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Frozen bread dough: Effects of freezing storage and dough improvers

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Abstract

This review focuses on the effects of freezing storage on the microstructure and baking performance of frozen doughs, and provides an overview of the activities of dough improvers, including emulsifiers, hydrocolloids and other improvers used in frozen dough applications. The overall quality of bread baked from frozen dough deteriorates as the storage of the dough at sub-zero temperatures increases due to several factors which are discussed. Lipid-related emulsifiers such as diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono and diglycerides and sucrose esters employed as anti-staling agents, dough modifiers, shortening sparing agents, and as improvers for the production of high-protein bread have also been employed in frozen doughs. Hydrocolloids are gaining importance in the baking industry as dough improvers due to their ability to induce structural changes in the main components of wheat flour systems during breadmaking steps and bread storage Their effects in frozen doughs is discussed. Other dough improvers, such as ascorbic acid, honey and green tea extract, are also reviewed in the context of frozen doughs.

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... Bread is one of the most widely consumed foods in the world and baking is one of the oldest known cooking technologies [1][2][3]. Novel ingredients and equipment have been continuously introduced to develop higher-quality bread, and research on baking has shown steady and impressive progress over many years [2]. In particular, the frozen dough method has significantly reduced the labor requirements and cost of baking [4][5][6]. ...
... Bread is one of the most widely consumed foods in the world and baking is one of the oldest known cooking technologies [1][2][3]. Novel ingredients and equipment have been continuously introduced to develop higher-quality bread, and research on baking has shown steady and impressive progress over many years [2]. In particular, the frozen dough method has significantly reduced the labor requirements and cost of baking [4][5][6]. ...
... The baking industry has increasingly adopted freezing technology due to the economic benefits of the centralized manufacturing and distribution process, as well as consumer demand for standardized product quality [2,9,10]. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the optimal storage conditions for frozen dough to obtain high-quality baking products [11][12][13][14]. ...
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The use of unmodified starch in frozen foods can cause extremely undesirable textural changes after the freeze-thaw process. In this study, using cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) and branching enzymes, an amylopectin cluster with high freeze-thaw stability was produced, and was named CBAC. It was found to have a water solubility seven times higher, and a molecular weight 77 times lower, than corn starch. According to the results of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, dough containing 5% CBAC lost 19% less water than a control dough after three freeze-thaw cycles. During storage for 7 days at 4 °C, bread produced using CBAC-treated dough exhibited a 14% smaller retrogradation peak and 37% less hardness than a control dough, suggesting that CBAC could be a potential candidate for clean label starch, providing high-level food stability under repeated freeze-thaw conditions.
... The emulsifier may adhere to the hydrophobic protein surface that promotes gluten-protein aggregation in the dough. Strong network of proteins contributes to improved texture and increased bread volumes (Miyamoto et al. 2005;Selomulyo & Zhou 2007). Another hypothesis is that polar emulsifiers are capable of forming gliadin-associated liquid-crystalline phases in water. ...
... Distribution of moisture between starch and proteins of food systems may also be influenced by the emulsifiers. Decrease in water absorption by starch makes more water available for gluten hydration, which is also intended to retard staling (Selomulyo & Zhou 2007;Van Haften 1979). ...
Article
To date majority of bakery products are manufactured using emulsifiers in paste or gel form that restricts and causes many problems of storage, processing, and handling at the commercial level. Therefore, new developments are required to resolve the issues of the bakery industry. This review discusses the importance of α-tending emulsifiers in the bakery industry and the action of the α-form to produce superior quality products. Further, to produce desired results α-form of emulsifiers blend should be stable and functional at different operating and storage conditions. Emulsifiers in gel or paste form do not maintain the active α-gel phase over a longer storage period. Using emulsifiers blend in powder form can be a solution to all the mentioned difficulties. With the development of new technologies like spray drying and encapsulation has opened new doors to utilize emulsifiers blend in powder form. Few manufactures have tapped this opportunity and have developed improver powder that offers superior quality products as well as processing, storage, and handling benefits and is easy to use. Improver powder maintains its active and functional α-form when stored at ambient temperature. This development also increases the scope of dry premixes in the market and consumers can make products of their choice in the kitchen with minimal effort.
... However, an unsuitable AsA concentration (usually too high) can significantly increase dough resistance, as well as, significantly reduce its stretching (Tsen, 1965). It is typically used in doses of 50-70 mg/kg flour (Wieser, 2003), but wider ranges of 10-200 mg/kg are also proposed (Selomulyo & Zhou, 2007;Šimurina, Filipčev, Jovanov, Ikonić & Simović-Šoronja, 2013). Nevertheless, as for most dough con-ditioners, its effect is not only dose-dependent but dependent on the initial quality of flour and the type of bread-making method (Pečivová, Pavlínek & Hrabê, 2011;Šimurina et al., 2014). ...
... Also, ascorbic acid is expected to improve the bread volume and crumb structure. It is typically used in doses from 50 to 75 mg/kg flour (Wieser, 2003), but wider ranges of 10-200 mg/kg are also proposed (Selomulyo and Zhou, 2007). However, as for most dough conditioners, their effect are not only dosedependent but dependent on the initial quality of flour (Šimurina et al. 2014), concentration of SH groups in dough (Maforimbo, Skurray G. R. & Nguyen, 2007) and the type of breadmaking method (Pečivová et al., 2011). ...
Article
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The present study was carried out to demonstrate the combined effects of different maize flour, ascorbic acid and sugar on the physical, textural and sensory properties of composite breads. The composite flour was prepared using 70% of wheat flour and 30% of flour obtained from grain of differently colored maize-light blue, blue, red and yellow maize flour. Chemical characterization of composite flours made with four different types of maize was also assessed. Furthermore, the content of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity in composite flours was determined. A total of 12 breads were prepared, four of which were control composite breads, four breads with ascorbic acid, and four were breads with ascorbic acid and sugar. The content of total phenolic compounds showed clear differences among all composite flours. The anthocyanins content determined in composite flours was in the following descending order: blue>red>light blue, while in the yellow maize composite flour anthocyanins were not detected. The results showed that the addition of AsA (0.025%) and sugar (5%) negatively affected the volume as well as the specific volume of composite wheat-maize breads. The texture analysis showed that the addition of AsA in the amount of 0.025% had no impact on springiness, cohesiveness and resilience of bread crumb, while it increased crumb hardness. However, composite breads made with AsA and AsA/sugar showed a more compact structure, with a larger number of cells and smaller mean cell areas. AsA/sugar bread samples within the tested doses had the lowest springiness, which is indicative of brittleness and reflects the tendency of the bread to crumble when slicing. Results of the sensory evaluation revealed that the AsA and sugar addition had a generally positive effect on the investigated sensory attributes.
... However, great majority of cakes circulating in the market are not ready-to-sell, led to the development of methods for the production and preservation of bakery products such as freezing technology. Although this technique enables businesses to reduce production cost and time due to its advantages on centralized manufacturing and distribution process (Selomulyo & Zhou, 2007), the deterioration during frozen storage is a notorious phenomenon. For example, the moisture migration and redistribution causing localized softening and drying, and the formation and growth of ice crystals causing structural distortion (Cauvain, 1998;He & Hoseney, 1990). ...
... Hydrocolloids can compete for water with polymers like protein and starch, thereby controlling the migration of water and improving the stability of products during frozen storage (Selomulyo & Zhou, 2007). Curdlan, a kind of polysaccharide produced by microorganism fermentation, can be used as stabilizer, thickener, or texturizer in food. ...
Article
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The deterioration of cakes during frozen storage is a notorious phenomenon. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cryoprotectants (collagen peptide, sericin peptide, and curdlan) on the intermediate-moisture cake during frozen storage. The results showed that cryoprotectants had a positive impact on water state and properties of products. Compared with the control group, the intermediate-moisture cake with better water-holding capacity had better texture characteristics and flavor than the others had, including alleviating the decrement of hardness and chewiness and promoting the augment of sensory evaluation. This study provided more comprehensive theories for the effects of cryoprotectants on intermediate-moisture cake quality from the perspective of water state.
... Among them, ascorbic acid is used to strengthen gluten. Added in amounts from 10 to 200 ppm it reduces the fermentation process, gives larger increases in oven rise and bread score [2] and increases nutritional value through increase of vitamin C content. When intensive mixing is used, amount of ascorbic acid is increasing up to 7,5 g per 100 kg of flour, while in the flour with very short gluten any oxidizing agents or ascorbic acid should not be added. ...
... The first stage is forming dehydro-L-ascorbic acid, and the second stage is oxidation of SH-groups in dough [3][4][5][6]. Ascorbic acid is usually combined with other improvers and especially good effects are achieved in combination with KBrO3 and KIO3 [2]. ...
... Various Problems have arise during the production of bread made from frozen dough, including the gradual loss of dough strength, decreased CO 2 retention capacity, reduced yeast activity. Reflect on final products properties, a longer fermentation time, decreased loaf volume, and a deterioration in the bread crumb texture can be observed [5][6][7]. ...
... This was because large ice crystals formed due to ice recrystallisation, which occurs during the freeze-thaw cycle. These ice crystals cause mechanical damage to yeast, which reduces its survival rate and leads to a decrease in yeast viability [5]. Reducing material, such as glutathione, released by damaged yeast cells would destroy the gluten network [38]. ...
Article
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In order to verify the cryoprotective effect of an antifreeze protein (BaAFP-1) obtained from barley on bread dough, the effect of BaAFP-1 on the rheological properties, microstructure, fermentation, and baking performance including the proofing time and the specific volume of bread dough and bread crumb properties during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw cycles were analysed. BaAFP-1 reduced the rate of decrease in storage modulus and loss modulus values during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw cycles. It influenced the formation and the shape of ice formed during freezing and inhibited ice recrystallization during freeze-thaw. BaAFP-1 maintained gas production ability and gas retention properties, protected gluten network and the yeast cells from deterioration caused by ice formation and ice crystals recrystallisation in dough samples during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw treatment. It slow down the increase rate of hardness of bread crumb. The average area of pores in bread crumbs decreased significantly (p < 0.05) as the total number of pores increased (p < 0.05), and the addition of BaAFP-1 inhibited this deterioration. These results confirmed the cryoprotective activity of BaAFP-1 in bread dough during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw cycles.
... Although, the consumers' attention to labelling, production time, and freshness of foods decreases the rate of food-borne health issues to some extent [4]. Indeed, the information provided by the suppliers on labelling of the packages assures acceptable quality of the packed foods [5]. However, such informing programs are still underdeveloped in Nigeria and the consumers worry about mishandling or improper processing of foods such as bakeries and demand a safer food supply. ...
Article
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Background and objective: Bakery products are of cereal group and considered as valuable nutritional source in human diet. They provide most of our daily calories. Development of bakeries' establishment is related to local financial capacity and processing techniques. It has led to different types of bread in term of their quality and hygienic status. Same as other countries, bread is staple food in Nigeria. In this study, we aimed to determine microbial contamination of the bread samples prepared and distributed in Wukari, a local government area in Taraba State, Nigeria. Materials and methods: In this study, two types of bread were purchased from five different places in Wukari metropolis. Two retail bakeries were selected for sampling in each place. Analysis was done in microbiology laboratory of the Federal University Wukari. The samples were studied for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, other Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Streptomyces spp., Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger contamination to investigate the quality of practices during production and distribution. Results and conclusion: Microbial contamination of the bread samples was included to Bacillus subtilis 22.5%, Aspergillus flavus 20%, Aspergillus niger 17.5%, Streptomyces spp. 12.5%, Streptococcus spp. 12.5%, Staphylococcus aureus 7.5%, and other Staphylococcus spp. 7.5%. Our investigation revealed that a variety of bacteria and fungi species were present in the bread samples produced and distributed in Wukari, that make the products susceptible to rapid deterioration, and may lead to organoleptic changes and economic loss. Apparently, there is a need for strict surveillance and monitoring in the retail bakeries located in Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.
... Although, the consumers' attention to labelling, production time, and freshness of foods decreases the rate of food-borne health issues to some extent [4]. Indeed, the information provided by the suppliers on labelling of the packages assures acceptable quality of the packed foods [5]. However, such informing programs are still underdeveloped in Nigeria and the consumers worry about mishandling or improper processing of foods such as bakeries and demand a safer food supply. ...
... Figure 1 shows that the soluble protein content was negatively correlated with storage time. This is because frozen storage makes the network structure of wheat gluten protein constantly formed and destroyed by growing ice crystals [25], resulting in the weakening of secondary bonds of wheat gluten and the exposure of internal hydrophobic groups to the aqueous phase [26], so the soluble protein content of wheat gluten protein gradually decreases. The soluble protein content in the control group (CK) was 20.77%, which was similar to the experimental results of Yong et al. [27]. ...
Article
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In this paper, gluten proteins in fermented dough were taken as the research object, and the variations in their physicochemical properties after storage at subfreezing (-9 °C, -12 °C) and − 18 °C were compared. The soluble protein concentration (beginning: 20.77 mg/g; end of storage: 14.21 mg/g at -9 °C, 11.88 mg/g at -12 °C, 9.38 mg/g at -18 °C), water holding capacity (beginning: 5.13%; end of storage: 3.28% at -9 °C, 3.02% at -12 °C, 3.77% at -18 °C), emulsifying capacity (beginning: 50%; end of storage: 47% at -9 °C, 45% at -12 °C, 46% at -18 °C), foaming capacity, and foaming stability of gluten protein decreased as storage time increased at different temperatures. Wheat gluten protein showed an increasing trend in oil holding capacity and emulsifying stability. There was no significant variation in wheat gluten protein quality between the subfreezing storage group and the − 18 °C storage. The sulfhydryl disulfide bond and SDS-PAGE results showed that storage temperature had no significant effect on oxidative denaturation and subunit content of gluten protein. In brief, subfreezing storage can effectively maintain the quality of gluten protein close to -18 ℃.
... Some of the non-conventional feedstuffs (agro-industrial wastes) used as substitute for the conventional feedstuff include cassava peel, brewer's dried grain, pineapple waste, flour dust, biscuit waste, bread waste, noodle waste, cocoa pod meal and shrimp waste. Bread is one of the most widely consumed food products in the world and bread making technology is probably one of the oldest technologies known [3]. The product is basically made of wheat flour, yeast, fat, sugar, salt and water [4]. ...
Article
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In a twenty-week trial, twenty West African Dwarf (WAD) goats (7.00 – 8.00 kg) were randomly allotted into four treatments in a completely randomized design to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of WAD goats fed bread waste and Moringa Oleifera leaf. Four diets (T1, T2, T3 and T4) were compounded by inclusion of bread waste and M. oleifera leaf at 0, 25, 50 and 100% levels. The goats were fed at 3% of their body weight. Performance parameters such as feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were evaluated. During digestibility trial, individual goats were put in a metabolism cage for easy collection of faeces and urine. The CP content of diets containing bread waste and M. oleifera leaf (T2, T3 and T4) were higher than T1 diet. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the feed intake of the animal across the treatments. Animals fed diets T4 (34.38) had significantly highest (p<0.05) daily weight gain compared to T3 (26.67), T2 (21.88) and T1 (20.84). The diets T2, T3 and T4 were significantly higher (p<0.05) in digestible energy (59.23, 62.54 and 62.84% respectively) and crude protein (63.34, 69.39 and 72.39% respectively) compared to the control diet. Furthermore, the nitrogen balance was significantly highest (p<0.05) in T4 (2.22 g/day), T3 (1.92 g/ day), then T2 (1.50 g/day) and T1 (1.45 g/day) which were significantly the same (p>0.05). Hence, the nitrogen retention (%) was significantly higher in goats fed diets T4 (74.69 g/day) and T3 (68.61 g/day) than T2 (55.85 g/ day) and T1 (54.86 g/day). It could be concluded that inclusion of bread waste and M. oleifera in the diet of goats led to improved performance characteristics.
... One of the most popular foods consumed worldwide is bread, which is also one of the ancient techniques ever discovered [14]. As new methods, instruments and devices are developed, this technology has in fact been continuously changing [24]. The idea of incorporating honey in bread preparation is not new. ...
Chapter
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Honey is a unique food owing to its rich composition. Honey consumption in the diets dates back to older times where it was used as a remedy for stomach aches, dehydration, allergies, intercellular damage, skin and hair problems, as well as for its astringent. Honey is used in several food formulations these days. The majority of population is demanding partial or complete replacement of sugar with some healthy sweeteners. Honey is one of the replacers offering so many benefits from being sweet to therapeutic. The unique healing properties of honey such as antiseptic, antibacterial and antiviral are well recognised. By harnessing the unique benefits of honey for formulating healthier products is very beneficial for overall nutrition and well-being. Many honey-containing products such as honey candy, honey spreads, honey bread, honey yoghurt and honey flakes have been prepared which showed increased therapeutic potential. Also, honey-containing beverages are becoming popular owing to its natural sweetness. Honey offers great scope for the development of value-added products or as an ingredient in several formulations.
... min (peak 4). To further characterize the changes in the Mw and (Selomulyo & Zhou, 2007). With strong water uptake, XG can evenly distribute water molecules in 375 the network so that breads still have good colour, visible pore proportion and volume before being 376 freeze-thawed for 120 days. ...
Article
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Xanthan gum (XG) is commonly used as a hydrocolloid in frozen dough to improve the texture and the sense quality of the products. The effects of XG on the molecular weight, secondary structure, microstructure of gluten and bread quality during freeze-thaw storage were studied. As results showed, XG and gluten formed more compact complexs through electrostatic interactions, which relieved the destruction of side chain molecules for gluten. XG protected the molecular weight of gluten proteins from 2×106 Da–108 Da. FTIR showed that XG-gluten mixtures had more α-helices (28.98%) and less intermolecular β-sheets (9.45%) compared with gluten. The secondary structure of XG-gluten remains unchanged under freeze-thaw treatment from 0 to 60 days. However, when the time reached 120 days, there was a decrease in α-helices (11.85%) and β-turns (6.28%) accompanied an increase by β-sheets (19.13%). CLSM revealed that XG gradually migrated to the centre with moisture after freeze-thaw storage, thereby protecting the gluten network. So the bread, prepared from XG-gluten mixtures, possessed superior colour, volume and visible pore proportion than bread without XG. Overall, the freeze-thaw stability of the gluten was enhance by XG under freeze-thaw treatment from 0 to 90 days.
... It was previously documented that GG has anti-staling properties that reduce the rate of starch retrogradation [24]. The anti-staling role of GG was attributed to its capability to better regulate moisture distribution within the bread starch-gluten matrix [25]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to develop two different functional breads (Pita and Tan-doori) supplemented with novel functional ingredients: waxy wheat flour (15%), inulin (8%) and guar gum (2%) independently and in combination. The breads were submitted to sensory characteristics , shelf life, glycaemic and satiety indices assessments. Both guar gum and inulin independently and in combination significantly (p < 0.05) decreased post-prandial blood glucose and glycemic response of Pita (GI of guar gum bread was 55%, inulin 57%) and Tandoori (GI of guar gum bread was 57% and inulin bread was 60%) compared to the control breads (GI 100%). Moreover , the results of the area under the curve of satiety showed that the addition of functional ingredients increased satiety levels as follows: for Pita, control was 355, a combination of all ingredients was 418, inulin was 451 and guar gum was 452; for Tandoori, control was 329, a combination of all ingredients was 420, inulin was 381 and guar gum was 390. The results showed that all sensory characteristics were improved, and breads were acceptable (all obtained more than five points) when the highest proportions of ingredients were added. Similarly, the shelf life of supplemented Pita and Tandoori breads was improved with the addition of ingredients. Therefore, the functional ingredients such as inulin and guar gum can be used independently and in combination to reduce GI and increase satiety of Pita and Tandoori bread with acceptable quality and shelf life.
... Gums have been shown to be effective antistaling agents, especially when utilized in new technologies such as BOT (baking off technologies). By applying these improvers, they can compensate for the damage caused by dough freezing [4]. After the addition of 0.2% xanthan gum, the water absorption of the dough increased by 1.6%, while the mixing tolerance index and degree of softening decreased by 40 Brabender Units (BU). ...
Article
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The functionality of hydrocolloids of different origins, gum Cordia (GC), and gum ziziphus (GZ) on pan bread and sponge cake quality and their potential use in retarding the staling process have been studied. The effects of the gums were determined by assessing the pasting qualities of wheat flour slurry, dough properties, and the finished product. After 24 and 96 h of storage, investigations were conducted on the finished product. Micro-doughLab was used to assess dough mixing qualities, and a texture profile analysis (TPA) test was used to assess the texture. A hedonic sensory test of texture, scent, taste, color, and general approval was also conducted. The type of gum used had a significant impact on the physical properties of the bread and cake and their evolution through time. Reduced amylose retrogradation was demonstrated by the lower peak viscosity and substantially lower setback of wheat flour gels, which corresponded to lower gel hardness. Gums were superior at increasing the bread loaf volume, especially GZ, although gums had the opposite effect on cake volume. After both storage periods, the hardness of the bread and cake was much lower than that of the control. Except when 2% GC was used, adding GC and GZ gums to bread and cake invariably increased the overall acceptability of the product. In terms of shelf-life, GZ was able to retain all texture parameters, volume, and general acceptability close to the control after storage.
... Ascorbic acid (AA) has gained an important role as improver not only due to its strong oxidizing effect on dough and improver of bread crumb structure that increases its volume but also because it is recognized as being a vitamin by the consumers [3][4][5]. Discrepancies exists among the authors about the levels used in order to improve final bread quality [3,6]. Besides the level, other factors such as the initial quality of flour and the breadmaking procedure affect the final bread quality [7]. ...
Conference Paper
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Background: Wheat flour quality varies largely, affecting the quality of the final baked products. In order to fulfil the consumer’s demand for bakery products with high quality and extended shelf-life different types of improvers have been used in the bakery industry. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different bread improvers on rheological parameters of dough made from all-purpose wheat flour comparing that with strong, soft, extra-soft and pastry wheat flour. Methods: One all-purpose wheat flour (control) was used in this study. As improvers of the control flour ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and L-Cysteine (CYS) were used at levels of 30 and 60 ppm, 10 and 20 ppm, 20 and 40 ppm on flour base, respectively. These improvers are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) within the EU. The tested flours were analysed by determination of several dough rheological parameters on alveograph, farinograph and extensograph. One strong wheat flour, one soft wheat flour, one extra soft wheat flour and one pastry flour were used for comparative reasons in this study. All the flours were refined at 70% extraction. Results: At the levels used, AA increased the dough tenacity (P) and decreased the dough biaxial extensibility (L) whereas the opposite was observed for CYS. On the other hand, CA addition did not significantly affect the dough tenacity but decreased biaxial extensibility. Extensograph measurements showed that the resistance to deformation was increased compared to control when AA and AC were added but decreased with the addition of CYS. Although the water absorption level was not affected by the addition of improvers the dough development time was decreased. AA increased the stability whereas CA and CYS decreased. Variations were observed due to the addition of improvers. They altered the rheology of the control dough but were not able to reassemble all the rheological characteristics of the commercial special flours used for comparative reasons in this study. Conclusion: The addition of improvers significantly affected the rheology of the dough but the extent was dependent on the type of additive added as well as the level added. CYS was more effective in decreasing the energy required to expand the dough, decreasing the flour strength compared to AA and CA. Thus, depending on baker’s needs, the type and amount of additive added differed.
... For instance, low-temperature technology has been initially applied to bakery products to solve the economic losses associated with the bread staling problem that produces a decrease of consumer acceptance. Recently, the technology of frozen dough, parbaked bread, and frozen bread is being incorporated as routine processes [1] The major component of bread is a starchybased carbohydrate that makes up about 70% of flour by weight. Basically, starch granules are attacked by enzymes present in the flour, they release the sugars that yeast feeds on. ...
Article
Bread is one of the most essential food products that is universally accepted as a very convenient form of food that has desirability to all population rich or poor, rural or urban dwellers. A staple food prepared by baking dough of flour, water and/or sugar. It is a good source of nutrients, such as macronutrients and micronutrients that are all essential for human Bread like other bakery products are subject to microbial contamination and spoilage by molds irrespective of the intrinsic composition of the product. The present study was carried out to identify the fungi associated with bread spoilage sold in Abuja metropolis, Nigeria and the possible health risks. Twenty-four (24) bread products from different locations within FCT, Abuja, Nigeria covering the six regions; Abaji, AMAC, Bwari, Gwagwalada, Kuje and Kwali were sampled and the molds associated with them were isolated using spread plate method. Based on the cultural and morphological characterizations using standard identification techniques, the mold namely Aspergillus sp. (29.7%), Mucor sp. (17.4%), Penicillum sp. (17.1%), Fusarium sp. (14.7%), Rhizopus sp. (8.0%), Cladosporium sp. (7.4%) Alternaria sp. (3.4%) and Geotricum sp. (2.3%) were found. The presence of mold is a signal to the possibility of mycotoxin build-up and other food safety risks. Therefore, bread manufacturer and distribution vendors need to periodically validate their preventive measures to control potential hazards associated with fungi-laden breads.
... Bread is one of the most widely consumed food product in the world. According to Selomulyo and Zhou,( 2007 )bread making technology is probably one of the oldest technology known, It is an important staple food for many countries. As a result of considered convenient foods Kansas (2006) . ...
... At the same time, amylose interacted through intermolecular hydrogen bonding and tended to form more ordered structures, which helped the retention of water in the noodle. Water molecules could interact with starch through hydrogen bonding, and played a certain role in plasticizing gel system and improved the springiness of noodles (Selomulyo and Zhou., 2007). However, as the retrogradation time increased, the degree of amylose re-arrangement increased, resulting in the increase of hardness and the decrease of springiness in starch noodles. ...
Article
In this study, effects of different retrogradation treatments including room temperature retrogradation (25-RT), 4 °C refrigerator retrogradation (4-LT), 4 °C water pre-cooling for 10 s (4-WP), 4 °C water pre-cooling for 10 s plus 4 °C refrigerator retrogradation (4-WP+4-LT) on the starch fine structure, noodle microstructure, cooking characteristics and in vitro starch digestibility of extruded whole buckwheat noodles were investigated. Results showed that 4-WP could facilitate the formation of starch gel network structure and retention of water molecules in noodles. The combined treatment of 4-LT and 4-WP+4-LT at 120 min had the highest retrogradation enthalpy (124.46 J/g) and highest degree of retrogradation which reflected by infrared ratio of absorbance at 1047 cm⁻¹/1022 cm⁻¹ (0.82) and relative crystallinity (24.93%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that large pores in noodle cross-sections disappeared and the microstructure was significantly improved after 4-WP+4-LT treatment, resulting in lowest noodle cooking loss (11.57%) and broken rate (2.22%), and highest hardness (1895.87 g). In addition, 4-WP also resulted in the highest springiness of 0.97. In vitro starch digestibility results showed that recrystallized structure formed by amylose reduced the catalytic efficiency of amylase, resulting in decreasing predicted glycemic index (pGI) from 79.33 to 71.85. These findings indicated that treatment of 4-WP+4-LT showed the great potential to produce whole buckwheat noodles with higher quality characteristics.
... Freezing of bread can also be regarded as a method for antistaling, with several additives being applied alongside for maintaining and improving bread quality, including the use of several hydrocolloids being documented and continuing to be explored. For example, the addition of sodium alginate is shown to augment the water absorption capacity due to the high level of hydroxyl group within its structure that allows for extensive water interactions through hydrogen bonding, as well as improving dough consistency, resistance to deformation, stability, and strength Selomulyo & Zhou, 2007). ...
Article
The unequivocal economical and social values of bread as a staple food commodity lead to constant interests in optimizing its postproduction quality and extending its shelf life, which is related to the maintenance and enhancement of flavors and textural properties, and finally, to the delay of microbial spoilage. The latter has been the subject of a multitude of studies and reviews, in which the different approaches and views were discussed. However, variations in bread freshness, flavor, and textural quality are still of concerns for the bread making industry, in conjunction with the expectation from consumers for bread products with high-quality attributes and free of synthetic ingredients that satisfy their pleasure and their sustainable lifestyle. This review mainly focuses on the quality profiles of bread, including flavor, rheological, textural, and sensorial aspects; on the modalities to assess them; as well as on the conventional and emerging approaches developed so far over the past decades. The applications of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and enzymes as bioprotective technologies are examined and discussed, along with active packaging and novel processing technologies for either the maintenance or improvement of bread qualities during storage.
... Dough freezing and frozen storage lead to several phenomena related to inferior final product quality: decrease of the dough strength, decrease in the retention capacity of CO 2 , loss of yeast activity, and increased fermentation time, with the consequent lowering of the bread volume and the crumb texture quality. The decrease in dough strength has been associated with the release of glutathione, a reducing substance that can break the disulfide bonds in gluten, and to the ice recrystallization that weakens dough by decreasing the degree of crosslinking among proteins (Selomulyo and Zhou, 2007). Zhao et al. (2013) studied the changes in gluten isolated from wheat dough when it was subjected to freeze-thaw cycles along a 120 days storage period through size-exclusion chromatographyÀmultiangle laser light scattering, spectrophotometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, the effects of hydrocolloids addition on bread quality and technological issues of bread production and storage are analyzed. It covers the most widely used hydrocolloids from diverse origins, including both the natural and the chemically modified ones. Different aspects of the interactions among hydrocolloids and the main wheat flour components, such as starch and proteins, and their influence on dough and bread characteristics are discussed. Hydrocolloids are also assessed as useful preservation agents to minimize the undesired changes related to bread staling, and also as suitable additives in bake-off technologies where they can help to minimize the damage produced by the freezing process. Hydrocolloids can also contribute in several ways to the formulation of healthier products. From a technological point of view, the incorporation of hydrocolloids into nutritionally improved mixtures of wheat and nonwheat flours can enhance the quality of bread that results affected when wheat flour is partially replaced. Besides, some more novel gums such as fenugreek seed gum, cress seed gum, and kefiran have deserved special attention as potential breadmaking additives due to their biological properties.
... Polysaccharides are the most widely used ingredients in the food industry. They can act as thickeners, gelling agents, antistalling agents, emulsifiers, stabilizers, fat replacers, and can have applications in the fields of edible films, flavour encapsulation, and inhibition of crystallization [98][99][100][101]. In addition, they have a great impact on dough rheology and bread quality and thus structure of gluten network [1]. ...
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This review presents applications of spectroscopic methods, infrared and Raman spectroscopies in the studies of the structure of gluten network and gluten proteins (gliadins and glutenins). Both methods provide complimentary information on the secondary and tertiary structure of the proteins including analysis of amide I and III bands, conformation of disulphide bridges, behaviour of tyrosine and tryptophan residues, and water populations. Changes in the gluten structure can be studied as an effect of dough mixing in different conditions (e.g., hydration level, temperature), dough freezing and frozen storage as well as addition of different compounds to the dough (e.g., dough improvers, dietary fibre preparations, polysaccharides and polyphenols). Additionally, effect of above mentioned factors can be determined in a common wheat dough, model dough (prepared from reconstituted flour containing only wheat starch and wheat gluten), gluten dough (lack of starch), and in gliadins and glutenins. The samples were studied in the hydrated state, in the form of powder, film or in solution. Analysis of the studies presented in this review indicates that an adequate amount of water is a critical factor affecting gluten structure.
... During frozen storage, the gluten network, glutelin and gliadin components of the dough are depolymerized which causes a final bread volume reduction (Havet et al., 2000;Ribotta et al., 2001). The final quality of bread baked from frozen dough also deteriorates if the storage temperature is not maintained below sub-zero temperature (Selomulyo and Zhou, 2007). The cryoprotective effect of hydrocolloids from freezing in baked food products has been demonstrated by several researchers. ...
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Freezing is one of the widely used preservation methods to preserve the quality of food products but it also results in deteriorative changes in textural properties of food which in turn affects its marketability. Different foodstuffs undergo different types of changes in texture, taste and overall acceptability upon freezing and subsequent frozen storage. Freezing and thawing of pre-cut or whole fruits and vegetables causes many deleterious effects including texture and drip losses. The major problem in stability of ice-cream is re-crystallization phenomena which happens due to temperature fluctuations during storage and finally impairs the quality of ice-cream. Frozen storage for longer periods causes rubbery texture in meat and fish products. To overcome these problems, hydrocolloids which are polysaccharides of high molecular weight, are used in numerous food applications involving gelling, thickening, stabilizing, emulsifying etc. They could improve the rheological and textural characteristics of food systems by changing the viscosity. They play a major role in retaining texture of fruits and vegetables after freezing. They provide thermodynamic stability to ice cream to control the process of re-crystallization. Hydrocolloids find application in frozen surimi, minced fish, and meat products due to their water-binding ability. They are also added to frozen bakery products to improve shelf-stability by retaining sufficient moisture and retarding staling. Various hydrocolloids impart different cryoprotective effects to food products depending upon their solubility, water-holding capacity, rheological properties, and synergistic effect with other ingredients during freezing and frozen storage.
... The addition of hydrocolloids to products prior to freezing can contribute to the stability of product quality and minimize adverse effects during freezing cycles or storage (Jiang, Zhang, Mujumdar, & Lim, 2014;Lagnika, Zhang, & Mothibe, 2013;Selomulyo & Zhou, 2007;Zhang et al., 2017). It is beneficial to decrease water mobility as hydrocolloids can compete water with the food components like starch and protein (Akbarian, Dehkordi, Ghasemkhani, Koladoozi, & Morshedi, 2015;Cheng, Zhang, Adhikari, & Islam, 2014;Lin, Liang, & Chang, 2016;Wang, Zhang, & Mujumdar, 2010;Wang, Zhang, Mujumdar, & Mothibe, 2013). ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of three different hydrocolloids (guar gum [GG], arabic gum [AG], and carrageenan gum) with the addition amounts of 0.25–1.00% on frozen vegetable balls quality. The qualities of vegetable balls after 0–5 freeze–thaw cycles (FTC) were evaluated in terms of the dehydration rate, thermal property, textural properties, gel strength, and water mobility and distribution. The results showed that the melting property of ice and cross‐linked structure of frozen vegetable balls can be ameliorated and the drip loss or dehydration can be slowed down by the addition hydrocolloids, thus improving the freeze–thaw stability. With an increasing number of FTC, loose structure was formed which resulted in to the poor quality of boiled product. The best cooking quality in terms of textural properties (springiness, hardness, and gel strength values), dehydration, and melting enthalpy change after 5 FTC was in the order of balls added with 0.50% GG, 0.75% AG, and 0.50% carrageenan. In conclusion, the overall results showed that the addition of hydrocolloids can improve the freeze–thaw stability and cooking characteristics of vegetable balls. Practical applications Appropriate addition of hydrocolloids could reduce the negative influence of freeze–thaw cycles on vegetable balls quality by improving physical stability, increasing the content of bound water, and maintaining the dense texture of the product. By an in‐depth study of hydrocolloids in food preparation technology, different types hydrocolloids can be used for the improvement of freeze–thaw stability vegetable products, which has potential for a wide application and development prospects.
... These results were in agreement with Gray and Bemiller (2003) who reported that hydrocolloids were added to bakery products to extend their shelf-life by keeping the moisture content and retarding the staling during storage. Selomulyo and Zhou,(2007) reported that the presence of this hydrocolloid increased the moisture content in the final bread. ...
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This study aimed to use red algae Pterocladia capillacea as functional food. Red algae was incorporated in the formulations of balady bread at 2, 3 and 4 %. The effect of supplementation on chemical composition, minerals content, physical, chemical, and sensory properties of balady bread besides, rheological properties of wheat flour were studied. The protein, lipid, ash and fiber contents in red algae were 25.21, 2.28, 25.13 and 11.29%, respectively. Red algae was rich in all minerals compared to wheat flour. Only, phosphorous was higher in wheat flour than in red algae. Red algae was rich in the total essential amino acids. Rheological properties indicated that water absorption increased gradually from 54.2% for the control wheat flour dough to 62.2% for wheat flour dough supplemented with 4% red algae. Also, dough development time increased slightly for wheat flour supplemented with different levels of red algae. Balady bread supplemented with 4% red algae had the highest fiber and ash contents (2.33 and 2.20%, respectively). Supplementation of balady bread with tested red algae led to increasing the minerals content. Firmness values decreased by increasing red algae levels compared to the control balady bread. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that control balady bread and bread supplemented with 2% red algae exhibited good organoleptic properties score.
... The frozen dough has been widely used across retail bakeries and market chains since the last 20 years (Decock and Cappelle, 2005) to meet consumer demand for bread and other baked goods in an expedite manner (Omedi et al., 2019). However, freezing negatively affects the fermentative capacity of yeast and the integrity of dough gluten (Seguchi et al., 2003), resulting in poor gas retention, reduced bread loaf volume, and shorter shelf life (Selomulyo and Zhou, 2007;Phimolsiripol, 2009). These changes have been attributed to the redistribution of moisture in the dough matrix and the development of ice crystals during freezing (Le Bail et al., 2005;Carr et al., 2006;Chen et al., 2013;Huen et al., 2014), which affect dough viscoelasticity and textural properties (Meziani et al., 2012). ...
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the freezing rate and frozen storage duration on the rheological properties and protein structure of the non-fermented dough. The samples were frozen at −40 (0.149 °C/min), −30 (0.086 °C/min) and −20 °C (0.039 °C/min), and stored at −18 °C for 30 days. Freezing at −40 and −30 °C led to minimal changes in the rheological properties of the non-fermented dough. Additionally, −40 °C freezing resulted in higher maximum creep compliance (Jmax) and lower zero shear viscosity (η0). The content of glutenin macro-polymers (GMP) decreased gradually throughout the storage period, while that of free thiol groups (-SH) increased significantly, especially for samples frozen at −20 °C. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that slower freezing rate and prolonged storage led to a significant decrease in the proportion of α-helices, and a notable increase in that of β-sheets and random coils. The gluten network was severely deteriorated by a slower freezing rate but was relatively intact in the −40 and −30 °C frozen dough samples.
... Hydrocolloids have a wide number of functional properties in foods such as thickening, emulsifying and stabilization [13]. They also have the ability to control the viscosity and texture of liquid and semi-liquid food systems through the stabilization of emulsions and foaming characteristics [14,15]. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) ...
Article
Due to the busy and fast paced lifestyle in modern times, the demand for healthy and ready-to-cook foods has increased to a great extent. In the present study, ready-to-bake whole grain barley cake mix formulas were developed by the use of different additive (i.e. carboxymethyl cellulose CMC, maltodextrin and emulsifier), and were assessed with the aim of achieving nutritional benefits, shorter preparation times and improved cake quality. Results showed that incorporation of the aforementioned additives into the dry mix formulations led to the production of cakes with lower fat content and caloric value (up to 7.1%) less than the control cake, with improved physical characteristics such as higher volume and specific volume. Texture profile analysis showed an enhancement in cake textural properties such as lower hardness, springiness and chewiness. Sensory evaluation of test cakes demonstrated a general improvement in sensory attributes like cell structure, crumb grain and softer texture. Flavor of cakes in which 100% of fats was replaced by maltodextrin received significantly lower score. However, and in term of total sensory score, most of the developed cake mix formulas had significantly higher sensory scores than their control counterpart.
... As gomas, mucilagens, hidrocolóides ou os polissacarídeos solúveis em água são designações dadas às substâncias que apresentam função de agente espessante ou gelificante (Bobbio & Bobbio, 1992, Houben, Höchstötter, & Becker, 2012. Compostos capazes de controlar as propriedades reológicas e de textura da massa, principalmente devido sua capacidade de retenção de água (Selomulyo & Zhou, 2007, Chakrabortya, Kotwaliwale, & Navale, 2020. Dessa forma, a estabilidade e vida útil de novas formulações de produtos é um pré-requisito essencial para garantir a qualidade do produto e sua aceitação comercial (Morozova et al., 2020). ...
Article
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A mucilagem de pseudocereais apresenta aplicação na indústria de panificação como espessante, gelificante e emulsificante. Esse estudo objetivou verificar a influência da adição das mucilagens de semente de chia (Salvia hispanica L.) e linhaça marrom (Linum usitatissimum L) na qualidade tecnológica de pães tipo forma. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas das mucilagens e farinha de trigo; glútens úmido e índex da farinha de trigo; cararterísticas físicas e tecnológicas dos pães. A avaliação dos parâmetros da textura dos pães deu-se através do delineamento composto central rotacional, por superfície de resposta e suas respectivas curvas de contorno. As mucilagens de chia e linhaça apresentaram respectivamente, umidade de 4,37 % e 7,23 %; cinzas 7,56 % e 4,42 %; proteínas 16,32 % e 17,69 %; lipídeos 2,79 % e 0,98 %; carboidratos 21,43 % e 23,47%. Aumentando-se a concentração de mucilagem de linhaça (> 0,3%) e de chia (0,1 a 0,4%) elevou a dureza dos pães. Essa influencia não se observou na elasticidade e coesão. A luminosidade do miolo variou segundo a concentração da mucilagem adicionada, aproximando-se da cor preta e evidenciando que a coloração das mucilagens influenciou significativamente a cor do miolo dos pães. Considerando os resultados obtidos, a adição das mucilagens afetou positivamente as características nos pães.
... Bread is one of the most important staple foods, consumed all around the world in its varying forms. Due to high demand and desire for freshly prepared bread throughout the day, bakers have sought to exert greater control over the baking process and more accurately match supply and demand, increase efficiency and reduce food waste (Selomulyo and Zhou, 2007;Cauvain and Young, 2007). Technologies such as refrigerated dough (Tao et al., 2018), frozen dough, par-baked (Almeida et al., 2016) and ready-to-eat (RTE) have been developed for this purpose. ...
Article
Despite Saccharomyces cerevisiae being a synonym for baker's yeast, the species does not perform well in all baking-related conditions. In particular, dough fermentation, or proofing, is compromised by the species' sensitivity to the low and freezing temperatures that are often used in modern bakeries. Here, screening trials that included representatives of all known Saccharomyces species, showed that S. cerevisiae was generally the most sensitive member of the genus with respect to cold and freezing conditions. We hypothesized therefore that the superior cold tolerance of the non-S. cerevisiae yeast would enable their use as frozen-dough baking strains. To test this, the different yeast species were incorporated into doughs, flash frozen and kept in a frozen state for 14 days. During the proofing stage, dough development was lower in doughs that had been frozen, relative to fresh doughs. This reduction in fermentation performance was however most pronounced with S. cerevisiae. The psychrotolerant yeasts S. eubayanus, S. jurei and S. arboricola showed a strong capacity for post-freeze proofing in terms of dough development and duration of lag phase prior to fermentation. The superior proofing power of these species resulted in breads that were significantly softer and less dense than those prepared with S. cerevisiae. A sensory panel could distinguish the S. cerevisiae and non-S. cerevisiae breads based on their physical properties, but aroma and taste were unaffected by the species employed. To further improve frozen dough baking properties, S. eubayanus, S. jurei and S. arboricola were crossed with baker's yeast through rare mating, and hybrids with improved proofing capacities in both fresh and frozen doughs relative to the parents were created. The use of S. jurei and S. arboricola in baking represents the first potential technological application of these species.
Chapter
The most useful properties of food, i.e. the ones that are detected through look, touch and taste, are a manifestation of the food’s structure. Studies about how this structure develops or can be manipulated during food production and processing are a vital part of research in food science. This book provides the status of research on food structure and how it develops through the interplay between processing routes and formulation elements. It covers food structure development across a range of food settings and consider how this alters in order to design food with specific functionalities and performance. Food structure has to be considered across a range of length scales and the book includes a section focusing on analytical and theoretical approaches that can be taken to analyse/characterise food structure from the nano- to the macro-scale. The book concludes by outlining the main challenges arising within the field and the opportunities that these create in terms of establishing or growing future research activities. Edited and written by world class contributors, this book brings the literature up-to-date by detailing how the technology and applications have moved on over the past 10 years. It serves as a reference for researchers in food science and chemistry, food processing and food texture and structure.
Article
The goal of this research was to analyze the possibility of replacing palm fat (PF) by a novel and “healthier” alternative – high-oleic rapeseed oil oleogels in short-dough biscuits in terms of the oxidative stability of lipids. Oleogelators ethylcellulose (EC), candelilla wax (CLX) and monoacyloglycerol (MAG) were used in the research. In order to decrease the oxidation of the oleogels green tea extract (GTE) was added. Biscuits with oleogels and GTE that had similar oxidative stability were used in the control with PF. The anisidine value of the lipid fractions obtained from biscuits with GTE was lower. The biggest changes during the storage of the fatty acids profile were found for the lipid fraction of biscuits with PF. However, according to the accelerated oxidative test the best stability index was that of biscuits with PF, this test also confirmed the positive effect of GTE on oxidative stability. The recipe composition influenced the color of the products. Biscuits with GTE had lower values of total color differences after 15 weeks of storage. Products with MAG oleogel had the highest values of breaking strength. Finally, biscuits with CLX had the most similar texture to the control sample with PF.
Article
This study investigates the effects of polydextrose on the rheological and fermentation properties of frozen dough and the quality of Chinese steamed bread (CSB). Dough is frozen by spiral tunnel freezing and stored at −18 °C for 49 days, and CSB is produced using the frozen dough. Results show that the gas producing capacity, gas holding capacity, and viscoelasticity of the frozen dough decrease as the frozen storage time progresses. However, these properties improve in the frozen dough added with polydextrose. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis shows that the melting enthalpy (ΔHm) of the frozen dough enhanced after storage. By contrast, the ΔHm of the frozen dough added with polydextrose decreases after storage, indicating high water holding capacity and homogeneous, small ice crystal structure of the frozen dough. Moreover, the addition of polydextrose reduces the hardness and porosity of CSB, which improves the quality of the bread. Thus, adding polydextrose can improve the rheological and fermentation properties of frozen dough and the quality of CSB. The addition of polydextrose improves the viscoelasticity, gas producing capacity, and gas holding capacity of the frozen dough. Meanwhile, these properties of frozen dough added with polydextrose are beneficial to a lower hardness and porosity in Chinese steamed bread (CSB).
Article
The effects of xanthan gum (XG), konjac gum (KG) and mixed gum of XG and KG (MG) on the gel properties of Oviductus Ranae (OR) were studied using texture analysis, dynamic rheometry, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The addition of both XG and MG can increase the hardness and water-holding capacity and energy storage modulus of the OR gel, but the addition of KG has the opposite effect. When the mass ratio of XG to KG is 1:1, the hardness (730 g), springiness (1.00) and chewiness (218.48 g) of the OR gel are all maximized. The addition of MG significantly more enhances the hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction, compared with the addition of only XG or KG, so the OR gel forms a denser and more stable network structure. Our results provide valuable information for further design and preparation of OR gel foods containing XG and KG.
Article
Chia seed gum (CSG) plays an important role in the aggregation and structural properties of gluten protein. The experimental results showed that adding 1.0 % CSG increased the freezing rate and shortened the freezing time by 42.3 % compared with gluten without CSG. At the same time, CSG had no significant effect on the composition of the gluten subunit but could better control the change in binding water and delay the structural deterioration caused by the extension of time (30 d). The viscoelasticity of gluten was increased, but only with the addition of 0.2–0.6 % CSG. In addition, it increased the denaturation transition temperature (Tp) and the degradation temperature (Td) of gluten protein to reduce the occurrence of recrystallization and resist pyrolysis. During frozen storage, gluten can form fine ice crystals and inhibit the transformation of α-helices and β-turns to random coils and β-sheets, which is more conducive to long-term frozen storage.
Article
The objective of this study was to the effects of subfreezing storage on the denaturation of gluten protein and the water retention of dough during frozen storage was studied. The surface hydrophobicity, secondary structure, thermal stability, microstructure and moisture distribution of gluten protein were measured. The results showed that at the end of storage, the hydrophobicity indexes of wheat gluten proteins (‐9 °C and ‐12 °C) stored under subfreezing condition were significantly lower than those stored at 4 °C and slightly lower than those stored at ‐18 °C. And the secondary structure stability of wheat gluten stored at ‐18 °C was similar. P21 stored at ‐18 °C was significantly higher than that stored at 4 °C, and showed an upward trend. The quality of dough is similar to ‐18 °C storage. The deformation and water retention of gluten during subfreezing storage are similar to ‐18 °C storage. The changes of dough moisture and gluten protein structure during frozen storage at different freezing temperatures were explored to provide a theoretical basis for the application of sub‐frozen storage in frozen flour products industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
The chapter, which describes baked products, is divided into five sections. (1). Introduction, the United States (US) baked product industry, the European Union bakery industry, semi-cooked frozen dough and dry mixes. (2). Bread, rolls, and buns. Standards of identity, enriched bread rolls and buns, milk bread, rolls, and buns; general ingredients. (3). Bread manufacture, dough handling, straight dough, sponge dough method, batter whipped process or continuous mix baking. (4). Other popular cereal products, the cakes and cookies, doughnuts, crackers, pie crusts. (5). Bakery products and health, low- and no-fat bakery items, other health issues for bakery products. (6). Further reading. With 55 references.
Article
Vitamin C (VC) can greatly enhance the quality properties of dough and steamed bread in the food field. However, there are few studies on the interaction between VC and gluten, and the mechanism of VC influencing the foaming capacity, emulsifiablity, and dynamic viscosity of gluten is not clear. In this study, different content of VC (0, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%) was added to gluten to obtain VC-gluten dough samples (CK, GV1, GV2, GV3, GV4 and GV5), and the properties of the VC-gluten dough were determined. Results showed that the increasing VC content lead to increase in the content of high-, medium- and low-molecular weight gluten, suggesting that VC improved the protein solubility of gluten. The G' and G" values of dough containing VC were higher than those of the control with the increase of scanning frequency. The foaming ability of gluten increased with the increase of VC content. Emulsibility of the dough of GV1 to GV 5 were significantly lower than that of the CK. Furthermore, VC could reduce the number of bubbles in gluten protein, when the VC content was less than 3%. In conclusion, VC might reduce the emulsifying characteristic and emulsifying stability of gluten, increase the solubility of gluten, and improve the dynamic viscosity of gluten dough by changing the content of disulfide bond in gluten. This study hopes to not only improve the functional characteristics of gluten protein, but also provide the basis for future development and improvement of VC-enriched health foods.
Article
The impact of freeze-thaw cycles on the physicochemical properties and frying performance of frozen Youtiao dough with chemical leavening agent was investigated. The specific volume of Youtiao made from frozen dough decreased by 66% after 4 freeze-thaw cycles. Meanwhile, the hardness and puncture force showed increasing trends, and the fibrous structure became unclear. The extensibility, storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G′′) of frozen Youtiao dough decreased during freeze-thaw cycles, while the creep compliance increased. Changes in rheological properties demonstrated that frozen Youtiao dough was more deformable and its strength was weakened. Moreover, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) extractable protein and free sulfhydryl content increased, revealing that protein was depolymerized. The loose structure with large pores and fractured protein network were observed by micromorphology. Freeze-thaw cycles had a detrimental effect on the Youtiao quality, which was related to the deterioration of rheological properties and protein structure of frozen Youtiao dough.
Article
Due to the crucial role of gluten network in maintaining the tensile properties of frozen-cooked noodles (FCNs), the underlying mechanism of protective effect of curdlan on FCNs quality during frozen storage was explored from the perspective of aggregation behavior and structure of gluten in this study. The results showed that curdlan weakened the depolymerization behavior of gluten proteins through inhibiting the disruption of disulfide bonds; Curdlan stabilized the secondary structure of gluten proteins by restraining the transformation of compact α-helices to other secondary structures; Atomic force microscope results implied that curdlan inhibited the aggregation of gluten chains; Confocal laser scanning microscopy observation analyzed by AngioTool software indicated that the connectivity and uniformity of gluten network were enhanced because of curdlan. This study may provide more comprehensive theories for the strengthening effect of curdlan on FCNs quality from the perspective of gluten structure and contribute to the quality improvement of FCN in the food technology field.
Article
Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh), an ampholetic chitosan derivative, has found broad applications in the food industry. However, its cryo-protective properties remained less explored compared to other viscous polysaccharides, such as carboxymethyl cellulose, carrageenan etc., which have been widely utilized as frozen food additives. In this study, we investigated the effect of CMCh addition to frozen dough in terms of water state, protein structure, and the textural properties of prepared frozen dumpling wrappers. Results indicated that CMCh restricted the water migration in dough and delayed protein deterioration during frozen storage. Specifically, the content of freezable water in dough was reduced and the water distribution became more uniform as reflected by DCS and LF-NMR analysis. CMCh also stabilized disulfide bond and secondary structures of the protein, leading to inhibition of dough rheology changes. Accordingly, the obtained frozen dumplings wrappers demonstrated decreased cracking rate and water loss, and improved textural properties. Moreover, CMCh with higher degree of carboxymethyl substitution (DS: 1.2, CMCh-B) exhibited better cryo-protective effects compared to CMCh of lower DS (DS: 0.8, CMCh-A). Our study provides novel insights and scientific basis for the development of ampholetic polysaccharides as high-performance food additives.
Article
Although freezing is by far the most common method of food preservation, deteriorative changes in food quality are inevitable because of the formation of ice crystals and other physicochemical reactions. In recent years, cryoprotective agents from natural sources have attracted great interest and been applied to the frozen food industry to overcome freezing damage. Natural polysaccharides have been proved to inhibit ice crystals formation. They possess cryo-stabilized effects due to their rheological properties and antioxidant activity, thus showing great potential in food to achieve the desired cryoprotection levels. In this review, we first summarized the quality damage of food during freezing and frozen storage. Next, the effects of natural polysaccharides on the formation of ice crystals were discussed from the three aspects of ice nucleation, growth, and ice recrystallization. The review focused on the action mechanism of polysaccharides on ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI), in which the polysaccharide-ice interaction and the water perturbation by hydration of polysaccharides might play critical roles in the IRI. Moreover, the cryo-stabilized effects of polysaccharides on food systems were discussed. This review is expected to shed new light on the antifreeze mechanism of natural polysaccharides, inspiring further research into exploring and applying new polysaccharide resources for food cryoprotection.
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           
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Background and objectives Flour heat treatment is commonly used to improve dough and bread quality. This study creatively proposed applying partial pre‐heated dough (PPHD) to frozen dough, and evaluated bread characteristics and its internal mechanism systematically. Findings Results suggested that moderate PPHD level presented higher specific volume, softer hardness, more appealing brown crust color and more uniform texture of frozen dough bread. Moisture status analysis showed that PPHD restricted the mobility of overall water molecules and the migration from bound water to semi‐bound water. DSC and RVA results suggested that the inter‐ and intramolecular association of starch granules, leading to abundant formation of hydrogen bonds, strengthened the gluten matrix network. Besides, gelatinized starch granules in PPHD served as a paste to promote the cross‐linking of starch and gluten, which was observed by SEM. Conclusions PPHD inhibited ice recrystallization by restricting water migration, and formed a highly networked starch‐gluten structure that delayed its destruction during freezing. Significance and novelty This study demonstrated obvious improvement of PPHD on frozen dough quality and further explained the mechanism systematically. Moreover, the method was innovative, simple and easy to operate, so it could help to promote the development of the frozen dough industry.
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Chinese steamed breads (CSB) and noodles are staple foods for many people. The production of frozen steamed products and boiled noodles has kept increasing. This is due to the increasing demand of ready-to-eat frozen food products from the market. Frozen storage significantly increases self-life of the products and reduces the production costs. On the other hand, the freezing and frozen storage lead to quality loss of the frozen products. This review summarizes effects of freezing and frozen storage on diverse quality attributes (e.g., structural and textural properties) of frozen northern-type steamed breads and boiled noodles. Food safety of the frozen products related to the COVID-19 pandemic is also discussed. To counteract the quality loss of the frozen products, suitable processing methods, selection of basic ingredients and uses of various food additives can be done. Research gaps to improve the textural, cooking and nutritional quality of frozen CSB and noodles are suggested.
Chapter
This chapter presents an overview of the different methods used to produce bake-off products, known collectively as bake-off technology (BOT). The bake-off concept involves the manufacture of semifinished products in factories, which are then finished in baking stations situated at the point of retail. Freezing permits the extension of the shelf life of food and is very often a part of the bake-off process. The bake-off processes most commonly used are the partially baked frozen and unfrozen dough methods and the unfermented frozen dough method. In addition, other methods are being developed such as the prefermented frozen dough process.
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Turanose was evaluated as an alternative to sugar in a frozen dough system in terms of rheology, tomography, and baking performance. The use of turanose for sugar did not negatively affect the thermos-mechanical parameters of wheat dough including development time and stability. In the case of thermal properties, the gelatinization temperature was lowered by turanose from 68 to 64oC. The dynamic viscoelastic measurements demonstrated that the turanose-incorporated doughs showed more viscous characteristics by showing greater decreases in the storage modulus that could also be related to greater dough extensibility. When the frozen doughs were baked, the turanose-incorporated bread showed a significant increase in its specific loaf volume from 4.23 to 4.41 mL/g. These volume differences could be attributed to the inner structural characteristics (increased total volume of pore space and total porosity) of the breads measured by the tomographic analysis. Furthermore, the positive effects of turanose on the soft texture of frozen dough breads were distinctly observed.
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The purpose of this study is to explore a new storage method for frozen fermented dough. ‐9 °C and ‐12 °C are selected as subfreezing storage temperatures according to the results of low‐field nuclear magnetic resonance. The effects of subfreezing storage on the properties of dough were investigated and compared with that storage at 4 °C and ‐18 °C. The results showed the density of hydrogen protons in fermented dough under subfreezing temperatures was similar to that of the sample at ‐18 °C. Slow increase in titratable acidity and slow decrease in pH of dough were found at subfreezing temperatures and ‐18 °C. The hardness could effectively be reduced and the texture of dough were maintained under subfreezing temperatures. There was no significant difference in the gluten network and sensory quality of the dough between subfreezing temperature storage and ‐18 °C storage.
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Bread as the main foodstuff all over the world is generally based on wheat flour due to its unique properties to form a three-dimensional gluten network. In fact, the quality of bread is influenced by wheat gluten quality and quantity. The quality of gluten protein is mainly defined based on its amino acids composition and bonding (covalent and noncovalent). Gluten protein quality is considered to be weak based on its essential amino acid content: lysine and threonine. Covalent crosslinks as the main factor in determining the integrity of gluten network is also interrupted by activity of proteolytic enzymes and reducing agents. Different treatments (physical, chemical and enzymatic) are used to alleviate these detrimental effects and improve the bread making quality of wheat flour. Given that, food industry is looking for using enzymes (respecting their specificity, ease of use and low risk of toxic products formation) microbial transglutaminase is an efficient option, considering its ability to introduce new crosslinks. This new crosslink formation can either improve gluten protein quality in damaged wheat flour or imitate the function of gluten protein in gluten free bread. The aim of this article is to review the application of microbial transglutaminase enzyme as an improving agent in wheat bread industry.
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Effect of pigskin gelatin and its hydrolysates on overall changes that frozen dough underwent during storage was investigated. The results showed that gelatin from pigskin could fortified the frozen dough bread quality, embodying in larger bread volume, softer and more uniform bread crumb. Impact of pigskin gelatin on changes in the structure of gluten network in frozen dough was evaluated by different techniques. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed gelatin may inhibit the crosslinking of HMW macromolecules and entangle with SDS-soluble LMW proteins. The increased SDS-soluble proteins suggested a lower aggregation extent of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) caused by pigskin gelatin. However, the significant reduction in GMP depolymerization degree and thiol groups (-SH) content after 60-day frozen storage in presence of gelatin indicated the formation of a more resistant gluten structure against the distortion of ice crystals. There were no significant differences in the alteration of secondary structure and high-temperature stability between gelatin-depleted and gelatin-fortified groups. Nevertheless, the effect of pigskin gelatin on qualities of frozen dough was independent on its hydrolysis degree.
Chapter
Carbohydrates are found in all living organisms. Indeed, they are the most abundant of the natural organic compounds. It is estimated that well over half the organic carbon on earth is in the form of carbohydrates, the great majority of it in plants. Almost three-fourths of the dry weight of plants is carbohydrate, most of which is in cell walls (structural components). In higher land plants, these carbohydrate components of the cell wall are cellulose, the hemicelluloses, and the pectic substances. The subject of this chapter is the carbohydrates other than those that are constituents of primary or secondary cell walls.
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Effects of honey type and level on the baking and sensory properties of frozen doughs were investigated. The types of honey used included a liquid variety containing 81.4% honey solids and a dry variety with 70% honey solids. The two types tested at levels ranging from 4 to 12% (flour basis) and compared with control nonfrozen and frozen doughs containing 6% sugar. Doughs were prepared by a modified short-time dough procedure and frozen at -18°C. After two weeks of frozen storage, the doughs were thawed, and replicate samples were baked. Addition of higher amounts of liquid honey (≥8%) improved the baking properties of frozen doughs. Dry honey was most effective in lowering crumb firmness of breads baked from frozen doughs. Neither honey variety nor sugar could adequately protect the doughs from the adverse effects of repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Sensory panelists scored breads baked from frozen doughs containing 10% liquid honey and the nonfrozen control with 6% sugar the highest in overall product acceptability.
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the manufacturing, properties, and applications of guar, locust bean, tara, and fenugreek gums. Guar gum is obtained from the seed of the legume Cyamopsis tetragonolobus. Guar is grown principally as a food crop for animals and an ingredient in human foods. The germ portion of its seed is predominantly protein, and the endosperm is predominantly guar galactomannan. Guar gum can be produced from endosperm splits, simply by grinding in attrition mills, hammer mills, or other size-reduction equipment. Guar gum and its hydroxypropyl and carboxymethyl ethers are used in the petroleum industry as additives for aqueous and water/methanol-based fracturing fluids. Locust bean gum and its derivatives are used in a variety of industrial applications. Tara gum—sometimes called huarango, guaranga, or Peruvian carob—is a galactomannan with a galactosyl: mannosyl ratio between those of locust bean gum and guar gum. Fenugreek seed contains about 25% protein high in both lysine and tryptophan although lower in methionine and cystine than other legumes.
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The use of frozen dough by retail bakers for production of fresh bread, rolls, and Danish pastries offers economic advantages and convenience as compared with the traditional practice of’ scratch’ baking (weighing out individual ingredients, then mixing, shaping, fermenting and baking). Improvements in frozen dough quality have made its use increasingly attractive. It has become a mainstay of supermarket ‘deli’ bakeries; it is difficult to find qualified bakers to supervise the proper mixing and baking of the many products offered by these retail outlets, but any reasonably responsible worker can properly proof and bake-off frozen dough products. For more complicated items, such as Danish or croissants, those aspects of production that require much time and skill are handled by the manufacturer, rather than being left to relatively inexperienced deli personnel, resulting in superior product quality. The frozen dough manufacturer can practice economies of scale (in purchasing raw materials, in processing, and in automated equipment) that are not available to the small baker. Even with the added costs of freezing and frozen storage and transportation, the final product cost to the baker is likely less than for similar scratch product, if the costs of labor and overhead are taken into account.
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Simple recipe breads with different water contents were allowed to stale in well-defined conditions. Bread crumb was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and stress-strain determinations. Calorimetric investigations extended to subambient temperature allowed an exothermic signal to be recognized just about room temperature that appeared partially reversible on repeated heating-cooling cycles across the -10 to 35°C range. The corresponding thermal effect was maximum after aging 8-10 hr. According to the TGA investigations, the release of water on heating revealed two main binding states: water-1 and water-2. The relevant fractions were bread-age dependent; water-1 reached a minimum after aging 8-10 hr at room temperature, while the overall water content remained practically unchanged. These findings suggested a model for the extension of a crosslink network throughout the bread crumb. Water molecules would be displaced along polymer chains acting as sliders of an interchain zipper. The consequent direct interchain crosslinks would allow formation of a network that would justify the increasing firmness of the crumb. The same mechanism would also sustain the growth of amylopectin crystals. Accordingly, the observed correlation between starch retrogradation (evaluated from the endothermic effect of amylopectin fusion) and increased crumb firmness should be reconsidered in the frame of a more general picture where water molecules play a key role in the definition of the product structure.
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Conformations of purified α-, β-, γ- and ω-gliadins were characterised in various solvents by gel permeation chromatography. Their surface hydrophobicities were measured in the same conditions by TNS binding. All gliadins undergo conformation modifications when pH and salt concentrations were increased from 3.0 to 5.0 and 0 to 10-2 M respectively. It results of a transition from expanded conformation to a more compactly folded structure. Aggregation occurred for highest values of pH and salt concentrations resulting from the association of folded monomers. These conformation changes were accompanied by a decrease of accessible surface hydrophobicity. The decrease of ω-gliadin hydrophobicity was particularly marked. In aggregating conditions also, α-, β-, γ- and (γ-gliadins differ by their surface hydrophobicities.
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Thermogelation of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) samples (E4M, F4M and K4M from Dow) follows the two-stage mechanism observed previously for methylcellulose (A4M) and attributed to dissociation of cellulosic ‘bundles’ as a necessary precursor to hydrophobic association. All four samples show the same unusual form of shear thinning, indicating similar macromolecular organisation in solution. The hydroxypropyl substituents in HPMC, however, appear to inhibit intermolecular association since, in comparison with A4M, the proportion of visible high-resolution 1H-NMR signal in the solution state is higher, thermogelation does not occur until higher temperature, and the resulting gels are substantially weaker. Thermal ‘demixing’ of Klucel, a highly substituted hydroxypropylcellulose from Hercules, occurs at essentially the same temperature as resolubilisation on cooling, supporting the conclusion that the thermal hysteresis observed between formation and dissociation of methylcellulose and HPMC gels arises from melting and re-formation of the postulated ‘bundle’ structure, and not from hydrophobic interactions.
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Breadmaking properties (bread height, mm, and specific volume, cm(3)/g) showed marked deterioration when bread dough was frozen and stored at -20degreesC for one day. However, these properties of bread dough baked after storage for three to six days were not further deteriorated as compared with that baked after one day of storage. A large amount of liquid was oozed from the frozen-and-thawed bread dough. The liquid was separated from the bread dough by centrifugation (38,900 x g for 120 min at 4degreesC), and collected by tilting the centrifuge tube at an angle of 45degrees for 30 min. There was a strong correlation between the amount of centrifuged liquid and breadmaking properties (bread height and specific volume). The mechanism responsible for the oozing of liquid in frozen-and-thawed bread dough was studied. The presence of yeast and salt in bread dough was suggested to be closely related to the amount of centrifuged liquid, and fermented products particularly had a large effect on the amount of centrifuged liquid.
Article
The objective of this study was to examine treatments that directly influence Norwegian lean doughs destined to be frozen. Therefore a strip-block experimental design with four dough treatment factors (wheat flour blend, diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides [DATEM], water absorption, and dough temperature) and two storage factors (frozen storage time and thawing time) was used. Four levels were selected for frozen storage time and two levels were selected for the remaining factors. After frozen storage (2-70 days), the doughs were thawed and baked. Principal component analysis showed that to obtain a high loaf volume and bread score after freezing, a high dough temperature after mixing (27 degrees C) was essential. The highest form ratio (height/width) level was obtained after 28 days of frozen storage and with a short thawing time (6 hr). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of dough treatments showed that an increase in dough temperature from 20 to 27 degrees C after mixing resulted in a significant increase in loaf volume (1,653 to 2,264 mL), form ratio (0.64 to 0.69), and bread score (1.7 to 3.2), and a reduction in loaf weight (518.4 to 512.5 g) and crumb score (7.9 to 5.9, i.e., a more open bread crumb). Also, the addition of DATEM significantly increased loaf volume (1,835 to 2,081 mL), form ratio (0.64 to 0.69), and bread score (2.2 to 2.6). Frozen dough storage time significantly affected loaf volume, loaf weight, bread score, and crumb score. Increasing thawing time from 6 to 10 hr significantly increased loaf volume (1,855 to 2,121 mL), and reduced the form ratio (0.69 to 0.63) and loaf weight (516.8 to 511.4 g). ANOVA of the interaction between dough treatment and frozen storage time showed that decreasing water absorption significantly increased the loaf volume.
Article
Texture properties of wheat doughs were determined with a texturometer by using texture profile analysis (TPA) as well as Chen and Hoseney methodologies. The time elapsed between two compressions and strain were optimized so that meaningful values were obtained for TPA. Single effects and interactions between flour type, the breadmaking process and anti-staling additives (i. e. monoglycerides, diacetyl tartaric ester of monoglycerides, sodium stearoyl lactylate, carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) on dough texture properties (i. e. springiness, resilience, hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, chewiness, gumminess and stickiness) were estimated. The breadmaking process and addition of hydrocolloids had the most important effects and interactions on TPA. Hydrocolloids and α-amylase increased dough stickiness. Dough cohesiveness was a good predictive parameter of bread quality. Water content, acidity values and gluten quality were the main factors determining the texture properties of dough.
Article
The effects of commercial sucrose ester emulsifiers (Ryoto, Mitsubishi-Kasei Food Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) on alveograph rheological dough properties of a commercial hard red winter (HRW) wheat flour were determined. The esters were evaluated alone or combined to produce blends of varying hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB). In general, Alveograph dough rheological properties improved as HLB value of the sucrose ester increased. A blend of 20:80 (w/w) of S-170 and S-1670, in the presence of 3% shortening resulted in the most significant changes in Alveograph data. Addition of as little as 0·4% of the ester blend could partially replace shortening in the dough formulation.
Article
Single effects of and interactions among flour type, breadmaking process and anti-staling additives—monoglycerides, diacetyl tartaric ester of monoglycerides, sodium stearoyl lactylate, carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose andalpha-amylase—on crumb firmness during storage were estimated by fitting Avrami equations. Effects of additives were highly dependent on both the flour type and the breadmaking process used. Highly significant correlations between fresh bread crumb firmness and crumb firmness at any storage time were found. The Gluten Index of unfermented doughs was a good indicator for fresh bread crumb firmness and influenced firming kinetic parameters. Ionic surfactants, hydrocolloids andalpha-amylose increased the Gluten Index, and significantly interacted with both the flour type and the breadmaking process used. The Avrami exponent was correlated significantly with Amylogram parameters related to the formation of lipid–starch complex. Changes in specific volume by additive incorporation largely explained effects on crumb firming kinetics.
Article
The influence of vegetable shortening (VS) and emulsifiers (calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (CSL) and polysorbate 80 (PS80)) on frozen French bread dough has been studied. Eight formulations without yeast were used with different quantities of VS, CSL and PS80. Dough was prepared by mixing all ingredients in a dough mixer at two speeds. The fresh dough was divided into 60g pieces and molded. Fresh dough samples were also collected for water content and textural analyses. The dough pieces were packed, frozen in a freezer at −30°C and stored at −18°C up to 56 days. After 2, 7, 21, 28 and 56 days of frozen storage, samples were removed from the freezer, thawed at ambient temperature and textural analyses were conducted.The enthalpy of freezable water on fresh bread dough was determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) at the heating rate of 3°C/min, temperature range of −40°C to 20°C. The value of unfrozen water was 0.30–0.34g H2O/g solids and additives used during the storage up to 56 days significantly affected the textural properties of frozen dough.
Article
The Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) 20min test was used to study the effects of different levels of konjac flour, guar, gellan, xanthan and locust bean gums on starch cooking properties. Wheat, corn, waxy corn, tapioca and A. hypochondriacus and A. cruentus starches were affected to different degrees by different levels of the gums. Peak viscosity increased at the higher gum concentrations, especially with locust bean gum at the 0.4 g level. The increase in viscosity was more pronounced with wheat and corn starches than with waxy corn and tapioca starches which consist mostly of highly branched amylopectin thus preventing close physical association between molecules. Amaranth starches showed much lower viscosity with all the gums than the other starches. Peak viscosity, time to reach the peak and maximum setback viscosity were affected by the gums. The increase in viscosity of starch/hydrocolloid systems is due to the release of amy-lose and low molecular weight amylopectin which promotes the formation of polymer complexes and significantly adds to the viscosity of the system.
Article
Cereal Chem. 80(6):764-772 Disadvantages of frozen doughs are their variable performance and loss of stability over long-term frozen storage. Changes in rheological properties of frozen doughs have been reported to be due to the physical damage of the gluten network caused by ice crystallization and recrystallization. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hydrophilic gums on ice crystallization and recrystallization for improvement of the shelf-life stability of frozen dough. The present research involved use of the Hard Red Spring wheat cultivar Grandin and hydrophilic gums such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), gum arabic, kappa carrageenan carrageenan), and locust bean gum at three different levels each on doughs stored frozen for up to 16 weeks. The dough characteristics were analyzed after day 0, day 1, and after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of frozen storage using data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), water activity, extensigraph, and proof time. The value of freezable water endothermic transitions obtained using DSC increased with storage time for all treatments. However, addition of different levels of the four gums lowered value, indicating a decrease in freezable water. Doughs with locust bean gum gave a higher peak force, measured using the Kieffer dough extensibility rig of the texture analyzer, and lower proof time, indicating better retention of baking quality. Maximum resistance to extension increased upon addition of 1 and 3% CMC; 1 and 3% carrageenan; and 1, 2, and 3% locust bean gum as compared with the control. The various periods of storage or gum treatments did not affect the water activity of the thawed frozen doughs. Doughs with locust bean gum gave significantly lower proof time compared with the other treatments and the control. CMC gave the second lowest values, followed by gum arabic treatment. Addition of carrageenan increased the proof time compared with the control. In summary, locust bean gum, gum arabic, and CMC improved the dough characteristics to varying degrees. Carrageenan was the only gum that showed a detrimental effect on frozen dough.