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Mushrooms and agaritine: A mini-review

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Numerous mushroom bioactive metabolites, including polysaccharides, eritadenine, lignin, chitosan, mevinolin, and astrakurkurone have been studied in life-threatening conditions and diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular, hypertension, cancer, DNA damage, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity attempting to identify natural therapies. These bioactive metabolites have shown potential as antiviral and immune system strengthener natural agents through diverse cellular and physiological pathways modulation with no toxicity evidence, widely available, and inexpensive. In light of the emerging literature, this paper compiles the most recent information describing the molecular mechanisms that underlie the nutraceutical potentials of these mushroom metabolites suggesting their effectiveness if combined with existing drug therapies while discussing the food functionality of mushrooms. The findings raise hope that these mushroom bioactive metabolites may be utilized as natural therapies considering their therapeutic potential while anticipating further research designing clinical trials and developing new drug therapies while encouraging their consumption as a natural adjuvant in preventing and controlling life-threatening conditions and diseases. Practical applications Diabetes, cardiovascular, hypertension, cancer, DNA damage, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity are among the world's largest life-threatening conditions and diseases. Several mushroom bioactive compounds, including polysaccharides, eritadenine, lignin, chitosan, mevinolin, and astrakurkurone have been found potential in tackling these diseases through diverse cellular and physiological pathways modulation with no toxicity evidence, suggesting their use as nutraceutical foods in preventing and controlling these life-threatening conditions and diseases.
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Champignon extract's beneficial effects include intraintestinal deodorization and it has long been used as a nutritional supplement at doses of 0.5–1 g/day. This clinical trial comprised an open study to investigate the safety of 12-week continuous administration of 3 g/day champignon extract in 20 men and women aged 50–79 years. We also investigated the effects of champignon extract in alleviating conditions such as halitosis and body and fecal odor as secondary evaluation items. Evaluation was conducted at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after starting ingestion, but no abnormalities were noted for any of the clinical tests, including complete blood count and liver and kidney function tests. Both subjects and cooperating individuals (those living with the subjects) observed significant improvements in stool shape and secondary items (halitosis and body and fecal odor). Overall tendency for improvement was also noted in the Visual Analogue Scale questionnaires of both subjects and cooperating individuals. These results confirmed the safety of 12 weeks of continuous ingestion of 3 g/day champignon extract and also suggested that it improved halitosis and body and fecal odor.
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A method for isolating high purity and quantity RNA from Agaricus bisporus which is rich in proteins, carbohydrate, fiber and secondary metabolites, is described. RNA was extracted from mycelium, primordia, sporophores at two development stages and two post-harvest storage stages as well as from pileipellis, inner cap, gill and stipe of the mature sporophore. The A(260)/A(230) and A(260)/A(280) ratios of isolated RNA from fruiting bodies were both ~2 and the yield was about 200 μg/g fresh wt (FW). The yield of RNA from mycelium was approx. 100 μg/g FW. High quality RNA was also extracted from fruiting body tissues of Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus eryngii with yields from 130 to 225 μg/g FW. RNA extracted from all samples was intact, as demonstrated by gel electrophoresis and was suitable for downstream molecular applications, including RT-PCR and qPCR.
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The influence of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on postharvest quality and enzyme activities, gene expression level, and the functional component content linked to postharvest deterioration in Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach fruit bodies was investigated. Freshly harvested fruit bodies were treated with 0 (control), 10 and 100 μM MeJA vapor at 20 °C for 12 h and then stored at 10 °C for up to 7 days. The results indicated that treatments with 100 μM MeJA vapor maintained a high level of soluble protein and total sugar, delayed browning, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and flavonoids, and inhibited the increase of respiratory rate and membrane leakage. Furthermore, 100 μM MeJA inhibited the activities of polyphenoloxidase, increased the antioxidant enzymes activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, and lowered relative expression levels of three genes encoding polyphenol oxidase (AbPPO1, AbPPO2, and AbPPO3) throughout the storage period. Comparatively, 10 μM MeJA also had a clear beneficial effect on postharvest mushroom quality maintenance but was not as effective as 100 μM MeJA treatment. These findings suggest that application of MeJA could have potential in maintaining the quality of harvested A. bisporus fruit bodies.
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Fruit bodies of about 200 mushroom species are consumed throughout the world, preferably as a delicacy. Knowledge of their chemical composition, nutritional value and health-promoting effects has expanded dynamically during the last few years. Dry matter (DM) is low: commonly about 100 g kg(-1) . The usual contents of protein, lipids and ash are 200-250, 20-30 and 80-120 g kg(-1) DM, respectively. Various carbohydrates form the remaining DM. Nevertheless, great variations occur both among and within species. Energy is low, usually 350-400 kcal kg(-1) of fresh fruit bodies. The nutritional contribution of mushroom protein derived from earlier data seems to be overestimated. Fat content is low with markedly prevailing in linoleic acid and oleic acid, while the proportion of n-3 fatty acids is nutritionally marginal. The main carbohydrates are chitin, glycogen, trehalose and mannitol. Information on fibre content and composition is limited. Health-promoting β-glucans are an auspicious group of polysaccharides. High potassium content is characteristic of mushrooms. Several species can accumulate very high levels of both detrimental trace elements, particularly cadmium and mercury, and radiocaesium isotopes if growing on heavily polluted substrates. Mushrooms seem to be a considerable source of ergosterol, provitamin D(2) , and phenolids with antioxidative properties. Hundreds of flavour constituents have been identified, particularly with eight-carbon aliphatic chains. Data on changes of mushroom components under various preservation conditions and culinary treatments have been fragmentary. Even more limited is knowledge of nutrient bioavailability. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
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As of early 2013, over 200 natural products are known to contain a nitrogen-nitrogen (N-N) bond. This report categorizes these compounds by structural class and details their isolation and biological activity.
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Chemical profile of the Agaricus bisporus samples were analyzed using GC/MS method in ethanolic extracts. A total of 174 metabolic products were detected, which included 13 significant metabolites between 1.2 to 83 % (w/w); other 13 metabolites at 1% (w/w) and 148 metabolites less than 1% classified into 12 categories. These metabolites had many medicinal activities, which included anti-cancer, anti-cardiovascular diseases, anti-hypercholesterol, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, human health supporting and immune enhancer. HPLC analysis of water extracts of the A. bisporus samples showed that the spores and gills in the fresh adult mushroom had higher percentage of agaritine mycotoxin than the other parts. These contents were decreased by different treatments especially by boiling, preservation and cooking.The selenium contents (ppb) was measured by Galvanometric analysis and highest content was recorded in fresh whole mushroom sample (0.97) followed by cooked preserved (0.4) and fried sample (0.11).
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The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality.
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Medicinal mushrooms show great promise for disease treatments. They have been employed in the Orient and Occident for thousands of years, although the practice has persisted in the East. They remain highly valuable. Authentic human trials and pure compounds are emphasized in this review of the most current literature. Polysaccharides from the fungi appear effective in cancer treatments and low-molecular-weight compounds also attract much interest. However, reports of toxicity must be taken seriously. Prescriptions for mushrooms and preparations need to be given by qualified medical practitioners. The reason why these preparations are not more widely used in the West is related to problems of (a) intellectual property rights, (b) mass production, and (c) obtaining pure compounds that retain activity. Mushroom compounds require testing against infectious diseases such as those caused by bacteria, because the current antibiotics are failing from resistances. Overall, the future is assured for medicinal mushrooms.
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Hydrazine, hydrazone and hydrazide derivatives are nitrogen-nitrogen bond containing compounds. Such molecules are relatively scarce in nature and have been isolated from plants, marine organisms and microorganisms. These compounds exhibit remarkable structural diversity and relevant biological activities. The enzymes involved in the formation of the N-N bond are still unknown, but many lines of evidence support the involvement of N-nitrosation and N-hydroxylation activating steps. Beside the challenging N-N bond, N-acylases catalyzing the C-N bond formation contribute to the chemical diversity of N-N-containing natural products (N2NP). This review examines the state of knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of N2NP, for which only two biosynthetic gene clusters have been investigated. Biological properties and chemical synthesis of hydrazines, hydrazones and hydrazides are also reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Over the past two decades, there has been a steady flow of publications about the health effects related to mushrooms consumption. They represent a valuable source of protein, present high levels of fiber, some vitamins and minerals, and they also have reduced amount of fat and sodium. In addition, their complex carbohydrates profile can strengthen considerably the immune system. Edible mushrooms have been related to significant functional properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as eritadenine, phenolic compounds, sterols (as ergosterol), chitosan, etc., These substances are considered as important agents in the prevention and treatment of different health conditions like obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. However, it is important to remember that most of scientific studies are made in animal models and, therefore, some evidences regarding mushroom consumption have yet to be confirmed in clinical trials. Despite of the growing appeal for humans by their medicinal effects and nutritional value, mushrooms are also very appreciated for their texture, flavor, and versatility in culinary. They can be easily incorporated into any kind of dish, improving the dietary diversity without adding many calories. The information presented in this review point out that the positive effect of mushrooms on health is beyond basic nutrition. Therefore, it is very valuable expanding our knowledge about mushrooms, in order to identify all their active principles and the mechanisms involved in each health benefit, getting aware about the doses required to achieve that, in a safe range for humans.
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Water soluble polysaccharides (WSP) were isolated from processed and non-processed fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The processing methods involved: blanching, boiling and blanching followed by fermenting with a strain of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum). The yields of WSP ranged from 78.7 ± 1.5 mg/g to 120.1 ± 4.9 mg/g dry weight of sample. Blanching did not affect the content of WSP. Boiling for 15 min, led to the substantial decrease in the amount of WSP (34.7% decline). The isolated samples differed in carbohydrate, protein and phenolics content. FTIR spectroscopy of the WSP samples confirmed the presence of both α- and β-glycosidic linkages. Gel permeation chromatography showed the presence of compounds having the molecular weight of 198.3, 11.9, 3.1 kDa. The samples possessed antioxidant capacity measured by ABTS method (14.14 ± 0.63 to 29.48 ± 1.12 μmoles of Trolox per 1 g dw) and FRAP assay (2.49 ± 0.54 to 16.52 ± 0.55 μmoles of Trolox equivalents per 1 g dw). The antioxidant potential was decreased by the processing. Similarly, antiproliferative activity of WSP towards human breast cell lines (MCF-7 and T-47D) was lower due to the processing.
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This was placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-group comparative clinical trial targeting 80 men and women aged 50–79 years with halitosis and body and fecal odor. We investigated whether daily champignon extract ingestion for 4 weeks improved these conditions. Subjects were divided into four groups: a placebo group and 50, 500, and 1000 mg/day ingestion groups. No severe adverse events or side effects were noted during the study period. Compared with the placebo group, all champignon extract ingestion groups showed improvement or tendency toward improvement in halitosis and body and fecal odor. Furthermore, our results suggested that the effectiveness of champignon extract in alleviating odors is dose-dependent, i.e., it increases with the dosage.
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Agaritine, an aromatic hydrazine, is found as a secondary metabolite in mushroom species. It is among others suspected to exhibit genotoxic activity. This publication describes the validation of a method for the quantification of agaritine in mushrooms (i.e., extraction and purification by solid phase extraction) and measurement by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection in positive ionization mode. The results show this method to be selective, accurate, and precise. This method could be used for the quality control of pharmaceutical preparations containing mushrooms.
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Macrofungi production and economic value have been increasing globally. The demand for macrofungi has expanded rapidly owing to their popularity among consumers, pleasant taste, and unique flavors. The presence of high quality proteins, polysaccharides, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, triterpene sterols, and secondary metabolites makes macrofungi an important commodity. Macrofungi are well known for their ability to protect from or cure various health problems, such as immunodeficiency, cancer, inflammation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity. Many studies have demonstrated their medicinal properties, supported by both in vivo and in vitro experimental studies, as well as clinical trials. Numerous bioactive compounds isolated from mushrooms, such as polysaccharides, proteins, fats, phenolic compounds, and vitamins, possess strong bioactivities. Consequently, they can be considered as an important source of nutraceuticals. Numerous edible mushrooms have been studied for their bioactivities, but only a few species have made it to the market. Many species remain to be explored. The converging trends and popularity of eastern herbal medicines, natural/organic food product preference, gut-healthy products, and positive outlook towards sports nutrition are supporting the growth in the medicinal mushroom market. The consumption of medicinal mushrooms as functional food or dietary supplement is expected to markedly increase in the future. The global medicinal mushroom market size is projected to increase by USD 13.88 billion from 2018 to 2022. The global market values of promising bioactive compounds, such as lentinan and lovastatin, are also expected to rise. With such a market growth, mushroom nutraceuticals hold to be very promising in the years to come.
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With a potential of 16000 species of mushrooms in France, hundreds of cases of poisoning due to macroscopic mushrooms are yearly reported as numerous gastrointestinal disorders or affecting major organs for life leading sometimes to death. The pharmacist is the only health professional who benefits from a learning process in mycology during his university course. He is also a major actor in prevention of public health, a job that he fully practices when mushrooms gatherers appeal to him to check the content of their baskets and know whether “it can be eaten”. Pharmacists have historically been reputed for their mycological expertise. But what is the situation today ? After relating the different causes of mushroom poisoning and naming the responsible species of main syndromes, the author approaches how to take action in prevention and proposes an information sheet to be transmitted when calling the poison control center in case of emergency. The tasks of the poison control toxico-vigilance centers as well as the mycotoxicological networks to which they belong, are mentioned. To continue the toxicological context, the place of mycology at the heart of the pharmacist’s new tasks will be briefly called to mind, these tasks coming from the law “Hospital Patient Health Territory”, and seen through the reference documents of good practices of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. The educational landscape will also be depicted, communicating about the place of mycology in the initial training (lessons of mycology on macrofungi, allocated by each faculty of pharmacy) and in the university lifelong learning. In this context a national survey has also been realized with more than 680 pharmacists between February and April 2015. This survey has enabled to make an assessment allowing to know the motivation and the feeling of health professionals regarding their expertise, and has also highlighted their needs in terms of tools to enrich their equipment of mushroom identifier. Finally, a few suggestions of varied tools complete this survey, since that one has shown a lack of communication concerning the existing resources. The author hopes that her modest contribution will encourage you to better fulfil your job of prevention in public health faced with the requests to identify mushrooms.
Research
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Prix Interfimo régional 2016 Montpellier Avec un potentiel de 16000 espèces sur le sol français, chaque année des centaines de cas d’intoxications dues aux champignons macroscopiques sont déclarées, allant du simple trouble gastrointestinal pour la plupart, jusqu’aux atteintes graves de certains organes pouvant laisser des séquelles à vie, ou même quelques fois entraîner la mort. Le pharmacien est le seul professionnel de santé à bénéficier d’un apprentissage en mycologie durant son cursus universitaire. Il est aussi un acteur majeur de la prévention en Santé Publique, rôle qu’il exerce pleinement lorsque des cueilleurs de champignons le sollicitent pour vérifier le contenu de leur panier et savoir « si ça se mange ». Les pharmaciens sont reconnus historiquement pour leurs compétences mycologiques. Mais qu’en est-il aujourd’hui ? Après avoir relaté les différentes causes d’intoxications et cité les espèces responsables des principaux syndromes, l’auteure aborde comment intervenir en prévention, et propose une fiche de renseignements à transmettre lors d’un appel au Centre antipoison en cas d’urgence. Les missions des CAPTV, ainsi que les réseaux mycotoxicologiques auxquels ils appartiennent, sont évoqués. Pour faire suite au contexte toxicologique, sera rappelée brièvement la place de la mycologie au coeur des nouvelles missions du pharmacien, issues de la loi « Hôpital Patient Santé Territoire », et vue à travers le référentiel de bonnes pratiques de la Société Française de Pharmacie Clinique. Le paysage pédagogique sera lui aussi dépeint, avec communication sur la place de la mycologie dans la formation initiale (heures de mycologie sur les macromycètes, attribuées par chaque faculté de pharmacie) et dans la formation continue universitaire (Diplômes Universitaires, DPC et autres enseignements pratiques proposés). C’est dans ce contexte qu’a été également réalisée une enquête nationale auprès de plus de 680 pharmaciens entre février et avril 2015. Celle-ci a permis de dresser un état des lieux permettant de connaître la motivation et le ressenti des professionnels de santé vis-à-vis de leurs compétences, et a mis également en évidence leurs besoins, en termes d’outils pour enrichir leur équipement de déterminateur. Enfin, quelques suggestions d’outils variés viennent compléter cette enquête, puisque celle-ci a démontré un manque de communication concernant les ressources existantes. L’auteure espère que sa modeste contribution vous encouragera à mieux remplir votre rôle de prévention en santé publique face aux demandes d’identification de champignons. MOTS-CLES : Mycologie, Macromycètes, Macrofungi, champignons, détermination, identification, reconnaissance, pharmacie, officine, intoxications, nouveaux syndromes, prévention, conseils, urgence, formation initiale, formation continue, enquête, questionnaire, outils, ouvrages, livres, études pharmaceutiques, cursus pharmaceutique, facultés de pharmacie, centre antipoison, CAPTV, (réseau mycotoxicologique, MYCOLISTE, MYCOTOX), compétences, besoins, associations mycologiques, mycologues, Cd-Rom, Internet, application mobile, Diplôme Universitaire, DPC.
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Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) has traditionally been used as a prevention and cure of several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, immunostimulant, due to its contents such as 1,3-β-D-Glucan, ergosterol, agaritine, tocoferolum, scorbic acid, terpenes. This study is carried out in order to uncover which doses of ABM powder treatment, classified as suitable doses for a healthy condition of experimental animals based on hematological parameters (haemoglobin, erytrocyt, and leucocyt), random blood sugar, cholesterol, and uric acid. This study was an experimental study using experimental animals (rats) treated with ABM powders (three doses) and pure compounds of 1,3-β-D-Glucan compared to the control group. Based on all parameter studied, it can be concluded that ABM consumption of 7.2 mg is the most suitable one of dose to be recomended for healthy condition.
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Fungal polysaccharides have shown broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, ant-oxidative and improve immunity. However, oral administration of fungal polysaccharides for rendering the conventional vaccine against influenza virus has been reported rarely. Here, we investigated the potential of fungal polysaccharides in enhancing the influenza vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. Mice were immunized with inactivated H1N1 (A/PR8/1934) influenza vaccine combined with oral polysaccharides lentinan, tremellan, pachymaran and a mixture of the three. The results showed that mice in the polysaccharides/vaccine groups had reduced morbidity, improved viral clearance, and recovered faster than the mice receiving the conventional vaccine only after infection. This effect could be attributed to the increased levels of virus-specific serum antibody IgG and decreased levels of inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ in the lung tissue. Our finding suggests that taking fungal polysaccharides orally might be useful for improving the efficacy of conventional inactive influenza vaccines.
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The health benefits of extracts from Agaricus bisporus greatly extend its use as components of new functional foods for the treatment and prevention of diseases, rather than restricting it to a good food with high nutritional value and good flavor. A. bisporus aqueous enzymatic extracts (AbAEE) have unique flavor, good taste, and health benefits which makes it a good candidate for its incorporation in different matrices for development of new functional foods and nutraceuticals. The potential use of AbAEE as nutraceutical or incorporated as a part of new functional foods requires its characterization and a subsequent food safety study. The focus of this paper was to carry out a preliminary toxicological study on experimental animals (rats in this case) by acute and sub-chronic oral administration. To evaluate potential adverse effects of AbAEE at high doses the acute toxic class method was used. After administration of the preset doses, behavior changes, toxic symptoms, and deaths were observed continuously for 1 h after treatment and then intermittently at 4th, 8th and 24th h. After these initial observations, the rats were further observed for up to 14 consecutive days for any signs of toxicity and/or death. Because of the likelihood that the results obtained in this preliminary acute toxicity test have a direct relevance for protecting human health with respect to the use of AbAEE as a functional food or nutraceutial, an additional upper dose level of 5000 mg/kg b.wt. was used. Since no death was observed, the LD50 could not be estimated but is expected to exceed 5000 mg/kg and this extract could be classified as hazard category 5 (in Globally Harmonized Classification System for Chemical Substances and Mixtures.) or even unclassified for its acute toxicity by the oral route. The sub-chronic oral toxicity study of AbAEE (250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt. day) did not induce significant alterations in almost all hematological and biochemical parameters in rats. Therefore, the overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of AbAEE and provide a promising first step for their use as component of new functional foods or as nutraceutical. Though, further studies in both, animals and humans are needed for better evaluation of the food safety of this extract.
Preprint
Depression is the most common form of mental illness and the major cause of disability worldwide. Symptoms of depression including feelings of intense sadness and hopelessness may occur after a specific event or in response to a gradual decline in health and functional status, often associated with ageing. Current therapies for treating these symptoms include antidepressant drugs, counseling and behavioral therapy. However, antidepressant drugs are associated with mild to severe adverse effects, which has prompted the need for better treatment options. Medicinal mushrooms are valuable sources of food and medicine and are increasingly being used as supplements or as alternative medicines in standard healthcare. Numerous studies have provided insights into the neuroprotective effects of medicinal mushrooms, which is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory and neuroprotective properties. In this review, we comprehensively examine the role of these medicinal mushrooms in the treatment of depression. However, to apply these natural products in clinical settings, the therapeutic agent needs to be properly evaluated, including the active ingredients, presence of synergistic effects, efficient extraction methods and stabilization of the active ingredients for delivery into the body as well as crossing the blood-brain barrier.
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Agaricus subrufescens is becoming a mushroom of interest because of its medicinal properties. Commercial production had developed in tropical countries using local materials. However, data available in the literature referred to cultivars that are genetically similar. Our study of a set of cultivars and wild strains led to a better understanding of the biology of the species. Contrary to cultivars, wild strains exhibited a high level of genetic polymorphism. High phenotypic variability was identified in mycelial growth, productivity and morphology. Chemical analyses by solid-state 13C NMR and antioxidant activities showed that the wild strains as well as the cultivars proved a valuable source of functional food to prevent cardiovascular diseases, cancers and diabetes. Using cultivation substrate produced for A. bisporus and modifying cultivation conditions allowed fruiting of A. subrufescens, then increase in strain yield and optimization of agronomic traits of interest. Wild material with good antioxidant activity and high productivity was identified. The evaluation of intercontinental hybrids showed the possibility to transfer traits of interest to offspring. A. subrufescens could be proposed to French mushroom growers as an alternative to Agaricus bisporus during the summer season.
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Depression is the most common form of mental illness and the major cause of disability worldwide. Symptoms of depression, including feelings of intense sadness and hopelessness, may occur after a specific event or in response to a gradual decline in health and functional status, often associated with aging. Current therapies for treating these symptoms include antidepressant drugs, counseling and behavioral therapy. However, antidepressant drugs are associated with mild to severe adverse effects, which has prompted the need for better treatment options. Medicinal mushrooms are valuable sources of food and medicine and are increasingly being used as supplements or as alternative medicines in standard healthcare. Numerous studies have provided insights into the neuroprotective effects of medicinal mushrooms, which are attributed to their antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory and neuroprotective properties. In this review, we comprehensively examine the role of these medicinal mushrooms in the treatment of depression. However, to apply these natural products in clinical settings, the therapeutic agent needs to be properly evaluated, including the active ingredients, the presence of synergistic effects, efficient extraction methods, and stabilization of the active ingredients for delivery into the body as well as crossing the blood-brain barrier.
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Recently, consumption of the gyromitrin-containing neurotoxic mushroom Gyromitra sp. (false morel), as gourmet food was hypothesized to play a role in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genesis. The present review analyses recent data on edibility and toxicity of false and true morels and Agaricus spp. Controversy about the toxic status of Gyromitra esculenta was due to variable toxin susceptibility within consumers. We suggest that Verpa bohemica, another false morel, is also inedible. We found a temporary neurological syndrome (NS) with cerebellar signs associated with high consumption of fresh or dried true morels Morchella sp. After ingestion of crude or poorly cooked fresh or dried morels, a gastrointestinal “haemolytic” syndrome was also observed. Agaritine, a water soluble hydrazinic toxin closely related to gyromitrin is present along with metabolites including diazonium ions and free radicals, in Agaricus spp. and A. bisporus, the button mushroom, and in mice after ingestion. It is a potential weak carcinogen in mice, but although no data are available for humans, a lifetime low cumulative extra cancer risk in humans can be estimated to be about 10−5. To conclude, a safety measure is to avoid consuming any true morels or button mushrooms when crude or poorly cooked, fresh or dried.
Article
Solid-state fermentation with Agaricus brasiliensis and Agaricus bisporus on whole grain wheat was carried out. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of fermented wheat were determined. The results showed that the maximum values of polyphenols contents in wheat fermented with A. brasiliensis and A. bisporus reached respectively (3.16 ± 0.21) and (3.93 ± 0.23) mg GAE/g, which were 2.90 and 3.61 times of unfermented control. By employing ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), 18 kinds of phenolic compounds were identified from fermented wheat. Compared with control, only 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde was the same compound. It indicated that fermentation with the two fungi changed polyphenols contents and phenolic compounds composition in wheat to a great extent. Among these phenolic compounds, except for 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid and β-N-(γ-glutamyl)-4-formylphenylhydrazine, other 15 kinds of phenolic compounds were first identified from mushroom samples (including fruit bodies, mycelia and fermentation products). DPPH radical scavenging capacity, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and inhibition of lipid peroxidation of fermented wheat were significantly stronger than control (P < 0.05).
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Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on vitamin D2 mushroom powder as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. The NF is an ingredient produced from Agaricus bisporus mushroom powder that has been exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to induce the conversion of provitamin D2 (ergosterol) to vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). The NF contains concentrations of vitamin D provided by vitamin D2 in the ranges of 580-595 μg/g. The information provided on the manufacturing process, composition and specifications of the NF does not raise safety concerns. The applicant intends to add the NF in a variety of foods and beverages, including food for special medical purposes and food supplements. The target population is the general population except for food supplements and Foods for Special Medical Purposes (FSMPs), for which the target population is individuals above 1 year of age. The Panel concludes that the NF, used as an ingredient, is safe for the general population at the proposed condition of use in foods and beverages and that the NF used as a food supplement, is safe for individuals above 1 year.
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Public procurement has been highlighted as an important strategic tool to drive sustainable development. The present study aimed at providing direction for decreasing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) by 25% for the food purchased by child-care centers in the City of Copenhagen while simultaneously providing nutritionally adequate, affordable and tasty menus. Baseline data were provided by compiling food purchase data with datasets matching each food item to a proxy food item and further with databases containing nutrient and GHGE information. For each food item, the edible amount was estimated in order to evaluate nutritional content and GHGE per 10 MJ. Two scenarios were modeled, i.e., a plant-rich diet and a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet directed at children two to five years old based on current purchase practice. Finally, the diets were translated into guidelines for menu planning. Amounts of pulses, nuts and seeds, as well as dark green vegetables and plant-based fats, were increased substantially in the two scenarios, while animal fat was decreased and the amount of meat was either reduced or eliminated in the plant-rich and lacto-ovo vegetarian diets, respectively. These kinds of changes in public food procurement have the power to significantly affect the transition toward a more healthy and sustainable food system.
Article
This study compared the compositional changes in mushrooms exposed to sunlight with those occurring after commercial ultraviolet (UV) light processing. Button mushrooms (75 kg) were processed in the presence or absence of UVB light; a third group was exposed to direct sunlight. Mushroom composition was evaluated using chemical analyses. Vitamin D concentrations were 5, 410, and 374 μg/100 g (dw) in control, UVB, and sunlight groups, respectively. On a dry weight basis, no significant changes in vitamin C, folate, vitamins B(6), vitamin B(5), riboflavin, niacin, amino acids, fatty acids, ergosterol, or agaritine were observed following UVB processing. Sunlight exposure resulted in a 26% loss of riboflavin, evidence of folate oxidation, and unexplained increases in ergosterol (9.5%). It was concluded that compositional effects of UVB light are limited to changes in vitamin D and show no detrimental changes relative to natural sunlight exposure and, therefore, provide important information relevant to the suitability and safety of UVB light technology for vitamin D enhanced mushrooms.