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Backlash Effects for Disconfirming Gender Stereotypes in Organizations

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Abstract

Backlash effects are defined as social and economic reprisals for behaving counterstereotypically (Rudman, L. A. (1998). Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: The costs and benefits of counterstereotypical impression management. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 629–645). The present chapter outlines an impression-management dilemma that women face and describes the literature on backlash effects in organizations. Because women are perceived to be less competent, ambitious, and competitive (i.e., less agentic) than men, they may be overlooked for leadership positions unless they present themselves as atypical women. However, the prescriptive nature of gender stereotypes can result in negative reactions to female agency and authority (i.e., backlash). This dilemma has serious consequences for gender parity, as it undermines women at every stage of their careers. It also has consequences for organizations, as it likely contributes to female managers’ higher rates of job disaffection and turnover, relative to male counterparts. In addition to specifying the consequences of backlash for women and organizations, we consider potential moderators of backlash effects and the role that backlash plays in maintaining cultural stereotypes. Finally, we outline potential avenues for future research.

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... Relatedly, Role Congruity Theory (RCT) considers the consequences of failing to fulfill these expectations either through the behavior one enacts or the roles they fill. The experience of gender bias is particularly prevalent for women that violate cultural expectations for women's roles and behavior (Eagly & Karau, 2002;Rudman & Phelan, 2008). For example, women in traditionally male-dominated positions (e.g., college professors) or male-dominated fields (e.g., economics) and women that behave in traditionally more agentic ways (e.g., assertive, powerful), are more likely to experience bias in the form of social backlash (Rudman, 1998). ...
... For example, women in traditionally male-dominated positions (e.g., college professors) or male-dominated fields (e.g., economics) and women that behave in traditionally more agentic ways (e.g., assertive, powerful), are more likely to experience bias in the form of social backlash (Rudman, 1998). This backlash makes advancement for women more difficult, especially for those in male-dominated fields (Eagly & Karau, 2002;Rudman & Phelan, 2008). Krefting (2003) discussed this conundrum for female academics in which they must be perceived to be competent and authoritative (i.e., powerful, in control) to fulfill their work role in the academic environment but do so at the expense of being perceived as caring and warm (Chávez & Mitchell, 2020;Eagly & Mladinic, 1994;Fiske et al., 2002;MacNell et al., 2015;Williams & Tiedens, 2016). ...
... In accordance with previous literature, we anticipated that bias against female faculty in economics would be present from the onset of the semester due to backlash against women who occupy gender incongruent roles (i.e., a woman being in a position of power and status in a male-dominated field) and would widen over time because of backlash for behaving in gender incongruent ways (i.e., providing feedback). First, drawing on social role theory (Eagly & Wood, 2016), role congruity theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002;Rudman & Phelan, 2008), and the status incongruity hypothesis (Rudman et al., 2012), we anticipated that women in a high-status, faculty role would experience role-based backlash. This role-based backlash would be expressed as lower evaluations scores on the second day of class for female instructors compared to male instructors. ...
Article
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Drawing on social role theory (Eagly & Wood, 2016), this paper seeks to understand the nature and causes of gender bias in student evaluations of teaching (SETs) by looking at student evaluations of faculty at two time periods: on the second day of class and on the day after the first exam grade is returned. We seek to understand whether bias exists at the onset of the semester and whether backlash after grading exacerbates any differences. We hypothesized that students would perceive grade feedback more harshly from a female faculty member than a male faculty member due to role congruency expectations of communality in women. The results indicate limited evidence for gender bias at the onset of the semester (the second day of class) and strong evidence for bias against female faculty after the first exam grade is received. This work advances our understanding of when bias develops within the semester and why it may occur. The findings of this study should be of interest to administrators and human resource personnel by ultimately aiding their ability to better manage gender bias in performance evaluations.
... En effet, de manière analogue aux différents types de leadership, le contexte favorise ou réduit la portée de la perception du leadership des hommes et femmes. Cependant, contrairement aux comportements, traits ou autres aspects du leadership, cela ne se vérifie pas par des facteurs objectifs (e.g., la validité), mais par des normes sociales qui décrivent les caractéristiques et imposent comment les hommes et les femmes doivent se comporter (Rudman & Phelan, 2008). Dans ce chapitre nous allons analyser comment les différents types de crise par le biais des stéréotypes de genre pourraient favoriser ou pas l'évaluation du sexe des leaders. ...
... Ainsi, les stéréotypes masculins sont prescrits aux hommes et proscrits aux femmes et les stéréotypes féminins sont prescrits aux femmes et proscrits aux hommes (Prentice & Carranza, 2002). Lorsque l'aspect prescriptif n'est pas respecté ou est transgressé, les hommes et les femmes souffrent de répercussions socio-économiques et sont moins appréciées, effets qui ont été qualifiés de contrecoup (Moss-Racusin, Phelan & Rudman, 2010 ;Rudman & Glick, 2001 ;1999 ;Rudman & Phelan, 2008). ...
... Cette similarité entre les stéréotypes des leaders et des hommes favorise, non seulement, l'accès des hommes au leadership mais contribue également à les percevoir comme plus préparés et efficaces que les femmes, pour les rôles de leadership (Carroll, 2006 ;Eagly et al., 1992 ;Eagly, 2002 ;Heilman, 2001). En effet, correspondant à leurs prescriptions de genre, les hommes ont moins de contraintes normatives dans les rôles de leadership que les femmes pour lesquelles ces rôles sont normalement proscrits (Prentice & Carranza, 2002 ;Rudman & Phelan, 2008). Cependant, par le biais du même raisonnement, plusieurs arguments suggèrent qu'actuellement le leadership est plus congruent avec les stéréotypes des femmes (Eagly, 2007 ;Eagly & Carli, 2003 ;Offerman & Foley, 2018). ...
Thesis
Les stéréotypes de genre représentent l’un des principaux déterminants dans la perception du leadership des hommes et des femmes. Les stéréotypes des hommes ont été davantage associés à un leadership efficace que ceux des femmes. Par conséquent, les hommes sont généralement perçus comme plus légitimes et préparés pour occuper les rôles de leaders. Cependant, depuis quelques années, plusieurs arguments suggèrent que cette association est renversée. Actuellement, les stéréotypes des femmes seraient davantage associés à un leadership efficace, et cela les conférerait un avantage de leadership sur les hommes. Or, les propositions de l’avantage du leadership où certaines qualités stéréotypées seraient supérieures à d’autres vont à l’encontre des prémisses de base du leadership. Le leadership se déroule dans un contexte. Le contexte influence la portée, la validité et l’impact du leadership. Ainsi, les effets d’un type de leadership dans une situation ne se vérifieront pas forcément dans une autre. En effet, certains critiques ont proposé que les recherches devraient plutôt se focaliser sur les contextes où un éventuel avantage pourrait se vérifier. De ce fait, à travers cinq études, incluant quatre expérimentales, une corrélationnelle et la validation d’une échelle sur la perception de la crise, la présente thèse visait à déterminer si les différents types de crise pourraient constituer un avantage de leadership pour les hommes ou pour les femmes. Nous avons formulé l’hypothèse selon laquelle l’évaluation des leaders et du type de leadership dépendrait de leur congruence avec le contexte. Les résultats de nos études confirment partiellement nos hypothèses. Si dans la plupart des situations les traits agentiques et communaux ont été en effet évalués en congruence avec le type de crise, concernant les comportements, contrairement à ce que nous avons prédit, ceux considérés comme typiques des femmes (i.e., de considération) ont été davantage préférés dans toutes les situations. Cependant, indépendamment de leur préférence, l’efficacité des traits agentiques et communaux et des comportements de considération et de structure ont été médiatisés par les sentiments d’incertitude, d’injustice et de contrôle présents dans la crise. Dans la plupart des situations ils ont été perçus comme efficaces ou ont favorisé l’évaluation des leaders. Finalement, nos résultats montrent que si la réussite organisationnelle est davantage attribuée aux hommes, l’efficacité dans les situations de crises est également davantage attribuée aux hommes. Cependant, pour résoudre la crise, les hommes et les femmes n’ont pas été préférés de la même manière dans toutes les situations. Les femmes ont été davantage préférées que les hommes pour résoudre une crise relationnelle. Ces résultats sont discutés à la lumière des arguments de l’avantage du leadership et de l’impact du contexte sur le leadership. Nous argumentons que malgré l’impact évident du contexte sur le leadership, les femmes, à cause des injonctions imposés par les stéréotypes de genre, pourraient effectivement avoir un avantage de leadership sur les hommes.
... These gender stereotypes lead to a double bind for women. Women are either considered less agentic and therefore less competent than men, or they are seen as equally agentic but less likeable because they violate gender stereotypes (2)(3)(4)(5)(6). The consequences of such gender stereotypes have been well documented, resulting in the devaluation of women's performance, denial of credit for their success, and exclusion in the workplace (5,6). ...
... Women are either considered less agentic and therefore less competent than men, or they are seen as equally agentic but less likeable because they violate gender stereotypes (2)(3)(4)(5)(6). The consequences of such gender stereotypes have been well documented, resulting in the devaluation of women's performance, denial of credit for their success, and exclusion in the workplace (5,6). ...
... In practice, changing language on an individual level is difficult because it requires cognitive effort and resources (18,19), which might explain why previous efforts have fallen short (7). Even when women are described in more agentic terms, they are often characterized by the more negative aspects of agency [e.g., being dominant or aggressive (6,20)] and face social and economic backlash for violating traditional Significance Gender inequality has been deemed the "greatest human rights challenge of our time" by the United Nations, and scholars across numerous disciplines agree that gender stereotypes represent a primary way by which this inequality is maintained. Yet changing stereotypes in a systemic, enduring way is extremely difficult. ...
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Significance Gender inequality has been deemed the “greatest human rights challenge of our time” by the United Nations, and scholars across numerous disciplines agree that gender stereotypes represent a primary way by which this inequality is maintained. Yet changing stereotypes in a systemic, enduring way is extremely difficult. This is at least in part because stereotypes are transmitted and perpetuated through the language societies and organizations use to describe women, especially those in leadership roles. Here, we show that hiring women into leadership positions is associated with organizations characterizing women in more leadership-congruent, agentic ways. This shift mitigates a critical barrier to women’s progression in organizations and society: the incongruence of what it means to be a woman and a leader.
... The world economy has witnessed a massive influx of women in the workforce over the past few decades (Saleem et al., 2017). This trend can be attributed to the interplay of several factors such as rise in the education levels of women, economic pressures to have dual incomes, the realization of the importance of gender diversity by corporates and the introduction of reforms to support working women like recruitment quotas and sanctions for verbal and sexual harassment (Rudman and Phelan, 2008;Abalkhail, 2017;Saleem et al., 2017). However, there has not been much improvement in the situation of women as far as organizational leadership and senior managerial positions are concerned (Schuh et al., 2014). ...
... The second form of stereotypeprescriptive stereotypedescribes how members of a particular group should behave (Eagly and Karau, 2002). Expected to be more nurturing and caring, female employees often suffer from prejudicial evaluations while being considered for leadership positions if they exhibit more aggressive and task-oriented behaviors (Rudman and Phelan, 2008). Women executives thus suffer from a double bind. ...
... If they adopt agentic behavior, they seem to be violating the female gender role. In contrast, if they remain nurturing and caring, confirming their gender role, they seem to violate the prescribed leader roles (Oakley, 2000;Lee Cooke, 2003;Yukongdi, 2005;Rudman and Phelan, 2008). In their study of female managers of America, Schuck and Liddle (2004) highlighted that the women who confirmed to masculine management style were judged negatively. ...
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Purpose This study aims to undertake an in-depth analysis of glass ceiling literature and suggest some directions for future research. Design/methodology/approach A systematic review of the glass ceiling literature was carried out using academic databases like Scopus, EbscoHost and Proquest. Findings Social and cultural stereotypes give rise to individual barriers in the form of lack of selfconfidence and lack of ambition for managerial posts. Social norms also create organizational barriers in the form of “think manager think male” stereotype and discriminatory corporate policies. These organizational barriers further lower the self-confidence of women and exaggerate work-family conflict. Policy barriers in the form of lack of stringent laws and policies also create glass ceiling for women employees. Glass ceiling leads to various consequences which have been further classified as organizational and individual level consequences. The study also highlights that contextual variables like level of education, age, social class, marital and motherhood status influence the perceptions towards the role of different factors in creating glass ceiling. Practical implications This review highlights that though several levels of barriers exist for women aspiring for a managerial position, the main problem lies in conscious and unconscious stereotypes that often find their way in the organizations through gendered culture and gender discriminatory corporate practices. Therefore, organizations should firstly work on reorienting the attitudes of its employees towards women employees by conducting gender sensitization programmes for all the employees at the workplace. These gender sensitization programmes should aim at making people aware about the unconscious stereotypes that somehow find way in their speech and actions. Secondly, the organizations should work on extending the family friendly programmes to every employee irrespective of gender and every one should be encouraged to avail those policies so that female employees do not suffer from bias due to lack of visibility. Thirdly, organizations should work on introducing scientific procedures for performance evaluation to ensure removal of any form of bias during the process of appraisal. By creating a positive and equitable work environment for women employees, firms can combat their feelings of stress and burnout and can significantly improve their bottomline. The positive steps that will be taken by organizations will put forward a positive example for the society as well. Originality/value Even though more than three decades have passed since the term “glass ceiling” made inroads in the management literature, till date, there has been no study that holistically reviews various dimensions of glass ceiling literature. Hence, this is the first study that systematically reviews the existing literature on glass ceiling. Based on the review, the study also proposes an integrated conceptual framework highlighting interrelationship between various causes and consequences of glass ceiling and sheds light on the directions along which future studies can be carried out.
... Indeed, women desiring leadership positions in organizations may find it necessary to resist the gender stereotypes of passivity, submission, and relationshipsabove-all-else mentality. Instead, they replace the stereotypical female traits with male typecasts characteristics that exude perceived leadership qualities of agency, confidence, dominance, and aggressiveness (Rudman & Phelan, 2008). Then, it seems that this postulation by Rudman and Phelan (2008) aligned with the second finding in the KPMG Study (2015), noting that women lack the confidence to be influential leaders. ...
... Instead, they replace the stereotypical female traits with male typecasts characteristics that exude perceived leadership qualities of agency, confidence, dominance, and aggressiveness (Rudman & Phelan, 2008). Then, it seems that this postulation by Rudman and Phelan (2008) aligned with the second finding in the KPMG Study (2015), noting that women lack the confidence to be influential leaders. However, when women demonstrate male-associated leadership behaviors, such as confidence, dominance, and aggression, they are criticized for conduct that contrasts their communal ascription (Rudman & Phelan, 2008). ...
... Then, it seems that this postulation by Rudman and Phelan (2008) aligned with the second finding in the KPMG Study (2015), noting that women lack the confidence to be influential leaders. However, when women demonstrate male-associated leadership behaviors, such as confidence, dominance, and aggression, they are criticized for conduct that contrasts their communal ascription (Rudman & Phelan, 2008). Rosette et al. (2018) argue that in the United States, most research on this topic of women in leadership pertains to White women. ...
Article
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Leadership is a sacred stewardship. Women leaders bring collaboration to this stewardship, and African American women leaders bring a certain savoir faire to their hallowed leadership responsibilities. However, research is needed to appreciate the unique stresses that female African American leaders experience in their leadership roles. Stress is harmful to overall health, well-being, and leadership effectiveness. This dissertation investigated the distinctive stresses and coping resources that empower African American women to manage individual discrimination, gendered racial discrimination, institutional racism, and encounters with white privilege in the workplace. This dissertation also investigated if hope, separate from religion and spirituality, is a coping resource that these leaders use to protect themselves in sexist and racist contaminated work environments. This research study utilized a qualitative phenomenological research design with a narrative methodology, interviewing 20 female African American senior and executive healthcare leaders to understand how they described their experiences with discrimination at work. The results revealed that African American female healthcare leaders encountered daily multilayered discrimination at work. The results also revealed that the participants engaged in coping resources daily to manage their emotions, work relationships and work environments to successfully navigate working in White space. The participants in the study specifically depended on the coping toolset of faith, punctuated with hope to circumnavigate their toxic work environments.
... When women enter a field stereotyped as agentic or display agentic behavior-thereby violating prescriptive gender stereotypes (i.e., how women should behave; e.g., Eagly and Karau, 2002), they likely experience a backlash effect (i.e., social repercussions for counter-stereotypical behavior). Agentic women receive negative social reactions in that they are evaluated as socially deficient and unlikable (low in communion) by others (Rudman and Phelan, 2008). ...
... If STEM is stereotypically associated with men in both Germany and Japan, it is likely that these stereotypes have negative psychological consequences for female STEM students in both cultural contexts. The negative consequences of backlash effects have been predominantly investigated in the United States (e.g., Rudman and Glick, 2001;Rudman and Phelan, 2008;Eaton et al., 2020). It remains unclear whether the expected negative reactions for counter-stereotypical behavior are related to women's emotion and motivation in a similar way and intensity in cultural contexts in which membership in social groups is of varying relevance to the self. ...
... These results might indicate a subtle expected backlash effect in that female students did not imagine blatant negative reactions to disclosing their STEM major to the conversation partner, but they expected lower communion ratings. This latter result is consistent with lackof-fit models indicating that women in agentic fields (in the United States) are rated lower in communion for disconfirming the female stereotype (Rudman and Phelan, 2008). Frontiers in Education | www.frontiersin.org ...
Article
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Although Germany and Japan are top-ranking in STEM, women are underrepresented in the STEM fields of physics, engineering, and computer science in both countries. The current research investigated widespread gender-science stereotypes in STEM in the two countries (Studies 1 and 2) and negative consequences of expected backlash (i.e., imagining negative reactions and lower ascribed communion in scenarios) for women’s emotions and motivation in STEM due to role incongruity and lack-of-fit (Study 3). Studies 1 ( N = 87) and 2 ( N = 22,556) showed that explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes are widespread and comparable in Germany and Japan. Study 3 ( N = 628) showed that lower ascribed communion was related to less positive emotions, more negative emotions and anxiety emotions, and less study motivation for STEM students (from the fields of physics, engineering, and computer science) from Germany and Japan. Results point to more subtle expected backlash effects for women in STEM than hypothesized. Theoretical and practical implications for gender equality in STEM are discussed.
... Only 6% of current heads of state in the world are women (6), and in more than two centuries of presidential elections, the United States has never elected a woman president. Prior research typically explains this dearth of women leaders as resulting from a discrepancy between people's perceptions and expectations of women on the one hand and their perceptions and expectations of good leaders on the other (7)(8)(9)(10). A substantial body of research documents that women are perceived as less legitimate leaders than men (9,11,12) and that women who aspire to leadership positions often encounter backlash, hindering their access to leadership positions (10,(13)(14)(15)(16). ...
... Prior research typically explains this dearth of women leaders as resulting from a discrepancy between people's perceptions and expectations of women on the one hand and their perceptions and expectations of good leaders on the other (7)(8)(9)(10). A substantial body of research documents that women are perceived as less legitimate leaders than men (9,11,12) and that women who aspire to leadership positions often encounter backlash, hindering their access to leadership positions (10,(13)(14)(15)(16). ...
Article
Progress toward gender equality is thwarted by the underrepresentation of women in political leadership, even as most Americans report they would vote for women candidates. Here, we hypothesize that women candidates are often disadvantaged by pragmatic bias, a tendency to withhold support for members of groups for whom success is perceived to be difficult or impossible to achieve. Across six studies ( N = 7,895), we test whether pragmatic bias impedes women’s access to a highly significant political leadership position—the US presidency. In two surveys, 2020 Democratic primary voters perceived women candidates to be less electable, and these beliefs were correlated with lower intentions to vote for women candidates (Studies 1 and 2). Voters identified many reasons women would be less electable than men, including others’ unwillingness to vote for women, biased media coverage, and higher requirements to prove themselves. We next tested interventions to reduce pragmatic bias. Merely correcting misperceptions of Americans’ reported readiness for a woman president did not increase intentions to vote for a woman (Study 3). However, across three experiments (including one preregistered on a nationally representative sample), presenting evidence that women earn as much support as men in US general elections increased Democratic primary voters’ intentions to vote for women presidential candidates, an effect driven by heightened perceptions of these candidates’ electability (Studies 4 to 6). These findings highlight that social change efforts can be thwarted by people’s sense of what is possible, but this may be overcome by credibly signaling others’ willingness to act collectively.
... When women present themselves with characteristics that are prescribed for leadership (e.g., masculinity, agenticity, assertiveness, competence), they then face a new hurdle: the backlash effect (Rudman, 1998;Rudman & Glick, 1999. Women who possess the necessary characteristics for a leadership position (i.e., agentic) and are perceived to be competent for the position would be perceived as competent but less likeable (Rudman & Glick, 1999Powers & Zuroff, 1988), and will, nonetheless, be penalized (e.g., economically, through lack of cooperation, or negative evaluations; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Glick & Phelan., 2012;Rudman & Phelan, 2008;Eagly, Makhijani & Klonsky, 1992;Lyness & Heilman, 2006). Such counter-stereotypical women indeed possess characteristics that fit with manager position, but are penalized because such characteristics are proscribed to women (Eagly & Karau, 2002), They would not be employed (or promoted) to leadership positions because they fail to be sufficiently suited to the role of a woman (i.e., they suffer from a deficit of communality). ...
... Literature shows that people's gender does not directly predict the selection or the evaluation of a candidate for a leadership position (Rudman & Phelan, 2008;Ashby, Ryan & Haslam, 2007;Morgenroth et al., 2020). It is not gender per se that accounts for people's evaluation or the selection of a candidate, but it is their representation of the manager prototype. ...
Preprint
The purpose of the present paper is to introduce the Gender Projection Model. After a short review of the different accounts and theories on gender discrimination in the workplace, and of the three main phenomena: the glass ceiling, the backlash effect and the glass cliff, we present the gender projection model (GPM), a cognitive and motivational model for predicting the selection and self-selection of women in management positions. Our model posits gender projection, the assignment of typical gender characteristics to the position of manager, as a central mechanism accounting for the development of the manager prototype, both the (discriminatory) behavior and attitudes of personnel decision-makers (e.g., selection and/or evaluation of a male/female candidate) and the motivation and performance of (prospective) male and female managers. We believe this model will allow a better understanding of the construction of the manager prototype to explain the under-representation of women at the highest levels of the organizational hierarchy.
... Ello implica un acceso suficiente a medios para que la candidata pueda ser reconocida por el electorado, condición necesaria, a su vez, para que pueda darse el voto por aquélla (Kahn, 1994). Los estereotipos son "estructuras cognitivas que contienen los conocimientos, creencias y expectativas sobre algún humano del individuo que percibe" (Hamilton & Trolier en Rudman & Phelan, 2008). Los estereotipos prescriben comportamientos y roles de género (Rudman & Phelan, 2008); por este motivo, contribuyen a preservar la ideología dominante (Seiter, 1986). ...
... Los estereotipos son "estructuras cognitivas que contienen los conocimientos, creencias y expectativas sobre algún humano del individuo que percibe" (Hamilton & Trolier en Rudman & Phelan, 2008). Los estereotipos prescriben comportamientos y roles de género (Rudman & Phelan, 2008); por este motivo, contribuyen a preservar la ideología dominante (Seiter, 1986). Desde los estudios de Comunicación se ha indagado en qué medida los contenidos de los medios y de la publicidad contribuyen a reforzar estereotipos tradicionales de género y por ende a mantener relaciones de género inequitativas. ...
Chapter
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El objetivo de este capítulo es describir los patrones diferenciados de acuerdo al género en los mensajes sobre candidaturas transmitidos por programas de radio y televisión durante el proceso electoral local 2017-2018 de Jalisco, así como sus particularidades frente a otros estudios de caso. Para realizar esto, primeramente se discutirán las diferencias de género en las cantidades de cobertura de candidaturas, así como las cantidades de alusiones hacia propuestas, viabilidad, carácter, apariencia y roles sociales. En segundo lugar, se identificarán los estereotipos reforzados a través de los mensajes sobre candidatas y candidatos y los adjetivos que se utilizan para describirlos. En una última etapa, se discutirán las implicaciones que la repetición de los encuadres y temas identificados tienen frente al objetivo de garantizar los derechos políticos de las mujeres y la búsqueda de la igualdad de género.
... Research has shown that gender impacts the evaluation of characteristics and behaviors, such that men are perceived differently than women depending on the socially expected and accepted sex role behavior (Rudman and Phelan, 2008). Several of the characteristics of narcissists do not fit with the characteristics typically associated with women. ...
... Research has shown that the same characteristics are evaluated differently when displayed by men and women, depending on social expectations and accepted role behavior (Rudman and Phelan, 2008). Social role theory suggests that women are expected to be communal (helping, understanding) while men are expected to be agentic (dominant, arrogant;Eagly, 1987). ...
Article
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Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, the relationship between leader narcissism and follower performance is ambiguous and often even found to be negative. For women, narcissism seems especially likely to lead to negative evaluations. Since narcissists have the tendency to be impulsive and change their minds on a whim, they may come across as inconsistent. We propose “inconsistent leader behavior” as a new mechanism in the relationship between leader narcissism and follower performance and argue that leader gender plays an important role in whether narcissistic leaders are perceived as inconsistent. Specifically, we expect leader narcissism to have a negative relationship with follower performance through perceived inconsistent leader behavior, especially for female leaders. Thus, we examine leader gender as a personal factor moderating the relationship between narcissism and perceived inconsistent behavior. Also, as perceived inconsistency is likely less problematic when a good relationship exists, we examine leader–member exchange (LMX) as a contextual condition moderating the relationship between leader behavior and follower performance. We test our moderated mediation model in a multi-source study with 165 unique leader–follower dyads. As expected, leader narcissism was positively related to perceived inconsistent leader behavior, and this relationship was stronger for female leaders. Inconsistent leader behavior was negatively related to follower performance, but only when LMX was low. Our research highlights that perceived behavioral inconsistency can be problematic and—for female leaders—provides an explanation of the negative relation of leader narcissism with follower performance and of the inconsistencies in evaluations of narcissistic leaders’ effectiveness.
... Alternatively, the consequences of writing a critical review may be (or perceived to be) different for women and men [37]. Critical comments from women are often viewed more negatively than those from men; for example, women who criticize a paper may be considered less competent, or more aggressive and competitive, compared to men who provide similar evaluations [38,39]. Women may thus be at greater risk of reputational harm or retaliation from signing their reviews [39]. ...
... Critical comments from women are often viewed more negatively than those from men; for example, women who criticize a paper may be considered less competent, or more aggressive and competitive, compared to men who provide similar evaluations [38,39]. Women may thus be at greater risk of reputational harm or retaliation from signing their reviews [39]. ...
Article
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Identifying reviewers is argued to improve the quality and fairness of peer review, but is generally disfavoured by reviewers. To gain some insight into the factors that influence when reviewers are willing to have their identity revealed, I examined which reviewers voluntarily reveal their identities to authors at the journal Functional Ecology , at which reviewer identities are confidential unless reviewers sign their comments to authors. I found that 5.6% of reviewers signed their comments to authors. This proportion increased slightly over time, from 4.4% in 2003–2005 to 6.7% in 2013–2015. Male reviewers were 1.8 times more likely to sign their comments to authors than were female reviewers, and this difference persisted over time. Few reviewers signed all of their reviews; reviewers were more likely to sign their reviews when their rating of the manuscript was more positive, and papers that had at least one signed review were more likely to be invited for revision. Signed reviews were, on average, longer and recommended more references to authors. My analyses cannot distinguish cause and effect for the patterns observed, but my results suggest that ‘open-identities’ review, in which reviewers are not permitted to be anonymous, will probably reduce the degree to which reviewers are critical in their assessment of manuscripts and will differentially affect recruitment of male and female reviewers, negatively affecting the diversity of reviewers recruited by journals.
... Based on theory, this finding could imply that the social forces (e.g., gendered roles, expectations, identities, division of labor) driving the gender gaps might be more prominent in the case of communion than in the case of agency. Given this surprising finding, along with the robust literature on negative outcomes of role violations (i.e., backlash effects against agentic women; Rudman & Phelan, 2008), the findings of the present study point to the additional and parallel need for more research on possible backlash effects against communal men (Bosak et al., 2018;Croft et al., 2015;Moss-Racusin et al., 2010), or against women who are perceived to be not communal enough. ...
Article
Agency and communion are gender-stereotypical traits, which were explicitly designed to capture desirable attributes of men and women, respectively. Whereas the existence of gender gaps in agency and communion is commonly known, it remains unknown what the average magnitude, stability (over time and develop- mental age), and variability (across cultures, sampling strategies, and measures) of these gender differences are. Consistent with social role theory (Eagly, 1987; Wood & Eagly, 2012), the current meta-analysis estimated that men tended to be more agentic than women (g = 0.40, k = 928 samples, N = 254,731 participants), whereas women tended to be more communal than men (g = −0.56, k = 937 samples, N = 254,465 participants). Moderator analyses revealed that these gender differences in agency and communion have been decreasing over time. The gender gap in communion decreased with age but increased with country-level gender occupational segregation. Further, the gender gap in agency was larger when sampling participants as couples (vs. sampling as individuals), and the gaps in both agency and communion were larger in heterosexual (vs. gay/lesbian and bisexual) samples. An important methodological moderator was measurement instrument (e.g., short-form Bem Sex Role Inventory shows much smaller gender gaps than the long-form). Altogether, we leveraged a large database to reveal effects consistent with social role theory—that men are higher in agency (masculinity) and women are higher in communion (femininity)— while simultaneously offering insight into factors (earlier time period, occupational segregation, younger age, sampling in couples, heterosexual orientation) that serve to exacerbate such effects.
... Hypothesis 5a-b: IEM (H5a) and T-O leadership (H5b) will indirectly relate to adaptive performance via trust. (Rudman & Phelan, 2008). This is part of the double-bind women leaders face wherein displaying relational leadership, such as IEM, and displaying T-O leadership both result in penalties for women (Eagly, 2007;Heilman, 2001). ...
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Purpose The authors incorporated leadership and gender theories with research on trust to propose a model relating interpersonal emotion management (IEM, a type of relational leadership) and task-oriented (T-O) leadership to follower adaptive performance. The authors also examine the indirect effect of IEM and T-O on adaptive performance via trust and the possible moderating role of gender on these relationships. Design/methodology/approach The authors tested this model using a sample of 314 workers who rated their direct leaders (supervisors). Findings Overall, results supported the model for IEM as it was directly and indirectly related (via trust) to adaptive job performance (even after controlling for transformational leadership) and these relationships were more positive for women leaders. T-O leadership was related to adaptive job performance as expected but was unrelated to trust or, via trust, to adaptive performance. Findings also suggest that women direct leaders may garner more trust and adaptive performance from followers by engaging in higher levels of IEM, while also not experiencing backlash for engaging in the more agentic T-O behaviors during a crisis. Practical implications Despite an emphasis on women's relational leadership during a crisis, the authors findings show organizations are best served by ambidextrous leaders who can manage the emotions and tasks of their followers and that both women and men can engage in these leadership styles without penalty. Originality/value Much research regarding women's leadership advantage during a crisis is based on political leaders or has been conducted in lab settings. Further, it has focused on attitudes toward the women leaders rather than their performance. Research has also not considered both IEM along with the possible backlash women may experience for engaging in T-O leadership.
... This advantage is intensified in male-dominated environments (Eagly, Makhijani, and Klonsky 1992). The negative effects of breaking with stereotype constitute a sort of 'backlash' against female leaders that affects hiring, salary negotiations, promotion, and peer sabotage (Rudman and Phelan 2008). ...
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Does unethical leader behaviour produce gendered responses? We study follower response to unethical leader behaviours of bribery and workplace harassment. Our findings, based on an experiment, suggest that leader gender, gender congruence, and implicit gender biases influence follower responses to unethical leader behaviour. Specifically, implicit gender-authority biases (measured with an IAT) partly explain why followers fight back against deviant female leaders and flee from deviant male leaders. These findings raise the troubling implication that unethical male leaders will remain entrenched in positions of power.
... According to cultural perspectives, employers rely on gender stereotypes and gender-differentiated work expectations. In Joan Acker's seminal work on gendered organizations, gender inequality is an inbuilt characteristic of work organizations (Acker, 1990;Rudman and Phelan, 2008;Williams, Muller and Kilanski, 2012). Of particular importance is the norm of the 'ideal worker', working full-time without family obligations. ...
Article
Gender discrimination is often regarded as an important driver of women’s disadvantage in the labour market, yet earlier studies show mixed results. However, because different studies employ different research designs, the estimates of discrimination cannot be compared across countries. By utilizing data from the first harmonized comparative field experiment on gender discrimination in hiring in six countries, we can directly compare employers’ callbacks to fictitious male and female applicants. The countries included vary in a number of key institutional, economic, and cultural dimensions, yet we found no sign of discrimination against women. This cross-national finding constitutes an important and robust piece of evidence. Second, we found discrimination against men in Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and the UK, and no discrimination against men in Norway and the United States. However, in the pooled data the gender gradient hardly differs across countries. Our findings suggest that although employers operate in quite different institutional contexts, they regard female applicants as more suitable for jobs in female-dominated occupations, ceteris paribus, while we find no evidence that they regard male applicants as more suitable anywhere.
... Prescriptive and proscriptive (i.e., how group members should not behave) stereotypes satisfy the high-status group's motivation to maintain inequality by creating cultural rules for low-status group members' behaviors (Glick & Fiske, 1999). Consequently, girls and women who exhibit agentic behaviors challenge traditional gender intergroup relations and often experience backlash, while men are rewarded for displaying comparable behaviors (Rudman & Phelan, 2008). Thus, consistent with system justification theory, gender-based stereotypes that link STEM competence with men and masculinity reflect people's desires for men, compared to women, to pursue and persist in STEM, while also satisfying people's perceptions of a fair gender system. ...
Article
We draw from ecological systems and social psychological theories to elucidate macrosystem- and microsystem-level variables that promote and maintain gender inequities in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Because gender-STEM stereotypes undermine girls’ (and women's), but boosts boys’ (and men's), STEM interest and success, we review how they operate in STEM learning environments to differentially socialize girls and boys and undermine gender integroup relations. We propose seven practice recommendations to improve STEM K-12 education: (1) design relational classrooms, (2) teach the history of gender inequality and bias, (3) foster collaborative and cooperative classrooms, (4) promote active learning and growth mindset strategies, (5) reframing STEM as inclusive, (6) create near-peer mentorship programs, and (7) re-imagine evaluation metrics. To support these practice recommendations, three policy recommendations are posited: (1) increase teacher autonomy, training, and representation, (2) re-evaluate standardized testing, and (3) reallocate and increase government funding for public schools.
... Many studies (e.g., Acker, 2003;Cho & Ryu, 2016;Ng et al., 2005;O'Neil et al., 2008;Rudman & Phelan, 2008) have indicated that women still receive less pay, fewer rewards and slower promotion than their male counterparts despite the legislative changes that prohibit sex discrimination and gender inequality adopted in many countries. Espinosa (2011) and Ong et al. (2011) associate the under-representation of women faculty in senior academic positions and the low aspiration female students might have when noting that academia does not treat its female academics fairly. ...
... In contrast to the favorable evaluations that one gains when acting in ways that are congruent with social norms, role violations lead to negative social consequences. Past research has found that those who violate gender role norms are ignored, evaluated more negatively, and discredited by others (Rudman & Phelan, 2008; van Dijk & van Engen, 2019). As examples, men that violate gender role expectations by behaving more communally experience increased prejudice and female supervisors who do not behavior communally may experience ostracism (Moss-Racusin et al., 2010;Rudman et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Existing research consistently shows that informal workplace support, such as family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), are more effective at reducing work-family conflict than formal organizational supports. The purpose of the current study is to integrate propositions from the stereotype content model and social role theory to understand how family-supportive supervision is related to social evaluations of supervisors (i.e., perceptions of supervisor warmth and competence) and identify boundary conditions (i.e., supervisor gender and employee role beliefs) to help researchers and practitioners understand how these relationships affect work-family conflict. We test our hypotheses using two studies, one an experimental vignette study and the other a two-wave survey study of working individuals with family or caregiving responsibilities. Our results suggest that FSSB are importantly related to how employees socially evaluate their supervisors along the dimensions of warmth and competence; supervisor gender moderates the relationship between FSSB and perceived competence (but not warmth); employee gender role beliefs moderates both these relationship (but in a counterintuitive way for supervisor competence); and we find evidence that warmth and competence mediate the effects that FSSB has on work-family conflict. Implications for theory, future research, and practice are discussed.
... Adopting male behaviour does not help women in selection situations, as self-promotion behaviour violates stereotypical female social role prescriptions (cf. Rudman and Phelan 2008). Gender stereotyping is also done by women, as successful women may adopt the stereotypes even more strongly than men do (cf. ...
... On one hand, gender stereotypes of women as being generally more warm but less competent than men may influence the public's perceptions of female surgeons (stereotype ''spillover effects'') [6][7][8][9]. On the other hand, occupational stereotypes regarding surgery as a traditionally male profession may cause the public to perceive women surgeons as ''out of place'' and both less competent and less warm (stereotype ''backlash effects'') [10][11][12]. ...
Article
Background: Sociocultural norms and gender biases may result in surgeon gender preferences among the general public. This study aimed to understand preferences and perceptions related to surgeon gender among the general population in Pakistan, a lower-middle-income country. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by the Aga Khan University, Karachi, among the adult general population in Pakistan. Sequential mixed-mode data collection was performed via online dissemination on social media platforms and in-person surveying at different geographic locations in Karachi. Results: Among 1604 respondents, 50% did not report having surgeon gender preferences in general. Among respondents with gender preferences, there was a highly significant preference for gender concordance across all surgical subspecialties (p <0.001) except cardiothoracic surgery and neurosurgery. Exceptions where women preferred a male surgeon were neurosurgery (59.7% vs. 40.3%; p <0.001) and cardiothoracic surgery (53.1% vs. 46.9%; p <0.001). Moreover, respondents felt more comfortable communicating with (67.6%) and being examined by (73.3%) gender concordant surgeons. Men more commonly perceived male surgeons as more competent (26% vs. 14.5%; p <0.001) and warmer (18.3% vs. 9.8%; p <0.001) than female surgeons. Nevertheless, the most important factors influencing selection of a surgeon were the surgeon's reputation (69.6%) and experience (50.5%). Most respondents (84.5%) believed that more females should practice surgery. Conclusion: While around half of respondents do not have gender preferences, a significant proportion prefers a gender concordant surgeon across subspecialties. In a society where conservative sociocultural norms play a significant role when seeking health care, this makes yet another compelling argument for gender parity in surgery.
... Studies also show that women feel obligated to the organization and engage in OCB even when they perceive lower levels of organizational support. Gender roles consist of descriptive (how different genders act) and prescriptive (how different genders should act) stereotypes (Rudman and Phelan, 2008). These descriptive stereotypes can be thought as norms of expected activities for specific group members (Eagly and Karau, 2002). ...
Article
Purpose The authors study the role of collectivistic norms and beliefs on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) in Mexico, including differences across gender and generations. Design/methodology/approach The authors researched the relationship between Mexican employees' collectivistic norms and beliefs and their OCBs, which the authors grouped into etic (universal), emic (regional) and unique (indigenous) categories, the latter referred to as Mexican OCBs (MOCBs). The authors also studied the role of gender and generations as moderators. Findings Collective norms had a positive relationship only on the etic OCBs of sportsmanship, while collective beliefs impacted altruism and civic virtue; the etic OCBs of personal development, protecting company resources, interpersonal harmony; and the MOCBs of dedication and camaraderie. Collective beliefs on the etic OCB of altruism, the emic OCB of protecting company resources and the unique MOCB of camaraderie were stronger for workers from Xers than for Millennials. Moderation tests also showed that collective belief had stronger effects on the emic OCB of protecting company resources and the unique MOCBs of dedication and camaraderie for men than for women. Research limitations/implications Gender roles in emerging economies where society is characterized by collectivistic attributes, especially in a sample drawn from professional employees, may have changed. This could explain the reason why most of the interactions were stronger for men. Future studies involving gender roles should look beyond a demographic variable and design an instrument measuring self-perceptions of role identity, such as the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974). This study's findings could be generalized, particularly, to other Latin American nations, but scholars should acknowledge differences in economic development and gender roles, as well as unique cultural elements (Arriagada, 2014; Hofstede, 1980). Practical implications The results of this study yield three practical implications for international managers, including (1) distinguishing between the impact of changing cultural norms or beliefs on OCBs, (2) understanding how demographic factors such as gender or generation may influence the degree of OCBs exhibited in the workplace by specific employee groups, and (3) identifying cultural contexts which promote OCBs. First, workers from a younger generation in a collectivistic society, such as Millennials, respond less positively than workers from older generations to cultural beliefs concerning OCBs, such that they are less willing to engage in a particular category of OCBs including protecting company resources. Social implications Global managers should be aware that employees engage in distinct OCBs for different reasons. Emphasizing cultural rules and norms behind helping one another may backfire in Mexico, particularly among men and younger generations of workers. This is understandable for these OCBs. For example, engaging in personal development for the organization's sake due to collective norms may be less effective that pursuing personal development opportunities that employees are passionate about or recognize as beneficial for their careers. Dedication and sportsmanship behaviors that stem from rules are likely less strong or effective as OCBs employees engage in due to strong beliefs or altruistic spontaneity. Originality/value The authors filled a gap in scholar's understanding of cultural norms and beliefs on behavior. Specifically, the authors found that cultural beliefs shape etic, emic and unique MOCBs, particularly for men and older generations, and that cultural norms have a negligible and sometimes negative role, being positively related only to the etic OCB of sportsmanship.
... While early scholars attributed these differences to biological factors, Gender in microfinance loan officer-client pairs 3 social role theorists have recently argued that these differences should rather be explained by gender-role expectations induced by the division of labour (Akinola, Martin, & Phillips, 2018;Putrevu, 2004). By being exposed to such gender role expectations from an early age, women end up adopting more 'communal' values -qualities associated with social relationships with others such as helpfulness, kindness, and sympathy -whereas men mostly adopt 'agentic values' -qualities associated with goal achievement such as assertiveness and aggressiveness (Rudman & Phelan, 2008). Women also tend to avoid competitive situations (Gneezy, Leonard, & List, 2009;Gupta, Poulsen, & Villeval, 2013) and to be less aggressive in negotiations (Amanatullah & Morris, 2010). ...
Article
This paper examines the effect of the gender combination of client-loan officer pairs on loan repayment in an Ecuadorian microfinance institution. We show that among the four possible client-loan officer gender pairs i.e. female client-female loan officer, female client-male loan officer, male client-male loan officer and male client-female loan officer, the most favourable pairs in terms of repayment are those with female loan officers whereas the least favourable are those with male loan officers. We also show that repayment is even further enhanced for all client-loan officer pairs when the client’s previous loan officer was a woman. Our findings point to relational differences between male and female loan officers when interacting with microfinance clients, which is also highlighted by our qualitative insights from the field.
... Congruent team members on average had higher ability levels than non-congruent members, which makes relying on the competence of congruent team members in the absence of any other competenceidentifying information a safer bet than relying on incongruent members. This functionality of stereotypes contrasts most research focusing on the negative consequences of stereotypes (Eagly & Sczesny, 2019;Heilman & Caleo, 2018;Koch et al., 2015;Rudman & Phelan, 2008), but is in line with research on stereotype accuracy (Jussim, Crawford, & Rubinstein, 2015), and explains why people continue to rely on stereotypes despite a multitude of efforts to eradicate them from the workplace. ...
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We challenge the social categorization perspective in the team diversity literature by arguing that stereotypes and not favoritism for members of the same social category govern processes and dynamics in gender-diverse teams. We posit that team members' gender and task stereotypes generate competence attributions that shape individual team members' dominance behavior and performance in a self-fulfilling way: Team members who are attributed more competence behave more dominantly and outperform those who are attributed less competence. We further argue that pro-diversity beliefs may prevent this self-fulfilling tendency of stereotypes by inhibiting individuals' stereotype-confirming behavior. Hypotheses were tested with 97 gender-heterogeneous four-person student teams working on stereotypically masculine- or feminine-typed problems. Team members estimated each other's competence prior to collaboration. Diversity beliefs were manipulated to be either pro-diversity or pro-similarity and dominance was observed with behavioral coding. Multilevel path modeling showed that competence attributions mediated the effects of stereotypical gender-task fit on individual dominance behavior and performance under pro-similarity beliefs but not under pro-diversity beliefs. Our study thus shows that the self-fulfilling tendencies of gender stereotypes in teams can be mitigated by instituting pro-diversity beliefs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... This is important research to conduct, as it has direct implications for the generalizability of backlash effects. For example, most of the research conducted within agentic domains (e.g., leadership scenarios) suggests that participant demographics (e.g., sex) do not play a role in the extent to which participants engage in backlash (see, Rudman & Phelan, 2008 for a review). Within more gender-neutral domains, patterns regarding the strength of backlash exhibited by male vs. female perceivers may deviate from those observed in other studies. ...
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We investigated the effects of gender stereotype violations within the context of teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as whether social penalties for violating gender stereotypes in this domain are moderated by trait levels of gender system justification. Participants (N = 254) rated four hypothetical teaching scenarios where target sex (male or female teacher) and reason for refusal to return to in-person teaching (advocating for one's self vs. advocating for others) were manipulated. Results showed that as predicted, participants with high levels of gender system justification rated self-advocating female teachers least favorably. Unexpectedly, participants with low levels of gender system justification rated self-advocating male teachers least favorably. Implications for gender stereotype violation are discussed as well as implications for those teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
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Recent research on the practices of justice operators with women victims of intimate partner violence has evidenced the existence of gender stereotypes and gender-blind practices in the Spanish legal system (Albertín et al., 2020; García Jiménez et al., 2019, 2020), as well as the graves consequences that such practices imply for these women. In this context, the present study explored the existence of a battered woman stereotype and its variation when the victim defends herself from the abuser. An opportunity sample of 505 undergraduates of Law, Psychology and other studies from two Spanish universities assessed some personality characteristics of a woman after watching a 1-minute-long silent video. The participants were randomly assigned to one of three observation conditions (“control”, “victim” or “self-defense victim”), which differed in the previous information given about the target woman. The Principal Components Analysis reduced the information from the questionnaire to three dimensions: “brittleness” (α = .91), “positive” (α = .786), and “hostile” (α = .809). The MANOVA confirmed the battered woman stereotype and its modification when the victim reacts against the abuser in self-defense: in this case the attribution of brittleness decreases and the attribution of hostility increases. The type of academic training showed significant effects on the stereotype, this being more negative among Law students than among Psychology ones. Law students perceive the target woman in the “victim” condition more hostile and manipulator. As for the “self-defense” condition, Law students attribute less brittleness to the victim, and perceive her more manipulator and dangerous. The effect of the observer's gender on the stereotype is consistent with the previous literature. Implications for professional training and judicial practices are discussed.
Article
ALIŞANLARDA CAM TAVAN ALGISI: HAKKARİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ ÖRNEĞİ  Hava YAŞBAY KOBAL  Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı, Hakkari Üniversitesi çalışanlarının cam tavan algılarının irdelenmesidir. Araştırmada cam tavana yönelik değerlendirmelerin kadın ve erkeklerde farklılık gösterip göstermediği sorusuna cevap bulunmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda tanımsal nitelikte bir araştırma tasarımı uygulanmıştır. Veriler, nicel yöntemlerden çevrimiçi anket yöntemiyle toplanmıştır. Bu kapsamda 108 çalışandan elde edilen veriler, frekans dağılımları, açımlayıcı faktör analizi, güvenilirlik analizi ve bağımsız gruplar t testi ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda, mesleki ayrım ve stereotipler, bireysel tercih ve algı ile çoklu rol üstlenme boyutlarında erkeklerin anlamlı düzeyde daha olumsuz değerlendirmeleri olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Abstract The aim of this study is to examine the glass ceiling perception in employees at Hakkari University. In the study, we tried to find an answer to the question of whether glass ceiling evaluations differ in men and women. The data was gathered by online survey method from quantitative methods. In this context, the data obtained from 108 employees were analyzed using frequency distributions, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, and independent samples t test. As a result of the research, it was found out that men have significantly more negative assessments in terms of professional distinction and stereotypes, individual preference and perception and multi-role dimensions.
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Gender-based equity in compensation, access to opportunity and resources, and leadership roles are critical to the health and future of otolaryngology; however, significant gaps continue to persist. Professional equity in otolaryngology will be achieved by leadership prioritization of equity as mission critical, improving organizational culture and developing systems for advocacy, understanding what constitutes equal pay in otolaryngology, the development of transparent and reoccurring equity review processes and the promotion of women and underrepresented minorities into leadership positions.
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The evolving science around COVID‐19 made timely digital communication with policymakers increasingly important for all constituencies. This holds true particularly for the scientific community, where evidence‐informed policymaking can influence the effectiveness of public responses. In this context, understanding how to reach policymakers effectively and which policymakers are likely to engage with scientific information delivered through digital mediums is critical. This study provides a novel observational approach to understanding reach with policymakers through science email campaigns. Using a sample of nearly 3000 state policymakers, we assessed data from five digital messaging campaigns. Results indicate four profiles of legislators: those who rarely open and open slowly (Never Openers), those who only opened a couple of emails (Rare Openers), those who open quickly, but do not always open (Intermittent Openers), and those that consistently open quickly (Always Openers). Female legislators and legislators who had served for fewer terms were more likely to be Always Openers or Intermittent Openers, relative to male legislators and legislators who had served more terms. This study reveals patterns of email engagement and indicates science communication efforts may need to adopt more targeted strategies that better reach policymakers who tend to engage less frequently with emailed research content.
Article
This study was carried out within the context of an assessment for promotion to a high-status position. It aimed to determine the conditions in which the backlash effect occurs in a group characterized by negative stereotypes owing to their ethnicity: North African males in France. One hundred twenty-eight recruitment professionals assessed the probability of promoting one of eight fictitious male applicants with different causal attributions (internal or external) and levels of technical competence (high or average), and of different ethnicities (European or North African). Internal attribution, one of the dimensions of self-promotion, was regarded as a counterstereotypical behavior for a North African applicant compared with a European applicant. Backlash was only observed in a high-threat context.
Article
Self‐censorship in organizations is an individual's decision not to share information on observed irregularities and misconduct of others. The propensity to self‐censor, motivated by belief that voice will not be heard, may reflect gender inequalities. In study 1 (N = 948) we test whether women manifest more self‐censorship than men and we verify whether this effect is maintained when women and men hold managerial position. In two follow‐up studies we analyse the effects of a) procedural justice (study 2, N = 98) and b) communal organizational climate (study 3, N = 589) on women's and men's self‐censorship. The results of our studies support our assumptions: 1) self‐censorship in women is more prevalent than in men, 2) women in management positions are more likely to self‐censor than men in managerial positions, 3) procedural justice and communal organizational climate are negatively related to employees’ self‐censorship, and this relationship is stronger for women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Chapter
Sexuelle Belästigung, Sexismus und „sexualisierte Vermeidung“ behindern vor allem Frauen bei der Arbeit. Dies ist besonders in der Forschung ein Problem, weil Wissenschaft immer noch als ein traditionell männlicher Beruf angesehen wird. Deshalb erleben sich Frauen in der Forschung oft als fehl am Platz und einige Akteure glauben sie hätten das Recht Frauen zu diskriminieren. Sexismus und sexuelle Belästigung können Frauen und Angehörige von Minderheiten unter Druck setzen, dafür sorgen, dass ihnen weniger Ressourcen zur Verfügung stehen oder dass sie von Projekten ausgeschlossen und gemieden werden. Unternehmen, die sexuelle Belästigung gezielt bekämpfen, können damit allerdings erfolgreich sein. Neben den offensichtlichen Vorteilen, die es hat Sexismus zu bekämpfen, hat Forschung, die unter Beteiligung von Frauen und Männern entsteht, bessere Chancen wichtige Themen zu erkennen und qualitativ hochwertige Ergebnisse hervorzubringen.
Article
Stratification in professional careers arises in part from interpersonal dynamics in client-expert dyads. To reduce perceived uncertainty in judgments of the quality of experts, clients may rely on ascriptive characteristics of experts and on pairwise, relational factors to assess the advice they receive. Two such characteristics, expert gender and client-expert gender concordance, may lead to differences in clients’ trust in expert advice. To explore these issues, we investigate the incidence of patient-initiated second opinions (SOs) in medicine. In an examination of millions of medical claims in Massachusetts, we find that male patients are much more likely than female patients to obtain an SO if the first specialist they consult is female. Moreover, when the first specialist a patient consults is gender non-concordant and the patient seeks an SO, male patients are substantially more likely to switch to a same-gender specialist in the SO visit. Because patients who lack confidence in the advice of the first-seen specialist infrequently return to this specialist for medical services, female specialists generate lower billings. Analyses of medical spending in follow-up visits suggest that gendered patterns in questioning the advice of medical experts have the potential to contribute substantially to the gender pay gap in medicine.
Article
Women of color (vs. White women) are underrepresented in the United States government. Identifying factors that affect evaluations of these women is important to understand their underrepresentation. Deviating from communal expectations contributes to backlash against women. Being perceived as prioritizing communality thus appears key for women to receive support. Little work, however, has examined this relation in actual politicians and how perceiver political ideology may affect it. We examined how gendered trait inferences and political ideology affected evaluations of Kamala Harris, the first woman of color elected to the executive branch, before the 2020 election. People perceived Harris as more agentic than communal (Studies 1–2). Communal trait inferences and having a more liberal political ideology each positively related to evaluations of Harris. More liberal relative to more conservative perceivers had weaker positive communality effects when evaluating her expected success (Studies 1–2) and when a description conveyed Harris’s communality (vs. agency; Study 2). These findings highlight communality effects on evaluations of Harris and suggest a context under which she was likely more supported by co-partisans. Moreover, these studies identify potential sources of bias toward female candidates of color, illustrating a need for gendered trait inferences to be thoroughly considered in campaign strategies. Additional online materials for this article are available on PWQ’s website at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/suppl/10.1177/03616843221104383 .
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In diesem Kapitel werden gesellschaftspolitisch brisante Themen diskutiert, die sich ebenfalls mit den Methoden der Verhaltensökonomik analysieren lassen. Als Basis für verschiedene Arten von ethisch-moralischem und sogar juristischem Fehlverhalten beschreibt der Autor zunächst Phänomene, die innerhalb von Gruppen auftreten und zur Zusammenrottung der Mitglieder und Diskriminierung Außenstehender führen können. Reale Konsequenzen sind Fremdenfeindlichkeit sowie Ausgrenzung und Unterdrückung von Minderheiten, wie am Verhalten der deutschen AfD und der US-Republikaner dargelegt wird. Als Folge sind ebenso Rassismus und seine Spezialformen Antisemitismus und Antiziganismus denkbar. Neben dem Cross-Race-Bias lassen sich zahlreiche zuvor besprochene kognitive Effekte als Begründung anführen, wie Verlustangst, Status-quo-Verzerrung, Konservati smusfehlschluss und Backlash-Effekt. Dabei bedienen sich Individuen, Organisationen und Parteien der Verbreitung von Fake News zu Propagandazwecken, was letztlich auch in Deutschland zu einer Bewährungsprobe für die demokratische Grundordnung führt. Erklärungsansätze bieten diverse weitere Verzerrungen, etwa Story-Bias, Backfire-Effekt, Truth-Effekt, Continued-Influence-Effekt und Verfügbarkeitskaskade.
Article
Employees are increasingly exhorted to “pursue their passion” at work. Inherent in this call is the belief that passion will produce higher performance because it promotes intrapersonal processes that propel employees forward. Here, we suggest that the pervasiveness of this “passion narrative,” coupled with the relative observability of passion, may lead others to treat passionate employees in more favorable ways that subsequently produce better workplace outcomes, a self-fulfilling prophecy we term the Passionate Pygmalion Effect. We find evidence for this effect across two experiments (Study 1 and pre-registered Study 3) and one field survey with pairs of subordinates and supervisors from a diverse set of organizations (Study 2). In line with the Passionate Pygmalion Effect, our studies show that more passionate employees (1) received more positive feedback for their success, (2) were offered more training and promotion opportunities, (3) elicited more favorable emotional reactions, and (4) prompted more favorable attributions for varied performance outcomes. Such favorable treatment persisted despite describing passionate employees' job performance identically or controlling for job performance statistically. Notably, more passionate employees even elicited more favorable emotional reactions and attributions when their job performance decreased. We subsequently discuss how our interpersonal perspective on the passion narrative implicates challenges for the advancement of employees with fewer opportunities to pursue their passion (e.g., given socioeconomic constraints or exploitative work demands), or who are less likely to be perceived as passionate by others (e.g., given cross-cultural differences).
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Building upon the gender role congruity theory, in this paper, we propose that the association between gender diversity and venture performance changes when roles played by individuals are not coherent with the gender-derived expectations of their ascribed social group. We test our theory in the context of early stage financing, investigating how gender diversity between entrepreneurs and VC managers influences the investment performance of VC-backed firms. Our sample consists of 5800 VC managers, who invested in 5075 different ventures in the period 2000–2019 and of 16,713 venture founders. We find that gender diversity is associated with better performance only when a female entrepreneur is matched to a male VC manager. Our analysis sheds light on the presence of several factors that moderate the observed association, related to the VC’s ability to provide value-added services to the invested ventures.
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Women leaders who fail to manage the double bind by displaying both warmth and competence can face backlash, creating pressure for women to invest thought, time, and effort into their self-presentation. Research to date lacks theoretical insights around how women in the highest levels of leadership manage the double bind in natural settings. Our inductive study of interviews with 43 women directors on U.S. publicly traded company boards offers an insider’s perspective of participation tactics that women use to manage the double bind in male-dominated contexts. We found two features unique to advisory roles—a requirement that advisors possess a large breadth of knowledge and a time constraint whereby advisors meet less frequently with their peers—that suggest women directors adapt and learn how to participate on gendered boards. We uncovered six gendered participation tactics that mitigate stereotypical concerns for women to appear warm and/or competent on boards. We further reveal how women directors selectively use specific gendered participation tactics over others to effectively achieve their participation aims, which, in turn, helps them avoid backlash for mismanaging the double bind. Finally, we find that this matching process is constrained by the amount and scope of use related to the unique features of the advisory role. The emergence and trade-offs between the use of these novel gendered participation tactics deepen our theoretical understanding of women’s participation in advisory roles.
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Purpose Organizations worldwide use virtual teams to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic and capitalize on distributed members' unique expertise to accomplish essential tasks. A critical reason that inhibits virtual team members from leveraging each other’s knowledge is a lack of psychological safety. Specifically, individuals are unwilling to speak out for fear of negative repercussions, such as embarrassment to one’s image and rejection from others in their teams. The purpose of this study is to advance the importance of distinct awareness (task knowledge and presence) enabled by information technologies in developing the psychological safety of men and women in virtual teams. Design/methodology/approach This study tested the hypotheses using a survey study of 94 participants from 19 graduate student virtual teams. Findings This study found that task knowledge awareness predicted psychological safety for men, whereas it was presence awareness for women. By demonstrating the role of awareness in promoting psychological safety for men and women in virtual teams, this study also sheds light on reducing online gender inequitable issues. Practical implications First, organizational managers need to incorporate gender when deciding the awareness type to promote psychological safety in virtual teams. For men, it is task knowledge awareness, whereas for women, it is presence awareness. Second, as there is a wide range of information technologies (ITs) available, managers need to identify if the provided ITs enable virtual team members to develop the specific type of knowledge awareness critical for psychological safety development. Third, managers can incorporate rewards and apply interventions at regular temporal periods to encourage team members to increase their online presence as well as question and share task-related content. Originality/value It is imperative to identify ways to encourage men and women working in virtual teams to speak up so that the expertise held by the members can be better leveraged. This study represents an important step in this direction.
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Innovation is now more critical for logistics than ever as the industry faces rapidly developing challenges with omnichannel distribution and the coronavirus pandemic. Extant studies of the drivers of logistics innovation have focused on firm-level attributes, largely neglecting micro-level attributes associated with individual logistics professionals engaged in the innovation process as well as the environments in which they work. This includes gender differences, which have been established as critical in both the innovation and logistics literature bases. Consequently, we draw on organizational management research and complexity theory to evaluate gender-specific combinations of logistics innovation antecedents, including individual-level attributes such as self-efficacy, willingness to change, and creativity, as well as job-level attributes such as job satisfaction, training, and job complexity. Although structural equation modeling reveals extremely limited insight into these antecedents, including gender differences, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) identifies four combinations of attributes for women and seven combinations for men that lead to high levels of logistics innovation. Importantly, the results not only demonstrate that there is no clear single recipe for effective logistics innovation but also corroborate the extant literature indicating that women and men approach innovation differently. Combined, our findings offer important insights into how firms can orchestrate their logistics innovation teams to meet rapidly changing customer needs.
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As the first female United States Secretary of State, Madeleine K. Albright redefined the role of America’s top diplomat. While Albright’s prolific foreign policy achievements are well documented, there has been little analysis of the negotiation style that contributed to her accomplishments. This article argues that Secretary Albright’s negotiation style was formed, at least in part, by the need to respond to her counterparts’ gender‐based stereotypes. Albright managed those stereotypes in two ways: by leveraging them in her negotiations, and by framing her assertiveness so as to avoid a counter stereotypic backlash. How exactly she did so is the focus of this article. Using two case studies from Albright’s tenure as Secretary of State, I draw generalizable lessons for other negotiators looking not only to mitigate, but also exploit, the gender‐based assumptions that they face.
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Recent research has highlighted the fact that narrative letters of recommendation in employment references could contribute to gender bias in personnel selection. Structured, quantitative employment references, however, may limit the opportunity for such biases to emerge. In a sample of nearly one million applicants and ratings by over four million employment reference providers, we found no meaningful effect of gender bias in highly structured, quantitative employment references across job levels and a wide variety of industries. Interestingly, and in contrast to existing theory, the effect of gender bias remained negligible across both stereotypically masculine and feminine jobs. Similarly, in a subsample of 5000 job applicants and 20,000 employment reference providers, coded verbatim comments of reference providers showed little practical gender differences in the frequency with which various comment types are made. These results suggest that highly structured, quantitative and semi‐structured, verbatim employment references are an effective tool in the advancement of fair and equitable personnel selection practices. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research is proposed.
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Workplace backlash, the explicit/implicit, and/or intentional/unintentional attempts to reject efforts to promote diversity, taken by both dominant and subordinate social group members to maintain the group-based social hierarchy at work, has emerged as a major threat to fostering diversity and inclusiveness in the workplace. Although intense scholarly attention has been paid to workplace backlash, the literature has a highly individualistic and fragmented perspective of backlash, which hinders theoretical advancement. As a remedy for conceptual and theoretical heterogeneity, I first conducted a systematic review of the literature to present a critical overview of past scholarly endeavors and take stock of the empirical evidence. This article provides an alternative, unified definition of workplace backlash drawn from intergroup relations and the power hierarchy among social group members. Finally, based on the perspective of group-based social hierarchy, this study describes the emergence, development, and maintenance of workplace backlash through the lens of social dominance theory. Implications and future research suggestions are also discussed.
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Although the effects of confronting sexism have been examined in the past, no research to date has demonstrated the most common dimensions along which confrontations of workplace sexism differ. Furthermore, previous research has not fully examined how different forms of sexism confrontations differentially impact the workplace experiences of targets experiencing these sexist actions. Thus, these two studies examine how confrontations of workplace sexism commonly differ and the workplace implications of these differences. In Study 1, data were collected from individuals who had witnessed a sexist encounter in the workplace that was subsequently confronted. Using a content analysis approach, we found that the most common differences in confrontations of workplace sexism included the identity of the confronter, the tone of the confrontation, the location of the confrontation, the number of confronters, and the timing of the confrontation. In Studies 2 and 3, we examined how these differences impacted job stress, turnover intentions, perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, and workplace diversity climate of women targets. In Study 2, analysis of survey data from women employees determined that workplace confrontations of workplace sexism of any form are equally beneficial for women targets. Study 3, an experimental vignette study, provided support for the Study 2 findings. This study aids researchers in understanding the dimensionality of sexism confrontations as well as the relationships between these dimensions and important workplace outcomes. This study will also prove useful for practitioners intent on educating allies and targets on when and how they should confront sexism at work.
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Although male employees are increasingly making use of parental leave, gender differences in both usage and duration of parental leave are still prevalent. Based on signalling theory and the masculinities concept, the article explores the role of gender in the relationship between the incidence/duration of parental leave and wages/compensation after returning to a job. It is shown that pay gaps associated with parental leave are much more severe for male than they are for female middle managers in the German chemical industry.
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Women's "failure to negotiate" is framed within the larger context of women's difficulties in advocating for themselves. These difficulties are examined in light of both the costs associated with female self-promotion and the often invisible link for women between being liked and being influential. Suggestions are made for minimizing the passive injustices that are often a consequence of women's self-advocacy dilemma.
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This article examines how different personality types create and benefit from social networks in organizations. Using data from a 116-member high-technology firm, we tested how self-monitoring orientation and network position related to work performance. First, chameleon-like high self-monitors were more likely than true-to-themselves low self-monitors to occupy central positions in social networks. Second, for high (but not for low) self-monitors, longer service in the organization related to the occupancy of strategically advantageous network positions. Third, self-monitoring and centrality in social networks independently predicted individuals' workplace performance. The results paint a picture of people shaping the networks that constrain and enable performance.
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The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) is a widelyused instrument in measuring gender role perceptions.Recent concerns regarding the validity of the adjectiveshave arisen as changes in the roles of men and women have occurred in American society sincethe 1970's. A partial replication of the method that Bem(1974) used to validate the masculine and feminineadjectives comprising the instrument was conducted. All but two of the adjectives were validatedusing Bem's criteria. These findings suggest that theBSRI may still be a valid instrument for assessing genderroles. However, evidence was revealed that traditional masculine and feminine gender role perceptionsmay be weakening. Future validation of the BSRI iswarranted in light of these patterns.
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Despite the recent electoral success of female candiates in local, state, and national elections, we find that voters' gender stereotypes have potentially negative implications for women candidates, especially when running for national office. We test the political impact of stereotypes by examining the relative importance of typical "male" and "female" personality traits and areas of issue competence for "good" politicians and a hypothetical candidate at different types and levels of office. Overall, we find a preference for "male" characteristics at higher levels of office. We attempt to reconcile the existence of gender stereotypes, which portray women candidates as insufficiently aggressive or less competent in their dealings with the military with the recent electoral success of women in national and statewide elections.
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Many have researched the effect of occupational segregation on race and gender gaps in pay, but few have examined segregation's impact on promotions. This article uses the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the effect of race and gender composition in the origin occupation on movement to a managerial position. Findings show that for men, percentage of women in the origin occupation positively affected the chances of men moving to a supervisory position and that Blacks were less likely than Whites to be promoted. For women, percentage of women and percentage of Blacks in the origin occupation significantly decreased chances of women attaining a management position. Subsequent analyses showed that Black men, Black women, and White women waited longer than did White men for the managerial promotions they received. The findings suggest the impact of a “glass escalator” for White men, a “glass ceiling” for others, and contradict the notion of a “declining significance of race.”
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A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.
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The present research suggests that automatic and controlled intergroup biases can be modified through diversity education. In 2 experiments, students enrolled in a prejudice and conflict seminar showed significantly reduced implicit and explicit anti-Black biases, compared with control students. The authors explored correlates of prejudice and stereotype reduction. In each experiment, seminar students' implicit and explicit change scores positively covaried with factors suggestive of affective and cognitive processes, respectively. The findings show the malleability of implicit prejudice and stereotypes and suggest that these may effectively be changed through affective processes.
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This study represents the beginning of a program of research aimed at assessing the extent to which sex role stereotypes influence the evaluation of leadership behavior. Male and female business students were administered one of two versions of a questionnaire. Both versions contained the same four stories, each depicting a leadership style based on one of the following Ohio State leadership dimensions: initiating structure, consideration, production emphasis, and tolerance for freedom. In one version, the names indicated that the managers in the four stories were (in order) male, female, male, female; in the other version, the managers' names were changed to indicate the opposite sex. The subjects were asked to answer eight evaluative questions for each of the four leadership styles. The results confirmed the hypothesis that sex has an effect on evaluations of managerial behavior, although the effect varied for different leadership styles. In general, the effect was greatest for the consideration style, where female managers received more positive scores than male managers. Initiating structure behavior was valued more highly when engaged in by male managers than when it was used by female managers. Sex also appeared to influence evaluations of the tolerance for freedom style, but the precise effect was unclear. Evaluations of the production emphasis style were not affected by the sex variable. Sex of subject effects also were noted. Implications of the findings for managerial behavior and future research are discussed.
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assesses what [has been] learned about some of [the] issues [surrounding stereotypes] from social psychological research, and particularly from research guided by a social cognition approach cognitive processes in stereotype formation / stereotypes as cognitive structures / stereotyping and information processing / affect, cognition, and stereotyping / stereotype change (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examines institutional variables that affect the success of women in transcending glass ceiling barriers and, earning positions as corporate officers. In an examination of 291 exchange-listed companies, women were found to attain increased representation as corporate officers between 1984 and 1994. The effect of profession favored the advancement of women to corporate officer in staff-oriented occupations rather than line-oriented occupations. The direct effect of younger firm age, and, the interaction of this variable with smaller firm size, favored women in becoming corporate officers. The findings of this study suggest the existence of gender-based forms of screening in organizations aside from the middle management glass ceiling. This study also informs women of firm characteristics that will help them predict where their best opportunities in advancing to top management positions lie.
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Introducing the concepts of self- and other-advocacy should prove useful as a means of understanding the different contexts in which women and men can effectively and comfortably exert power and influence when making requests. In this conceptual paper, social psychological research is reviewed demonstrating that women can advocate effectively on behalf of others without incurring costs, but gender-linked stereotypes, roles, and norms constrain them from advocating as freely and effectively for themselves. It is argued that women do not frequently make requests for themselves, because they have learned that they may ultimately lose more than they gain. This gendered difference has implications for ongoing pay and promotion inequities.
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This review article posits that the scarcity of women at the upper levels of organizations is a consequence of gender bias in evaluations. It is proposed that gender stereotypes and the expectations they produce about both what women are like (descriptive) and how they should behave (prescriptive) can result in devaluation of their performance, denial of credit to them for their successes, or their penalization for being competent. The processes giving rise to these outcomes are explored, and the procedures that are likely to encourage them are identified. Because of gender bias and the way in which it influences evaluations in work settings, it is argued that being competent does not ensure that a woman will advance to the same organizational level as an equivalently performing man.
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This chapter presents an integrated understanding of various impression formation processes. The chapter introduces a model of impression formation that integrates social cognition research on stereotyping with traditional research on person perception. According to this model, people form impressions of others through a variety of processes that lie on a continuum reflecting the extent to that the perceiver utilizes a target's particular attributes. The continuum implies that the distinctions among these processes are matters of degree, rather than discrete shifts. The chapter examines the evidence for the five main premises of the model, it is helpful to discuss some related models that raise issues for additional consideration. The chapter discusses the research that supports each of the five basic premises, competing models, and hypotheses for further research. The chapter concludes that one of the model's fundamental purposes is to integrate diverse perspectives on impression formation, as indicated by the opening quotation. It is also designed to generate predictions about basic impression formation processes and to help generate interventions that can reduce the impact of stereotypes on impression formation.
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This study examined how women's proportional representation in the upper echelons of organizations affects professional women's social constructions of gender difference and gender identity at work. qualitative and quantitative data were used. Results suggest that sex roles are more stereotypical and more problematic in firms with relatively low proportions of senior women, This research also found that women responded to these constraints in a range of ways and identifies five response profiles. The study challenges prevailing conceptions of gender as an objective property of individuals synonymous with biological sex and universal across organizational settings; instead, it supports a more complex view of gender as an ongoing social construction, the meaning, significance, and consequences of which vary as a function of the power differences reflected in the sex composition across levels of an organization's hierarchy.
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This paper examines the impact of women's proportional representation in the upper echelons of organizations on hierarchical and peer relationships among professional women at work. I propose that social identity is the principal mechanism through which the representation of women influences their relationships. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of interview and questionnaire data are used to compare women's same-sex relationships in firms with relatively low and high proportions of senior women. Compared with women in firms with many senior women, women in firms with few senior women were less likely to experience common gender as a positive basis for identification with women, less likely to perceive senior women as role models with legitimate authority, more likely to perceive competition in relationships with women peers, and less likely to find support in these relationships. These results challenge person-centered views about the psychology of women's same-sex work relationships and suggest that social identity may link an organization's demographic composition with individuals' workplace experiences.
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This paper examines whether the dramatic increase in women's representation among managers between 1970 and 1988 was real or was simply a case of women being given managerial titles but not commensurate pay or supervisory responsibility. Earnings and authority differentials between male and female managers are analyzed with data from three sources for this period. The results indicate that the sex gap in earnings among managers narrowed during this period, while the gap in authority remained constant. Thus, women's increasing representation in management was not simply a matter of their artificial reclassification. Nonetheless, the sex gap in wages within management continues to exceed that in the labor force as a whole. The implication of these results for theories of internal organizational dynamics are discussed.
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This study examined recipients’ perceptions of workplace discipline. Females delivering discipline were perceived to be less effective and less fair than males. Both recipients’ biases and behavior differences by male and female supervisors appear to contribute to reduced effectiveness. These results suggest the need to raise the awareness of managers and subordinates regarding potential negative reactions to females administering discipline. Special training in discipline delivery for female managers may also be warranted.
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This paper examines how perceptions of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) are affected by socially constructed gender roles. We argue that gender roles are important for the perception, categorization, and consequences of OCBs. We suggest that the dimensions of OCBs (altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship, and civic virtue) are related to gender stereotypes. Combining social identity theory with gender role theory suggests that the ‘gender’ of these behaviors, the job, the job incumbent, and the gender identity of the observer interact, potentially broaden the breadth of requisite job behaviors defined as either in- or extra-role. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This article presents a four-category framework to characterize the contents of prescriptive gender stereotypes. The framework distinguishes between prescriptions and proscriptions that are intensified by virtue of one's gender, and those that are relaxed by virtue of one's gender. Two studies examined the utility of this framework for characterizing prescriptive gender stereotypes in American society (Study 1) and in the highly masculine context of Princeton University (Study 2). The results demonstrated the persistence of traditional gender prescriptions in both contexts, but also revealed distinct areas of societal vigilance and leeway for each gender. In addition, they showed that women are seen more positively, relative to societal standards, than are men. We consider the implications of this framework for research on reactions to gender stereotype deviants and sex discrimination.
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Dynamic stereotypes characterize social groups that are thought to have changed from the attributes they manifested in the past and even to continue to change in the future. According to social role theory’s assumption that the role behavior of group members shapes their stereotype, groups should have dynamic stereotypes to the extent that their typical social roles are perceived to change over time. Applied to men and women, this theory makes two predictions about perceived change: (a) perceivers should think that sex differences are eroding because of increasing similarity of the roles of men and women and (b) the female stereotype should be particularly dynamic because of greater change in the roles of women than of men. This theory was tested and confirmed in five experiments that examined perceptions of the roles and the personality, cognitive, and physical attributes of men and women of the past, present, and future.
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This paper develops theory about the conditions under which cultural diversity enhances or detracts from work group functioning. From qualitative research in three culturally diverse organizations, we identified three different perspectives on workforce diversity: the integration-and-learning perspective, the access-and-legitimacy perspective, and the discrimination-and-fairness perspective. The perspective on diversity a work group held influenced how people expressed and managed tensions related to diversity, whether those who had been traditionally underrepresented in the organization felt respected and valued by their colleagues, and how people interpreted the meaning of their racial identity at work. These, in turn, had implications for how well the work group and its members functioned. All three perspectives on diversity had been successful in motivating managers to diversify their staffs, but only the integration-and-learning perspective provided the rationale and guidance needed to achieve sustained benefits from diversity. By identifying the conditions that intervene between the demographic composition of a work group and its functioning, our research helps to explain mixed results on the relationship between cultural diversity and work group outcomes.
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The goals of the present study were to assessparents' attitudes toward crossgender boys and girls, aswell as to explore possible reasons for differentialevaluations. A total of 224 White parents of five-year old children completed questionnaires probingtheir attitudes toward cross-gender behavior inchildren, and their expectations regarding the futureadult behavior of typical boys, typical girls,cross-gender boys and cross-gender girls. The resultsrevealed that cross-gender boys were more negativelyregarded than crossgender girls and thatmen perceivedmore societal acceptance of cross-gender boys thanwomen. Cross-gender children were predicted tocontinue to show cross-gender behavior in adulthood andto be less psychologically welladjusted as adults than“typical” boys and girls. Cross-gender boyswere expected to be less psychologicallywell-adjusted than cross-gender girls. When predictingfuture sexual orientation, cross-gender boys were deemedto have a greater likelihood of being gay thancross-gender girls of being lesbian. Men expectedcross-gender boys to be more likely to show male-malesexual behavior than “typical” boys inadulthood while women predicted “typical”girls to be more likely to show female-female sexual behavior in adulthoodthan cross-gender girls.
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When Linda Babcock asked why so many male graduate students were teaching their own courses and most female students were assigned as assistants, her dean said: "More men ask. The women just don't ask." It turns out that whether they want higher salaries or more help at home, women often find it hard to ask. Sometimes they don't know that change is possible--they don't know that they can ask. Sometimes they fear that asking may damage a relationship. And sometimes they don't ask because they've learned that society can react badly to women asserting their own needs and desires. By looking at the barriers holding women back and the social forces constraining them, Women Don't Ask shows women how to reframe their interactions and more accurately evaluate their opportunities. It teaches them how to ask for what they want in ways that feel comfortable and possible, taking into account the impact of asking on their relationships. And it teaches all of us how to recognize the ways in which our institutions, child-rearing practices, and unspoken assumptions perpetuate inequalities--inequalities that are not only fundamentally unfair but also inefficient and economically unsound. © 2003 by Linda Babcock and Sara Laschever. All Rights Reserved.