Article

Free radical scavenging and bacterial activities of southern Serbian red wines

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  • University of Nis, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, Serbia
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Abstract

Free radical scavenging and antibacterial activities were determined for several red wines from different grape varieties from the southern Serbia wine region. The amount of polyphenols and anthocyanins in selected wines was investigated and the potential antibacterial activity of the wines against pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was also determined. The free radical scavenging and antibacterial activity of the wines was correlated with polyphenolic and anthocyanin content. The significant differences in the antioxidant and antibacterial activities between the wines from grape cultivars (Cabernet Sauvingon and Pinot Noir) and the indigenous varieties (Vranac and Prokupac) were not confirmed. The hypothesis of a protective effect of red wine is supported by our results that show that the red wines with higher amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins had higher antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

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... Thus the major antibacterial effect of wine was proposed to be responsible by the synergistic effect of ethanol, organic acids and low pH. In the study by Radovanović, Radovanović, and Jovančićević (2009) the antimicrobial activity of six red wines significantly correlated with their total phenolic and monomeric anthocyanin content. ...
... Organic acids (4 g/L tartaric, 0.1 g/L malic, 0.5 g/L acetic, 1.5 g/L lactic and 0.5 g/L citric) with ethanol ( Radovanović et al. (2009), 20 ± 1 (Diameter of inhibition zone/mm) Papadopoulou et al. (2005) 10 ± 2 (v/v%) Daglia et al. (2007) 20.0 ± 0.5 (mm) Radovanović et al. (2009), 12 ± 1 (Diameter of inhibition zone/mm) Papadopoulou et al. (2005) 2 White wine 45 (MIC) (v/v%) Møretrø and Daeschel (2004), 24 ± 3 (Diameter of inhibition zone/mm) Papadopoulou et al. (2005) 20 ± 2 (v/v%) Daglia et al. (2007) 35 (v/v%) Møretrø and Daeschel (2004), 15 ± 3 (Diameter of inhibition zone/mm) Papadopoulou et al. (2005) 3. ...
... Organic acids (4 g/L tartaric, 0.1 g/L malic, 0.5 g/L acetic, 1.5 g/L lactic and 0.5 g/L citric) with ethanol ( Radovanović et al. (2009), 20 ± 1 (Diameter of inhibition zone/mm) Papadopoulou et al. (2005) 10 ± 2 (v/v%) Daglia et al. (2007) 20.0 ± 0.5 (mm) Radovanović et al. (2009), 12 ± 1 (Diameter of inhibition zone/mm) Papadopoulou et al. (2005) 2 White wine 45 (MIC) (v/v%) Møretrø and Daeschel (2004), 24 ± 3 (Diameter of inhibition zone/mm) Papadopoulou et al. (2005) 20 ± 2 (v/v%) Daglia et al. (2007) 35 (v/v%) Møretrø and Daeschel (2004), 15 ± 3 (Diameter of inhibition zone/mm) Papadopoulou et al. (2005) 3. ...
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With increase in the socioeconomic status, the demand of the health and nutraceutical food is increasing day-by-day. Wine contains a wide variety of the biologically active compounds including antimicrobial compounds (phenolics, acids, alcohols, bioamines, etc.) which possess the numerous health benefits. The concentration of these compounds changes according to the raw material their varieties and vinification process. Phenolics, such as epicatechin, gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, vannillic acid, p-coumaric acid and resveratrol, are present in different wines. Wine also contains various acids such as tartaric acid, succinic acid, acetic acid and malic acid. Alcohol includes majorly the ethanol with a minute quantity of methanol and other higher alcohols, whereas the bioamine includes the ethanolamine, ammonia and histamine. These all compounds have the ability to possess antimicrobial activity either independently or in the conjugative form with the other compounds. In this article, efforts have been made to document the different antimicrobial compounds present in wines and their antimicrobial activity. This review has the potential to attract readers; mainly researchers and industrialists for the future study and product development in the wine industry.
... Anti-DPPH radical activity assay revealed that C II sample, which contained the highest level of the TMA, had the highest in vitro protective action. Positive correlation between anthocyanins and anti-DPPH radical activity was reported previously [25,26]. Anthocyanins, phenolic compounds widely distributed in berry fruits, act as antioxidants or free radical scavengers and have a wide range of health-promoting properties [27]. ...
... Anthocyanins, phenolic compounds widely distributed in berry fruits, act as antioxidants or free radical scavengers and have a wide range of health-promoting properties [27]. reported previously [25,26]. Anthocyanins, phenolic compounds widely distributed in berry fruits, act as antioxidants or free radical scavengers and have a wide range of health-promoting properties [27]. ...
... Additionally, previous studies claimed there is a synergistic interaction between different phenolics, so the final AA may be different, compared to a contribution of each single compound [30]. reported previously [25,26]. Anthocyanins, phenolic compounds widely distributed in berry fruits, act as antioxidants or free radical scavengers and have a wide range of health-promoting properties [27]. ...
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Screens of antioxidant activity (AA) of various natural products have been a focus of the research community worldwide. This work aimed to differentiate selected samples of Merlot wines originated from Montenegro, with regard to phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity studied by survival rate, total sulfhydryl groups and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase and catalase in H2O2–stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. In this study, DPPH assay was also performed. Higher total phenolic content leads to an enhanced AA under both conditions. The same trend was observed for catechin and gallic acid, the most abundant phenolics in the examined wine samples. Finally, the findings of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model were in a good agreement (r2 = 0.978) with the experimental data. All tested samples exhibited a protective effect in H2O2–stressed yeast cells. Pre-treatment with examined wines increased survival in H2O2–stressed cells and shifted antioxidative defense towards GPx–mediated defense. Finally, sensitivity analysis of obtained ANN model highlights the complexity of the impact that variations in the concentrations of specific phenolic components have on the antioxidant defense system.
... The antioxidant activity of red wine is mainly attributed to its high polyphenol content (Ivanova-Petropulos et al. 2015;Pejin et al. 2016;Popovi c-Djordjevi c et al. 2017). On the other side, antimicrobial properties of red wine reported in the literature indicate that different components of wine may be responsible for its antimicrobial activity (Radovanovi c et al. 2009;Ga nan et al. 2009;Boban et al. 2010). Oenological parameters, such as pH value, ethanol content, titratable acidity, sulphur dioxide and organic acids have some antimicrobial properties and their combined effect may affect viability of pathogens (Boban et al. 2010). ...
... Oenological parameters, such as pH value, ethanol content, titratable acidity, sulphur dioxide and organic acids have some antimicrobial properties and their combined effect may affect viability of pathogens (Boban et al. 2010). Besides that, total phenolic and anthocyanins content as well as some individual phenolic compounds of wine such as resveratrol, gallic acid, vanillic acid, quercetin and caffeic acid exert antimicrobial activity against specific bacterial strains (Ga nan et al. 2009;Radovanovi c et al. 2009). ...
... Autochthonous variety 'Prokupac' is one of the predominant varieties in the vineyards of southern Serbia. It has a long tradition in the production of red wine, and it is very suitable for coupling with other red wines (Radovanovi c et al. 2009;Be sli c et al. 2012). ...
Article
Autochthonous variety 'Prokupac' (Vitis vinifera L.) red wines with the addition of selected aromatic herbs (Artemisia absinthium, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Pimpinella anisum L.) were evaluated for chemical composition and biological activity. Furthermore, their polyphenolic profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD. While total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, along with antioxidant activity, were significantly higher in all examined wine samples, the content of total anthocyanins was decreased, compared to a pure 'Prokupac' wine, used as the control one. On the other hand, 'Prokupac' wines with the addition of cinnamon (S. zeylanicum) and wormwood (A. absinthium) displayed highest antioxidant (EC50, 0.021 ± 0.001 mg/mL) and antibacterial (Enterococcus faecalis, MIC/MBC 15.63/62.50 μL/mL) activities, respectively. The study showed that 'Prokupac' wine with the addition of cinnamon was significantly enriched both with TPC and TFC, compared to control wine (p < 0.05), which may contribute to its market potential. [Formula: see text].
... The content of alcohol in mead, which was more or less balanced, did not affect the antibacterial properties of mead, which is in accordance with previous studies related to wine, in which the content of alcohol ranged from 10 to 13% v/v, where it was determined that it was too low to show the bactericidal effect [53,54]. Radovanović et al. [54] and Vulić et al. [55] determined that the combination of organic acids (lactic, malic, acidic, and tartaric) and ethanol contribute to this stronger antimicrobial effect of the wine. ...
... The content of alcohol in mead, which was more or less balanced, did not affect the antibacterial properties of mead, which is in accordance with previous studies related to wine, in which the content of alcohol ranged from 10 to 13% v/v, where it was determined that it was too low to show the bactericidal effect [53,54]. Radovanović et al. [54] and Vulić et al. [55] determined that the combination of organic acids (lactic, malic, acidic, and tartaric) and ethanol contribute to this stronger antimicrobial effect of the wine. However, the role of phenolic compounds is not completely clear, because different opinions can be found in the literature. ...
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Honey is a product of high nutritive value, used as a raw material for obtaining mead. The quality of mead can be improved by adding fruit juices, including chokeberry juice. This paper aims to assess the effects that adding different quantities of chokeberry juice, with the variation of 3 amounts of inoculated yeast, has on the fermentation course, physicochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of mead. The parameters analyzed are the dry matter content, pH value, and content of volatile acids, ethanol and methanol, total phenols and flavonoids, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS tests and antimicrobial properties. The results obtained in this paper show that adding chokeberry juice improves antioxidant properties of the final product and affects positively the course of mead fermentation, i.e. it has led to an increase of the maximum concentration of ethanol (Pm). In terms of the chemical composition of mead, there is no significant difference, except in the obtained ethanol content, which is the highest in samples with 10% of added chokeberry juice. Control sample showed the best antimicrobial activity, while sample with 5 % of added chokeberry juice showed the weakest effect. The strongest effect was seen in the sample with 20% of added chokeberry juice.
... Black mulberry extracts and Pig. (a) could be used as food preservative, that it can prevent food spoilage due to their antibacterial activity (Radovanovic et al., 2009). The Table 2. ...
... These antibiotics have more potency against bacterial growth than plants extracts. All plants extracts showed more potent activity against G+ than G-bacteria due to presence of many condensed fat bilayers lipid in the cell membrane of G-bacteria compared with gram positive cell membrane (Radovanovic et al., 2009). Regarding to standard bacterial strains, all plants extracts exhibited various reduction in growth of microorganisms, depending on the extract concentration and the chemical compositions present in the studied plants extracts. ...
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The present study was carried out to identify the chemical composition of ethanol, flavonoid and anthocyanin extracts of Morus nigra fruits. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, phenolic compounds and the absence of alkaloids, saponins, free amino acids, proteins and tannins. TLC and column chromatography techniques were used to separate and purify the anthocyanin pigment from anthocyanin extract which is then subjected to acid hydrolysis to obtain the anthocyanidin pigment (a). Many techniques were also employed to confirm pigment (a) chemical structure including (TLC, UV-Visible and IR-Spectroscopy). According to the forgoing analytical results, the proposed structure for the isolated pigment (a) is cyanidin pigment. DNA nicking assay has been used to evaluate the ability of the prepared extracts and pigment (a) to prevent DNA nicking caused by free radicals generated from Fenton's reagent. The highest DNA protective effect was achieved in anthocyanin extract followed by pigment (a) and their effects were identical to the positive control (cyanidin chloride). Antibacterial activities of all extracts and pigment (a) were performed against the growth of two standards and pathogenic G+ and G- bacteria. The results indicated that all plants extracts showed more potent activity against standard bacteria strains than pathogenic ones.
... In earlier studies on peach, although the TSS (°Bx) of all the must was kept at 24°Bx, the ethanol content differed among all of the different treatments, which could be attributed to the differences in the composition of the musts and conditions during fermentation (19). The earlier studies also clearly showed that the mixed culture fermentation had higher total alcohol content (11.9% v/v), followed by S. cerevisiae (11.8% v/v), Z. rouxii (6.3% v/v) and T. delbrueckii (6.2% v/v) (43). The highest higher alcohol content was recorded in wine prepared using a mixed culture with sugar concentration of 24°Bx (T 2 M) and the lowest by S. cerevisiae with 22°Bx (T 1 S). ...
... In a previous study on cherry fruit wine, the antioxidant activity was recorded between 53 and 69% (42). The earlier studies also showed that the antioxidant activity of the Serbian red wines ranged from 70 to 95.6% (43). However, the pumpkin wine prepared in our study had less antioxidant activity in comparison with the wine prepared from other fruit sources and that might be due to the initial antioxidant activity of the pumpkin and other fruits. ...
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Pumpkin is an important, nutrient rich vegetable grown around the world. In this work, pumpkin, pomegranate and wild apricot were blended to make a pumpkin based wine. The pulps of different fruits were blended at 60:20:20 and the must was prepared using different concentrations of sugars (22°Bx, 24°Bx and 26°Bx), with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.1%) and SO2 (50 ppm) constant in all the treatments. The musts were fermented at 28°C using different activated yeast starter cultures (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii individually and in combination). Among the various treatments, the treatment prepared with 22°Bx initial sugar concentration and fermented with mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was adjudged as the best with highest concentration of total phenols, optimum level of alcohol, total sugar, esters, lower volatile acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and higher alcohol. Further, the treatment also had higher amount of DPPH Scavenging activity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and ABTS activity.
... The polyphenols are extracted from the skins and seeds of grapes during crushing, pressing, and fermentation process of winemaking. Increasing the concentration of polyphenols will increase the antioxidant capacity and biochemical properties of wines (Daglia et al., 2007;De Beer et al., 2003, 2005Papadopoulou et al., 2005;Radovanovic et al., 2009;Sugita-Konishi et al., 2001), but it can negatively affect the flavor due to excessive astringency or bitterness . ...
... Antimicrobial activities of wines of different geographical origin obtained from different grape varieties against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and the yeast were determined by different research groups (Daglia et al., 2007;Papadopoulou et al., 2005;Radovanovic et al., 2009Radovanovic et al., , 2016Radovanovic et al., , 2017Sugita-Konishi et al., 2001;Weisse et al., 1995;Minussi et al., 2003;Lachman et al., 2007;Vilano et al., 2007). ...
Chapter
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important yeast species involved in wine fermentation. Traditionally, this species has been used as a starter culture to conduct the alcoholic fermentation due to its optimal fermentative properties. For this reason, nowadays S. cerevisiae is commercialized as an active dry yeast and used in wineries worldwide to improve the fermentative processes and wine quality. However, over the last years it has been reported that wines fermented by commercial strains lack sensory attributes of typical regions of a country. Thus, the selection of S. cerevisiae indigenous strains is being promoted to preserve typical quality and flavor of regional wines. Moreover, S. cerevisiae could act as a biocontrol agent producing killer toxins during wine-making process. Killer strains are able to inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms that affect wine quality. The addition of sulfur dioxide as an antioxidant and antimicrobial additive is a common practice during wine production. However, due to current trends to reduce the use of chemical additives, the utilization of starter cultures producers of killer toxins is an interesting alternative to avoid the contamination by spoilage yeasts. Therefore, the inclusion of S. cerevisiae killer yeasts with appropriate fermentation properties is essential to accomplish controlled fermentations, pointing out the importance of a clever selection of strains.
... This simiar result shows an important sensitivity of these bacterial species to GSE at the concentration of 1000 μg mL -1 . The same results were obtained by Radovanovic et al. (2009). ...
... Grape seeds are proposed to have antimicrobial activity, antioxidant effect and various other benefits to mankind. Many studies were done to assess the antifungal and antibacterial effect of grape seed extract against common clinical isolates and drug resistant pathogenic strains (Djerbi et al., 1985;Reagor et al., 2002;Radovanovic et al., 2009;Shrestha, 2012;Su et al., 2012;Butkhup et al., 2016;Kandasamy et al., 2016;Mohammed et al., 2016;Ghouila et al., 2017). ...
... Wine production residue has been the subject of extensive research due to its high bioactives contents that can have important biological functions. For example, the antioxidant activity of wine production residue extracts is well documented (Spigno & De Faveri, 2007;Yilmaz & Toledo, 2006) and several other biological activities such as antibacterial (Baydar, Özkan, & Sağdiç, 2004;Radovanović, Radovanović, & Jovančićević, 2009), anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic activities (Shrikhande, 2000) and antiviral activity (Bekhit et al., 2011;Matias et al., 2010) have been reported for these extracts. Influenza virus infects cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and of all the respiratory diseases influenza is responsible for the most morbidity and mortality. ...
... Specifically, the higher anti-influenza activity of pomace compared to seeds and for Meth/w extracts compared to Ace/w and Eth/w extracts provides support to the suggested lack of association between TPC and anti-influenza activity of wine production residue. Several reports documented the relationship between TPC and antioxidant activities of wine and wine production residue extracts (Kähkönen et al., 1999;Lafka et al., 2007;Radovanović et al., 2009). However, several emerging reports are providing evidence for the lack of relationship between TPC of wine production residue extracts and biological activities other than antioxidant activity. ...
Article
The effects of extraction process using three different solvents [50% aqueous acetone (Ace/w), 50% aqueous ethanol (Eth/w) or 50% aqueous methanol (Meth/w)] and wine production residue (seeds, skin and pomace) from Pinot noir [PN] and Pinot meunier [PM] on the phenolic profile and anti-influenza activity of their extracts were determined. Meth/w extracts resulted in the lowest (P < 0.05) total phenolic content (TPC) of seed extracts compared to other solvents, but the solvent extraction systems did not have an effect on TPC of pomace and grape skin. Pinot meunier pomace extracts had protective effects against influenza virus A at a concentration of 1 mg/mL whereas both seed and skin extracts were effective at 10 mg/mL. Meth/w extracts exhibited generally higher anti-influenza activity than other extracts. The anti-influenza activity of wine production residue extracts is not dependent on TPC.
... The polyphenols are extracted from the skins and seeds of grapes during crushing, pressing, and fermentation process of winemaking. Increasing the concentration of polyphenols will increase the antioxidant capacity and biochemical properties of wines (Daglia et al., 2007;De Beer et al., 2003, 2005Papadopoulou et al., 2005;Radovanovic et al., 2009;Sugita-Konishi et al., 2001), but it can negatively affect the flavor due to excessive astringency or bitterness . ...
... Antimicrobial activities of wines of different geographical origin obtained from different grape varieties against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and the yeast were determined by different research groups (Daglia et al., 2007;Papadopoulou et al., 2005;Radovanovic et al., 2009Radovanovic et al., , 2016Radovanovic et al., , 2017Sugita-Konishi et al., 2001;Weisse et al., 1995;Minussi et al., 2003;Lachman et al., 2007;Vilano et al., 2007). ...
Chapter
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Wine is one of the oldest products where microbiological processes contribute significantly to the overall quality of the product. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - mainly Oenococcus oeni - induce malolactic fermentation (MLF) and L-malic acid decarboxylation into L-lactic acid, resulting in a wine with a softer mouthfeel. Besides, this process provides biological stability and improves the final aroma of wines by modifying fruit-derived aromas and producing aroma-active compounds. Glycosidic compounds constitute a reserve of powerful odor-active compounds largely present in grapes as β-D-glucosides, being that aglycone moiety is often dominated by monoterpenes, C13-norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives. O. oeni strains well-adapted to perform MLF can represent a source of glycosidase enzymes capable of operating under oenologycal conditions. In Argentine wines, O. oeni was the predominant bacteria, resulting in 68% of the total LAB isolated, which in high proportions showed detectable levels of β-glucosidase activity; in whole cells at the end of the exponential growth, in MRS medium adjusted to pH 4.8. Studies on the effect of winemaking-related factors such as L-malic, citric acids and sulfur dioxide on the growth and β-glucosidase activity of six O. oeni strains from Argentinean wines at pH levels of 4.8 and 3.8 showed that all of them grew under the examined conditions. An analysis of sugar and organic acid utilization profiles revealed interesting characteristics of these strains: 1) Glucose and organic acids are cometabolized regardless of medium composition and initial pH values; and 2) high L-lactic acid levels are recovered from L-malic acid decarboxylation, confirming their good malolactic potential. In addition, all the strains exhibited β-glucosidase activities at initial pH values of 4.8 and 3.8, even though they were >4.8. In general, the L-malic and citric acids stimulated β-glucosidase activity, thus partially reverting the inhibition caused by acid stress. Using different cell fractions, the β- glucosidase activity of the test O. oeni strains was associated with the cell surface. This fact results from the great interest in their potential technological application as sources of an enzyme that could improve wine quality and aromatic complexity under vinification conditions. When the effect of grape glycosides was investigated on growth, MLF and glycosidases activities of three selected O. oeni strains in a wine-like medium results obtained indicated that the FML process contributes toward flavor enhancement in winemaking. Moreover, natural glycosides positively impacted on growth parameters, L-malic acid degradation rates and glycosidase activities. These increments correlated to significant changes in the volatile profile, mainly by the formation of aroma esters and to a lower extent higher alcohols and other compounds, indicating the presence of ester-synthesizing enzymes in O. oeni strains that, in combination with the glycosidic activities could play an important role in improving wine quality. Therefore, O. oeni prevails as a candidate for MLF starter culture via growth capacity, non-biogenic amines production, malolactic potential and glycoside activities. Thus, the results obtained encourage the potential use of selected strains as an effective tool to enhance wine aromatic complexity during MLF.
... Tchouya, 2016;Hidayat et al., 2017). (Cabernet) ( Radovanović et al., 2009); vino blanco (Verdelho) ( Paixão et al., 2007). A ROO El ensayo como ORAC proporciona herramientas importantes para la evaluación preliminar y la detección de antioxidantes. ...
... Flavonoid and oil extracts from safflower had good antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. Results support the observation that Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant probably because of their thick murein layer, which prevents the penetration of inhibitors due to the fact that the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria consists of many condensed lipid fat layers compared to the membrane of Gram-positive cells [20]. In the works of the authors Sabah and Salieh, different concentrations of the flavonoid extracts of safflower flowers (25 μg/ml, 75 μg/ml, 250 μg/ml, 500 μg/ ml, 1000 μg/ml, and 100000 μg/ml) tested in the experiment were much effective compared to the same concentrations of the oil extract and the flavones tested produced varied inhibition zones. ...
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The use of medicinal plants has increased significantly in recent years. More than 80% of the world’s population uses medicinal plants to treat themselves. Many antibacterial and anti-inflammatory synthetic drugs are available in medical practice. However, recent tendency of increasing capability of resistance of bacteria to usage of antibacterial drugs of different groups is taking place. Considering the wide range of pharmacological and antimicrobial activity of safflower flower extracts and available vitamins in their composition, it was decided to create a preparation based on the CO2 extract of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in the form of an ophthalmic emulsion. The aim of this research is to study the composition and antimicrobial activity of the extract and ophthalmic emulsion drops against test strains of microorganisms. The subject of this study is the ophthalmic emulsions from flowers of Kazakhstan species of “Akmai” safflower, collected in the flowering stage in southern Kazakhstan in August 2021. The component composition was determined using gas chromatography with the Agilent 7890A/5975C mass spectrometry technique. A study of the antimicrobial activity of the ophthalmic emulsion drop extracts was performed with two strains of Gram-positive bacteria, one strain of Gram-negative bacteria, and one culture of fungi. The following biologically active substances were determined from the GC-MS results: tridecane 94%, tricosane 93%, hexacosane 93%, dodecanoic acid 92%, pentacosane 91%, and linoleic acid 63.7%. The investigated emulsion-type eye drop shows bactericidal activity against S. aureus ATCC 6538-P, where the zone of growth suppression under the ophthalmic emulsion action corresponded to 9.0 ± 0.0 mm. The tested ophthalmic emulsion drops show the presumed biological activity against conditionally pathogenic bacteria. The results of chromatographic analysis and antimicrobial activity of the tested samples indicate the prospects for their further study for use as anti-infectious (anti-inflammatory) agents in medicine.
... This result shows an important sensitivity of these bacterial species to GSE at the concentration of 1000 μg/mL. The same results were obtained by Radovanovic et al. [27] from wine extract against the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. ...
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In this work and for the first time, significant concentrations of total polyphenols and flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L. grape seed extracts were obtained (256.15 ± 17.40 mg GAE/gdm and 14.08 ± 0.64 mg CE/gdm, respectively).The LC/MS analysis revealed richness in procyanidins. For antioxidant, antimicrobial and antifungal effects, the grape seed extract (GSE) responded positively. At 100 μg/mL, GSE induced a moderate toxicity of the order of 3.88% on 3T6 cells at the first 24 hours of treatment, whereas, its prolonged effect to 48 hours reduced this toxicity to less than 0.5%. As for the anti-proliferative effect on tumoral cell lines, a cell death of 18.39% to 23.79% and 10.30% to 20.37% was registered respectively for HeLa and BCPAP cells during 24 and 48 hours of treatment. Consequently, it is possible to consider using GSE at lower concentrations as an anti-proliferative agent without losing sight of its benefic effect on healthy cells. Keywords: grape seed extract, 3T6 cell, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-proliferation.
... While PS showed the lowest value (80.21%) of DPPH • scavenging activity.Both of GP and OP exhibited better antioxidant activity than BHT and PS because of their higher contents of total polyphenolic and flavonoids than PS. These findings are in close agreement with previous findings of Singh et al., (2002); Lafka et al. (2007); Jayaprakasha et al. (2008) and Radovanovic et al., (2009), they found a strong correlation between the contents of TPC and DPPH • scavenging activity of methanolic extracts from many wastes. The reducing power of the tested plant wastes thanolic extracts was compared with a known reducing agent BHT as shown in Table (2). ...
Article
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This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of some organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone) for extraction of polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds from the grape pomace (GP), orange peel (OP) and peanut skin (PS) wastes. In addition, their effect on the antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity and reducing power ability of the produced extracts was investigated. Also, investigating the effect of adding GP, OP and PS extracts at 400 and 800 ppm on the fat stability and quality attributes of beef burger during frozen storage periods and compare them with those containing synthetic antioxidant (BHT) was another target. The results revealed that all extracts exhibited variable antioxidant activity. Specially, the methanolic extract of GP that showed highest (p < 0.05) values for total phenols content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC) and antioxidant activities (% DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power ability). The incorporation of tested plant extracts into beef burger formulations caused improving or retention of physiochemical quality criteria (such as pH value, WHC, cooking loss, TVBN and TBA contents) during frozen storage at-18 ± 2°C for 3 months, as well as improvement of the microbiological quality was observed when compared to control burger sample. Moreover, the present results revealed that beef burger samples containing 400 ppm extracts exhibited good sensory properties (especially those containing GP extract) even after frozen storage for 3 months. While, the burger sample containing 800 ppm OP extract was significantly varied (P<0.05) and less acceptability as compared with the other samples. Therefore, it could be concluded that the addition of GP, OP and PS extracts into beef burger formulations as natural antioxidants improved the oxidative stability and nutritional value, as well as microbiological quality of produced beef burger.
... and the monomeric anthocyanin content (r = 0.82-0.88) was pointed out (38). Table 2. 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 When considering the antimicrobial activity of polyphenols, the fact that these compounds are very sensitive to physical and chemical conditions of the medium in which they are present must be taken into account. ...
Article
A moderate intake of wine is associated with a positive impact on human health owing to the effects of important biologically active components present in the wine in large amounts. The aim of this study was to examine the chemical composition and to assess antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of fruit wines produced from three plum varieties (Čačanska rana, Čačanska lepotica and Požegača) commonly grown in Serbia as an approach to assess the quality and acceptability of these wines as a functional food. Furthermore, the activity of a series of control samples was assessed in order to determine components from the wine that are responsible for its functional properties. The plum wines produced showed considerable antimicrobial activity against six bacterial and two yeast strains used in this study. In addition to antimicrobial activity, the plum wines showed a significant cytotoxic effect (IC50<50μgmL⁻¹) on the growth of three tested cancer cell lines (Hep2c, RD and L2OB). Regarding the determined activities, Čačanska rana plum wine achieved the best results. The results indicated that the antimicrobial activity of the plum wines was, in large part, based on the effects of the total acids and the pH value, while the contribution of ethanol and the content of the phenolic compounds were not significant. Similar conclusions were drawn regarding the cytotoxic activity of this fruit wine. The results can be seen as a contribution to the global acceptance of fruit wines as a functional food, with the accent placed on moderate consumption. An important advantage of fruit wines (in particular plum wine), compared with traditional grape wine, is their lower alcohol content.
... Regarding the wine sample, TPC and antioxidant activity were 2.36 g GAE/L and 12.61 mmol TE/L, respectively. The result obtained for TPC in wine obtained herein was in agreement with those reported for Montenegrin 'Vranac' in a previous publication [17], but somewhat higher compared to the result reported by Radovanović et al. [18] and Matić et al. [19], and lower than those published by Radovanović et al. [20] and Mitić et al. [21]. Mitić et al. [21] examined 'Vranac' wines with different geographical origins, and the values obtained for RSA ranging from 13.00 to 15.02 mmol TE/L. ...
Article
Multicellular organisms of the human and animal bodies such as skin, bones, tendons, cartilage and blood vessels have collagen as a fibrous element. Collagen is a most representative protein of the leather wastes and collagenase is a proteolytic enzyme. The collagenase is responsible for the degradation of native collagen to small peptide fragments, without affecting the other proteins. Collagenase has widespread applications such as cosmetics, wound healing, diabetic ulcer, arterial ulcers and burns surgery, etc. In the present study, Twenty-seven collagenaseproducing microorganisms were identified and isolated from soil/sewage samples of the fish market and slaughterhouse areas. CS-20 sample was found most efficient producer microorganism of collagenase. This sample was identified from Pseudomonas genus and isolated as Pseudomonas species. The parameters such as temperature, substrate, pH, incubation period and inoculum percentage were also optimized to screen the hyper producer strain with maximum collagenase activity. CS-20 isolate (Collagenase producing microorganism) was capable of hydrolyzing other protein substrates such as gelatine and azocoll. Thus, CS-20 isolate is highefficiency strain for the production of collagenase.
... In this case, the r value (P < 0.05) amounted to 0.67, 0.73, 0.75, and 0.86, respectively, for DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and ORAC. A similar correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenols and malvidin-3-Oglucoside in Serbian wines was noted by Radovanović et al. [40]. This study also demonstrated a good correlation between the antioxidant activity and the content of flavan-3-ols (r value = 0.49, 0.47, 0.53, and 0.59, respectively, for DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC) and the content of flavonols (r value = 0.42, 0.29, 0.38, and 0.51, respectively, for DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC). ...
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The chemical characterization of 14 wines (six red and eight white) made from interspecific hybrids grown in Poland has been made. The study evaluated basic oenological parameters (acidity, pH, sugars content, alcohols content) as well as polyphenolics composition (UPLC-PDA-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, ORAC). Additionally, PCA was applied to differentiate tested wines. The content of total phenolics ranged from 74.79 mg/L (Musct Odesski) to 1860.8 mg/L (Regent). The red wines strongly differed in polyphenolics content, while white wine turned out to be similar to each other. Antioxidant activity was strongly correlated with total phenolics content (r² = 0.98). However, antioxidant potential depended mainly on the type of polyphenolic group: anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, respectively, in red and white wines.
... For this purpose, Prokupac variety was used as raw material. Prokupac is not only one of the most widely grown red grape varieties in the region of Southeastern Europe, but also an autochthonous Serbian variety often compared to the French ones (Cabernet Sauvingon, Pinot Noir and Gamay) due to its very intensive dark-blue skin, sugar level, and acidity (Menkovic et al. 2014;Radovanović et al. 2009). ...
Article
The goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of grape skin extract (GSE) spray dried with different carriers: maltodextrin (MD), gum Arabic (GA) and skim milk powder (SMP). The grape skin extract was obtained from winery by-product of red grape variety Prokupac (Vitis vinifera L.). The morphology of the powders, their thermal, chemical and physical properties (water activity, bulk and tapped densities, solubility), as well as release studies in different pH conditions were analyzed. Total anthocyanin content and total phenolic content were determined by spectrophotometric methods. MD and GA-based microparticles were non-porous and spherical, while SMP-based ones were irregularly shaped. The process of spray drying Prokupac GSE using these three carriers produced powders with low water activity (0.24–0.28), good powder characteristics, high yields, and solubility higher than 90%. The obtained dissolution/release profiles indicated prolonged release of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in different mediums, especially from GSE/GA microparticles. These results have shown that grape skin as the main by-product of wine production could be used as a source of natural colorants and bioactive compounds, and microencapsulation as a promising technique for the protection of these compounds, their stabilization in longer periods and prolonged release.
... Regarding the wine sample, TPC and antioxidant activity were 2.36 g GAE/L and 12.61 mmol TE/L, respectively. The result obtained for TPC in wine obtained herein was in agreement with those reported for Montenegrin 'Vranac' in a previous publication [17], but somewhat higher compared to the result reported by Radovanović et al. [18] and Matić et al. [19], and lower than those published by Radovanović et al. [20] and Mitić et al. [21]. Mitić et al. [21] examined 'Vranac' wines with different geographical origins, and the values obtained for RSA ranging from 13.00 to 15.02 mmol TE/L. ...
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Vranac, an old autochthonous red grapevine variety of Montenegro, was first mentioned in a historical document published in the 15th century. As currently the study of indigenous varieties is of particular importance, the subject of this work was detailed characterization of phenolic compounds in the autochthonous grapevine variety Vranac, from the Montenegrin Podgorica subregion. Phenolic profiles of leaves, berries (skin, seeds, and pulp were examined separately) and young monovarietal wine were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with linear trap quadrupole (LTQ)—Orbitrap XL mass spectrometry (MS). Total phenolic content (TPC) and radical scavenging activity (RSA) were higher for the grape seeds extracts, followed by extracts of grape skins and pulps. As expected, the total anthocyanin content (TAC) was higher in grape skin than in wine. A total of one hundred twenty nine compounds (forty two phenolic acids and their derivatives, twenty three flavan-3-ols, twenty one flavanols, five stilbenes and thirty eight anthocyanins) were identified in the investigated extracts. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of tentative identification of (epi)catechin 3-O-coumarate in grape seed and chalcan-flavan 3-ol dimers in wine and grape seed.
... This means that the volumetric concentrations of wine necessary for 50% of DPPH • radicals neutralisation were lower when the content of total anthocyanins was higher. Radovanović et al. [38] also confirmed a significant correlation between the content of anthocyanins and the neutralisation capacity for DPPH • radicals. On the other hand, a very weak degree of linear correlation (r = −0.323) ...
Article
The operations applied in plum processing and in the production of plum wine can significantly affect the content and activity of biologically active compounds extracted from the raw material. The aim of this study was to assess the composition of phenolic compounds, chromatic characteristics and antiradical activity of plum wines produced from three plum varieties (Čačanska rana, Čačanska lepotica and Požegača) commonly grown in Serbia. Čačanska lepotica wine was characterised by the highest content of total phenols, total anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, the highest colour intensity (CI) and the strongest antiradical activity against DPPH free radicals. A significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.828–0.905) between the antiradical activity and the content of total phenolics and total anthocyanins was determined. Peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, peonidin-3-rutinoside, chlorogenic and caffeic acids and rutin were identified as the main polyphenols in plum wines.
... Los subproductos de bodega, el orujo de uva, las semillas de uva y pieles de uva, las tortas de semilla de uva o las harinas de semilla de uva, tienen altos niveles de polifenoles, fuentes de antioxidantes naturales. La abundancia de polifenoles activos en estos subproductos es de verdadero interés para la nutrición animal, ya que pueden ser utilizados como antioxidantes naturales, reemplazando a los sintéticos (21,22) . ...
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The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of the grapeseed meal, added to slow-growing Hubbard broilers diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) due to the dietary flaxseed meal. The 7-wk feeding trial used 80 broiler chicks (14 d), assigned to two groups: control (C) and E, with 4 replicates of 10 chicks/group. The basal diet was similar for both groups during both feeding stages. The diet for group E was supplemented with 3% grapeseed meal. Six broilers from each group were slaughtered in the end of the feeding trial, and blood, breast and leg meat samples were collected. Serum cholesterol was significantly lower in group E (110.85 mg/dL), than in group C (146.82 mg/dL). The PUFA concentration was significantly higher in group E, than in group C, both in the breast (31.34 %, compared to 27.73 % total fatty acid methyl ester - FAME) and in the leg (32.44 %, compared to 30.06 % total FAME). The cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in group E (42.52 mg), than in group C (60.91 mg/100 g fresh sample) in the leg. After 7 d of refrigeration, the peroxide value was significantly lower in group E (8.11 meq), than in group C (8.79 meq/kg fat) in the breast meat, while fat acidity was significantly lower in group E (40.82 mg KOH), than in group C (43.99 mg KOH / g fat) in the leg. The dietary 3 % grapeseed meal, used as natural antioxidant, in PUFA-enriched broiler diets, had positive effects on the blood parameters and meat quality.
... 9 The concentration of a phenolic compound and its antioxidant capacity are not always correlated, suggesting that the antioxidant property of phenolic compounds may also be affected by some other factors. 10,11 Soil nutrient remains one of the vital factors that affects grapevine growth, crop yield, berry composition, fruit quality, and eventually wine quality. 12 Potassium, a well-known plant macronutrient, also regulates activities of various enzymes in plants, 13 increases the photosynthetic rate of chloroplasts, 14 increases the translocation rate of photosynthate from leaves through the phloem to storage tissue, 15 and thereby improves fruit quality and yield. ...
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BACKGROUND The physiological and metabolic processes involved with grapevine growth and production are influenced by key macro and micro‐nutrients. Potassium is an essential plant nutrient that affects growth and fruit quality. In this study, the impact of foliar spraying of potassium sulfate (K2SO4) on qualitative characteristics of grape berries was evaluated in the cultivar ‘Rasha’, a commonly cultivated cultivar in Kurdistan province of Iran. Leaves of the fully‐grown vines were sprayed with each of the 1.5 g L‐1 and 3 g L‐1 potassium sulfate solution once (one month after petal senescence) and twice (15 days after first spraying). The control plants were sprayed with distilled water. Various biochemical content and enzyme activities on the ripe berries were analyzed. RESULTS Significant increase in anthocyanin, total protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in the berries treated twice with 3 g L‐1 K2SO4. Concentrations of total carbohydrate, phenol and antioxidant activity in berries sprayed with K2SO4 were higher compared to the controls. We observed a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and different phenolic compounds. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that K2SO4 treatment influences biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant enzymes. Thus treatment by K2SO4 could improve nutritional and qualitative attributes of grape.
... The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds is conditioned by various factors [70,71]. One study showed that anthocyanins were responsible for a strong antioxidant activity [72] and another that flavanols were responsible for it [73]. ...
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The variety Prokupac is the dominant variety in the vineyards of Southern Serbia, which produces quality wines of characteristic and unique tastes. In the agroecological conditions of the Prokuplje vine district, the influence of manual defoliation on the phenolic profile of the wine produced from the variety Prokupac was examined. Four experimental treatments with different timings of manual defoliation were applied: early defoliation—treatment I, early defoliation—treatment II, late defoliation—treatment III and the control. The phenolic profile of the wine was determined for the three treatments of defoliation and the control treatment. Additionally, a multivariate analysis was applied on the obtained results, together with already published data (grape seeds and skins phenolic profiles). Identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds was performed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with an ultraviolet multi-diode detector (DAD) and mass detector with three analyzers—triple quadrupole (QQQ). Based on the obtained results, it was determined that there are significant differences between the experimental treatments in the content of individual polyphenols, total polyphenols and the antioxidant capacity. Twenty (20) phenolic compounds were identified in the wine samples of the experimental treatments. Defoliation significantly affected the variations of the contents of phenolic acids and flavonoids. In treatment III, the highest content of gallic acid was obtained, while the treatments with early defoliation did not differ in relation to the control sample. Early defoliation in treatments I and II had an effect on the phenolic composition of the wine by favoring the accumulation of flavonol, while the content of hydroxycinnamic acid and total anthocyanins (TAC) was higher in treatment III. The TAC increases with later defoliation. The wines obtained by the defoliation treatments did not show higher antioxidant activity compared to the control sample. A principal component analysis resulted in clustering of the samples based on the phenolic components characteristic for each group of samples. View Full-Text
... Standard solutions of Amoxicillin, Kanamcyin (antibacterial agents) and Ketoconozole (antifungal) were prepared. Agar diffusion method was used to perform antimicrobial tests 79,80 . 100µl of suspension possessing 108 CFU/ml of bacteria, 106 CFU/ml of yeast and 104 spore/ml spread on nutrient agar (NA), subourand dextrose agar (SDA) was used for amendments by Olurinola 81,82 . ...
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Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq.) Miq. (Dilleniaceae) commonly known as Elephant apple. The vernacular names include Chalta, Chulta, Karambel, Bhavya and Ramphal.It is found in Bangladesh, Nepal, China, Indonesia and Assam, West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Myanmar regions of India. Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq.) Miq.has been prevalently used in Indian traditional and ayurvedic medicine for curing plethora of ailments such as digestive, respiratory and central nervous systems. The information was put together, with the help of literature surveyed. Traditionally different parts of Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq.) Miq. have been used for the relief of indigestion, asthma, influenza, dysentery,jaundice,promeho,weakness and rheumatic pain. Moreover, the extractives showed significant cytotoxic, CNS depressant and free radical scavenging activity. Wood obtained from the bark of the plant has been used for preparing rafters, tool-handles, cupboard and house pots. It is interesting to know that bark of Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq.) Miq.is used for production of charcoal. Microspheres of metformin hydrochloride and novel mucoadhesive buccal tablets of oxytocin were also prepared from Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq.) Miq. In vitro propagation is practised whereas micropropagation is considered at the time, when large scale plant multiplication is required. Phytochemical studies revealed substantial presence of polyphenols, tannins, alkaloids and flavanoids which are responsible for the various pharmacological activities. Major chemical constituents present in the plant are betulin (pentacyclic triterpenoid) and betulinic acid that show wide spectrum of pharmacological activities which include anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-malarial etc. Furthermore, Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq.) Miq. is found to possess analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti- microbial,anti-bacterial,anti-diabetic,anti-oxidant,anti-proliferation,anti-diarrhoeal, antiimplantation, cytotoxic, wound healing and hair waving activity. Keyword(s)- Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq.) Miq. ; Phytochemical profile; Traditional uses; Pharmacological properties.
... Antibacterial activity of selected red wines was affected by their biochemical composition, especially by their phenolic constituents (Braicu et al. 2011;Carluccio et al. 2003;Daglia et al. 2007;German and Walzem 2000;Havsteen 2002;Heinonen et al. 1998;Just and Daeschel 2003;Papadopoulou et al. 2005;Puupponen-Pimia et al. 2005;Radovanovic et al. 2009;Renaud and de Lorgeril 1992;Rodriguez-Vaquero et al. 2007;Soleas et al. 2002;Sugita-Konishi et al. 2001;Thimothe et al. 2007). The concentrations of some wine phenolic compounds, as total flavan-3-ols, total flavonols, total hydroxybenzoic acids, total hydroxycinnamic acids, total flavonoids, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin and trans-resveratrol, determined using HPLC analysis and total phenolic content, determined by UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis are reported in Table 4. ...
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Fifteen commercial wines produced from international and autochthonic varieties of Vitis vinifera L. cultivation of different Balkan winegrowing subregions were studied for their antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive (Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Sarcina lutea and Micrococcus flavus) and six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. The concentrations and types of phenolic compounds responsible for antibacterial activity in wines were investigated by HPLC and spectroscopic methods. The correlation between amounts of phenolics and antibacterial activities of investigated wines were studied by application of statistical (PCA, factor and cluster) analyses. This study gives the possibility to predict the biological quality of the wine from the same cluster towards bacteria without “wet” analysis. Obtained results can to be useful both to wine producers for the formation of market price of wine, and to wine consumers in choosing quality red wine with high content of polyphenols.
... Winery by-products (grape pomace, grape seeds and peals) are a natural source of antioxidants with high levels of polyphenols. The abundancy of polyphenols in these by-products ( Radovanovic et al., 2009;Granato et al., 2010), gives them antioxidant properties ( Xia et al., 2010;Georgiev et al., 2014;Ky et al., 2014). Recent in vivo and in vitro studies on monogastric animals confirmed the beneficial effects of these bioreactive compounds due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity ( Hu et al., 2013;Yu și Ahmedna, 2013;Juśkiewicz et al., 2015). ...
Article
The 4-week investigations were conducted on 99 Tetra layers aged 67 weeks, assigned to three groups: control (C), experimental 1 (E1) and experimental 2 (E2). The layers received a basal diet with corn, soybean meal and sunflower meal, enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids via 7% flax meal. The diets of the experimental groups differed from diet C by the inclusion of grape meal, as natural antioxidant, 2% for E1 and 3% for E2. The use of 7% flax meal enriched the diet in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (14.17% in average) and with omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3.07 in average. The yolk of the resulting eggs was also enriched in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 4.91% in average, and with omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 4.25 in average. The use of grape meal in the experimental diets improved the oxidative status of the eggs collected in the end of the experiment from the experimental groups compared to group C, the antioxidant capacity being 3.62% in group E2. The cholesterol level in the yolk of the eggs from the experimental groups was significantly (P≤0.05) lower than in the control group, by 13.57% in group E1, and by 16.27% in group E2.
... Since ancient times wine is one of the most widely used alcoholic beverages not only for its sensory characteristics but also for the benefits that its moderate consumption bring on people's health: reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer [1,2] and anti-aging, antimicrobial and antibacterial activity345. These positive effects are demonstrated by different epidemiological studies [1] being correlated with the antioxidant properties of the phenolic compounds from the complex composition of wines. ...
Article
Although red wine is often used as a functional food because of its content in tannins, white wine is also an important source of biologically active compounds due to its phenolic compounds. The great variety of white wines available in the market led to the necessity to develop new analytical methods to assess their quality and authenticity. The aim of this study was to develop a method for authentication of white wines on the basis of HPTLC fingerprints. For this purpose three varieties of Romanian white wines (Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, Feteasca Alba), produced in three different years in different vineyards were chosen. The obtained HPTLC fingerprints are useful for quality control of wines and allowed the differentiation of white wines in terms of their variety, their harvesting year and the vineyard. Also, the developed method has proved to be an useful tool for authentication of closely related white wines.
... Compounds that are present in the biggest amount in investigated extract and juice are anthocyanins. Antibacterial activity of fruits with antocyanins is well described (23)(24)(25). Also, Leitao et al., Lacombe et al. and Table 2. Polyphenolic compounds in cherry extract and juice (mg/100 g dry matter). ...
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Sour cherry is a plant traditionally used as food. Its health care potency has been discovered recently. In this study, we have investigated the antimicrobial activity of sour cherry towards different pathogens by micro dilution method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The chemical composition of dried juice and ethanol extract was determined by High performance liquid chromatography method. Results showed that juice and extract exhibit antibacterial activity, but have no antifungal and antialgal activity against tested pathogens. In terms of break point, better results were obtained against Gram positive bacteria. Rhodococcus equi was the most susceptible specie to both juice and extract. Juice showed better results to: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sallmonela Typhymurium and Acinetobacter lwoffi, but for all other investigated species extract showed superior activity.
... The disc diffusion method 20,21 was used to test antimicrobial and antifungal strains against five gram positive, eight gram negative organisms and three fungi. The bacterial and fungal strains used for the experiment were collected as pure culture from the Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences (INFS), University of Dhaka. ...
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The volatile compounds of the essential oils of Carum roxburghianum Benth. (Radhuni) seeds of three different ecotypes of Bangladesh were obtained by hydrodistillation method and maximum yield was 2.57 % (w/w). The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and thirty volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Predominantly monoterpene hydrocarbon accounted for 59.27-91.11 % of the total oil. The major constituents of the oils were limonene (29.33-59.37 %), 5,7,8-trimethyl-dihydrocoumarin (11.53-26.69 %), sabinene (2.49-17.43 %), γ-terpinene (4.10-10.13 %), p-cymene (3.20-7.67 %), apoil (0.5-7.11 %), terpenolene (1.09-7.03 %), β-cis-caryophyllene (2.07-5.42 %), terpinene-4-ol (0.07-5.11 %), cis-sabinene hydrate (3.78-4.89 %), α-phellandrene (0.05-3.54%) and myristicine (0.28-2.33 %). The highest concentration of the elements (in ppm) were Ca 18900, Mg 6900, P 5500, K 5000, S 2900, Na 2000, Zn 115.0, Fe 105.0, B 43.0, Cr 0.561, Ni 0.464, Pb 0.042 and Co 0.033 in the three studied ecotypes. The Physico-chemical properties were evaluated. In the biological activities of the essential oils, the IC 50 value of the oils were 1147.12±6.99 μg/mL-1305.60±10.87 μg/mL at the highest concentration of 4000 μg/mL with 74.59±0.36 % inhibition by DPPH method. The LC 50 value was 2.17 μg/mL-2.53 μg/mL in the brine shrimp lethality cytotoxicity bioassay. The significant zone of inhibition was produced against some bacteria and fungi. These studies may find interest of several applications in pharmaceutical and food industries.
... Winery by-products are one of the natural sources with a high level of polyphenols [8,16] which bestows them with antioxidant properties [5,11]. The literature [9,12] includes studies on the beneficial effects of the dietary winery by-products given to broiler chicks on broiler performance, protein and amino acids digestibility, intestinal microflora and broiler meat quality. ...
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This paper presents a 3-week ,,in vivo" feeding experiment conducted on 90, Cobb 500 broiler chicks, aged 14 days, assigned to 3 groups: a control group (C), and two experimental groups (E1, E2). Unlike the diet formulation for group C (based on corn, wheat, soybean meal and flax meal), the diet formulations for the experimental groups also included 2% (E1) and 3% (E2) grape seeds meal as natural antioxidant. The bioproductive parameters monitored throughout the feeding trial were not significantly (P>0.05) different between the groups. Six broilers per group were slaughtered in the end of the trial and six samples of breast meat and of thigh meat were formed for each group. the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was significantly (P≤0.05) higher in the experimental groups, both in the breast meat: 31.50±1.59g (E1) and 33.74±0.29g (E2) vs. 29.29±0.96 g/100 g total fatty acids (C), and in the thigh meat: 30.28±1.09g (E1) and 34.08±1.80 (E2) vs 29.58±1.16 g/100gtotal fatty acids (C). The highest content of alfa linolenic acid (ALA), 1.12±0.07g, was recorded in the breast meat from group E1, which was significantly (P≤0.05) different from0.89±0.34g/100 g total fatty acids, in group C.
... Medicinal plants are well-known natural sources for the treatment of various diseases since antiquity [87][88][89][90]. About 20,000 plant species used for medicinal purposes are reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) Gullece et al [91]; Maregesi [92]. ...
... The total flavonoid content determined in this study was in accordance with the results reported by SOCHA et al. [18] for honey. The total flavonoid content for the red wine is lower compared with the values reported by the YANG et al, [21] and for Allium sativum the total flavonoid content is significantly higher than the values reported by the BOZIN et al. [22] (5,78 µg QE/g ). These differences can be explained by the different sources and also by the composition of raw materials used in the study. ...
Article
In the present study the antioxidant activity, polyphenolic and flavonoid content, and antimicrobial activity of some ingredients commonly used in beef marinades were investigated. Reduction of DPPH radical formation and hydrogen peroxide scavenging ability showed variable evolution depending on marinade ingredients studied and type of extract (water or methanolic). The highest total phenolic (1333.68 ± 0.24 mg tannic acid/100g) and total flavonoid (661.26 ± 0.28 mg rutin/100g) contents were found in the Majorana hortensis methanolic extract. The most powerful antioxidant water extract mixture was that obtained from dry red wine, lime-tree honey, Allium sativum, Thymus vulgaris and Armoracia rusticana with the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity being 87.18 ± 0.66% respectively 50.23 ± 0.62%. The statistical analysis of Plackett-Burman experimental design showed that the most important antimicrobial effect against Bacillus subtilis was found for the combination with the largest quantity of horseradish and marjoram extracts and the most important antimicrobial effect against Bacillus cereus was found for the combination with the largest quantity of horseradish, thyme and marjoram extracts. Using a larger number of ingredients rich in biologically active compounds will lead to marinades capable to increase the quality of beef meat.
... There are many publications in which the phenolic composition of wines produced from the international grape varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon is studied [9,10] but, there has been almost no detailed research on the phenolic profile of wines obtained from these grape varieties cultivated in Republic of Macedonia. There are also little data on the phenolic composition of Vranec wines which is indigenous Balkan variety [3,11]. ...
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In order to characterize polyphenols in tree grape varieties, Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, grapes were sampled from representative vineyards from Black River Basin at harvest time during 2017 and 2018. On average, the highest content of low-molecular mass proanthocyanidins (LMP), high-molecular mass proanthocyanidins (HMP) and anthocyanins in the year 2017 was found in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. The highest content of anthocyanins in the year 2017 and the lowest content of LMP in years 2017 and 2018 was found in Vranac grapes. The highest content of extractable anthocyanins in the skin of grape berries was found in Vranec grapes in 2017 and 2018, followed by Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. On average, the Cabernet Sauvignon wines had a higher content of total polyphenols, anthocyanins in 2017 and 2018 respectively, LMP and HMP, compared to the Merlot and Vranec wines. The results obtained are important to better understand the polyphenolic potential of Macedonian red grape varieties in Black River Basin as possibilities and perspectives for the development of tourism.
... This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste, which represents up to 30% of the weight of the used material (Teixeira et al., 2014). This calls for a higher use of these winery by-products, which contain active biocompounds with antioxidant properties (Radovanovic et al., 2009;Granato et al., 2010), as raw materials for pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food industry and feed additives. Grape seed flour, the residue from seed oil manufacture, has not received much attention but may be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants and other healthful bioactive compounds (Luther et al., 2007). ...
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The 7-week feeding trial evaluated the effect of 2% grapeseed meal used as natural antioxidant in the diets for slow-growing Hubbard broiler chicks, aged 14 days. The chicks were weighed individually and assigned to two groups (C and E), with 40 chicks per group, housed under conditions of temperature, humidity and light regimen according to the hybrid management guide. The basal ingredients of the conventional diet were corn, wheat, gluten, soybean meal and 2% flaxseed meal, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Compared to the control formulation, the experimental formulation included 2% grapeseed meal, both in the growing and finishing stages. The broilers had free access to feed and water. In the end of the feeding trial, blood samples were collected for serum biochemical determinations and six broilers per group were slaughtered and samples of breast and thigh meat were collected. The meat samples were assayed for the basic chemical composition, fatty acids profile and cholesterol content using standardized methods. The content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in breast samples, while cholesterol content was significantly lower (p<0.05) in thigh samples from E group, compared to C. Blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) in group E than in group C. The study showed that the grapeseed meal used as natural antioxidant in broiler diets enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids given to Hubbard broilers had beneficial effects on broiler meat quality and on the metabolic profile of the blood plasma.
... While PS showed the lowest value (80.21%) of DPPH • scavenging activity.Both of GP and OP exhibited better antioxidant activity than BHT and PS because of their higher contents of total polyphenolic and flavonoids than PS. These findings are in close agreement with previous findings of Singh et al., (2002); Lafka et al. (2007); Jayaprakasha et al. (2008) and Radovanovic et al., (2009), they found a strong correlation between the contents of TPC and DPPH • scavenging activity of methanolic extracts from many wastes. The reducing power of the tested plant wastes thanolic extracts was compared with a known reducing agent BHT as shown in Table (2). ...
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Concentrations of phenolic antioxidants and antioxidant activities were determined for three different vintages of red varietal Plavac mali wines (Grgich), white varietal Pošip wines (Grgich) and white varietal Žlahtina wines (Gršković). All three mentioned cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) are well exploited in vineyards along the Croatian coast. Two different tests, the spectrophotometric Folin-Ciocalteau test and redox derivative potentiometric titration with electrogenerated chlorine, were used to quantify phenolic antioxidants and express them in gallic acid equivalents. The sequence of wines obtained by the two methods, ranked according to the increasing phenolic content, was comparable. Among all the tested wines, Plavac mali of the vintage 2003 showed the highest phenol content of ~5 g/L. As expected, due to the lack of anthocyanins and other pigments present in red wines, all six white wines showed approximately ten times lower phenolic levels in comparison with red wines, averaging between 190-380 mg/L. This study demonstrates the utilization of quick and reliable analytical techniques, spectrophotometry and derivative potentiometric titration, in quantification of wine phenolics. The change in free radical scavenging ability of the same set of wines was evaluated according to the Brand-Williams assay. The results show, on average, eight times higher free radical scavenging ability of red wines. Also, a slight decrease in the free radical scavenging ability of the older vintage white wines was observed, while the antioxidant activities of the older vintage red wines (Plavac mali) were slightly higher, due to formation of condensed tannins with time.
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Thirty-one wine samples differing in their origin of production and vintages were analyzed for total phenolic content, total and free sulfur dioxide contents, and superoxide radical scavenging potentials. The polyphenol content of red wine ranged from 735.9 to 2858 ppm, and that of white wine was in the range 259.4−720.5 ppm. Total sufur dioxide content ranged from 21.9 to 270.7 ppm, and had no correlation to the color of the wine. Superoxide radical scavenging activity values ranged from 39.3 to 215.9 units/mL for the white wine, and those of red varieties were 5−10 times higher. No correlation was observed between the free and total sulfur dioxide contents in the different wine samples tested and their superoxide radical scavenging activity values. A direct correlation between the color of the wine (r = 0.7517), its phenolic content (r = 0.9908), and the ability of the wine constituents to scavenge superoxide radical was, however, established by a simple regression analysis. Keywords: Wine; phenolics; radical scavenger; varietal difference
Article
The free radical scavenging capacity of selected red, rosé and white Spanish wines from different grape varieties was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) method using a new methodology developed at our laboratory. The amount of sample necessary to decrease by 50% the initial DPPH· concentration (EC50), the time needed to reach the steady state at EC50 concentration (TEC50) and the antiradical efficiency (AE = 1/EC50TEC50) were determined in the wine samples. Some differences between rosé wines made with Garnacha and Tempranillo grape varieties were observed in the UV-vis spectra and in the free radical scavenging parameters, those from Garnacha variety having the highest antioxidant activity. The antiradical efficiency of the wines followed a decreasing order: red wines (22.44 × 10−6) > rosé wines (4.90 × 10−6) > white wines (1.88 × 10−6). There was a correlation between antiradical efficiency and total polyphenol (TP): AE = −3.33135 + 0.0180535TP; the correlation coefficient was r = 0.951454. © 1999 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The antioxidative activity and scavenging effects on active oxygen of Maillard reaction products (MRP) prepared by heating xylose and lysine (XL) at a molar ratio 1:2 and pH 9.0 for 1.5 h (XL-1 to XL-5) were investigated. The antioxidative activity and browning intensity of XL MRP increased with increasing duration of reaction, but XL-1 and XL-2 MRP showed greater reducing power than other samples (P < 0.05). All XL MRP showed scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl–2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. XL-1, XL-2 and XL-3 MRP exhibited about 50% reduction in absorbance of superoxide. Scavenging effects of XL MRP on DPPH radical and superoxide were markedly decreased after decolorization with Sep-Pak Cartridge C18, indicating that the browning pigment might contain components that can scavenge superoxide or donate hydrogen atoms. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated that XL MRP had scavenging activity on the hydroxyl radical; this scavenging effect depended on dose (r = 0.99) and increased with increasing duration of reaction. Based on these data, the antioxidative activity of XL MRP may be attributed to the combined effects of reducing power, donation of hydrogen atoms and scavenging of active oxygen.
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Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. was evaluated in grape juice and wine. Bacteria were inactivated in wine within 60 min but survived up to 16 d in juice. A model stomach system containing food and synthetic gastric fluid (SGF) was designed to investigate the antibacterial effect of wine when consumed with a meal. In this system, wine had little effect on E. coli O157:H7 survival whereas Salmonella was undetectable after 120 min. A nonvolatile wine fraction (containing acids) was more effective in killing Salmonella than a volatile wine fraction (containing alcohol), suggesting that antibacterial activity of wine is primarily acid dependent.
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In vitro inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation (MLP) by the major South African red (Cabernet Sauvignon, Ruby Cabernet, Pinotage, Shiraz, Merlot) and white (Sauvignon blanc, Chenin blanc, Chardonnay, Colombard) commercial cultivar wines is presented for the first time. Of the red wines, Merlot was the most effective MLP inhibitor, with Ruby Cabernet and Pinotage being the least effective. Of the white wines, Chenin blanc and Chardonnay were the least and most effective MLP inhibitor, respectively. The mean antioxidant potencies (AP) of the red and white wine total phenols were 14.25 and 4.19, respectively. Ascorbic acid, present in some white wines, counteracted their ability to inhibit MLP. Inhibition of MLP significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the total phenol content of red (r=0.90) and white (r=0.73) wines, as well as the flavanol content (r=0.88) of red wines and the flavanol (r=0.79) and tartaric acid ester (r=0.73) contents of white wines. The MLP inhibitory activities of selected flavonoids were in the order: Quercetin > procyanidin B3 > malvidin > cyanidin ≈ (−)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin ≈ delphinidin.
Article
Wine is a rich source of dietary antioxidants due to its content of phenolic compounds. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the impact of certain enological practices on antioxidant activity of wines. Enological practices included maceration for red wines, pressing degree for white wines, clarification in both types of wines using either albumin or gelatin and membrane filtration. As there is not yet a standard method accepted for the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of wines, the following were adapted and applied, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). As pressure increased, the antioxidant activity of white wines also increased. Maceration time had a positive effect on antioxidant potential of red wines, and behaviour differed, depending on the grape variety (Tempranillo, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon). Clarification treatments did not significantly affect the phenolic composition or the antioxidant activity of wines. The information yielded can be used to obtain wines with maximum antioxidant capacity.
Article
The antioxidant effectiveness of selected wines and pure (+)-catechin were determined using three different methods. The radical scavenging potential was investigated using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, the reducing power was determined using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) method. Six red and four white wines from different grape cultivars were analyzed.Unpaired test between FRAP, DPPH, and BCB analysis of red and white wines showed significant difference. Different reducing/antioxidant power of red and white wines was elucidated in view of their different phenolic composition. As expected, the red wines had much higher flavonoid, anthocyanin, and catechin content than white wines. There was no significant difference between nonflavonoids phenols.All analyzed wines demonstrate significant antioxidant capacity with FRAP test. The average FRAP of red wines was almost 10-fold higher than the average FRAP of white wines. The reducing ability of red wines can be directly correlated with its flavonoid and catechin concentration. The relative antioxidant efficiency of pure (+)-catechin in FRAP assay was same as for ascorbate and Trolox.
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The total antioxidant status (TAS) of two white and two blue wine varieties from the Žernoseky wine region (North Bohemia, Czech Republic) during the wine-making process was assessed by measurement with different radical scavenging assays: ABTS, DPPH and DMPD. Significant differences in the antioxidant activity between white and red wines were confirmed and changes of TAS during the wine production process were demonstrated. Moreover, differences were ascertained between individual varieties of red wine. No statistically significant relationship between the results provided by the ABTS and DPPH assays was found, obviously due to the fact that each phenolic substance in wine gives a different response to each specific radical used in the assay. The results obtained supported the assumption that variety plays a considerable role in TAS; the blue wine varieties showed a much higher TAS than did the white wines. The ABTS assay showed higher EQA (equivalents of ascorbic acid, mg/ml) values than the DPPH assay.
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In most countries, high intake of saturated fat is positively related to high mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the situation in France is paradoxical in that there is high intake of saturated fat but low mortality from CHD. This paradox may be attributable in part to high wine consumption. Epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of alcohol at the level of intake in France (20-30 g per day) can reduce risk of CHD by at least 40%. Alcohol is believed to protect from CHD by preventing atherosclerosis through the action of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, but serum concentrations of this factor are no higher in France than in other countries. Re-examination of previous results suggests that, in the main, moderate alcohol intake does not prevent CHD through an effect on atherosclerosis, but rather through a haemostatic mechanism. Data from Caerphilly, Wales, show that platelet aggregation, which is related to CHD, is inhibited significantly by alcohol at levels of intake associated with reduced risk of CHD. Inhibition of platelet reactivity by wine (alcohol) may be one explanation for protection from CHD in France, since pilot studies have shown that platelet reactivity is lower in France than in Scotland.
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Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (C3G) is included in anthocyanins, and expected to have a potency to scavenge active oxygen species in vivo. Rats were fed a diet containing C3G (2 g/kg diet) for 14 days, and then subjected to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) as an oxidative stress model. I/R treatment elevated the liver thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentration and the serum activities of marker enzymes for liver injury, and lowered the liver reduced glutathione concentration. Feeding C3G significantly suppressed these changes caused by hepatic I/R. These results indicate that C3G functions as a potent antioxidant in vivo under oxidative stress. To clarify the mechanism of action of C3G, we investigated the absorption and metabolism of C3G in rats. C3G appeared in the plasma immediately after the oral administration of C3G. Protocatechuic acid, which seems to be produced by the degradation of cyanidin, was also present in the plasma. In the liver and kidneys, C3G was metabolized to methylated form.
Article
The aglycons of the most abundant anthocyanins in food, cyanidin (cy) and delphinidin (del), were found to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro in the micromolar range, whereas malvidin (mv), a typical anthocyanidin in grapes, was less active. The aglycons preferentially inhibited the growth of the human vulva carcinoma cell line A431, overexpressing the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR). The glycosides cyanidin-3-beta-D-galactoside (cy-3-gal, idaein) and malvidin-3-beta-D-glucoside (mv-3-glc, oenin) did not affect tumor cell growth up to 100 microM. The tyrosine kinase activity of the EGFR, isolated from A431 cells, was potently inhibited by cy and del. Mv and the glycosides cy-3-gal and mv-3-glc were inactive up to 100 microM. In intact cells the influence of anthocyanin treatment on downstream signaling cascades was investigated by measuring the phosphorylation of the transcription factor Elk-1. A431 cells were transiently transfected with a luciferase reporter gene construct whose expression is controlled by MAP kinase pathway dependent phosphorylation of a GAL4-Elk-1 fusion protein. We found that cy and del inhibited the activation of the GAL4-Elk-1 fusion protein in the concentration range where growth inhibition was observed. Thus, the anthocyanidins cy and del are potent inhibitors of the EGFR, shutting off downstream signaling cascades. These effects might contribute substantially to the growth-inhibitory properties of these natural food constituents.