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Amounts of polyamines in foods in Japan and intake by Japanese

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Abstract

The amounts of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in foods available in Japan were analyzed by HPLC. Though the polyamine concentrations varied in individual foods and food groups, significant differences in polyamine concentrations and distribution patterns were observed between food groups. Beans showed high concentrations of spermidine and spermine, vegetables had higher levels of putrescine and spermidine, fruit and seasonings had high levels of putrescine, fish and shellfish, meat and nuts had high levels spermine. Using the average polyamine concentrations and the amount of each food group consumed, the polyamine intake from foods by the Japanese was estimated to be 200μmol/day/person, and about half of the polyamine intake was putrescine. This value is significantly lower than those reported for European countries.

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... This may be one of the main reasons why the spermidine content in soybeans is usually higher than that in other grains, vegetables, and fruits (Miller-Fleming et al., 2015;Sagara et al., 2017). In particular, the content of spermidine in raw soybeans ranges from 72 to 242 mg/kg (Glória et al., 2005;Nishibori et al., 2007;Pavel & Petra, 2005;Zou et al., 2020). Plant varieties as well as the planting conditions affect the spermidine contents in food materials (Plonka & Michalski, 2016). ...
... In addition to plant and animal sources, microorganisms are also important sources of spermidine. According to the data on metabonomics in mice, the level of spermidine in the intestine is mainly dependent on the Green peas 5-95 (Nishibori et al., 2007) Grain amaranth 91 (Nishimura et al., 2006) Nameko 88 ...
... Tempe 86 Azuki bean 47-82 (Nishibori et al., 2007) Broccoli 38-82 (Nishimura et al., 2006) Enoki 80 ...
Article
Spermidine, a natural autophagy inducer, has a variety of health effects, such as antitumor, antiaging, anti‐inflammation, cardiovascular protection, and neuromodulation. It has been a hot topic in the field of food processing, and current research findings suggest that spermidine‐rich foods may be used in intervention and prevention of age‐related diseases. In this article, recent findings on the safety, health effects, absorption and metabolism of spermidine were reviewed, and advances in food processing, including the raw materials evaluation, physical and chemical processing, and biological processing of spermidine, were highlighted. In particular, the core metabolic pathways, key gene targets, and efficient metabolic engineering strategies involved in the biosynthesis of spermidine and its precursors were discussed. Moreover, limitations and future perspectives of spermidine research were proposed. The purpose of this review is to provide new insights on spermidine from its safety to its food processing, which will advance the commercial production and applications of spermidine‐rich foods and nutraceuticals.
... The highest levels (a mean value of 90 mg/kg) were determined in green peppers and citrus fruit with very similar contents among samples. Similar results have been reported by other authors, suggesting that the accumulation of putrescine in these food types probably has a physiological origin [1,22,28]. In other vegetables such as spinach and peas, the high occurrence of putrescine has been linked with the presence of spoilage bacteria (i.e., Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium spp.) [1,29]. ...
... suggesting that the accumulation of putrescine in these food types probably has a physiological origin [1,22,28]. In other vegetables such as spinach and peas, the high occurrence of putrescine has been linked with the presence of spoilage bacteria (i.e., Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium spp.) [1,29]. ...
... In eggs, only low levels of spermine and spermidine were determined, both in equal amounts. Despite available data on the polyamine content in milk, yogurt and eggs being very scarce, the levels reported in the literature are similar to those found in the present study [11,22,28]. Table 2 compares the polyamine content of thirteen food items with significant amounts of polyamines both raw and cooked by different culinary methods (i.e., boiling, grilling, microwave and sous-vide). ...
Article
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Dietary polyamines are involved in different aspects of human health and play an important role in the prevention of certain chronic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Different polyamines can be found in all foods in variable amounts. Moreover, several culinary practices have been reported to modify the content and profile of these bioactive compounds in food although experimental data are still scarce and even contradictory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of polyamines in a large range of foods and to assess the effect of different cooking processes on the polyamine content of a few of them. The highest level of polyamines was found in wheat germ (440.6 mg/kg). Among foods of a plant origin, high levels of total polyamines over 90 mg/kg were determined in mushrooms, green peppers, peas, citrus fruit, broad beans and tempeh with spermidine being predominant (ranging from 54 to 109 mg/kg). In foods of an animal origin, the highest levels of polyamines, above all putrescine (42–130 mg/kg), were found in raw milk, hard and blue cheeses and in dry-fermented sausages. Regarding the influence of different domestic cooking processes, polyamine levels in food were reduced by up to 64% by boiling and grilling but remained practically unmodified by microwave and sous-vide cooking.
... Foods contain polyamines, though at widely varying levels (Cipolla et al. 2007;Nishibori et al. 2006;Nishimura et al. 2006;Soda et al. 2017). Therefore, personal food preferences and regional dietary patterns may greatly affect polyamine intake from food. ...
... Nishibori et al. analyzed polyamine concentrations in Japanese food and estimated that putrescine, spermidine, and spermine account for 45, 37, and 18% of polyamine intake by Japanese, respectively, and the ratio of spermidine and spermine intake was 2:1 (Nishibori et al. 2006). Bardocz et al. estimated that putrescine (57%) was also the most commonly consumed polyamine in Europeans, with spermidine and spermine accounting for 26 and 18%, respectively; the ratio of spermidine to spermine intake was about 1.5:1 (Bardocz et al. 1995). ...
... The increased amounts of spermine and spermidine intake estimated by meal records in the intervention group increased (22.00 ± 9.56 and 96.63 ± 47.70 µmol per day, respectively), while no changes were observed in control group. Because the amounts of spermine and spermidine intakes by Japanese were estimated to be 36 and 74 µmol per day (Nishibori et al. 2006), respectively, polyamine intake by volunteers was estimated to be almost doubled during the intervention. Spermine concentrations in whole blood gradually increased following Natto intake and was significantly higher than that in the control group by the end of the 12-month intervention, while blood spermidine concentration showed no change (Soda et al. unpublished). ...
Article
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The polyamines spermidine and spermine are synthesized in almost all organisms and are also contained in food. Polyamine synthesis decreases with aging, but no significant decrease in polyamine concentrations were found in organs, tissues, and blood of adult animals and humans. We found that healthy dietary patterns were associated with a preference for polyamine-rich foods, and first reported that increased polyamine intake extended the lifespan of mice and decreased the incidence of colon cancer induced by repeated administration of moderate amounts of a carcinogen. Recent investigations have revealed that changes in DNA methylation status play an important role in lifespan and aging-associated pathologies. The methylation of DNA is regulated by DNA methyltransferases in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine. Decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine, converted from S-adenosylmethionine by S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, provides an aminopropyl group to synthesize spermine and spermidine and acts to inhibit DNMT activity. Long-term increased polyamine intake were shown to elevate blood spermine levels in mice and humans. In vitro studies demonstrated that spermine reversed changes induced by the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (e.g., increased decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine, decreased DNA methyltransferase activity, increased aberrant DNA methylation), whose activity decreases with aging. Further, aged mice fed high-polyamine chow demonstrated suppression of aberrant DNA methylation and a consequent increase in protein levels of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, which plays a pivotal role on inflammatory process. This review discusses the relation between polyamine metabolism and DNA methylation, as well as the biological mechanism of lifespan extension induced by increased polyamine intake.
... Tables 1, 2 summarize the distribution of different PAs in selected plants and animals found in the literature. The reported quantities are given as mg.kg −1 in their descending order (Nishibori et al., 2007;Ali et al., 2011). as lime (41.0 mg kg −1 FW Put), pear (24.0 mg kg −1 FW Put) and melon (11.7 mg kg −1 FW Spd) are also good sources of PAs (Bardócz et al., 1993;Nishimura et al., 2006). ...
... Cereals are among the most staple source of carbohydrates and fiber for human diet. Notably, maize (corn), brown rice and whole grain wheat are richer in Spd (Bardócz et al., 1993;Okamoto et al., 1997;Eliassen et al., 2002;Nishimura et al., 2006;Nishibori et al., 2007), with the following decreasing order: Japanese corn (43.0 mg kg −1 FW) > whole grain wheat (13.1-21.0 mg kg −1 FW) > millet (9.1 mg kg −1 FW) > brown rice (6.4 mg/kg −1 FW). ...
... In addition to vegetables, fruits and grains, nuts are also a good source of PAs. Pistachio and almonds contain high levels of all three major PAs (Nishibori et al., 2007) whereas hazelnut (Cipolla et al., 2007) and cashew (Nishibori et al., 2007) contain higher amounts of Spd (21 mg kg −1 FW) and Spm (24 mg kg −1 FW), respectively. ...
Article
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Biogenic amines—polyamines (PAs), particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants—exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments. Thus, one or more PAs are commonly found in genomic and metabolomics studies using plants, particulary during different abiotic stresses. In humans, a general decline in PA levels with aging occurs parallel with some human health disorders. Also, high PA dose is detrimental to patients suffering from cancer, aging, innate immunity and cognitive impairment during Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. A dichotomy exists in that while PAs may increase longevity and reduce some age-associated cardiovascular diseases, in disease conditions involving higher cellular proliferation, their intake has negative consequences. Thus, it is essential that PA levels be rigorously quantified in edible plant sources as well as in dietary meats. Such a database can be a guide for medical experts in order to recommend which foods/meats a patient may consume and which ones to avoid. Accordingly, designing both high and low polyamine diets for human consumption are in vogue, particularly in medical conditions where PA intake may be detrimental, for instance, cancer patients. In this review, literature data has been collated for the levels of the three main PAs, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, in different edible sources—vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, meat, sea food, cheese, milk, and eggs. Based on our analysis of vast literature, the effects of PAs in human/animal health fall into two broad, Yang and Yin, categories: beneficial for the physiological processes in healthy cells and detrimental under pathological conditions.
... Taken together, the decrease of polyamine levels may be implicated in some agingassociated pathological conditions, and exogenous polyamines may play an important role in the suppression of such pathogenesis. As such, dietary sources of polyamines have garnered much interest, and the polyamine contents of various foods have been determined (Okamoto et al., 1997;Nishimura et al., 2006;Nishibori et al., 2007). Polyamine-rich foods include green pepper, orange, soybean and Japanese pumpkin as well as some kinds of fermented foods. ...
... Fermented soybean, called natto in Japan, is a traditional food rich in polyamines. Furthermore, the long-term consumption of natto by human volunteers has been reported to increase blood polyamine levels (Soda et al., 2009). Natto is made from soybeans fermented using Bacillus subtilis (natto).Nishibori et al. (2007)measured the polyamine contents of various foods: natto contained 175 nmol/g putrescine, 232 nmol/g spermidine and 19 nmol/g spermine, whereas soybeans contained 194 nmol/g, 728 nmol/g and 181 nmol/g, respectively. These results demonstrate that the individual polyamine contents decrease during the natto fermentation process. However,Ots ...
... This observation was similar to the finding that heattreatment decreased spermidine and spermine levels (VercianaNogués et al., 1997). The polyamine content of natto has been reported to be lower than that of raw soybeans (Nishibori et al., 2007); therefore, the elevation of spermidine after fermentation is contrary to those results. The reasons for this pattern of results are unclear, but may derive from differences in the analytical conditions. ...
Article
We developed a more convenient method for assaying polyamines and re-examined the variation of polyamine contents during each step of the natto production process. The steaming process slightly decreased spermidine in soybeans, and the subsequent fermentation process resulted in 41.1% increase of spermidine and 19.4% reduction of spermine compared with those of steamed soybeans. These results indicated that Bacillus subtilis (natto) produces spermidine during the fermentation process. Further, we determined that spermidine production differs among inoculum strains. It was also suggested that the selection of starter cultures with high spermidine productivity improves polyamine levels in natto.
... The analyses of polyamine concentration in foods and the total amount of polyamine intake for USA [36,47], UK [1,16], Norway [17], Germany [21], Japan [9,13,14], Sweden [34], Czech Republic [20,18], Spain [26,32], France [15], Netherlands [35] have been reported in several papers. In the present study, we reached the polyamine concentrations of 255 food items from a literature survey, and calculated the mean value for the same foods, decreasing the number to 161. ...
... Their polyamine values were obtained from literature to measure food intake derived from dietary surveys. Nishibori [14] dealt with 102 food items among 1000 foods in the study of the polyamine intakes in foods in Japan. ...
... Country-specific food preferences and preferences for their main dietary sources might result in the differences in daily polyamine intake. Daily intake of mostly consumed foods were depicted by Nishibori [14] as beverages (491 mL/day), cereals (480 g/day), vegetables (257 g/day); by Atiya Ali [34] as lentil soup (250 g/portion), grapefruit juice (200 mL/portion), orange juice (200 mL/portion), cooked soybean and red beans (190 g/portion). Zoumas [36] used Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center FFQ programming to calculate the mean nmol/day of polyamine from the samples which was corn (max. ...
Article
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Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are the most abundant polycationic natural amines found in nearly all organisms. They are involved in regulation of gene expression, translation, cell proliferation and differentiation. They can be supplied by the endogenous synthesis inside the cell or by the intake from exogenous sources. There is a growing body of literature associated with the effects of bioactive amines on health and diseases, but limited information about polyamine content in foods is available. In the present study, the polyamine content of frequently consumed foods in a typical Turkish diet was estimated for adults, including tea, bread and yoghurt. The estimation of daily intake was defined as 93,057 nmol/day putrescine, 33,122 nmol/day spermidine, 13,685 nmol/day spermine. The contribution of foods to daily intake was: dairy products (47.32%), vegetables and grains (21.09%) and wheat products (12.75%).
... Several original papers dealing with PAs content in numerous food items were published during the last few years (Cipolla et al., 2007;Kalač, Křížek, Pelikánová, Langová, & Veškrna, 2005;Nishibori, Fujihara, & Akatuki, 2007;Nishimura et al., 2006). Some of the published data confirmed previously available results, and some of them brought new information, which will be inserted in the following sections. ...
... This is particularly true for soybean and various fermented soybean products. However, considerably lower contents of all the polyamines were reported for soybean flour (Nishibori et al., 2007). Lentil and bean seem to contain lower PAs levels, nevertheless, only limited data are available. ...
... Data on the polyamine content in tubers, fresh vegetables and edible mushrooms are shown in Table 1. Information for further items is available in papers by Cipolla et al. (2007), Nishibori et al. (2007) and Nishimura et al. (2006). The values for an item from both different laboratories, and within a laboratory, prove the wide variability of PAs content. ...
Article
Full-text available
The ubiquitous polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine fulfil an array of physiological roles in man. Particularly, their participation in cell growth and proliferation has been of great interest in relation to tumor growth. Both endogenous and dietary polyamines take part in such processes. Thus, reliable information on their content in foods is needed for dieticians. Available data from the literature for numerous food items are summarized in this chapter. Commonly, as the high and very high levels there are considered contents of tens mg kg-1 and above 100 mg kg-1, respectively. Among raw foods of animal origin, liver, kidney, spleen and heart of main warm-blooded slaughter animals have high and very high levels of spermine, higher than respective meats. Ripened cheeses are rich in putrescine as are fish roe and sauces. Foods of plant origin are the main dietary source of spermidine and/or putrescine. Soybean, fermented soy products, mushrooms, sauerkraut, ketchup, cauliflower, broccoli, oranges, grapefruits and their juices belong to items with the highest content. Nevertheless, it is not yet possible to set up credible "tabular values" for polyamines, as their contents vary widely within a food item and very limited information is available on their changes under various storage and processing conditions. Moreover, daily cellular requirements for the polyamines have not yet been established.
... Gustaw and Waśko, 2018;Jairath et al., 2015;Perin and Nero, 2020;Prester, 2011). Only a few studies on BAs in mushrooms are available (Cipolla et al., 2007;Dadáková et al., 2009;Hamana et al., 2005;Kalač and Křížek, 1997;Lasota and Stefańczyk, 1980;Meng et al., 2019;Nishibori et al., 2007;Nishimura et al., 2006;Okamoto et al., 1997;Yamamoto et al., 1982), and they focused on unprocessed mushrooms. The reported contents of amines differ significantly, e.g. the content of spermidine, i.e. a fungal biogenic amine, in white button mushrooms was estimated by Dadáková et al. (2009) at 604 mg kg -1 of dry matter, which is equivalent to 43.45 mg kg -1 of fresh weight. ...
... In the case of oyster mushrooms, the SPM content ranged from 0.7 to 10.12 mg kg -1 of fresh weight (Hamana et al., 2005;Yamamoto et al., 1982), and the level of AGM was 74.21 mg kg -1 of fresh weight (Hamana et al., 2005). Four studies conducted on shiitake demonstrated no presence of SPM or AGM (Nishibori et al., 2007;Nishimura et al., 2006;Okamoto et al., 1997;Yamamoto et al., 1982). In the present study, SPM was found only in three and AGM in one sample of processed mushrooms. ...
Article
Mushrooms and mushroom products are very popular in many countries around the world. However, these food products can be a source of biogenic amines, due to the content of precursors of these compounds and the high susceptibility to microbiological spoilage. Biogenic amines have a significant impact on food quality and may pose a threat to human health. The presence of spermidine, putrescine, tyramine, cadaverine, histamine, spermine, and agmatine was determined for the first time in 53 processed and unprocessed mushroom products available on the Polish market. The results showed a high variation in the content of biogenic amines in the individual products, depending on the producer. Spermidine and putrescine were the main biogenic amines, as they were found in 47 and 39 types of mushroom products, respectively. Tyramine and cadaverine were found in 15 samples of processed mushrooms. Histamine was present in only eight samples of dried Polish forest mushrooms; nevertheless, it was regarded a real threat to consumer health due to its very large quantities. It should be noted that dried mushrooms are intermediate products used after hydration as ingredients of various dishes, e.g. soups, sauces, stuffing; hence, the amount of histamine in the final product is substantially lower.
... Meat and its derivatives may contain high levels of spermidine and spermine, particularly the latter. Spermine values >148 nmol/g have been described in samples of beef, pork, chicken, cured ham, and sausages, without significant differences between fresh meats and derivatives (37,63,76,77). In fish and its derivatives, the contents of spermine and spermidine are generally lower than in meat products, but clearly higher than in milk and eggs, where their levels are low. ...
... For example, the food consumption data used to estimate polyamine intake was obtained from published national surveys (Japan and Spain), a frequency-of-consumption questionnaire (United States), a 7 day food record (Sweden) and a 24 h dietary recall (Turkey). In some studies, the data on polyamine content were obtained from analyses carried out specifically for the intake estimation studies (63,64,95), whereas others used data already published in the literature (93,94). All the studies agree that the polyamine contributing most to the total intake is putrescine, mainly from the consumption of fruits and vegetables, or in Japan also from cereals and soy sauce. ...
Article
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The polyamines spermine, spermidine, and putrescine are involved in various biological processes, notably in cell proliferation and differentiation, and also have antioxidant properties. Dietary polyamines have important implications in human health, mainly in the intestinal maturation and in the differentiation and development of immune system. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of polyamine can also play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. In addition to endogenous synthesis, food is an important source of polyamines. Although there are no recommendations for polyamine daily intake, it is known that in stages of rapid cell growth (i.e., in the neonatal period), polyamine requirements are high. Additionally, de novo synthesis of polyamines tends to decrease with age, which is why their dietary sources acquire a greater importance in an aging population. Polyamine daily intake differs among to the available estimations, probably due to different dietary patterns and methodologies of data collection. Polyamines can be found in all types of foods in a wide range of concentrations. Spermidine and spermine are naturally present in food whereas putrescine could also have a microbial origin. The main polyamine in plant-based products is spermidine, whereas spermine content is generally higher in animal-derived foods. This article reviews the main implications of polyamines for human health, as well as their content in food and breast milk and infant formula. In addition, the estimated levels of polyamines intake in different populations are provided.
... However, when polyamine concentrations in blood cells are measured in healthy human adults, the aging-associated decline in polyamine concentrations is not remarkable, and large inter-individual differences are found [19,84]. Polyamines exist in almost all living organisms, and thus, foods that are comprised of various types of organisms and their related substances contain polyamines, though at a wide variety of concentrations [85][86][87][88]. In healthy human adults, the major sources of polyamines are thought to be foods and synthesis by intestinal microbiota. ...
... Therefore, personal food preferences and regional dietary patterns may greatly affect polyamine intake from food. Germ and bran, legumes such as soybeans, vegetables, and shellfish are foods with high polyamine concentrations per calorie [85][86][87][88]. The polyamine concentration in a particular food may differ depending on the part of the food examined [88,106]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent investigations have revealed that changes in DNA methylation status play an important role in aging-associated pathologies and lifespan. The methylation of DNA is regulated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which serves as a methyl group donor. Increased availability of SAM enhances DNMT activity, while its metabolites, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM), act to inhibit DNMT activity. SAH, which is converted from SAM by adding a methyl group to cytosine residues in DNA, is an intermediate precursor of homocysteine. dcSAM, converted from SAM by the enzymatic activity of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, provides an aminopropyl group to synthesize the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Increased homocysteine levels are a significant risk factor for the development of a wide range of conditions, including cardiovascular diseases. However, successful homocysteine-lowering treatment by vitamins (B6, B12, and folate) failed to improve these conditions. Long-term increased polyamine intake elevated blood spermine levels and inhibited aging-associated pathologies in mice and humans. Spermine reversed changes (increased dcSAM, decreased DNMT activity, aberrant DNA methylation, and proinflammatory status) induced by the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase. The relation between polyamine metabolism, one-carbon metabolism, DNA methylation, and the biological mechanism of spermine-induced lifespan extension is discussed.
... Limitation of S can reduce legume N 2 fixation by affecting nodule development and function (Scherer et al. 2008). Dry soybean is a rich source of spermidine, ranging from 88 to 389 mg kg -1 according to different investigations (gloria et al. 2005, Kalač et al. 2005, niShiBori et al. 2007). Thus, the spermidine level of soybean is considerably higher than in cereals, vegetables, root crops, fruits or most animal food products (Kalač 2014, niShiBori et al. 2007). ...
... Dry soybean is a rich source of spermidine, ranging from 88 to 389 mg kg -1 according to different investigations (gloria et al. 2005, Kalač et al. 2005, niShiBori et al. 2007). Thus, the spermidine level of soybean is considerably higher than in cereals, vegetables, root crops, fruits or most animal food products (Kalač 2014, niShiBori et al. 2007). The effects of fertilisers on the spermidine content have never been explored before. ...
Article
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Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is the major protein and oilseed crop worldwide. Soybean seeds are a rich source of spermidine and other polyamines, which have various positive health effects such as anti-ageing, antioxidant or anti-inflammatory properties. Beside its macro-nutritional composition, soybean contains various bioactive compounds adding health-protecting functional properties to soy-based foods. The present research is based on the hypothesis that soil application of nitrogen and sulphur might stimulate soybean seed polyamines in addition to agronomic traits. As effects of fertiliser application on spermidine were unknown before, a respective pot experiment was carried out, applying ammonium sulphate or urea at nitrogen levels of 0, 1 or 3 g per 5 kg soil in two soybean cultivars. The results indicated that cultivars differed significantly in seed yield, thousand seed weight (TSW) and oil content. For both tested 582 cultivars, seed yield, TSW and contents of protein and spermidine were lowest in the unfertili-sed treatment. The spermidine content increased significantly after the application of each dose of ammonium sulphate (280-283 mg kg-1 DM) or the lower dose of urea (267 mg kg-1 DM) as compared to the unfertilised control (228 mg kg-1 DM). The contrast in spermidine levels between non-sulphur (256 mg kg-1 DM) and sulphur (282 mg kg-1) treatments was significant as well, whereas no significant effects were found for the spermine content. The results demonstrate that an application of appropriate doses of nitrogen and sulphur can increase the content of spermidine in soybean seeds apart from affecting other traits.
... The total BA content in rye bread was reported 168.6 nmol/g (Cipolla et al., 2007), in Japanese food products the concentration of putrescine in bread was reported, on average, 44 nmol/g (Nishibori et al., 2007). ...
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Changes in the characteristics of a new cultivar (DS8472-5) of blue wheat during wholemeal fermentation with Pediococcus acidilactici (LUHS29), Liquorilactobacillus uvarum (LUHS245), and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (LUHS122), including acidity, microbiological and chromaticity parameters, free amino acid (FAA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and biogenic amine (BA) contents, macro- and micro-element concentrations and fatty acid (FA) and volatile compounds (VC), were evaluated. In addition, a metagenomic analysis was performed. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains used for fermentation was a significant factor in wholemeal fermentation sample pH, redness (a*) and LAB counts ( p ≤ 0.05). In most of the samples, fermentation increased the FAA content in wheat wholemeal, and the highest concentration of GABA was found in DS8472-5 LUHS122 samples. Phenylethylamine (PHE) was found in all wheat wholemeal samples; however, spermidine was only detected in fermented samples and cadaverine only in DS8472-5 LUHS122. Fermented samples showed higher omega-3 and omega-6 contents and a higher number and variety of VC. Analysis of the microbial profile showed that LAB as part of the natural microbiota present in cereal grains also actively participates in fermentation processes induced by industrial bacterial cultures. Finally, all the tested LAB were suitable for DS8472-5 wheat wholemeal fermentation, and the DS8472-5 LUHS122 samples showed the lowest pH and the highest LAB viable counts (3.94, 5.80°N, and 8.92 log 10 CFU/g, respectively).
... In this previous epidemiologic study conducted by Wirth and colleagues, the polyamine group received 1.2 mg more polyamines per day from supplements containing polyamines derived from wheat germ, compared to the placebo group. It is reported that the estimated daily intake of dietary polyamines by humans is 42 mg/day in Europe (UK, Italy, Spain, Finland, Sweden, and The Netherlands) [12], 29 mg/day in the US [13], 16 mg/day in Turkey [14], 26 mg/day in Japan [15], and 36 mg/day in Sweden [16]. In the study by Wirth et al. [11], the change given by an additional 1.2 mg of polyamine derived from wheat germ, which is one of the foods that contain polyamines in the highest concentration [10], was only a few percent of the daily polyamine intake. ...
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Polyamines are aliphatic hydrocarbons with terminal amino groups and are essential for biological activities. It has been reported that polyamines have health-promoting effects in animals, such as the extension of lifespan by polyamine intake. The identification of a high polyamine-producing bacterium from foods could lead to the development of a novel probiotic candidate. We aimed to identify high polyamine-producing bacteria from food, and isolated and collected bacteria from vegetables and fermented foods produced in Japan. We successfully acquired Latilactobacillus curvatus KP 3-4 isolated from Kabura-zushi as a putrescine producing lactic acid bacteria. Comparing the polyamine synthesis capability of L. curvatus KP 3-4 with that of typical probiotic lactic acid bacteria and L. curvatus strains available from the Japan Collection of Microorganisms, it was found that only L. curvatus KP 3-4 was capable of exporting high levels of putrescine into the culture supernatant. The enhancement of putrescine production by the addition of ornithine, and whole-genome analysis of L. curvatus KP 3-4, suggest that putrescine is synthesized via ornithine decarboxylase. The administration of L. curvatus KP 3-4 to germ-free mice increased the concentration of putrescine in the feces.
... Putrescine seems to be commonly occurring and may be accompanied by tyramine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine, and even histamine [190,191]. This is also the case for white cabbage, Chinese cabbage, and cucumbers, which are commonly used as raw materials for lactic acid fermentation [192][193][194][195][196][197][198]. On the other hand, the occurrence of biogenic amines has not been reported in the flesh of fresh olives at any ripeness stage [199]. ...
Article
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Consumption of lactic acid fermented fruits and vegetables has been correlated with a series of health benefits. Some of them have been attributed to the probiotic potential of lactic acid microbiota, while others to its metabolic potential and the production of bioactive compounds. The factors that affect the latter have been in the epicenter of intensive research over the last decade. The production of bioactive peptides, vitamins (especially of the B-complex), gamma-aminobutyric acid, as well as phenolic and organosulfur compounds during lactic acid fermentation of fruits and vegetables has attracted specific attention. On the other hand, the production of biogenic amines has also been intensively studied due to the adverse health effects caused by their consumption. The data that are currently available indicate that the production of these compounds is a strain-dependent characteristic that may also be affected by the raw materials used as well as the fermentation conditions. The aim of the present review paper is to collect all data referring to the production of the aforementioned compounds and to present and discuss them in a concise and comprehensive way.
... Polyamines exist in all living organisms, and thus, foods that comprise various types of organisms and their related substances contain polyamines, though at a wide variety of concentrations. Germ and bran, legumes such as soybeans, vegetables, and shellfish are foods with high polyamine concentrations per calorie, and spermidine is contained much more than spermine in food [79,[94][95][96]. The polyamine concentration in a particular food differs depending on the part of the food examined [96,97]. ...
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Polyamines, spermidine and spermine, are synthesized in every living cell and are therefore contained in foods, especially in those that are thought to contribute to health and longevity. They have many physiological activities similar to those of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances such as polyphenols. These include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, cell and gene protection, and autophagy activation. We have first reported that increased polyamine intake (spermidine much more so than spermine) over a long period increased blood spermine levels and inhibited aging-associated pathologies and pro-inflammatory status in humans and mice and extended life span of mice. However, it is unlikely that the life-extending effect of polyamines is exerted by the same bioactivity as polyphenols because most studies using polyphenols and antioxidants have failed to demonstrate their life-extending effects. Recent investigations revealed that aging-associated pathologies and lifespan are closely associated with DNA methylation, a regulatory mechanism of gene expression. There is a close relationship between polyamine metabolism and DNA methylation. We have shown that the changes in polyamine metabolism affect the concentrations of substances and enzyme activities involved in DNA methylation. I consider that the increased capability of regulation of DNA methylation by spermine is a key of healthy long life of humans.
... The genotypes in the present study showed a differentiation along the PC2 direction, indicating differences in the content of PAs (compare Figure 2B with Figure 2A), with high levels in the genotype 'HT37′ through all maturation stages. Studies on PAs content and composition in tomatoes of different maturation stages are rare and mostly reported over a narrow range of tomatoes [36,72,74], although genotype variation has been reported in some studies on mature tomatoes [75][76][77]. The tomatoes evaluated in the present study generally showed high levels of polyamines, especially of Put and Spd, as compared to values reported in most other studies (Table S3). ...
Article
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Polyamines (PAs) are molecules affecting several physiological characteristics in all living organisms with cell protective effects, thereby impacting plant and human health. Here, we used HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS to evaluate the content and composition of PAs in eight tomato genotypes over their maturation period, and related the content and composition to other quality traits and possible implications for plant and human health. The tomato genotype, maturity stage and their interactions, significantly affected the content and composition of PAs. Two of the genotypes, ‘Huichol’ and ‘Rio Grande’ showed consistently lower levels of PAs than the other evaluated genotypes. The variation in content and composition of PAs among genotypes was found to vary inconsistently over the maturation period. Putrescine content in the different genotypes either did not vary significantly, increased, or showed the lowest level in the middle of the maturation period, while spermidine content decreased or did not show significant variation. The genotypes ‘HT36′ and ‘HT25′ showed high levels of PAs during red and green maturity stages, respectively, and can thereby be seen as suitable health promoting red and green candidate tomatoes. Depiction of variation of the PAs creates opportunities for breeding and production of health promoting tomato as a food or food additive.
... The importance of some polyamines in treating chronic diseases cannot be ignored in this review article and spermidine is one of them. Dry soybeans contain a significant percentage of spermidine, which ranges from 88 to 389 mg/kg − 1 (Nishibori, Fujihara, & Akatuki, 2007). Therefore, soybean is a major source of spermidine compared to vegetables, fruits, root crops, and other cereals (Kalač, 2014). ...
Article
Background The global consumption of soy products has increased due to their excellent nutritional value and associated health benefits. Scope and approach Various factors affect the composition, texture properties, nutritional value and shelf life of tofu. Coagulant type, coagulant concentration, oil-protein interactions, protein-protein interactions, freezing, pH, lipid oxidation, biogenic amines (BAs) rate, and other factors impact the final product. Thermal processing has been employed in the food industry for many decades to ensure food safety, enhance shelf life, and preserve quality. However, due to the length of the process and application of high temperatures, the quality of a product does not always meet consumer expectations. Key findings and conclusion Recently, researchers have investigated emerging thermal processing technologies and non-thermal technologies as alternatives to traditional thermal processing. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these methods in terms of the characteristics, shelf life and nutritional value of tofu. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) negatively affected tofu texture and slightly affected microbial population inactivation. In turn, Pressure activated water (PAW) controlled microbial growth and improved functional value compared to thermally treated tofu. Researchers demonstrated that reactive species penetration generated from CAPP into the cell wall of microbes was significantly impressive at low pH. High intensity ultrasound (HIU) has been recommended as a novel method for increasing phenolic phytonutrient levels in tofu whey, and thus, improving the quality and nutritional content. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) reduced immunoreactivity significantly, but its impact on the protein denaturation of solid soy products is not well understood. Although all previous literature has praised non-thermal methods for antimicrobial effectiveness, the mechanisms of reactive species emitted from non-thermal techniques and cellular component interactions remain unknown.
... Several studies have estimated the mean intake value of PAs, and the suggested daily dietary intake of PAs is varied from 250 to 700 µmol. [35][36][37]. A controlled diet, solely or with clinical applications, can be used as an effective treatment against various cancer, cardiovascular diseases, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. ...
Article
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Putrescine, spermine, and spermidine are the important polyamines (PAs), found in all living organisms. PAs are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, and they facilitate cell growth and development via different cellular responses. PAs are the integrated part of the cellular and genetic metabolism and help in transcription, translation, signaling, and post-translational modifications. At the cellular level, PA concentration may influence the condition of various diseases in the body. For instance, a high PA level is detrimental to patients suffering from aging, cognitive impairment, and cancer. The levels of PAs decline with age in humans, which is associated with different health disorders. On the other hand, PAs reduce the risk of many cardiovascular diseases and increase longevity, when taken in an optimum quantity. Therefore, a controlled diet is an easy way to maintain the level of PAs in the body. Based on the nutritional intake of PAs, healthy cell functioning can be maintained. Moreover, several diseases can also be controlled to a higher extend via maintaining the metabolism of PAs. The present review discusses the types, important functions, and metabolism of PAs in humans. It also highlights the nutritional role of PAs in the prevention of various diseases.
... In this study, two biogenic amines (PUT and SPD) were analyzed from the H. erinaceus extract, because they were the most abundant compounds and existed at a high level in H. erinaceus mushrooms and other mushrooms [21][22][23][24]36]. In the case of this study, the PUT and SPD contents of the untreated H. erinaceus mushrooms were 10.32 and 102.52 µg/g dry weight, respectively, as shown in treatment 1 (whole/non-heating/nondrying) during our pretreatment processes. ...
Article
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Hericium erinaceus is reported as a source of several nutritional contents and bioactive compounds, especially β-glucan. However, various uncontrolled processes lead to the formation of byproducts that can affect human health, including biogenic amines. These amines are concerning, because their presence is an important indicator of the process of hygiene and food spoilage or quality. A better understanding of various pretreatment processes can control the content of biogenic amines. In this work, we studied the effect of pretreatment processes, i.e., sample size (whole, ripping, and chopping); heating process (non-heating, blanching, and boiling); and drying method (nondrying, hot air drying, and freeze-drying) on biogenic amine contents in H. erinaceus extract. A method of the post-column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was used for the analysis of putrescine (PUT) and spermidine (SPD) in H. erinaceus extract following the acceptable guidelines. In this study, treatment 20 (chopping/non-heating/hot air drying) was suggested as a good choice for the pretreatment process, because low levels of PUT and SPD were shown in the extract while high levels of the bioactive compounds β-glucan and antioxidant activity were presented. This treatment process can be applied to the industry because of its easy operation and cost-saving.
... Dietary polyamines in the intestinal lumen are absorbed quickly and distributed to organs and tissues as the major source of polyamines in vivo [8,9]. Foods contain polyamines at a wide variety of concentrations, with soybeans, mushrooms, vegetables, and several fish and shellfish being rich in polyamines [10,11] and commonly eaten in Mediterranean countries and Japan [7]. ...
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The Japanese diet and the Mediterranean diet are rich in polyamines (spermidine and spermine). Increased polyamine intake elevated blood spermine levels, inhibited aging-associated pro-inflammatory status (increases in lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) on immune cells), suppressed aberrant gene methylation and extended the lifespan of mice. To test the effects of increased polyamine intake by humans, 30 healthy male volunteers were asked to eat polyamine-rich and ready-to-eat traditional Japanese food (natto) for 12 months. Natto with high polyamine content was used. Another 27 male volunteers were asked not to change their dietary pattern as a control group. The volunteers’ age of intervention and control groups ranged from 40 to 69 years (median 48.9 ± 7.9). Two subjects in the control group subsequently dropped out of the study. The estimated increases in spermidine and spermine intakes were 96.63 ± 47.70 and 22.00 ± 9.56 µmol per day in the intervention group, while no changes were observed in the control group. The mean blood spermine level in the intervention group gradually rose to 1.12 ± 0.29 times the pre-intervention level after 12 months, and were significantly higher (p = 0.019) than those in the control group. Blood spermidine did not increase in either group. LFA-1 on monocytes decreased gradually in the intervention group, and there was an inverse association between changes in spermine concentrations relative to spermidine and changes in LFA-1 levels. Contingency table analysis revealed that the odds ratio to decrease LFA-1 by increased polyamine intake was 3.927 (95% CI 1.116–13.715) (p = 0.032) when the effect of acute inflammation was excluded. The results in the study were similar to those of our animal experiments. Since methylation changes of the entire genome are associated with aging-associated pathologies and our previous studies showed that spermine-induced LFA-1 suppression was associated with the inhibition of aberrant gene methylation, the results suggest that dietary polyamine contributes to human health and longevity.
... The estimated dietary intake of polyamines is reported to be 42 mg/day [43] in Europe (UK, Italy, Spain, Finland, Sweden, and the Netherlands), 29 mg/day [44] in the US,16 mg/day [45] in Turkey, 26 mg/day in Japan [34], and 36 mg/day in Sweden [46]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to summarize the latest information on the various aspects of polyamines and their health benefits. In recent years, attempts to treat cancer by reducing elevated polyamines levels in cancer cells have been made, with some advancing to clinical trials. However, it has been reported since 2009 that polyamines extend the healthy life span of animals by inducing autophagy, protecting the kidneys and liver, improving cognitive function, and inhibiting the progression of heart diseases. As such, there is conflicting information regarding the relationship between polyamines and health. However, attempts to treat cancer by decreasing intracellular polyamines levels are a coping strategy to suppress the proliferation-promoting effects of polyamines, and a consensus is being reached that polyamine intake does not induce cancer in healthy individuals. To provide further scientific evidence for the health-promoting effects of polyamines, large-scale clinical studies involving multiple groups are expected in the future. It is also important to promote basic research on polyamine intake in animals, including elucidation of the polyamine balance between food, intestinal bacteria, and biosynthesis.
... Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are three main polyamines found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes [7]. As with total polyamines, major sources of dietary putrescine and spermidine are fruits, vegetables and cheese, but spermine is rich in meat and grains [8,9]. Polyamines may serve as ligands at multiple sites on proteins, DNA, RNA, phospholipids, and nucleotide triphosphates [10]. ...
Article
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Polyamines (including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are small, cationic molecules that are necessary for cell proliferation and differentiation. Few studies have examined the association of dietary polyamines intake with colorectal cancer risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate total polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in China. In total, 2502 colorectal cancer cases and 2538 age-(5-year interval) and sex-matched controls were recruited from July 2010 to April 2019. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by multivariable unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for various potential confounding factors. Higher intake of total polyamine, putrescine and spermidine was significantly associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. The adjusted ORs for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of intake were 0.60 (95% CI 0.50, 0.72; Ptrend < 0.001) for total polyamines, 0.35 (95% CI 0.29, 0.43; Ptrend < 0.001) for putrescine and 0.79 (95% CI 0.66, 0.95; Ptrend = 0.001) for spermidine, respectively. However, higher intake of spermine was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer, with an adjusted OR of 1.58 (95% CI 1.29, 1.93; Ptrend < 0.001). This data indicate that higher intake of total polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, as well as lower intake of spermine, is associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer.
... Methods are available for the liquid chromatographic determination of polyamines (Okamoto et al. 1997;Nishibori et al. 2007), bioactive amines (Dadáková et al. 2009), or amino acids (Chen et al. 2015;Poojary et al. 2017;Sun et al. 2017;Dong et al. 2018;Rotola-Pukkila et al. 2019) in mushrooms, individually. Most of the methods for the extraction of amines from mushroom involved perchloric acid (Yen 1992, Kalač and Křížek 1997, Dadáková et al. 2009) or trichloroacetic acid (Reis et al. 2020), with recoveries of 77 to 97% (up to 6 amines) and of 71 to 104% (9 amines), respectively. ...
Article
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Mushrooms are valued due to health-promoting properties and small environmental footprint. The simultaneous determination of free amino acids (17), amines (10), and ammonia in fresh, cooked, and canned Agaricus bisporus was investigated. An AQC-derivatization method was developed and validated. Norvaline was an adequate internal standard. The method was green, fast, and fit for the purpose (quantification limits, 0.14–1.92 mg/100 g; recoveries, 80–110%; repeatability, < 10%; reproducibility, < 15%). Fifteen amino acids were detected in fresh mushroom: alanine and glutamic acid were prevalent (~ 20%) followed by proline. Spermidine was the only amine detected (6.4–8.5 mg/100 g). Ammonia was present at low levels (2.8–5.5 mg/100 g). High amounts of these amino acids and spermidine warrant important health-promoting properties. The levels of amino acids, amines, and ammonia varied among lots from the same source, suggesting the influence of production conditions. During thermal processing, changes were observed: cooking affected the least (losses mainly of glutamic acid, arginine, glycine, serine, threonine, proline, and alanine, ~ 50%). Spermidine and ammonia were not affected. During canning, the losses were higher (~ 70%) for glutamic acid, serine, valine, proline, arginine, glycine, and aspartic acid. There were losses of ammonia (39%) and spermidine (24%). A two principal component model explained 97.8% of the variance and it was able to separate fresh from processed mushroom. Hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the potential of using amines and amino acids to separate fresh from processed mushroom.
... Turkish wild-growing mushrooms were reported to be high sources of spermidine, followed by putrescine, tyramine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine (Dadáková et al., 2009). Commercial mushrooms have been analyzed mainly for the presence of polyamines (Okamoto et al., 1997;Cipolla et al., 2007;Nishibori et al., 2007). ...
Article
Mushrooms are highly valued due to nutritional and functional properties as well as small environmental footprint. However, scarce information is available regarding amines in commercial products. The objective of this study was to investigate the levels of bioactive amines in eight fresh edible commercial mushrooms species. An ion-pair HPLC method with post-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde and fluorescence detection was fit for the purpose. Seven out of nine amines were present and levels varied among species. Spermidine was ubiquitous to mushrooms, with highest content in Black Shimeji (12.4 mg/100 g). The levels of spermidine in mushrooms classify them as high polyamines sources, which is valued due to its association with growth, health promotion and antioxidant properties. Agmatine was present in all Pleurotus. Tyramine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine were detected in some species; the levels of cadaverine and putrescine were discrete. A four-principal component model explained 99.4% of the variance and it was able to separate Pleurotus spp. (White shimeji, Hiratake, Black shimeji and Salmon) from Agaricus bisporus (Champignon and Portobello) and Lentinula edodes (Shitake). Hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the potential of using the occurrence and levels of amines to separate some mushroom species.
... et al. (1997),Glória et al. (2005),Kalac̆ and Krausová (2005),Nishibori et al. (2007) Orange 72-1364 ND-93 ND NDOkamoto et al. (1997),Nishimura et al. (2006),Cipolla et al. (2007),Nishibori et al. et al. (1997),Krausová et al. (2006),Nishibori et al. et al. (1997),Krausová et al. (2006),Nishibori et al. et al. (1997), Shukla et al. (2011), Byun and Mah (2012) Natto ND-490 150-3300 10-397 ND Okamoto et al. (1997), Nishibori et al. (2007), Kim et al. et al. (1997), Bover-Cid et al. (2006), Soufleros et al. (2007), Galgano et al. (2012), Martuscelli et al. et al. (1997), Soufleros et al. (2007), Galgano et al. (2012), Martuscelli et al. et al. (1997), De Borba and Rohrer (2007), Tang et al. (2009), Almeida et al. (2012), Choi et al. et al. (1997), Nishibori et al. (2007) Cheese ND-11205 ND-504 ND-274 ND-18 Okamoto et al. (1997), Vale and Glória (1998), Novella-Rodríguez et al. (2002), Samková et al. (2013), Schirone et al. (2013), Spizzirri et al. (2013) ...
Article
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Agmatine, a natural polyamine produced from arginine by arginine decarboxylase, was first discovered in 1910, but its physiological significance was disregarded for a century. The recent rediscovery of agmatine as an endogenous ligand for α2-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors in the mammalian brain suggests that this amine may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating a broad spectrum of central nervous system-associated diseases. In the past two decades, numerous preclinical and several clinical studies have demonstrated its pleiotropic modulatory functions on various molecular targets related to neurotransmission, nitric oxide synthesis, glucose metabolism, polyamine metabolism, and carnitine biosynthesis, indicating potential for therapeutic applications and use as a nutraceutical to improve quality of life. An enzymatic activity of arginine decarboxylase which produces agmatine from arginine was low in mammals, suggesting that a large portion of the agmatine is supplemented from diets and gut microbiota. In the present review, we focus on and concisely summarize the beneficial effects of agmatine for treating depression, anxiety, neuropathic pain, cognitive decline and learning impairment, dependence on drugs, and metabolic diseases (diabetes and obesity), since these fields have been intensively investigated. We also briefly discuss agmatine content in foodstuffs, and a simple approach for enhancing agmatine production using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, widely used for the production of various Asian fermented foods.
... Although a precise quantitation of the contribution of each process to the whole polyamine pool is non-existent, it is believed that dietary polyamines is the major source of luminal polyamines in humans and animals (88,89). Polyamine levels have been analyzed in hundreds of food items by different groups (49,88,(90)(91)(92)(93). ...
Article
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The polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are widely distributed polycationic compounds essential for cellular functions. Intracellular polyamine pools are tightly regulated by a complex regulatory mechanism involving de novo biosynthesis, catabolism, and transport across the plasma membrane. In mammals, both the production of polyamines and their uptake from the extracellular space are controlled by a set of proteins named antizymes and antizyme inhibitors. Dysregulation of polyamine levels has been implicated in a variety of human pathologies, especially cancer. Additionally, decreases in the intracellular and circulating polyamine levels during aging have been reported. The differences in the polyamine content existing among tissues are mainly due to the endogenous polyamine metabolism. In addition, a part of the tissue polyamines has its origin in the diet or their production by the intestinal microbiome. Emerging evidence has suggested that exogenous polyamines (either orally administrated or synthetized by the gut microbiota) are able to induce longevity in mice, and that spermidine supplementation exerts cardioprotective effects in animal models. Furthermore, the administration of either spermidine or spermine has been shown to be effective for improving glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity and reducing adiposity and hepatic fat accumulation in diet-induced obesity mouse models. The exogenous addition of agmatine, a cationic molecule produced through arginine decarboxylation by bacteria and plants, also exerts significant effects on glucose metabolism in obese models, as well as cardioprotective effects. In this review, we will discuss some aspects of polyamine metabolism and transport, how diet can affect circulating and local polyamine levels, and how the modulation of either polyamine intake or polyamine production by gut microbiota can be used for potential therapeutic purposes.
... There are interesting differences for polyamines in different types of food. Red meat and meat products rank among the main dietary sources of SPM both in the UK (Bardócz 1995) and in Japan (Nishibori et al. 2007). Red meat contains SPM as the major component, while fish has more PUT than either SPD or SPM, and the polyamine composition of chicken meat is similar to that of red meat (Bardócz 1995). ...
Article
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Biogenic amines (BAs) represent a considerable toxicological risk in some food and feed products. They are formed under unhygienic conditions during storage and processing therefore, an increase in the concentrations of those metabolites is related to putrefaction. Because BAs are thermostable, they remain in food and feed that have undergone heat treatment. There are several toxicological effects, especially caused by histamine, when high concentrations of BAs are ingested by humans, depending on the food itself and also on individual susceptibility and individual health status. The present paper reviews the main BAs in meat products, their use as spoilage indicators, the risk on human health and also the contamination of by-product meals. Furthermore, we highlight the state of art regarding impact of BAs on poultry, meat and eggs.
... Table 4. Content of histamine and other biogenic amines (mg/kg fresh weight) in plant-origin foods excluded from different low-histamine diets [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Data obtained from own database and from different scientific studies [5,12,34,[38][39][40][41][42][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55]57]. Putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine are all substrates of the DAO enzyme, so if present in high amounts they may increase the adverse effects of histamine by competing as rival substrates or for binding sites in the intestinal mucosa [1,9,68,69]. ...
Article
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Low-histamine diets are currently used to reduce symptoms of histamine intolerance, a disorder in histamine homeostasis that increases plasma levels, mainly due to reduced diamine-oxidase (DAO) activity. These diets exclude foods, many of them of plant origin, which patients associate with the onset of the symptomatology. This study aimed to review the existing data on histamine and other biogenic amine contents in nonfermented plant-origin foods, as well as on their origin and evolution during the storage or culinary process. The only plant-origin products with significant levels of histamine were eggplant, spinach, tomato, and avocado, each showing a great variability in content. Putrescine has been found in practically all plant-origin foods, probably due to its physiological origin. The high contents of putrescine in certain products could also be related to the triggering of the symptomatology by enzymatic competition with histamine. Additionally, high spermidine contents found in some foods should also be taken into account in these diets, because it can also be metabolized by DAO, albeit with a lower affinity. It is recommended to consume plant-origin foods that are boiled or are of maximum freshness to reduce biogenic amine intake.
... While both spermine and spermidine would appear to be more cytotoxic than histamine, putrescine or cadaverine towards intestinal cells in culture, the concentrations at which spermine and spermidine are found in foods need to be taken into account in any assessment of the risk of intoxication. Foods with high spermine concentrations include processed fish (up to 258 mg/kg) (Visciano, Schirone, Tofalo, & Suzzi, 2012), mammalian offal such as liver (up to 249 mg/kg) (Dadakova, Pelikanova, & Kalac, 2011), kidneys (up to 124 mg/kg) (Dadakova, Pelikanova, & Kalac, 2012)] and even the spleen (though this is rarely eaten by humans) (up to 139 mg/kg) (Fuchs, Bauer, & Paulsen, 2009), some vegetables such as cow peas (up to 138 mg/kg) (Nishibori, Fujihara, & Akatuki, 2007), and shellfish (up to 123 mg/kg) (Kalac, 2014) ]. Spermine is also found in fermented dairy products such as cheese, although at lower concentrations than in the foods indicated above (up to 61 mg/kg) (Mayer, Fiechter, & Fischer, 2010). ...
Article
Spermine and spermidine are polyamines (PA) naturally present in all organisms, in which they have important physiological functions. However, an excess of PA has been associated with health risks. PA accumulates at quite high concentrations in some foods, but a quantitative assessment of the risk they pose has been lacking. In the present work, the cytotoxicity of spermine and spermidine was evaluated using an in vitro human intestinal cell model, and employing real-time cell analysis. Both spermine and spermidine showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect towards the cultured cells, with necrosis the mode of action of spermidine and perhaps also that of spermine. Spermine was more cytotoxic than spermidine, but for both PA the concentrations found to be toxic were above the maximum at which they have been found in food. The present results do not, therefore, support the idea that spermine or spermidine in food is harmful to healthy people.
... Soybean fermented using Bacillus subtilis (natto) is one of the most polyamine-rich foods available due to the high amounts of these chemicals in soybean (Kalač, 2014;Nishibori et al., 2007;Okamoto et al., 1997). In Japan, fermented soybean is called "natto". ...
... Our recent studies demonstrated the effectiveness of the aliphatic diamine putrescine, as well as of the polyamine (PA) spermidine (SPD), as alternative plasticizers for pectin edible films [9]. The PAs SPD and spermine (SPM) are reported to be essential components of all living cells [10][11][12] because they are involved in cellular growth and proliferation [13,14], the differentiation of immune cells and the regulation of inflammatory reactions [15,16]. Normal levels of PAs are maintained not Int. ...
Article
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Zeta potential and nanoparticle size were determined on film forming solutions of native and heat-denatured proteins of bitter vetch as a function of pH and of different concentrations of the polyamines spermidine and spermine, both in the absence and presence of the plasticizer glycerol. Our results showed that both polyamines decreased the negative zeta potential of all samples under pH 8.0 as a consequence of their ionic interaction with proteins. At the same time, they enhanced the dimension of nanoparticles under pH 8.0 as a result of macromolecular aggregations. By using native protein solutions, handleable films were obtained only from samples containing either a minimum of 33 mM glycerol or 4 mM spermidine, or both compounds together at lower glycerol concentrations. However, 2 mM spermidine was sufficient to obtain handleable film by using heat-treated samples without glycerol. Conversely, brittle materials were obtained by spermine alone, thus indicating that only spermidine was able to act as an ionic plasticizer. Lastly, both polyamines, mainly spermine, were found able to act as “glycerol-like” plasticizers at concentrations higher than 5 mM under experimental conditions at which their amino groups are undissociated. Our findings open new perspectives in obtaining protein-based films by using aliphatic polycations as components.
... As far as we know, there are no published data from other sources with respect to spermidine and spermine contents in baby food samples. In any case, we can find in the literature reports regarding spermidine and spermine levels in raw materials such as fruits (Kalac et al. 2005;Nishibori et al. 2007;Santiago-Silva et al. 2011;Vieira et al. 2007) and dairy products (Novella-Rodríguez et al. 2000), which are the main ingredients of the analyzed baby foods. Table 5 presents spermidine and spermine contents reported in selected fruits and dairy products. ...
Article
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The present work evaluates the feasibility of microwave-assisted acylation combined with previous ion-pair extraction for the determination of the polyamines spermidine and spermine in baby food by GC-MS. In this way, extraction and derivatization reaction times were simultaneously optimized using a central composite rotational design. From response surface analysis, we verified maximum analytical response for spermidine and spermine employing 1 M hydrochloric acid solution as extraction solvent under shaking during 35 min, followed by acylation derivatization using a household microwave at 600 W for only 5 min. Limits of detection and quantification of 5 and 10 μg kg⁻¹ were achieved, and recoveries from 72 to 112% and RSD values ≤16% were obtained under repeatability and within-reproducibility conditions for both polyamines, at levels of 250 and 500 μg kg⁻¹. The validated GC-MS method was applied for 20 baby food samples commercially available in Brazil, thus resulting in the first report on spermidine and spermine in baby food.
... However, previous studies have shown that the polyamine contents of soy-based foods (soymilk, soybean curd, miso, and soy sauce) were lower than those of raw soybean, indicating that polyamines are reduced during the production processes. [6][7][8][9] In contrast, natto, a traditional fermented soy product in Japan, contains higher polyamines compared to other soy-based foods. ...
Article
Polyamines have beneficial properties to prevent aging-associated diseases. Raw soybean has relatively high polyamine contents; and the fermented soybean natto is a good source of polyamines. However, detailed information of diversity of polyamine content in raw soybean is lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of polyamines among raw soybeans and select the high polyamine-containing cultivar for natto production. Polyamine contents were measured chromatographically in 16 samples of soybean, which showed high variation among soybeans as follows: 93-861 nmol/g putrescine, 1055-2306 nmol/g spermidine, and 177-578 nmol/g spermine. We then confirmed the high correlations of polyamine contents between raw soybean and natto (r = 0.96, 0.95, and 0.94 for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively). Furthermore, comparison of the polyamine contents among 9 Japanese cultivars showed that 'Nakasen-nari' has the highest polyamine contents, suggesting its suitability for enhancement of polyamine contents of natto.
... Cipolla et al. [17] analyzed some fruit juices and fresh fruits for only polyamines content, finding comparable results except for spermine that was not detected in any sample and cadaverine that was found only in citrus fruit juices; pineapple juices were not considered in this study. Regarding the analysis of the raw material fresh fruits, Nishibori et al. [28] analyzed only apple and orange and only for polyamines. ...
Article
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The profile and level of 11 biogenic amines were evaluated in commercial fruit juices (apple, grapefruit, orange and pineapple) and fruit nectars (apricot, peach and pear) by HPLC/FD after dansyl chloride derivatization. The biogenic amine most present in nectars is cadaverine, followed by putrescine, spermidine and spermine. Fruit juices showed a wider variability in biogenic amines profile and level, with the highest total content in orange juices. The application of chemometric tools as hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis on the biogenic amine profiles of the juice samples succeeded in grouping juices on the basis of the fruit of origin. A mathematical model with high predictive ability for fruit juices classification was obtained by linear discriminant analysis: orange (100 %), pineapple (100 %), grapefruit (80 %) and apple (70 %). This study represents the first description of biogenic amines content in these beverages. These compounds are well-known important quality parameters and demonstrated to have also a characteristic profile depending on the fruit of origin.
... The estimated values for the daily polyamine intake in different studies vary between 250 to 700 µmol. The mean dietary intake of polyamines has been estimated in several studies [19,[29][30][31][32]. However, the optimum dietary intake of polyamines has not been identified yet. ...
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Polyamines are most abundant polycationic natural amines and involved in several physiological processes. They can be supplied by the endogenous synthesis inside the cell or by the intake from exogenous sources. The polyamine content of cells is regulated by biosynthesis, degradation, uptake and excretion. The benefits of dietary polyamines can be changed; they may be harmful, neutral or beneficial. For example, increasing the amount of dietary polyamines is suggested during rapid growth, such as during the neonatal period, wound healing and after surgery. However, in cancer patients, reducing polyamine dietary intake has been shown to be beneficial on the quality of life. This review aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary polyamines in health and disease. This study contributes in the existing literature by providing a detailed information on the importance of dietary polyamines in health and diseases. This study also highlights the beneficial impact of low polyamine diet on cancer treatment, and helps to increase awareness of daily polyamine intake regarding individual requirements.
... The samples were diluted 10 times with a solution of TCA as described by Nishibori et al. (2007), but the concentration was adjusted to 15% for milk protein precipitation. The samples were homogenized using gentle agitation for 30 min (Pollack et al., 1992). ...
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Dietary polyamines and amino acids (AAs) are crucial for human growth, development, reproduction, and health. However, the scientific literature shows large variations in polyamine and AA concentrations among major staple foods of plant origin, and there is a scarcity of information regarding their complete composition of AAs. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified polyamines, agmatine, and AAs in select plant-source foods. On the dry matter basis, total polyamines were most abundant in corn grains, followed by soybeans, sweet potatoes, pistachio nuts, potatoes, peanuts, wheat flour and white rice in descending order. Glutamine was the most abundant AA in pistachio nuts, wheat flour and white rice, arginine in peanuts, leucine in corn grains, glutamate in soybeans, and asparagine in potatoes and sweet potatoes. Glutamine was the second most abundant AA in corn grains, peanuts, potatoes, and soybeans, arginine in pistachio nuts, proline in wheat flour, and glutamate in sweet potatoes and white rice. Free AAs represented ≤ 3.1% of total AAs in corn grains, peanuts, pistachio nuts, soybeans, wheat flour and white rice, but 34.4% and 28.5% in potatoes and sweet potatoes, respectively. Asparagine accounted for 32.3%, 17.5%, and 19.4% of total free AAs in potatoes, sweet potatoes, and white rice, respectively. The content of histidine, glycine, lysine, tryptophan, methionine, cysteine, and threonine was relatively low in corn grains, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and white rice. All of the analyzed plant-source foods lacked taurine, creatine, carnosine and anserine (antioxidants that are abundant in meats and also present in milk), and contained little 4-hydroxyproline. Proper proportions of plant- and animal-source products are likely most desirable for optimizing human nutrition and health.
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Soybean seed is one of the richest food sources of spermidine and other polyamines. Recent findings from human and animal models have confirmed spermidine as a potential anti-aging substance acting through the initiation of autophagy pathways as well as through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. As this might be of relevance for selecting soybeans for soy food production, the present research addresses the natural variation of spermidine concentration of soybean to determine the influences of genotype and environmental factors on spermidine and other polyamines, and to study possible relationships between spermidine and major seed quality traits. Sixteen early maturity soybean genotypes were grown near Vienna, Austria for three seasons, and harvest samples were subject to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) for determining concentrations of polyamines and free amino acids. Based on individual samples, spermidine concentration ranged between 167 and 291 mg kg⁻¹ dry seed, and both genotype and growing season significantly affected spermidine level. Spermidine concentration was closely correlated to putrescine but was not related to seed protein content or other major seed constituents determined by NIRS analysis. These results demonstrate the feasibility of plant breeding approaches to modify the spermidine level of soybean which might support the future development of functional soy foods.
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Healthy foods such as beans, mushrooms, vegetables, and seafood and healthy dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet and Japanese food have higher concentrations of polyamines (spermine and spermidine). The continuous intake of high-polyamine foods has been shown to increase whole blood polyamine levels in mice and humans. In addition, high-polyamine chow inhibited aging-associated pathological changes in Jc1:ICR male mice and extended their lifespan. Aging is accompanied by decreased DNA methyltransferase activities, increased proinflammatory status, and enhanced abnormal gene methylation status, which is considered to be part of the pathogenesis of aging-associated diseases. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that polyamine supplementation reversed such changes induced by aging and polyamine-deficiency. In addition, polyamines have many biological activities that may contribute to the inhibition of lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes, hyperlipemia, and arteriosclerosis. The possible role of dietary polyamines in human health is discussed.
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Considerable differences were found in the incidence of age-associated diseases and the mean lifespan between countries of similar social background. Previously, the inhibition of age-associated disease progression was considered to be attributable to anti-oxidants in foods, such as isoflavones and resveratrol. However, the results of recent studies do not support the role of anti-oxidants in the inhibition of age-associated diseases and senescence. We have reported that healthy foods such as beans, mushrooms, seafoods and vegetables, and healthy dietary traditions such as the Mediterranean diet and Japanese foods are rich in polyamines (spermine and spermidine). Polyamines are synthesized in rapidly growing cells; however, this ability decreases with aging. In addition to de novo synthesis, cells can take up polyamines from their surroundings. An important source of whole body polyamines originates in the intestinal lumen, e.g., food-derived polyamines. Polyamines in the intestinal lumen are absorbed quickly, and continuously increased polyamine intake elevates blood polyamine levels in humans and mice. In addition to the many biological activities that help protect cells and tissues from harmful stimuli, we have shown that polyamines suppress pro-inflammatory status, characterized by the suppression of leukocyte function associate antigen 1 (LFA-1) expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Moreover, increased intracellular spermine from extra-cellular sources enhanced the activities of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) and suppressed polyamine deficiency-induced genome-wide demethylation/methylation in vitro. Long-term increased polyamine intake inhibited age-associated pathological changes and suppressed abnormal genome-wide demethylation/methylation in Jc1 : ICR male mice. In addition, increased polyamine intake was associated with a decreased incidence of colon tumors in BALB/c mice after 1,2-demethylhydrazine administration. Aging is associated with decreased polyamine synthesis, enhanced pro-inflammatory status (e.g., increased LFA-1 expression), decreased DNMT activities, and enhanced genome-wide demethylation/methylation; therefore, dietary polyamine represents a valuable food element to suppress age-associated pathologies and extend the lifespan of humans.
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The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for cell renewal and, therefore, are needed to keep the body healthy. It was previously believed that polyamines are synthesized by every cell in the body when required. However, in the present paper evidence is provided to show that, as in the case of the essential amino acids, the diet can supply sufficient amounts of polyamines to support cell renewal and growth. Systematic analysis of different foods was carried out and from the data obtained, the average daily polyamine consumption of British adults was calculated to be in the range 350–500 μmol/person per d. The major sources of putrescine were fruit, cheese and non-green vegetables. All foods contributed similar amounts of spermidine to the diet, although levels were generally higher in green vegetables. Meat was the richest source of spermine. However, only a part of the polyamines supplied by the diet is available for use by the body. Based on experiments with rats it was established that polyamines were readily taken up from the gut lumen, probably by passive diffusion, and were partly metabolized during the process of absorption. More than 80% of the putrescine was converted to other polyamines and non-polyamine metabolites, mostly to amino acids. The enzyme responsible for controlling the bioavailability of putrescine was diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6). For spermidine and spermine, however, about 70–80% of the intragastrically intubated dose remained in the original form. Considering the limitations on bioavailability (metabolism and conversion), the amounts of polyamines supplied by the average daily diet in Britain should satisfy metabolic requirements.
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Polyamines of thermophilic archaebacteria were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. Thermoplasma acidophilum and Thermoplasma volcanium ubiquitously contained spermidine and spermine. Four species of Sulfolobus, S. acidocaldarius, S. solfataricus, S. metallicus and S. shibatae, two species of Acidianus, A. brierleyi and A. infernus, and Metallosphaera sedula, contained norspermidine and norspermine in addition to spermidine and spermine, but quantitative distribution profiles were species-specific. A tertiary tetra-amine, N4-aminopropylspermidine, and a quaternary penta-amine, N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine, were detected as a major polyamine in three species of Thermococcus, T. celer, T. litoralis and T. stetteri, and two Pyrococcus species, P. furiosus and P. woesei. This is the first report on the occurrence of branched polyamines in archaebacteria.
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Insufficient polyamine intake could play a role in the induction of sensitization to dietary allergens. This proposal is based essentially on investigations made in sucking rats and in children. In sucking rats it has been established that oral administration of spermine can induce all the modifications occurring in the digestive tract at weaning. In the intestine events occur in two phases. The early event consists of desquamation of the epithelium resulting from an activation of apoptosis. The late event appears to involve an hormonal cascade in which adrenocorticotropic hormone, cytokines, bombesin and corticosterone are included. Observations in human subjects show that: (1) the spermine and spermidine concentrations are generally lower in infant formulas than in human breast milk. Mothers seem consistently to have relatively high or relatively low concentrations of spermine and spermidine in their milk. These individual variations may be due to diet, lifestyle or genetic background; (2) the probability of developing allergy can reach 80 % if the mean spermine concentration in the milk is lower than 2 nmol/ml milk. It is approximately 0 % if the mean spermine concentration is higher than 13 nmol/ml milk; (3) preliminary results show that the intestinal permeability to macromolecules differs in premature babies when they are fed on breast milk compared with infant formulas (J Senterre, J Rigo, G Forget, G Dandrifosse and N Romain, unpublished results). This difference does not seem to be present when powdered milk is supplemented with polyamines at the concentration found in breast milk; (4) spermine increases proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes isolated from the tonsils of children.
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The movement of a single dose of 14C-putrescine in the lumen of the rat gastrointestinal tract was followed for 3 hours after intragastric intubation. Putrescine progressed in the gut lumen in a wave-like fashion and was absorbed in the small bowel. Maximal uptake was observed at 2 hours; therefore, this time-point was selected to measure the concentration dependency of putrescine uptake by the small intestine and distribution between the vital organs in a wide concentration range (1/10 to 100 times the dietary input). Putrescine uptake by the small bowel was likely to be by passive diffusion, because the absorption was in proportion to input. The fate of putrescine was determined in the plasma, small bowel, liver, and skeletal muscle by measuring the radioactivity of the polyamines, their acetyl derivatives, and amino acids at physiologic concentrations. It appears that approximately 10% of the dietary input reaches the putrescine body pool.
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Different types of food (fruits, vegetables, meat, and milk products) were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography to determine their polyamine (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) contents. All foods contained some polyamines, although the concentrations in different individual food components were variable, As was established earlier using C-14-labeled putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, polyamines are readily taken up by the gut and enter the systemic circulation. Food appears to constitute a major source of polyamines for humans and animals. The distribution of polyamines in the body, as determined by measuring the accumulation of C-14-spermidine in different tissues of the rat, was correlated with the metabolic activity and growth of particular organs. Thus, phytohemagglutinin induced both extensive hyperplastic growth and the preferential accumulation of labeled spermidine in the gut. Correspondingly, when skeletal muscle growth was promoted by the beta-antagonist, clenbuterol, C-14-spermidine was sequestered by the hind leg gastrocnemius muscle. It is concluded that food polyamines are not only necessary for normal body metabolism, but are also used and directed preferentially to tissues and organs that have been stimulated to grow by metabolic signals.
Article
Dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, participate in many biochemical processes, mainly in cell proliferation and differentiation. Polyamines were determined as N-benzamides by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in 153 samples of 21 foods, mostly culinary processed. Very low putrescine contents were observed in processed meats, pork liver and kidney, while the highest mean contents exceeded 55 mgkg−1 in stewed green pea, grapefruit and fresh green pepper. Higher spermine than spermidine contents were typical for foods of animal origin, while the opposite was observed in plant products. Mean spermidine contents, exceeding 20 mgkg−1, were found in dry soybean, stewed green pea, yellow pea puree and roasted chicken breast. Roasted chicken breast, stewed pork kidney, roasted pork liver and roasted pork neck had mean spermine contents above the same level. Polyamine content varies widely within individual food items, what makes application of the results by dietitians rather difficult.
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Biogenic amines and polyamines in meat and meat products were determined by HPLC. Spermine and spermidine were the only amines always detected in meat and meat products, ranging from 6.4 to 62.1 mg/kg for spermine and from 0.7 to 13.8 mg/kg for spermidine. Tyramine, histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine contents varied greatly, especially in ripened products and even among samples from the same commercial brand. Biogenic amines in cooked products were, in general, lower than 10 mg/kg, whereas 40% of ripened products reached levels above 300 mg/kg. Amine content in dry-cured ham was similar to those found in cooked products. High amounts of biogenic amines in some cooked products could be related to the use of low hygienic quality meat. Besides the contribution of the raw materials, amine formation can occur during the fermentative-ripening process. Adverse reactions due to interaction between monoamine oxidase inhibitors drugs and tyramine are expected in ripened products. Keywords: Biogenic amines; meat; meat products; tyramine; histamine; polyamines
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Dietary polyamines contribute to the total body polyamine pool. As polyamines are important in health and disease, it is of interest to obtain information on the food polyamine content, making it possible to calculate and manipulate the polyamine intake. In this study, meat was found to contain considerably higher amounts of polyamines than fresh fish, though the levels in fish increased rapidly upon storage and processing. Whereas some cheeses were generally high in polyamines, the content in other dairy products was low. Most fruits and vegetables normally contained low levels of polyamines, although spermidine was high in broccoli and cauliflower, and putrescine in citrus fruits. Cooking did not significantly alter the polyamine concentration. From a sensory and a nutritious point of view, these results provide a means to compose a diet high or low in polyamines.
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Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) fulfil an array of roles in human cellular metabolism and in the synthesis of protein, RNA and DNA. Only a proportion of polyamines are synthesized in situ according to needs. However, as is the case for semi-essential amino acids, food is an important source of the polyamines required to support cell renewal and growth. Although the bioavailability and the mechanism of the uptake of polyamines in the gastrointestinal tract are not fully established, it is evident that at least some proportion of the polyamines in the diet can be absorbed and utilized by the body.
Article
The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine commonly occur in the cells of living organisms where they fulfil an array of physiological roles. Their participation in human cell growth and proliferation has been of great interest for their role in tumour growth. However, polyamines could be useful for post-operation patients, during wound healing and for growth and development of the neonate digestive system. Both endogenous and dietary polyamines participate in such processes. Data on polyamine contents in foods are limited and diffused in literature and dieticians have thus limited plausible information. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge on the biological implications of dietary polyamines for human health and collects the data on their formation and contents in manifold foods. While putrescine content increases by bacterial activity during inappropriate storage and processing of foods of animal origin, spermidine and spermine originate mainly from raw materials. Higher contents of spermidine as compared to spermine are typical for foods of plant origin, while an opposite relation is characteristic for foods of animal origin. The highest contents of all polyamines were determined in cheeses, mainly in ripened types. High putrescine levels were reported in citrus fruits and juices, sauerkraut, ketchup, fermented soybean products and fish sauce. Legumes, cauliflower and broccoli are foods with high spermidine content, while meat, meat products and legumes are high in spermine. Commonly, polyamine contents range widely within the individual food items. Extensive research is needed to extend the current limited database.
Article
The polyamines are ubiquitous components of mammalian cells. Those compounds have been postulated to play an important role in different cellular functions including the reorganization of cytoskeleton associated with the cell cycle. In the studies reported here, it was found that inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, methylglyoxal-bis[quanylhydrazone] (MGBG) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), prevent mitogen-induced accumulation of mRNAs encoding major cytoskeletal components, beta-actin and alpha-tubulin, in mouse splenocytes. These findings suggest mechanisms through which polyamines may exert their effects on the cytoskeleton integrity.
Article
Previous studies in which investigators have induced the rate of polyamine uptake in vitro have used either inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis or growth factors that induce cell proliferation. Recently, however, we have described the induction of putrescine uptake in cultured adult mouse hepatocytes and have shown that uptake is independent of both intracellular polyamine levels and proliferation. Although proliferation was not apparent in those studies, data suggested that, after isolation, the cells entered G1 of the cell cycle. In this study, we have examined whether the induction of putrescine uptake is a function of entry into the cell cycle and whether uptake activity is essential for optimal progression into the S phase. Using ribonuclease reductase subunit M1 as a marker of entry into the cell cycle, we have shown that hepatocytes enter G1 during the first 4 hr of culture. Both putrescine uptake and ornithine decarboxylase activity increased as the cells entered G1. Treatment of the cells with retinoic acid (10 to 33 mumol/L) prevented them from entering G1 and also inhibited the induction of the putrescine transporter by up to 90%. In contrast, initiation of G1 to S phase transition markedly down-regulated the activity of the transporter. Thus induction of the putrescine transporter in isolated hepatocytes appears to be a G1-specific event. Culturing the hepatocytes in the presence of 1,1'-bis[3-(1'-methyl-[4,4'-bipyridinium]-1-yl)-propyl]- 4,4'-bipyridinium, a potent competitive inhibitor of putrescine uptake, resulted in a 47% decrease in intracellular putrescine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The uptake of polyamines, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), and paraquat [N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium] into control Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and a mutant CHO cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of MGBG was examined. In contrast to control CHO cells, the mutant cells had no detectable uptake of MGBG or any of the polyamines. There was no difference between the two cell lines in the uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), which indicates that there was no general change in membrane transport processes. The mutant cells were also found to be resistant to the toxicity of paraquat and to have a reduced capability to take up the herbicide. This finding confirms that the uptake of paraquat is necessary for the toxicity of this compound and that the paraquat is taken up by a transport system that also transports MGBG. Competition experiments showed that an excess of unlabeled paraquat inhibited uptake of MGBG and, to a lesser extent, uptake of putrescine and spermidine, but no inhibitory action on spermine uptake could be detected. Studies with type II cells isolated from rat lung also demonstrated uptake of paraquat and spermidine, but paraquat was only a weak inhibitor of spermidine uptake in this system. These results suggest that there may be multiple systems for the uptake of MGBG and polyamines and that paraquat is taken up by at least one but not by all of these systems.
Article
The polyamine uptake system in bovine lymphocytes was activated by concanavalin A. The system was common to putrescine, spermidine and spermine. The Kt values for uptake activities of putrescine, spermidine and spermine were 3.7 microM, 0.38 microM and 0.23 microM in that order. The uptake activity was inhibited by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, gramicidin D or valinomycin in the presence of 20 mM K+ suggesting that polyamine uptake depends on the membrane potential. The uptake activity appeared 10 h after addition of concanavalin A, and the maximum was reached at 28 h indicating that induction of the polyamine transporter precedes the initiation of DNA synthesis. Addition of polyamine antimetabolites, such as alpha-difluoromethylornithine and ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), to the medium enhanced at least eightfold the induction of the polyamine transporter. The induction was repressed by addition of 50 microM spermidine or spermine, but not putrescine. We propose here that the induction of the membrane-potential-dependent polyamine transporter is regulated by the intracellular level of spermidine and spermine.
Article
A gas-liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine in foods has been developed. The amines were separated from foods by eluting through a cation-exchange resin column and then converted to their (ethyloxy)carbonyl derivatives by the reaction with ethyl chloroformate in aqueous medium before application to the gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. 1,8-Diaminooctane was used as an internal standard. Separation and determination of the resulting derivatives were performed on a 1.5% SE-30/0.3% SP-1000 on Uniport HP column (0.5 m) under the temperature-programmed condition. The calibration curves for the amines in the range of 12.5-125 nmol were linear and sufficiently reproducible for quantitative determination. The overall recovery rates were satisfactory. Putrescine and spermidine were present in all of the foods investigated. Relatively large amounts of spermidine occurred in the mushrooms and beans investigated.
Article
The regulation of polyamine transport and the roles of polyamine transport and synthesis in cell growth were investigated using cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and CHOMG cells which are mutants lacking polyamine-transport activity. Metabolically stable methylated polyamine analogues were used to measure polyamine accumulation, and the irreversible S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase inhibitor, 5'-([(Z)-4-amino-2-butenyl]methylamino)-5'-deoxyadenosine (AbeAdo), was used to inhibit synthesis. Exposure to AbeAdo lead to a dose-dependent decrease in growth for both cell lines, although CHOMG cells were more sensitive. Intracellular putrescine levels were greatly increased in AbeAdo-treated CHO cells and to a lesser extent in CHOMG cells, whereas intracellular spermidine and spermine levels were substantially reduced in both. Treatment with AbeAdo increased putrescine content in the culture medium to a much greater extent in CHOMG cultures indicating that a portion of the excess putrescine synthesized in response to AbeAdo treatment is excreted, but that CHO cells salvage this putrescine whereas it is lost to CHOMG cells which cannot take up polyamines. AbeAdo treatment increased polyamine transport into CHO cells despite high intracellular putrescine, suggesting that spermidine and/or spermine, and not putrescine, are the major factors regulating transport activity. The accumulation of either 1-methylspermidine or 1,12-dimethylspermine was significantly increased by AbeAdo treatment. Accumulation was increased even further when protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, indicating that a short-lived protein is involved in the regulation of polyamine uptake. In the presence of cycloheximide and AbeAdo or alpha-difluoromethylornithine, methylated polyamine derivatives accumulated to very high levels leading to cell death. These results show that the polyamine-transport system plays an important role in retaining intracellular polyamines and that down-regulation of the transport system in response to increased intracellular polyamine content is necessary to prevent accumulation of toxic levels of polyamines.
Article
Aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of cellular uptake of dietary [3H]putrescine for the regulation of pancreatic, hepatic, and small intestinal polyamine metabolism during normal and camostate-induced pancreatic growth in rats in vivo. Initially dose-response and time-course studies of [3H]putrescine uptake were performed. Male Wistar rats were either treated with the synthetic trypsin inhibitor camostate (200 mg/kg body wt orally twice daily), camostate plus the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) (2% in drinking water plus 3 x 300 mg/kg body wt intraperitoneally during daytime) or saline as controls. After 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, or 120 hr, five to seven animals per group were killed, respectively. Orally fed [3H]putrescine (10 nmol/kg body wt. 2 hr prior to death) is rapidly taken up and further metabolized to spermidine in normal growing pancreas, liver, and small intestine. Feeding of camostate significantly enhanced dietary [3H]putrescine uptake, while simultaneous inhibition of de novo synthesis of intracellular polyamines by DFMO resulted in a highly significant further increase in cellular uptake of orally fed [3H]putrescine, which is immediately metabolized to spermidine. The present in vivo data confirm the important role of dietary putrescine uptake for the maintenance of intracellular polyamine pool in normal and stimulated pancreatic growth. Furthermore, dietary putrescine uptake is an important regulatory mechanism to maintain the normal and growth-stimulated cellular polyamine pool in the pancreas after potent simultaneous inhibition of intracellular de novo polyamine synthesis.
Article
Soybeans, tea leaves, and mushrooms were conspicuously rich in spermidine, while oranges contained a large amount of putrescine. Among the fermented foods, soy sauces were rich in putrescine and histamine, while Japanese sake contained plenty of agmatine. These polyamines are thought to be produced from amino acids during fermentation with amino acid decarboxylases formed by the micro-organisms.
Article
Polyamines are essential for cell growth. Dietary and probably gut bacterial derived polyamines contribute significantly to the polyamine body pool. To evaluate the influence of dietary, luminal polyamines on growth and development of different gastrointestinal organs in normally growing rats. Male suckling Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four treatment groups: polyamine deficient diet (PDD); PDD plus antibiotics (neomycin 2 g/kg and metronidazole 34 mg/kg); PDD plus polyamine supplementation at normal concentrations; or normal standard laboratory chow. After a six month feeding period 7-10 animals/group were sacrificed. No differences in body weight gain, food consumption, or general behaviour could be observed between the four groups of animals. Feeding of PDD alone or PDD plus antibiotics resulted in a highly significant decrease in organ weight, protein content, and DNA content in small intestinal and colonic mucosa whereas no alterations were found in the liver. Long term feeding of polyamine deficient diets resulted in a significant hypoplasia of small intestinal and colonic mucosa. Dietary, luminal polyamines are important local factors for growth and the development of small intestinal and colonic mucosa.
Article
In recent years the functions of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) have been studied at the molecular level. Polyamines can modulate the functions of RNA, DNA, nucleotide triphosphates, proteins, and other acidic substances. A major part of the cellular functions of polyamines can be explained through a structural change of RNA which occurs at physiological concentrations of Mg(2+) and K(+) because most polyamines exist in a polyamine-RNA complex within cells. Polyamines were found to modulate protein synthesis at several different levels including stimulation of special kinds of protein synthesis, stimulation of the assembly of 30 S ribosomal subunits and stimulation of Ile-tRNA formation. Effects of polyamines on ion channels have also been reported and are gradually being clarified at the molecular level.
Article
When Chinese hamster ovary cells were seeded in the presence of the spermine analog N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM), cell proliferation ceased; this was clearly apparent by cell counting 2 days after seeding the cells. However, 1 day after seeding there was a slight difference in cell number between control and DENSPM-treated cultures. To investigate the reason for this easily surpassed slight difference, we used a sensitive bromodeoxyuridine/flow cytometry method. Cell cycle kinetics were studied during the first cell cycle after seeding cells in the absence or presence of DENSPM. Our results show that DENSPM treatment did not affect the progression of the cells through G1 or the first G1/S transition that took place after seeding the cells. The first cell cycle effect was a delay in S phase as shown by an increase in the DNA synthesis time. The following G2/M transition was not affected by DENSPM treatment. DENSPM treatment inhibited the transient increases in putrescine, spermidine, and spermine pools that took place within 24 h after seeding. Thus, in conclusion, the first cell cycle phase affected by the inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis caused by DENSPM was the S phase. Prolongation of the other cell cycle phases occurred at later time points, and the G1 phase was affected before the G2/M phase.
Article
The proposed chromatographic method provides a complete resolution of twelve amines in a single run in milks and unripened cheeses, avoiding the losses of resolution linked to fluctuations in working temperature. We also propose an alternative chromatographic gradient, which can be useful for samples that have undergone long ripening periods, like ripened cheeses. According to the results of the reliability study, the method described was precise, accurate, and sensitive. The method was applied to several samples of milks and cheeses and the results showed that the biogenic amine profiles varied greatly, not only between different types of samples but also among the samples from the same kind of products. In unripened cheeses, milks, and yogurts, spermidine and spermine were the prevailing amines, but in ripened cheeses the major amine was tyramine, followed by putrescine and cadaverine.
Article
A method for the simultaneous determination of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) by ionspray ionization-mass spectrometry was modified to determine (15)N-labeled polyamines together with unlabeled polyamines using (13)C,(15)N double-labeled polyamines as internal standards. This technique permitted the use of (15)N-labeled polyamines as tracer compounds to follow polyamine biosynthesis, interconversion, and absorption. The method was used to examine the organ distribution of orally administered (15)N-labeled polyamines in rats. Each (15)N-labeled polyamine was taken up by the three organs tested: the small intestine, liver, and kidney. The uptake of (15)N-labeled spermidine was greater than that of (15)N-labeled spermine and putrescine. Administration of a mixture of (15)N-labeled polyamines was useful for determining the disposition of each (15)N-polyamine absorbed from the intestinal tract.
Article
The driving force of the cell cycle is the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Key steps in the regulation of the cell cycle therefore must impinge upon the activities of the CDKs. CDKs exert their functions when bound to cyclins that are expressed cyclically during the cell cycle. Polyamine biosynthesis varies bicyclically during the cell cycle with peaks in enzyme activities at the G(1)/S and S/G(2) transitions. The enzyme activities are regulated at transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. When cells are seeded in the presence of drugs that interfere with polyamine biosynthesis, cell cycle progression is affected within one cell cycle after seeding. The cell cycle phase that is most sensitive to polyamine biosynthesis inhibition is the S phase, while effects on the G(1) and G(2)/M phases occur at later time points. The elongation step of DNA replication is negatively affected when polyamine pools are not allowed to increase normally during cell proliferation. Cyclin A is expressed during the S phase and cyclin A/CDK2 is important for a normal rate of DNA elongation. Cyclin A expression is lowered in cells treated with polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors. Thus, polyamines may affect S phase progression by participating in the regulation of cyclin A expression.
Polyamine dependence of normal cell cycle progression
  • Oredsson
Uptake, inter-organ distribution and metabolism of dietary putrescine in the rat
  • Bardócz