypertension within 15 weeks of age. Severe hypertension with blood pressures exceeding 200 mmHg began to observed among F2. The incidence of such severe hypertension increased with each generation, so that among male animals it inceased from only 9% in F2 to 35% in F3, 42% in F4, and 56% in F5, and in female animals from 3% in F2, 16% in F3, 33% in F4, and 37% in F5. The authors have named this Wistar strain of rats with spontaneous occurrence of hypertension as "spontaneously hypertensive rats (Okamoto-Aoki)". 4. The blood pressures of β-line rats from parents with very high blood pressures were significantly higher than among α-line rats from parents with moderately high blood pressures at the same age. 5. There was no difference in the blood pressures of offsprings resulting from inbreeding and those from cross breeding. The male blood pressure averaged about 10.6 mmHg above the female value in spontaneous hypertension, and hypertension developed at lower ages in the male. 6. It is a question for future study whether the spontaneous hypertension induced in rats in this Study is comparable in characteristics with essential hypertension in man.
Article
Background - Tea is rich in polyphenols, which have activities consistent with blood pressure lowering potential. The effects of long-term regular ingestion of tea on blood pressure remain uncertain. Objective - To investigate the relationships of tea intake and a biomarker of exposure to tea-derived polyphenols (4-O-methylgallic acid) with blood pressure. Methods - This was a cross-sectional study of 218 women over 70 y. Clinic blood pressures were measured, tea intake was assessed using a 24 h dietary recall, and 4-O-methylgallic acid was measured for the same period in a 24 h urine sample. Results - Mean (95% CI) daily tea intake was 525 (475, 600) mL. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 138.1(135.6,140.6)/73.5(72.1, 74.9) mmHg. Using linear regression analysis, higher tea intake and higher 4-O-methylgallic acid excretion were associated with significantly lower systolic (P=0.002 and P=0.040, respectively) and diastolic (P=0.027 and P<0.001, respectively) blood pressures. A 250 mL/d (1 cup) increase in tea intake was associated with a 2.2 (0.8,3.6) mmHg lower systolic blood pressure and a 0.9 (0.1, 1.7) mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions - The observed associations for both tea intake and 4-O-methylgallic acid are consistent with the hypothesis that long-term regular ingestion of tea may have a favorable effect on blood pressure in older women.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and AT-1 receptor blockers (ARB) are two types of drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and can attenuate the progression to cardiac and/or renal functional impairment, secondary to diverse pathologies. Some of the beneficial effects of ACEi and ARB occur independently of the ability of these drugs to reduce arterial blood pressure. Both, in animals, and in humans, we observed an enhancement of antioxidant defenses that occurred after treatment with ACEi. Based on these results, we postulate that some of the beneficial health effects associated to RAS inhibition can be ascribed to the prevention of oxidant-mediated damage. Furthermore, considering that: (i). RAS inhibition attenuates certain age-associated degenerative changes; (ii). aging was postulated to result from the accumulation of oxidant-mediated damage; and (iii). mitochondria are a major source of oxidants, we studied potential associations among RAS inhibition, mitochondrial function and production of oxidants and nitric oxide, and aging. The results obtained suggest, that RAS inhibitors, i.e. enalapril and losartan, can protect against the effects of aging by attenuating oxidant damage to mitochondria, and in consequence, they preserve mitochondrial function. The mechanism(s) explaining such attenuation of oxidant damage can relay on a reduction of the ANG-II-dependent generation of superoxide and/or an increased detoxification of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species by recomposition of antioxidant defense levels.
Article
Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins were characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS coupled with a diode array and/or fluorescent detector in seven cultivars of Ribes nigrum (black currant) and Ribes rubrum (red currant, Red Lake), six cultivars of Ribes grossularia (gooseberries), Aronia melanocarpa(chokeberry), and Sambucus nigra (elderberry). Thirty-one different anthocyanins were detected in these berries, but not every anthocyanin was observed in each berry. A number of minor anthocyanins were identified from these berries for the first time. The concentrations of individual anthocyanins in all of the berries were quantified using relevant anthocyanidin 3-glucoside standards. Among the berries studied in this paper and in berries in general, chokeberry has the highest total anthocyanin concentrations [1480 mg/100 g of fresh weight (FW)], whereas the lowest total anthocyanin concentration in the berries studied was found in the gooseberry cv. Careless, which contained only 0.07 mg/100 g of FW. Two cultivars of gooseberries (Marigold and Leveller) did not contain any anthocyanins. Total proanthocyanidin concentrations in the berries studied ranged from 23 to 664 mg/100 g of FW in elderberry and chokeberry, respectively. Procyanidin or prodelphinidin polymers were the predominant components (>65% w/w) in most of the berries. The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities were measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL)) procedure. The total antioxidant capacity varied from 21 micromol of TE/g of FW in Careless gooseberry to 161 micromol of TE/g of FW in chokeberry. Total phenolics in the berries in general paralleled hydrophilic antioxidant capacity.
Article
Recent reports have shown a decrease in blood pressure associated with the consumption of flavanol-containing foods. However, the mechanism behind this effect is not yet known. Previously we demonstrated that the flavanol epicatechin and its related oligomers, the procyanidins, inhibit angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity in vitro. In this study, we further characterized epicatechin monomer, dimer, tetramer and hexamer ACE inhibitory effect, by performing fluorescence quenching and kinetic assays, using angiotensin I as substrate. Assessment of ACE activity in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) indicated that the tetramer was the most active inhibitor decreasing the formation of angiotensin II by 52% (P<0.001). When ACE activity was measured using isolated rabbit lung ACE, dimer, tetramer and hexamer inhibited angiotensin II production at IC(50) values of 97.0, 4.4, and 8.2 microM, respectively. The quenching of ACE tryptophan fluorescence was assayed to evaluate the molecular interaction between ACE and procyanidins. The hexamer was the most active quencher decreasing ACE fluorescence by 56%, followed by the tetramer and the dimer, decreasing ACE fluorescence by 37% and 36%, respectively. ACE activity was evaluated in the presence of different concentrations of the ACE activator chloride ion (Cl(-)). Increased Cl(-) concentrations reduced IC(50) values for the dimer and tetramer. Finally, ACE inhibition was determined in the presence of different albumin concentrations. The presence of albumin did not reverse the ACE inhibition by dimer and tetramer, but decreased hexamer inhibition by 65%. In summary, the inhibitory effect of procyanidins on ACE and the extent of this inhibition were largely dependent on procyanidin structure. ACE inhibition by procyanidins in vivo might provide a mechanism to explain the benefits of flavonoid consumption on cardiovascular diseases.