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Microencapsulation of l-mentol by spray drying and its release characteristics

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Abstract

The microencapsulation of l-menthol was studied by spray drying, using gum arabic (GA) and modified starch (CAPSUL, HI-CAP 100) as capsule materials. The results showed a higher retention of l-menthol with the increasing of initial solid concentration. HI-CAP 100, showed a higher retention than the other capsule materials. However, it also showed a higher residue of l-menthol on the surface of powder especially at the high concentration of l-menthol in the feed emulsion. That might be from the interaction between the wall materials and l-menthol which can re-crystallize to form whisker after the spray drying. Furthermore, the release characteristics of l-menthol were also investigated. The release rate increased upon elevation of relative humidity and temperature. The activation energies of the release of l-menthol from GA wall matrices at 75 and 83%RH were 140 and 48 kJ/mol, respectively.

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... Menthol plays an important role in consumer choice and sensory evaluation, although it usually accounts for a tiny proportion of a fi nal product composition 3 . Due to its characteristic odor, menthol has been widely used in a lot of products such as foods, beverages, confectionaries, mouthwashes, toothpastes, pharmaceuticals, and cigarettes as a fl avoring ingredient 3, 4 . ...
... Polish Journal of Chemical Technology, 24,2,[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]10.2478/pjct-2022-0008 ...
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(-)-Menthol has been widely used in clinical medicine, flavor, and fragrance. However, high volatility, short retention time, low solubility in water, and whisker growth of menthol are crucial problems for its application. In this paper, (-)-menthol-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was fabricated to solve these problems. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that menthol was successfully encapsulated in the cavity of β-cyclodextrin. Menthol itself vaporized almost completely at around 120 o C, while the maximum menthol release rate occurred at 267.5 o C after the formation of the inclusion complex. The stability and retention time were improved. The menthol release reaction order, apparent activation energy and the pre-exponential factor were obtained and their values were 0, 142.9 kJ/mol and 1.6 × 10 ¹³ respectively. The structure of menthol-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was investigated by molecular simulation and the minimum energy, –116.7 kJ/mol, was obtained at –0.8 × 10 –10 m.
... For that reason, the total retention percentage was determined for these four compounds. Superficial and encapsulated essential oil were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) according to method reported by Soottitantawat et al. (2005b). Briefly, for encapsulated essential oil, 100 mg of powder were blended with 3 mL of distilled water and 5 mL of hexane. ...
... In the case of the release controlled of encapsulated compounds by spray drying, an exponential liberation has been reported, but little information is known about the liberation in lyophilized samples. Soottitantawat et al. (2005b) analyzed the liberation of l-menthol obtained by spray drying at 43ºC with different relative humidity by using gum Arabic and modified starch (CAPSU and Fig. 3. Release kinetics of α and β-citral compounds of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil microencapsulated by lyophilization using a) a blend of maltodextrin (40%) -gum arabic (50%) and xanthan gum (10%), and b) a blend of maltodextrin (20%) -gum Arabic (40%) -xanthan gum (20%); using fast freezing and ♦ slow freezing. ...
... For that reason, the total retention percentage was determined for these four compounds. Superficial and encapsulated essential oil were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) according to method reported by Soottitantawat et al. (2005b). Briefly, for encapsulated essential oil, 100 mg of powder were blended with 3 mL of distilled water and 5 mL of hexane. ...
... In the case of the release controlled of encapsulated compounds by spray drying, an exponential liberation has been reported, but little information is known about the liberation in lyophilized samples. Soottitantawat et al. (2005b) analyzed the liberation of l-menthol obtained by spray drying at 43ºC with different relative humidity by using gum Arabic and modified starch (CAPSU and Fig. 3. Release kinetics of α and β-citral compounds of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil microencapsulated by lyophilization using a) a blend of maltodextrin (40%) -gum arabic (50%) and xanthan gum (10%), and b) a blend of maltodextrin (20%) -gum Arabic (40%) -xanthan gum (20%); using fast freezing and ♦ slow freezing. ...
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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different encapsulating agents (gum arabic (GA), maltodextrin (MD) and/or xanthan gum (XG) and two different freezing methods (slow and fast)) on the encapsulating effciency of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and on its release during storage. Retention of α-and β-citral,β-myrcene and linalool were determined by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectra (GC MS). Release of the encapsulated compounds was determined at 76% relative humidity and 30°C. The highest retention obtained was 78±9% for β-citral, 100±16% for α-citral, 81.6±5.8% for β-myrcene and 39.7±2.3% for linalool with the slow tested freezing protocol and a mixture of 50% GA, 40% MD, and 10% XG (volume). Kinetic release during storage was exponential and adequately fitted with Avrami´s model. Lemongrass essential oil can be encapsulated by freeze-drying using a mixture of gum arabic, maltodextrin and xanthan gum with a high retention of volatile compounds by using a slow freezing protocol. © 2018, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. All rights reserved.
... Menthol is a cyclic terpene alcohol found in high concentrations in peppermint and corn mint oils extracted from herb plants like Mentha arvensis and, commonly used in the food industry. Spray drying encapsulation was studied by Soottitantawat et al. (Soottitantawat et al., 2005b) and Sarkar et al. (Sarkar et al., 2012) using different wall materials including: Gum Arabic (GA), modified starch (MS), guar gum hydrolyze, n-octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) and some blends of these. L-mentol emulsions were fed through a spray-dryer, equipped with a centrifugal atomizer (180±5°C and 100±5°C inlet and outlet air temperature respectively, 100 kg·h -1 airflow rate at outlet temperature and, 30000 rpm rotation speed of atomizer). ...
... Most of the microencapsulation processes involves dispersion or emulsification of the active material in the wall material, followed by subsequent drying of the microcapsules (Shahidi and Han, 1993;Soottitantawat et al., 2005). In the case of hydrophobic compounds, such as turmeric oleoresin, effective microencapsulation demands that the emulsion be stable throughout the process. ...
Article
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Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) oleoresin possess valuable phenolic compounds that are susceptible to degradation, and microencapsulation is a powerful technique to increase its stability. Emulsification is a preponderant step in microencapsulation of hydrophobic compounds and physical-chemical properties of the parent emulsion affects effectiveness of spray-drying process and functional properties of the produced microcapsules. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of emulsion formulation, emulsification methods, and spray-drying operational conditions on the encapsulation efficiency of turmeric oleoresin using maltodextrin/gelatin blends as wall material. The effects of different concentrations of maltodextrin (12 - 31.7 wt %) and gelatin (0.6 - 6 wt %), combined with three methods of emulsification - high shear homogenization with and without emulsifier addition, and sonication – were evaluated regarding emulsion droplet mean diameter and stability. Based on the results, an emulsion formulated with 26 g of maltodextrin and 0.6 g of gelatin per 100 g of emulsion was selected to study the influence of spray drying conditions - drying-air temperature (124 – 190 oC), atomization airflow (275 – 536 L h-1), and emulsion feeding flow (1.4 – 8.6 mL min-1) - on encapsulation efficiency, water content, and solubility of turmeric oleoresin microcapsules. Sonication resulted in higher emulsion stability and, although drying-air temperature did not affect significantly the microcapsule properties, the best set of spray drying conditions was drying-air at 160 ºC, atomization airflow of 420 L h-1, and emulsion feeding flow of 6 mL min-1. Combinations of higher atomization airflow and lower emulsion feeding flow resulted in lower values of curcumin encapsulation efficiency.
... This indicates that the encapsulation has more influence on the retention and stability of flavour in ice cream. These findings are in accordance to the findings of Soottitantawat et al. (2005) who has stated that the retention and stability of the encapsulated compound may be due to moisture absorption by the wall materials and makes it rubbery and thus increase the release rate of the flavour compound. ...
Article
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Flavour is the most important positive attribute in ice cream. However its stability in ice cream during processing and storage get decreased. In order to limit its degradation in ice cream during processing and storage it is beneficial to encapsulate flavor compounds. The aim of this study is to evaluate flavor encapsulated (FE 1 and FE 2) compounds, physico-chemical of different flavor encapsulated ice cream (FEIC 0, FEIC 1, FEIC 2) and sensory qualities of different flavor encapsulated ice cream on different days ( 0 day, 7thd day and 15th day). The ice cream were prepared with 1.35 % of FE 1 and FE 2 in ice cream and were analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory qualities and compared with regular ice cream (control – FEIC 0). The result of the present study shows that shape of the aggregated encapsulated flavour were irregular, but it is spherical in shape when it is dispersed. The size of the aggregated FE 1 and FE 2 did not differ significantly, but size of the dispersed and solubility of different encapsulated flavor differed significantly ( 0.01). Among physico-chemical properties, ice cream incorporated with encapsulated flavour significantly increased ( 0.05) viscosity and melting resistance of the ice cream, but it has not having any influence on pH, titratable acidity (%), fat (%), total solid (%) and specific gravity when compared with control ice cream (FEIC 0). In sensory qualities, colour and appearance of different flavour encapsulated ice cream did not differ significantly on different storage period. The intensity of flavour was significantly higher ( 0.01) in FEIC 0 on 0th day and non-significant among treatments on 7th day. But on 15th day the intensity of flavour was significantly higher in FEIC 1 and FEIC 2 when compared with FEIC 0 were analyzed using sensory panelist. Thus the study revealed that incorporation of FE compound in ice cream improves flavor stability in ice cream without affecting much of its physico-chemical properties.
... Therefore, after the evaporation process it was possible to observe a large empty hole inside the particle and a thick wall. Soottitantawat et al. [36,37] for d-limonene and l-menthol, Janiszewska et al. [38] for vanillin aroma powders, and Kha et al. [39] for Gac oil powders presented similar results. That kind of observation was made for powders based on MD:AG mixtures. ...
Article
Nowadays microencapsulation of pigments is widely applied to create stable powders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal blanching as a form of pretreatment before pressing and carrier type on stability of microencapsulated carrot juice powder. Raw material used in the study was the carrot variety Kazan. One part of carrots was blanched before pressing the juice. Mixtures of low-crystallized maltodextrin (MD) with Arabic gum (AG) in different proportions (1:1, 2:1) and whey protein isolate (WPI) were used as carriers. Drying was carried out in a spray-drier at inlet air temperature of 160 °C. Two speeds of the disc were used (28,000; 39,000 rpm). Viscosity, soluble solid content, density, and carotenoid content were measured in juice. Water content, water activity, apparent and bulk density, size of particles, morphology, and carotenoid content were tested in powders. Carrot blanching resulted in higher viscosity, without influencing its density or soluble solid content of the juices in comparison with those without pretreatment. In most cases, blanching treatment caused a decrease in carotenoid content and increases in densities and diameters of powder particles. The change of carrier material from MD:AG mixtures to WPI caused an increase in diameter d50 and carotenoid content and decrease in density values.
... Menthol, a cyclic monoterpene alcohol from peppermint, possesses biological activities, viz., antibacterial, antifungal, antipruritic, anticancer, and analgesic. Microencapsulation of menthol with GA and MS by spray drying method affects its handling and storage conditions (Kamatou et al., 2013 andSoottitantawat et al., 2005). ...
... Spray-drying, a relatively simple and continuous processing technique, has been used for decades to encapsulate volatile compounds into micro-and nanoparticles [66,67]. This method consists of atomizing a polymer containing drug solution with a nozzle in a chamber supplied with hot air, which evaporates the solvent instantaneously due to the enormous surface area between droplets and the drying gas. ...
... The particles produced by this method ranges between 10 and 50 μm, and the separation of the particles from the hot air is made by a cyclone (Estevinho and Rocha, 2017). Some of the flavors that can be encapsulated resorting to a spray drying are rosemary and mandarin essential oils, d-limonene, Cardamom oleoresin, and l-Menthol (de Barros Fernandes et al., 2014;Bringas-Lantigua et al., 2011;Krishnan et al., 2005;Fisk et al., 2013;Soottitantawat et al., 2005). ...
... The HCAP variants may have exhibited more hygroscopic tendencies due to the high dextrose equivalent (DE) of 32-37 of the wall material (Baranauskiene et al. 2007), indicating a large ratio of simple sugars (Bhandari et al. 1993) despite the high molecular weight of HCAP. This relationship was further confirmed by Soottitantawat et al. (2005), who stated that the incorporation of corn syrup solids occurs during the production of HCAP, causing an increase in its DE value and consequently increasing its hygroscopicity. ...
Article
Encapsulation has been used to overcome the problem of instability of functional pigments such as carotenoids from natural sources. In this study, β-carotene in carrot juice was spray dried with four different wall materials namely maltodextrin, resistant maltodextrin, octenyl succinate anhydride (OSA) starches Capsul (CAP) and HICAP-100 (HCAP). The objective of this research was to study the effects of various wall materials on physicochemical properties and stability of β-carotene powders along with its stability after incorporation into sugar confection. All four wall materials produced powders of acceptable quality in terms of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, solubility as well as onset glass transition temperature. OSA starches exhibited better pigment retention post spray drying where juices encapsulated with HCAP showed the highest retention (94.34%). This was also represented in more orange Hue values (H°) in powders produced with CAP (53.93) and HCAP (53.33). Powders produced with HCAP also showed the longest half-life after storage at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C, as well as under exposure to light. Similarly, carrot powders produced with OSA starches also exhibited better β-carotene retention after production of hard candy confection. Though candies with HCAP encapsulated juices showed the highest β-carotene retention post candy processing, candies with CAP encapsulated carrot juices exhibited better long term stability after storage at 25 °C and 40 °C as well as under exposure to light.
... Because of nano size, they are better dispersible in water (Chaudhry et al. 2008). Soottitantawat et al. (2005) prepared nano-emulsion of menthol using gum arabic and maltodextrin. Baranauskienė et al. (2006) prepared nano-emulsions of natural flavour components of oregano, citronella, and marjoram using skimmed milk powder, and whey protein. ...
Chapter
In food application, encapsulation is a technique in which the functional ingredient is packed inside a protective coating to prevent from chemical or biological degradation during processing, storage, and utilization. Depending upon the size of encapsulated product, it can be termed as micro-encapsulation or nano-encapsulation. The smaller size of nano-encapsulation offers benefits like micro-encapsulation but in better way. Nano-encapsulation provides protection to sensitive bioactive ingredients which then can be added into food products, and it helps in masking off taste and prevents unnecessary interactions with other constituents. It also improves solubility of poorly water-soluble ingredients. Nano-encapsulation enhances the bioavailability of functional ingredients as they are designed in such a way that they protect digestion of bioactive ingredients in stomach and ensure release of food ingredients at a site of action for optimal uptake. Therefore, nanotechnology has great potential for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds in functional foods to improve human health. However, the nano size is associated with the risk as it can cross the cell barrier. At present, there is no nano-specific guidelines, guidance documents for testing, or testing requirements under any of the existing regulations that relate specifically to nanoparticles in terms of size or other distinct physicochemical properties which may pose a major barrier in commercialization of nano-encapsulated food products.
... These structures consist of a solid lipid phase, a liquid lipid phase, a surface-active agent (emulsifier), and water in which a solid lipid covers the liquid lipid. Nanostructure lipid carriers have several advantages over other lipid carriers, the most important of which are: higher colloid stability compared to emulsions and liposomes and more physical stability (Soottitantawat et al. 2005, Liu and Wu 2010, Fang et al. 2013, Pezeshki et al. 2014. ...
Article
The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is one of the most common pest species that has the potential to transmit more than 100 plant viruses. Controlling this pest is difficult because it has become resistant to a wide range of insecticides. Nanoformulation has the capacity to reduce the pesticide load in agriculture and thus reduce the risks on human health and the environment. In this study, nanocapsules of pirimicarb and pymetrozine were prepared using nanostructured lipid carriers. The size, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency of nanocapsules were investigated using dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Zeta potential studies revealed stability of the nanocapsules of both insecticides. The encapsulation efficiencies were 85 and 81% for pirimicarb and pymetrozine, respectively. The nanocapsules were spherical with sizes of 35.38 and 35.12 nm for pirimicarb and pymetrozine, respectively. The LC50 values for the wettable powder (WP) and nanocapsule of pirimicarb after 48 h were 216.2 and 73.2 mg ai/l; for pymetrozine after 96 h, the values were 40.6 and 14.8 mg ai/l, respectively. Durations of residual activity for WP and nanocapsule formulations of pirimicarb were 7 and 15 d, respectively. The residual activity periods for WP and nanocapsule formulations of pymetrozine were 9 and 17 d, respectively. The results revealed that nanoencapsulation can improve performance allowing for reduced doses and increased duration of insecticidal activity for both of the insecticides tested.
... Another study on preparing micro-particles was conducted by Soottitantawata et al. [92], which focused on encapsulation of L-menthol by spray drying method. They showed that retention of Lmenthol depended on the initial solid concentration, and a decrease in the initial solid concentration increased its retention (the retention of L-menthol in the releasing test was determined as a ratio of the initial flavor amount). ...
... The heat-resistant characteristics are dependent on the electrostatic interactions between gelatin and gum Arabic. The effect of particle size on encapsulation efficiency and in optimization of flavor retention was clear [159,183]. In the study of Jafari et al. [89], they specified that smaller particles compared to larger particles, had lower surface oil amount and poorer flavor retention. ...
Article
Gums, which for the most part are water-soluble polysaccharides, can interact with water to form viscous solutions, emulsions or gels. Their desirable properties, such as flexibility, biocompatibility, biodegradability, availability of reactive sites for molecular interactions and ease of use have led to their extremely large and broad applications in formation of nanostructures (nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, nanocomplexes, and nanofibers)and have already served as important wall materials for a variety of nano encapsulated food ingredients including flavoring agents, vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids. The most common gums used in nano encapsulation systems include Arabic gum, carrageenan, xanthan, tragacanth plus some new sources of non-traditional gums, such as cress seed gum and Persian/or Angum gum identified as potential building blocks for nanostructured systems. New preparation techniques and sources of non-traditional gums are still being examined for commercialization in the food nanotechnology area as low-cost and reproducible sources. In this study, different nanostructures of gums and their preparation methods have been discussed along with a review of gum nanostructure applications for various food bioactive ingredients.
... Encapsulation efficiency: The method described in Soottitantawat et al. (2005) to calculate encapsulation efficiency was adapted: The amount of limonene in the powder was measured as follows. 1 g of the spray dried powder was dispersed in 20 mL of water in a glass bottle, and 20 mL hexane was added, followed by forceful mixing with a vortex mixer for 1min. To extract encapsulated limonene into the organic solvent, the mixture was heated in a heating block at 45 °C for 20 min with intermittent shaking. ...
... Natural polysaccharides and proteins are common wall materials, which are used to construct a variety of flavor and fragrance capsules, owing to their biocompatibility, nontoxicity and wide availability. Chitosan (CS), 19,20 gum Arabic (GA), 21 alginate, 22 β-glucan, 23 starch and its derivatives, 24,25 plant proteins and gelatin [26][27][28][29] have been used to encapsulate flavor and fragrance via physical and chemical processes. ...
Article
Flavor and fragrance as a special active material are applied widely in daily life, which can bring pleasant olfactory and gustatory sensation. However, their many ingredients are chemically unstable and susceptible to deterioration and lost, when flavor and fragrance are exposed to oxygen, light and heat. Nano and micrometer size capsules with a hollow core domain and a shell can effectively protect the stability of flavor and fragrance and controll their release. The structures and properties of flavor and fragrance capsules can be interestingly tailored by choosing a variety of shell materials. In this review, we give a brief overview with regard to the different preparation methods of flavor and fragrance capsules based on the types of the wall materials including polymeric, inorganic and polymeric-inorganic materials. Besides, the application of flavor and fragrance capsules in food, tobacco, care product, textile, leather and paper has been shortly summarized. Moreover, the development trend of flavor and fragrance capsules was prospected.
... The total oil content was determined as described by Soottitantawat et al. [25]. Firstly, 4 mL distilled water were added to the dried microcapsules in a closed tube. ...
Article
Tamarind gum (TG) and carboxymethylated tamarind gum (CTG) were used as wall material to prepare citronella oil microcapsules by spray-drying. The aim of this work was to study the effect of wall-to-core ratio and fluid viscosity on emulsion droplet and microcapsule size, in order to maximize encapsulation efficiency (EE). EE was directly influenced by gum-to-oil ratio variations. Results showed that emulsion droplet size (D32) of CTG ranged between 0.18 to1.31 µm, smaller than those obtained for TG, which ranged from 0.87 to 2.91 µm. CTG microcapsules had a smooth surface and a spherical shape, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface oil content and total oil content affected encapsulation efficiency. TG microcapsules showed lower EE than CTG microcapsules, which was related to the viscosity of gum to oil ratio. The maximum EE occurred at 1.14 gum to oil ratio for CTG microcapsules (87 %).
... Volatile excipients, such as menthol, and volatile co-solvents, such as ethanol, in liquid SEDDS may be difficult to retain within the solid SEDDS during solidification, owing to evaporation and elimination under elevated temperatures and reduced pressure conditions [230][231][232][233]. It was demonstrated that spray-drying led to the loss of transcutol HP from liquid SEDDS [234]. ...
Article
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Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs) are a vital strategy to enhance the bioavailability (BA) of formulations of poorly water-soluble compounds. However, these formulations have certain limitations, including in vivo drug precipitation, poor in vitro in vivo correlation due to a lack of predictive in vitro tests, issues in handling of liquid formulation, and physico-chemical instability of drug and/or vehicle components. To overcome these limitations, which restrict the potential usage of such systems, the supersaturable SEDDSs (su-SEDDSs) have gained attention based on the fact that the inclusion of precipitation inhibitors (PIs) within SEDDSs helps maintain drug supersaturation after dispersion and digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. This improves the BA of drugs and reduces the variability of exposure. In addition, the formulation of solid su-SEDDSs has helped to overcome disadvantages of liquid or capsule dosage form. This review article discusses, in detail, the current status of su-SEDDSs that overcome the limitations of conventional SEDDSs. It discusses the definition and range of su-SEDDSs, the principle mechanisms underlying precipitation inhibition and enhanced in vivo absorption, drug application cases, biorelevance in vitro digestion models, and the development of liquid su-SEDDSs to solid dosage forms. This review also describes the effects of various physiological factors and the potential interactions between PIs and lipid, lipase or lipid digested products on the in vivo performance of su-SEDDSs. In particular, several considerations relating to the properties of PIs are discussed from various perspectives.
... GA was a suitable wall material although low retention was observed with GA. (Soottitantawat et al., 2005) (Continued) ...
... 68 Furthermore, Gao et al. explained the release of allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) from antimicrobial polylactic acid (PLA) films in food applications using the Avrami-Erofe'ev model. 69 Moreover, the Avrami-Erofe'ev model has been used to describe the release kinetics of microencapsulated emulsified ethyl butyrate 70 and l-menthol 71 from modified starch capsules in food applications. ...
Article
A bio-nanohybrid based on ascorbic acid-intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) was synthesized using a facile and novel mechanochemical grinding technique, and its efficacy as an edible food coating is reported. Ascorbic acid-intercalated Mg-Al-LDHs (AA-LDHs) are synthesized using a green water-assisted grinding approach. The successful synthesis of the AA-LDHs was confirmed by the shifts observed in the basal peaks of the LDHs based on a powder X-ray diffraction, changes in the positions of vibrational frequencies of ascorbic acid based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and significant changes in the intensity and peak positions of the core shell bands based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The resulting nanohybrid further demonstrates thermal stability in thermogravimetric and derivative thermogravimetric analysis. Transmission electron microscopy images of the AA-LDHs reveal a plate-like morphology, which is a characteristic of the hydrotalcite-like structure. In a novel application, an edible coating was prepared by blending the AA-LDHs into a biocompatible alginate matrix, and the coating was developed on freshly plucked strawberries using the dip-coating method. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the coating, the total phenolic content, pH, microbial growth, weight loss, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content were monitored in the coated and uncoated fruits for a period of 18 days. The results reveal that the shelf life of strawberries increases from 9 days to 15 days for the nanohybrid coated fruits, suggesting potential food preservation applications of the nanohybrid.
... The antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Mentha arvensis are associated with the majority compounds menthol, menthone, and isomenthone, mainly (Singh et al., 2011). The major compound, menthol, presented in Figure 1B, is cyclic terpene alcohol of high volatility and partially soluble in water (Soottitantawat et al., 2005). Widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries, menthol is considered the main antifungal compound of mint species (Pandey et al., 2003). ...
... Finally, a cyclone or a bag filter will allow the powder collection from the exhaust gases (particles falls in the size range of 1-100 mm). This process is mastered, especially, in the food and pharmaceutical industries, but it can be used for other applications [46,66,[97][98][99][100]. ...
Article
Smart materials based on the self-healing concept are used in different advanced applications such as buildings, batteries and coatings. The development of these materials follows two scenarios: the development of materials with intrinsic self-healing properties, or the preparation of extrinsic self-healing materials containing adds such as microcapsules filled with healing agents. Currently, the extrinsic self-healing technique is the most investigated and applied. Microcapsules preparation is a key step for extrinsic self-healing materials development. For this purpose, a variety of micro/nanoencapsulation processes have been reported. This review aims specifically to present recent advances and a critical overview of the encapsulation processes used to develop microcapsules for anticorrosion self-healing coatings. For each encapsulation method, the advantages and limitations are evaluated. The challenges facing the micro/nano encapsulation processes, recent proof-of concepts and future trends are also discussed.
... The large particle size of microcapsules is because of characteristics of wall material like emulsion viscosity (Cortés-Camargo et al., 2019). Soottitantawat et al. (2005) suggested that the large particle size contributes to retaining core material and stability. However, the similarity amid the particle size and encapsulation efficiency was not explicit. ...
Article
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Ocimum basilicum L., commonly known as “sweet basil” is a plant with high medicinal values and antioxidant potential. Basil oil is rich in phenolics and terpenoid compounds and used as a potential antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Present research work was aimed to study the effect of wall materials for basil oil microencapsulation. Various wall materials, including sodium alginate (SA) and sodium caseinate (SC), were combined with maltodextrin (MD) in two different ratios (1:2 and 1:1) were used for microencapsulation through spray drying. Among the evaluated wall materials, a combination of MD+SA at a ratio of 1:1 bestowed excellent performance both in terms of encapsulation efficiency and morphological characteristics of the prepared basil oil microcapsules.
... CP showed a characteristic broad peak at 3000-1940 cm -1 referring to the O-H bond stretching and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding, a peak at 1700 cm -1 due to carbonyl stretching vibrations, a peak at 1250-1200 cm -1 due to bending of C-H of methylene, a prominent peak at 1157 cm -1 indicating C-C vibration 25 , and bands between 1460-1400 cm -1 caused by C-O and O-H bending vibrations. Camphor showed a characteristic peak at 1739 cm -1 due to the ketonic carbonyl group stretching 26 while l-menthol had a characteristic peak at 3293 cm -1 corresponding to the hydroxyl groups stretching vibrations [27][28] . ...
... When more than 30%, the increased degree was not markedly. The speed of forming the semi-permeable membrane was accelerated by increasing the solids of emulsion, which resulted in the reduction of the feed loss (Soottitantawat et al., 2005). The similar phenomenon was also recognized by some researchers (Eccleston et al., 2002;Kallio, Yang, Peippo, Tahvonen, & Pan, 2002;Roccia, Martínez, Llabot, & Ribotta, 2014;Yang et al., 1999). ...
Article
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The aim of this work was to encapsulate sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) pulp oil (SBPO) by spray drying. Gum Arabic (GA) and maltodextrins (MD) were used as wall materials. The effects of several factors, including GA to MD ratio, total solids content of emulsion, wall to core ratio, and inlet air temperature, on the microencapsulation efficiency (ME) were investigated. The optimization of operation conditions was realized by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions were as follows: GA to MD ratio 2.38, total solids content 39%, wall to core ratio 5.33, and inlet air temperature 154°C. Under the optimal conditions, the ME of SBPO microcapsules was 94.96 ± 1.42%. The physicochemical properties of microcapsules were also invested. SBPO microcapsules obtained had low water activity, low moisture content, high water solubility, and high bulk density. For the morphological characteristics, cracks and pores were not observed in most microcapsules, which was beneficial for the protection of ingredients in microcapsules. The particle size of SBPO microcapsules ranged from 0.01 to 5 μm, and the mean diameter d4,3 was 2.55 μm. The analysis results of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) informed the presence of SBPO in microcapsules. There were no significant differences in the content of the main fatty acids in SBPO before and after spray drying. The results of oxidative stability showed that the microencapsulation by spray drying could effectively protect SBPO from oxidation and extend the shelf life of SBPO. Spray‐drying technology was used to encapsulate sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) pulp oil, and the effects of main factors were investigated. As well as, the physical properties of microcapsules including water activity, moisture content, solubility, hygroscopicity, morphology, and particle size were also studied. Under the optimal conditions, the microencapsulation efficiency and qualities of microcapsules were satisfactory.
... A factor not yet considered within the sport and exercise literature is that of the nature of dilution and menthol's subsequent volatility. This has been addressed to some extent within the food science and pharmaceutical literature, where menthol may be combined with other compounds that aim to alter the time course of menthol's characteristics across various preparations [23][24][25]. Two menthol dilution methodologies have been employed, within sport and exercise science. ...
Article
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Due to its volatility, the qualitative experience of menthol may be modulated by its preparation and combination with other compounds. One such method of preparation is dilution, with two dilution methods existing within the sport and exercise science literature, where menthol is used to impart feelings of oral cooling and improve thermal comfort and sensation during heat exposure. This study compared these two dilution methods; one using a solvent the other using temperature , via a randomized counterbalanced repeated measures design (n = 12; Height: 174.0 ± 8.5 cm Mass: 73.4 ± 13.3 kg Age: 28.7 ± 8.4 y; two exposures to each solution) to assess the effect of solution and heat exposure, upon thermal comfort, thermal sensation and associated physiological parameters in non-heat acclimated participants. Thermal comfort was significantly affected by solution (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.017) and time (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.228), whereas thermal sensation was significantly affected by time only (p = 0.012; η2 = 0.133), as was tympanic temperature (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.277). Small to moderate clear differences between solutions at matched time points were also observed. These trends and effects suggest that, depending upon the dilution method employed, the resultant perceptual effects are likely impacted; this also likely depends upon the timing of menthol administration within a heat exposure session.
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Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of many essential oils (EOs) and their components have led to increasing interest in their application as natural preservatives in food matrices. However, its high volatility and sensitivity at external agents affect the use of EOs as food ingredient. Thus, the microencapsulation is an alternative to use of EOs. Generally, emulsions from wall materials and EOs are obtained before the spray drying process. This process results in a physical barrier between the core compound and other system components protecting the active compound. It allows the application of several types of compounds considered technically unfeasible, that by microencapsulation became viable for use in food. Despite of advantages showed by microencapsulation and stability confirmed of EOs microencapsulated by spray drying, few applications in complex food matrices has been reported. Then, more studies relating the application of EOs microencapsulated are necessaries to confirm the microencapsulation efficacy.
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Comprehensive comparisons of similar lipid based drug delivery systems produced by different technologies are scarce. Spray drying and fluid bed layering technologies were compared with respect to the process and product characteristics of otherwise similar simvastatin loaded dry emulsion systems. Fluid bed layering provided higher process yield (83.3 % vs 71.5 %), encapsulation efficiency (80.0 % vs 68.4 %), relative one month product stability (93.8 % vs 85.5 %), larger and more circular particles (336 µm vs 56 µm) and lower median oil droplet size after product reconstitution in water (2.85 µm vs 4.27 µm), compared to spray drying. However, spray dried products exhibited higher drug content (22.2 mg/g vs 9.34 mg/g). An in-vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats was performed and a pharmacokinetic model was developed in order to compare the optimised simvastatin loaded dry emulsion systems, a simvastatin glyceride mimetic loaded in the dry emulsion and a simvastatin loaded SMEDDS with a reference physical mixture. Of the formulation tested, fluid bed layered pellets excelled and provided a 115 % relative increase in bioavailability. Among the two technologies, fluid bed layering provided dry emulsion products with higher relative bioavailability and better product characteristics for further processing into final dosage forms.
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Nano-micro carriers loaded with drugs and active biomolecules have gained a lot of attention in the field of health care, agriculture, and the food industry. Various methods have been explored to synthesize nano-micro carriers. However, there is still a constant search to develop a method for the preparation of a large quantity of nano-micro carriers with high loading efficiency. In this regard, spray drying could be a potential technique because of its inherent features like ease to operate, cost-effectiveness, environment-friendly, single step, and scalable. In this review, the focus is on the applicability of spray drying technique to prepare nano-micro carriers which are loaded with drugs, microorganisms, and other active molecules. Subsequently, the application and usefulness of spray-dried products in different research areas like the food industry, remediation of heavy metals and bioprocessing, and drug delivery have been presented. Furthermore, advantages, limitations, and recent developments in the area of spray drying have been discussed. This review presents a glimpse of spray drying techniques to synthesize nano-micro carriers with a wide range of applications.
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Microcapsules composed of a blend of acid hydrolysis-carboxymethyl starch (H-CMS) and xanthan gum (XG) were prepared by spray-drying, characterized, and tested in-vitro as a carrier for the pH-sensitive delivery of Vitamin E (VE). We aimed to develop a desired starch-based microcapsule carrier by adjusting the degree of substitution (DS) and the ratio between H-CMS and XG. In the first instance, the wall material was characterized by SEM, FTIR, and XRD, which proved that carboxymethyl groups had been successfully incorporated into the starch molecules. The microcapsules fabricated with medium DS and a ratio of 1:20 between XG and H-CMS formed a more pH-sensitive structure, which favored VE delivery from the stomach to the small intestine, especially its upper part. Our findings demonstrated that H-CMS/XG microcapsules could deliver VE to the upper part of the small intestine as a controlled delivery system.
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The release profile of d-limonene and ethyl hexanoate was investigated using a dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) system coupled with gas chromatography. The flavors were encapsulated by spray drying using Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells from which β-glucan had been partially extracted. Relative humidity (RH) was stepped from 20% to 50, 60, 70, and 80% at 30, 40, 50, and 60ºC. The maximum release flux for d-limonene and ethyl hexanoate was around 12 and 28 mg/s∙m²∙g-powder at 80% RH and 60ºC incubation. The Weibull distribution function was well fitted with the experimental data to analyze release kinetics. The release mechanism parameter was greater than 1.0, which indicates a controlled release with initial induction time. The activation energy for ethyl hexanoate (6 kJ/mol) was lower than d-limonene (41 kJ/mol) at 80% RH, which indicates higher affinition of ethyl hexanoate to migrate from the lipid bilayer membrane towards the water phase.
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Microencapsulation of volatile compounds in fabric care products has brought extra value in a variety of laundry-type applications, allowing clothes to release pleasant scents for weeks after their last wash with minimal amounts of fragrance used. Melamine-formaldehyde is the industry standard in this regard, but polyacrylate and polyurea are also used as micro-capsule wall material in commercial laundry-type applications. Harsh storage conditions and demanding release characteristics have limited the number of viable shell wall materials and chemistries for these kinds of applications. This renders nano- and microencapsulation of volatile compounds for laundry-type applications one of the most challenging areas in the encapsulation field. The largest drawback of the current technology is the limited biodegradability of the produced microcapsules, e.g. when leaking via waste water. This review summarizes the search towards viable, high-performant and sustainable alternatives for the current technology. First, various techniques to encapsulate volatile compounds in this context are overviewed. Recent relevant encapsulation reports using natural and synthetic shell walls are discussed, while controlled release data are included where possible. Finally, a perspective containing insights toward sustainability in the engineering of alternative capsule chemistries is offered.
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Fish oil has many health effects, but due to its strong odor and rapid spoilage, its use in food formulations is limited. For these reasons, nanoencapsulation of fish oil can be important. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and gum arabic as wall materials on the characteristics of nanoencapsulated fish oil powder. Gum arabic and WPC were used in varying amounts for nanoencapsulation of fish oil. An oil-in-water emulsion with 6% fish oil and 20% aqueous solution of wall materials was prepared by sonication (24 kHz for 120 sec). The diameter of the emulsion droplets was measured by particle size analysis and they then were dried in a freeze-drier. The results showed that the type and concentration of wall material influenced the characteristics of the nanocapsules. The smallest emulsion droplet diameter (50 nm) and the highest encapsulation efficiency were found in the sample containing 100% gum arabic; however, the lowest amount of surface oil, pH and highest zeta potential and moisture content also were recorded for this sample. It can be concluded that gum arabic is more suitable for nanoencapsulation and could appropriately contain the volatile compounds within the capsules.
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Background: Lavender oil consists of around 100 components, and is susceptible to volatilization and degradation reactions. Aim: Microencapsulate lavender oil by spray drying using a biocompatible polymeric blend of gum acacia and maltodextrin to protect the oil components. Effect of total polymer content, oil loading, gum acacia and maltodextrin proportions on the size, yield, loading, and encapsulation efficiency of the microparticles was investigated. Methods: Morphology and oil localization within microparticles were assessed by confocal laser scanning electron microscope. Structural preservation and compatibility were assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Lavender microparticles of size 12.42 ± 1.79 µm prepared at 30 w/w% polymer concentration, 16.67 w/w% oil loading, and 25w/w% gum acacia showed maximum oil protection at high loading (12 mg w/w%), and encapsulation efficiency (77.89 w/w%). Conclusion: Lavender oil was successfully microencapsulated into stable microparticles by spray drying using gum acacia/maltodextrin polymeric blend.
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1‐Methylcyclopropene (1‐MCP) has been shown to be a suitable inhibitor of ethylene production in fruit and vegetables during preservation and distribution. In this study, a 1‐MCP controlled‐release system on coated paper was produced using shellac as the coating material. The effect of humidity and temperature on the release of 1‐MCP from the coated paper was investigated using a dynamic sorption system (DVS) with stepwise humidity changes (initial 20% relative humidity (RH) for 2 h, then increased to 40%, 50%, 60%, and 80% RH for 2 h, respectively). The release rate kinetic data were simulated using an Avrami equation with a mechanism release number n of 1.26. The results showed that the dynamic release of 1‐MCP from the coated paper was mainly affected by humidity, for which the release rate constant could be correlated with moisture concentration in humid air. The highest humidity condition (80% RH) resulted in the highest apparent activation energy of 46.8 kJ/mol. The effect of 1‐MCP coated paper on apple storage was evaluated by measuring the ethylene production rate, flesh firmness, and titratable acidity (TA) of apple. Ethylene production rates of apple were significantly affected with 1‐MCP coated paper. The values were 0.22 nL/g FW/h at 50 mg of 1‐MCP powder and 44.7 nL/g FW/h at 0 mg of 1‐MCP powder after 15 days at 4°C and 15 days at 20°C. The other properties of apple such as flesh firmness and TA also indicated that 1‐MCP coated paper could delay fruit softening during storage time. Based on these results, the release of 1‐MCP could be controlled by coating paper with shellac solution and promising to produce functional packaging for fruit.
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The oral route of administration is the most important route of administering drugs for systemic effects. Reconstitutable suspensions necessitate water to prior for mixing. Sustained release (SR) suspensions aimed at controlling the rate of release by maintaining desire drug levels in the blood for long duration of time. The most popular dosage forms beings tablets and capsules, but one major drawback of the dosage forms however is the difficulty to swallow for children and the patients who have swallowing disorder. The scenario of drug delivery is rapidly changing; conventional dosage forms are being replaced by new DDS. An oral dual sustained release suspension has been one of the most favorable dosage forms for pediatric and geriatric patients or patients unable to tolerate solid dosage forms. The multipurticulate dosage forms like pellets are being formulated as liquid suspensions that are the ideal dosage form for pediatrics and geriatric patients due to their flexibility in measurement of dose and ease of swallowing, pleasant taste and attractive coloring and flavoring agent. More therapeutic advantages are as high patient compliance, reduction in side effects and improvement of bioavailability could be expected by incorporating a function of SR drug into the suspension. The dual-release pharmaceutical suspensions upon reconstitution remains stable till its consumption and also provide a dual-release of the active agent.
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This research aimed to develop mixed fruit juice beverage powder added with natural astaxanthin from white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) shell. Encapsulated astaxanthin powder was subjected to freeze drying together with cryogenic freezing whereas spray drying was employed to produce mixed fruit juice. The resultant product was determined for quality changes including color, moisture content, water activity, antioxidant properties and microbial loads at 30 º C under various relative humidity conditions (0, 11, 33, and 52 %RH) for 2 months. Mixed fruit juice powder encapsulated with astaxanthin was fine and yellowish- orange in color represented as the coordinates L*, a*, b* and ∆E of 76.16, 19.39, 18.62 and 34.65, respectively. Its moisture content and water activity were 6.08 % and 0.32, respectively, with remarkable high antioxidant activity (96.88 % inhibition). The storage condition under 0 %RH was optimum, whereas the product could maintain its quality without significant changes in terms of color, moisture content and microbial loads. This study suggested that the encapsulated astaxanthin is a promising supplement for product development.
Article
A new way of controllable releasing menthol with amorphous silica is reported for the first time. Porous silica adsorbed menthol in 373‐413 K and then was covered with cellulose acetate film to form a carrier‐embedded menthol. The sealed menthol would be released at elevated temperatures once the cover fractured. Here, the influence of temperature and nature of sorbent on the adsorption of menthol along with the covering manner were investigated carefully, and the thermal release of menthol was studied with headspace gas chromatography (HS‐GC) method. Silica adsorbed about 400 mg g−1 of menthol at the optimal adsorption conditions and released most of them at about 473 K. Preliminary application in non‐combustible cigarette proven the feasibility of thermal release of menthol with the covered silica carrier. Silica gel adsorbed ~ 400 mg g−1 of menthol at 413 K, safely stored it for one month with the cover of cellulose acetate. New carrier can thermally release menthol, especially in the non‐combustible cigarette.
Article
This paper aims to study the mechanical properties of fish oil microcapsules made of different food-grade formulations and processing conditions, which is crucial to maintaining their mechanical integrity in further compaction for developing the final dosage form of tablet. The combination of gelatin and gum Arabic or maltodextrin were use as wall materials. Spray drying, complex coacervation, and double encapsulation (coacervation followed by spray coating) were used to prepare different fish oil microcapsules. Both fundamental physical properties and mechanical properties of microcapsules were investigated. The mechanical characterization results were obtained using a micromanipulation technique and revealed that the mean rupture forces of individual microcapsules ranged from 0.44±0.11 to 1.73±0.27 mN and tended to increase with increasing particle size. The Young’s modulus of microcapsules was determined by fitting the experimental force versus displacement data with the Hertz model. The microcapsules prepared by coacervation of gelatin and gum Arabic followed by spray coating with a mixture of gelation and maltodextrin were the strongest and stiffest based on the calculated nominal rupture stress and Young’s modulus respectively. These findings can provide guidance on choosing the most desirable formulation and processing conditions to produce strong microcapsules with desirable barrier properties for industrial applications.
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New technologies are currently investigated with the aim to improve the quality of foods by enhancing their nutritional value, freshness, safety and shelf-life, as well as by improving their tastes, flavours and textures. Moreover, new technological approaches are being explored, in this field, to address nutritional and metabolism-related diseases (i.e., obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases), to improve targeted nutrition, in particular for specific lifestyles and elderly population, and to maintain sustainability of food production. A number of new processes and materials, derived from micro- and nano-technology, have been used to provide answers to many of these needs, and offer the possibility to control and manipulate properties of foods and their ingredient sat molecular level. The present review focuses on the importance of micro- and nano-technology in the food and nutritional sector and, in particular, provides an overview of the micro- and nano-materials used for the administration of nutritional constituents essential to maintain and improve health, as well as to prevent the development and complications of diseases.
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Five flavor compounds of terpenoid, i.e α-pinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, and α-terpineol were encapsulated with starch hydrolyzates, namely starch stearate and starch propionate by spray drying at flavor compounds/modified starch ratio 20:80. The encapsulated flavor products were stored in plastic bag at 45oC for 9 weeks. The encapsulated flavor products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and flavor retention using gas chromatography. Results indicated that the surfaces of particles of encapsulated flavor were rough, hollow in the middle, with a concave radius of curvature. The flavor compounds were entrapped within the encapsulant wall. The retention of flavor compounds during storage decreased. After collapsed, retention of flavor compounds was stable and finally decreased. The highest decrease in retention of encapsulated flavor compounds was myrcene, followed by limonene, α-pinene, linalool, and α-terpineol.
Chapter
The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most important organs that control the function of the body. So the impairment of its function indicates many disorders or diseases. The neurological disorder affects millions of people in the world. Recently, the role of different nutraceuticals, such as monoterpenes, was explored as an emerging neurotherapeuticals in various CNS disorders but still facing various challenges at clinical translation because traditional delivery approaches have several limitations which restrict drug availability in the brain, owing to the action of endothelial cell layers, poor water solubility, low bioavailability, poor intestinal absorption. To overcome the above limitations, however, scientists are struggling to approach nanoformulations‐based dosage forms, preferably through lipid‐based forms. These formulations succeed in giving the high therapeutic values by targeted delivery of drugs while nanosize bears advantages of quickly crossing the blood‐brain barrier, minimizing efflux, controlled drug release characteristics, high bioavailability, and less adverse effects. Hence, current chapters aim to integrate roles of different lipid nanoformulations, such as nanoemulsion, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), which utilize physiological transport mechanisms across the blood‐brain barrier to deliver the drug in targeted sites in CNS safely, so emerged as a potential solution to overcome delivery challenges in CNS disorders.
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Nanofibrous membranes for smoke filtration and flavor retention is developed from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and menthol/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes by solution electrospinning. The inclusion complexes of menthol and β-cyclodextrin with an embedding ratio of 64.6% are first prepared by a coprecipitation method, followed by mixing with PVA aqueous solutions for subsequent electrospun fabrication of nanofibrous films. The optimized nanofibrous films possess a high menthol content of 3.9 wt% and satisfied mechanical properties. The flavor compound, menthol, can be efficiently retained in the inclusion complexes and nanofibrous films while free menthol volatilizes rapidly under ambient condition. In addition to the sustained flavor release, the nanofibrous films show promise for air filtration, as evidenced by the reduced harmful substance contents when cigarette smoke as a model substance passes through the film. Moreover, this nanofibrous film is a biocompatible material, which could be potentially useful in the fields of nanofiltration and tobacco processing.
Conference Paper
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Komponen flavor adalah ingredien pangan yang mempunyai volatilitas yang tinggi. Hal ini merupakan masalah yang sangat penting dalam aplikasi dan daya simpan produk. Metode enkapsulasi dengan pengering semprot merupakan salah satu metode yang dapat memecahkan permasalahan tersebut. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah mengenkapsulasi tujuh -pinene, myrcene, limonene, -terpineol menggunakan hidrolisat pati stearat 9,09%, propionat 9,09% dan suksinat 4,76% dengan perbandingan komponen flavor dan pati tapioka termodifikasi 20:80 dan 30:70 serta dikeringkan dengan pengering semprot. Produk flavor terenkapsulasi selanjutnya dianalisis berupa bentuk partikel dengan scanning electron microscope (SEM) dan retensi flavor dengan gas chromatography (GC). Bentuk partikel produk flavor terenkapsulasi adalah keriput, tidak mulus, dan berlubang-lubang, seperti lembah ke arah pusat partikel (cekungan). Hal ini disebabkan komponen flavor terikat pada dinding matriks enkapsulan, sedangkan bagian pusat partikel kosong. Retensi komponen flavor pada berbagai matriks enkapsulan dan perbadingan adalah ethyl butanoate (8,3 - 17,7%), ethyl crotonate (14,8 – 35,8%), -pinene (13,4 – 45,5%), myrcene (23,4 – 77,4%) , limonene (23,5 – 81,0%), linalool (64,8 – -terpineol (87,8 – 100%). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tersebut, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa komponen flavor direkomendasikan untuk dienkapsulasi menggunakan hidrolisat pati stearat 9,09 % dan hidrolisat pati propionat 9,09% dengan perbandingan antara komponen flavor dan pati tapioka termodifikasi adalah 20:80. Selanjutnya direkomendasikan untuk diaplikasikan pada produk pangan kering, seperti biskuit dan minuman bubuk.
Article
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Characteristic of high volatility in the flavor component is a problem at the time of application. The seven of flavor compounds used as a model, i.e ethyl butanoate, ethyl crotonate, -pinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, and -terpineol encapsulated with stearic starch hydrolyzate and propionic starch hydrolyzate by spray drying. The encapsulated flavor products stored in bottle at 30, 37,5, and 45 o C for 9 weeks. The analysis is retention flavor with chromatography gas. Stability retention of flavor components were analyzed by Arrhenius and linear equation. The results showed the influence of temperature, the rate of decline in the stability of the encapsulated flavor component retention there is a difference between the matrix stearic starch hydrolyzate and propionic starch hydrolyzate. Components of flavor encapsulated in stearic starch hydrolyzate fastest down the stability of retention is linalool followed byterpineol, myrcene, limonene, and pinene. The flavor components encapsulated in propionic starch hydrolyzate fastest down the stability of retention is pinene followed by myrcene, linalool, terpineol, and limonene.
Article
Gum arabic solutions (10% w/v) were emulsified with soy oil at oil/gum ratios of 0.25-5.0. At oil/ gum ratios <1.0, it was established that gum arabic could be partially replaced with a nonsurfactant carbohydrate. To assess different carbohydrates as replacers for gum arabic, emulsions and spray-dried emulsions of soy oil and mixed solutions (10% w/v) of gum arabic and a range of carbohydrate wall materials (oil/gum = 0.5) were prepared and analyzed. Maize starch and glucose were ineffective as partial replacers of gum arabic, but maltodextrins of various dextrose equivalence values (5.5-38) successfully replaced 50% of the gum arabic. The microencapsulation efficiency of the gum arabic/maltodextrin stabilized powders was further increased by increasing total solids of the feed to the dryer and by increasing the atomizer nozzle diameter.
Chapter
Spray drying is the most commonly used technique for the production of dry flavorings. In spray drying, an aqueous infeed material (water, carrier, and flavor) is atomized into a stream of hot air. The atomized particles dry very rapidly, trapping volatile flavor constituents inside the droplets. The powder is recovered via cyclone collectors. Flavor retention is quite satisfactory if dryer operating parameters are properly chosen. Flavor retention is maximized by using a high infeed solids level, high viscosity infeed, optimum inlet (160-210 C) and high exit (>100 C) air temperatures and high molecular weight flavor molecules. The shelf-life of oxidizable flavor compounds is strongly influenced by the flavor carrier.
Article
The taste and flavor of spray-dried powdered products are the most important quality factors. In the present study, molecular encapsulation in cyclodextrin was applied to prevent the loss of a hydrophobic flavor compound (I-menthol) during the drying of a droplet. beta-Cyclodextrin appeared to be a better encapsulant for menthol than alpha- and gamma-cyclodextrin. The retention of menthol increased with increasing concentration of both cyclodextrin and maltodextrin. A simple mathematical model is proposed for estimating the flavor retention. The theoretical results by this model estimated well the final retention of menthol encapsulated in a blend of beta-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin.
Article
Spray drying is the most commonly used technique for the production of dry flavorings. In spray drying, an aqueous infeed material (water, carrier, and flavor) is atomized into a stream of hot air. The atomized articles dry very rapidly, trapping volatile flavor constituents inside the droplets. The powder is recovered via cyclone collectors. Flavor retention is quite satisfactory if dryer operating parameters are properly chosen. Flavor retention is maximized by using a high infeed solids level, high viscosity infeed, optimum inlet (160–210°C) and high exit (>100°C) air temperatures, and high molecular weight flavor molecules. The shelf life of oxidizable flavor compounds is strongly influenced by the flavor carrier.
Article
The retention of emulsified flavor during spray drying was investigated under various compositions of feed liquid. Drying of the emulsion solution was carried out in a spray dryer, equipped with a centrifugal atomizer. The retention of d-limonene during spray dying was nearly hundred percent independent of the composition of the feed liquid, whereas the retention of ethyl butyrate emulsified by gum arabic (GA) was much lower (0–20%). The retention of ethyl butyrate was markedly dependent on the concentration of maltodextrin and the type of emulsifier, indicating that the stability of emulsion is a controlling factor for flavor retention. The use of mixing emulsifiers, adjusting of density of ethyl butyrate, and the addition of 1% gelatin were quite effective procedures to improve the retention of ethyl butyrate, particularly when emulsified by GA.
Article
Microencapsulation of volatile materials (aroma) was evaluated by using model systems in which gum arabic was the wall material and various esters were the core materials. The outer and inner structure of spray-dried microcapsules and the structural changes induced by exposure to various relative humidity (RH) levels were studied by SEM. The influence of capsule composition and drying conditions on the retention of the volatiles was evaluated. It was found that high retention levels, up to 90%, can be achieved. High solids concentration and high drying temperatures enhance retention, as long as there is no structural damage during preparation. Increase of the ester load in the feed emulsion adversely affects the retention. Aroma losses occur during the early stages of the drying process by stripping of volatile droplets. The losses are enhanced by internal mixing in the drying capsule. The retention of volatiles by spray-dried microcapsules was also studied as a function of storage at increasing relative humidity. At relative humidity below 64% the structure of the capsules was not damaged, and high retention levels of more than 85% were obtained. Increasing the relative humidity to 75-97% led to gradual dissolution of the capsule walls, and retention dropped sharply. The structure was completely destroyed at RH of 97%, leading to total loss of the volatiles.
Article
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has been applied to the morphological study of various microcapsule systems. In addition to using standard preparation techniques for the examination of the outer structure of microcapsules, a new embedding and microtoming technique has been developed to allow the study of the inner structure of fractured capsules. The technique uses a new nonpolar embedding resin, Lowicryl HM-20, which is compatible with the microcapsule shell material, and does not introduce artifacts associated with the use of epoxy resins. We demonstrate the potential of SEM techniques as a tool for selection of wall materials, for the study of core materials distribution in microcapsules, and for elucidating the mechanisms of capsule formation and the effects of water-vapor uptake on microcapsule properties.
Article
A new version of the free-volume theory of diffusion is used to describe polymer–solvent diffusion both above and below the glass transition temperature. Expressions are derived for the temperature dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient and for the effective activation energy in the limit of zero penetrant concentration. The theory also describes the effect of the glass transition on the diffusion process. Predictions of the theory are compared with available diffusivity data for amorphous polymer–solvent systems.
Article
Published sigmoid moisture sorption isotherms (0 < aw < ∼ 0.9) were fitted by the four parameter models m = k1awn1+ k2awn2 where m is the moisture contents (dry basis), aw the water activity and the k and n values are constants (n1 < 1 and n2 > 1). Not surprisingly, the model had the same or better fit than the GAB model. In contrast with both the BET and GAB models, the proposed model is not based on the assumption that there exists a well-defined monolayer of absorbed water. At aw < ∼ 0.4 and n1 > ∼ 0.55, however, the model produces a practically linear aw/[m(1 – aw)] vs aw plot, of the kind used to calculate the monolayer moisture with the BET model. The proposed model can be a convenient means to catalog both sigmoid and nonsigmoid isotherms, and used to calculate the equilibrium water activity of dry mixtures with equations solving software.
Article
Leaflash spray drying technique was used to encapsulate a mixture of two volatile products, citral and linalyl acetate in the proportion of 80:20 (w/w). The support materials were gum arabic and maltodextrin in different proportions. Very short air product contact time during the drying process allowed encapsulation of these compounds using high inlet air temperature (300-400°C) without any adverse effect on chemical properties. Emulsions were atomized up to 60% total solids concentration. In this range of concentration, substitution of gum arabic by a less costly maltodextrin was possible achieving 84% volatiles retention. The technique could be efficiently used to encapsulate sensitive flavors.
Article
Type of atomization (centrifugal wheel and spray nozzle) and processing temperatures (2 different sets of inlet and exit temperatures) of spray drying were investigated for their influence on the physical properties and oxidative stability of encapsulated orange oil in a modified starch matrix. The former determined particle size and surface oil, whereas the latter affected density (both absolute and bulk) and moisture content. Total oil retention did not depend on either parameter. Processing temperatures had an effect on shelf life as they influenced parameters that determine oxygen porosity of the matrix.
Article
The influence of the mean emulsion droplet size on flavor retention during spray drying was studied. d-Limonene, ethyl butyrate, and ethyl propionate were used as the model flavors. Gum arabic, soybean water-soluble polysaccharides, or modified starch blended with maltodextrin, were used as the wall materials. The increasing emulsion droplet decreased the retention of flavors. The distribution curve containing larger emulsion droplets shifted toward a smaller size after atomization, indicating that the larger emulsion droplets would be changed in size during atomization and result in decreasing flavor retention. For ethyl butyrate and ethyl propionate, the retention had a maximum at the mean emulsion diameter of 1.5 to 2 and 2.5 to 3.5 μm, respectively.
Article
The microencapsulation of emulsified ethyl butyrate by spray drying and its release from the spray-dried powder was investigated. Retention of emulsified ethyl butyrate during spray was dependent on the concentration of maltodextrin and the type of emulsifier. The rate of release of the encapsulated ethyl butyrate during storage was not only dependent on the relative humidity of storage, but also on the type of the emulsifier. The rate of release of ethyl butyrate was analyzed using Avrami's equation. The addition of 1% gelatin in the feed liquid had a pronounced influence in increasing the retention of ethyl butyrate during spray drying, and also in controlling the release rate of the encapsulated ethyl butyrate.
Article
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the mechanism for l-menthol whisker growth. l-Menthol was mixed with an excipient, and the interaction was examined by IR measurement, thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. Then we examined the involvement of the capillary condensation using the pore size distribution measurement. By mixing l-menthol with an excipient with whisker growth, the hydroxyl group stretching band of l-menthol was shifted to the higher wavenumber in the IR spectrum, the melting point and heat of fusion of l-menthol became lower in the thermal analysis, and the diffraction intensity of l-menthol became lower in the powder X-ray diffraction. The excipients with whisker growth showed the tendency to have the meso-pore involved in the capillary condensation in the pore size distribution measurement. From the above results, the whisker growth mechanism is considered as follows. When l-menthol was mixed with an excipient with whisker growth, the crystallinity of l-menthol was lowered and the vapor pressure was increased by the interaction mainly consisting of the hydrogen bond. The generated l-menthol vapor entered meso-pore, the saturated vapor pressure was lowered by the capillary condensation, and the nucleation occurred. The vapor was further supplied, generating the growth of whisker.
Article
The stability of encapsulated D-limonene, which was prepared by spray drying, was studied in view of the release characteristics and oxidation stability. Gum arabic, soybean water-soluble polysaccharide, or modified starch, blended with maltodextrin were used as the wall materials. The powders were stored under the conditions of 23-96% relative humidity at 50 degrees C. The release rate and the oxidation rate were closely related to the relative humidity. The relationship was not simple. Initially, the release rate and the oxidation rate increased with increasing water activity, but around the glass transition temperature, the rates decreased sharply to increase again at a further increase of water activity. The results could be explained by a change in the powder structure, where a glass capsule matrix was changed into rubbery state during storage.
Microencapsulation by spray drying: Influence of wall systems on the retention of the volatiles compounds
Factors influencing volatile release from encapsulation matrices
  • Whorton
Statistical models for shelf life failures
  • Gacular