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... day) in MVMM users (25 mg/day). The UL for niacin only applies to synthetic sources of the micronutrient, including supplements and fortified foods . The main risk associated with this excessive intake is flushing and to a less extent hepatoxicity. ...
... The main risk associated with this excessive intake is flushing and to a less extent hepatoxicity. However, the established UL for children is extrapolated from that of adults and the majority of the adverse effects are reported because of high doses of niacin used for medical treatment . ...
Micronutrients are critical for healthy growth and development of children. Micro-nutrient intake from dietary sources is inadequate among some children and may be improved by use of multivitamin and multimineral (MVMM) supplements.
To assess micronutrient intake from dietary and MVMM supplement sources among 12-year-old children in Puerto Rico.
A representative sample of 732 children enrolled in an oral health study in Puerto Rico, who completed dietary and MVMM assessments through one 24-h recall, were included in this analysis. Micronutrient intake sources were described and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) using the Estimated Average Requirement when available (used Adequate Intake for vitamin K and pantothenic acid). Micronutrient profiles of MVMM users and non-users were compared using t-tests.
Mean intakes of vitamins A, D, E, and K, pantothenic acid, cal-cium, and magnesium from food and beverage sources were below the DRIs. From food and beverage sources, MVMM users had higher intakes of riboflavin and folate compared to non-users (p < 0.05). When MVMM supplements were taken into account, users had higher in-takes of all nutrients except vitamin K. With the help of MVMM, users increased intake of vita-mins E, A, D, and pantothenic acid to IOM-recommended levels but calcium, magnesium, and vitamin K remained below guidelines.
Micronutrient intake from diet was below the IOM-recommended levels in the total sample. MVMM use improved intake of selected micronu-trients and facilitated meeting recommendations for some nutrients. Public health measures to improve micronutrient intake among children in Puerto Rico are needed.
... Different countries established their own regulations about products that have to be enriched. Defined concentrations of vitamins they should contain are based on the general population or in the target sector of common consumers (Finglas, 2000;LeBlanc et.al., 2011). ...
... For the second flow, two reactions are needed. The first flow is the conversion of nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide to N-Ribosyl Nicotinamide and later the reaction catalyzed by purin-nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), an enzyme needed to finally convert this last molecule to vitamin B3 (Finglas, 2000;Kanehisa and Goto, 2000). ...
Nutritional disorders have been a challenge to food technologists and food biotechnologists on the last years. One of the most used approaches is food products fortification. Considering that vitamins play important roles in basic chemical reactions in the body and that humans are not able to synthesize them, it is of utmost importance that they form part of the daily diet. Vitamins can be obtained from foods such as: meat, cereals and fermented products. Mabisi is a milk-based African traditional beverage. This product is generated by milk fermentation by a bacterial consortium. It has been observed that Mabisi showed a high content of vitamin B3. Therefore, in the present research project, the assessment of the genetic potential for vitamin B3 production of 12 consortia from Mabisi samples collected from different producers in Zambia was carried out. It was shown that these 12 communities have one or the last two genes involved in the vitamin biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, the establishment and standardization of a protocol for RNA extraction from Mabisi was done. A technique was applied that allowed the analysis of gene expression of punA, decoding for the enzyme phosphoribosyl transferase, enzyme needed for vitamin B3 synthesis. Based on the housekeeping single copy gene tuF decoding for the elongation factor sub-unit F. The results suggest that regardless of the bacterial composition and similarities in the communities, differences in the expression of the target gene will occur. Finally, no correlation was found when previously known data of vitamin B3 content was compared to the gene expression results obtained in the present work. The approach followed is a feasible way of having an insight on vitamin B3 production. Although, further gene expression analysis of other important genes involved in vitamin B3 synthesis pathway and vitamin content determination are highly recommended.
... Les besoins quotidiens en cbl ont été fixés à 2,4 µg (Finglas 2000) ; (Rodriguez et al. 2009) mais peuvent atteindre 4 à 7 μg par jour -ce qui est courant chez les personnes qui mangent des produits d'origine animale ou qui prennent des compléments multivitaminés. ...
... La capacité de stockage totale de la cbl dans l'organisme est d'environ 3 à 5 mg (Finglas 2000). ...
Genetic defects of vitamin B12 or cobalamin (cbl) metabolism lead to a decrease of methionine synthase activity that could result in a decrease of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) synthesis and in the methylation index SAM / SAH that could be responsible for methylation alterations of various substrates. Patients with inherited disorders of cbl metabolism generally have a wide spectrum of pathologies suggesting that various cellular processes may be affected. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these disorders are not well known. In order to better understand these mechanisms, we have used fibroblasts of patients with cblC and cblG genetic defects to characterize the modifications of their transcriptome, methylome and proteome. Our data show a modification in the expression of many genes involved in developmental, neurological, ophthalmologic and cardiovascular processes. These associations are consistent with the clinical presentation of the patients. We have also provided evidence of abnormal splicing of genes important for cytoskeleton organization, stress response, methylation and RNA binding. The study of differentially expressed or spliced genes has allowed us to identify various RNA binding proteins (RBP) such as HuR and HNRNPL that are involved in these modifications. The study of DNA methylation also revealed modifications in genes playing a role in developmental and neurological pathologies. No variation in methylation of histones or mRNA has been detected. The proteome study has confirmed that alternative splicing was affected and has suggested that mitochondrial metabolism was also altered. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the origin of the pathologies associated with the cblC and cblG defects and highlight the crucial role of RBP in these processes.
... vitamins A and C). After delivery, women should complete the deficiencies of their bodies until next pregnancy and delivery. As the needs for energy, vitamin, mineral and protein increase during lactation, the duration between the end of lactation and next pregnancy is more significant than the " duration between pregnancies " . ...
...  During lactation, it is recommended to take 500 μg folic acid daily.  Increasing calcium need during pregnancy is met by the increase of calcium absorption from gastrointestinal system.  Calcium release from bones also helps to meet the increasing need during pregnancy. ...
... Choline is an essential water-soluble nutrient belonging to the B-complex family of vitamins (10,11). Adolph Strecker first identified it in ox bile in 1862 (12) and in 1932, it was recognized by Best, Hershey and Huntsman as an essential dietary nutrient (13). ...
... As described above, choline, also known as vitamin B4, is an essential nutrient (10,11) which influences important physiological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis (42), and also participates in physiological functions such as signaling transduction, formation and integrity of cell membranes and ACh synthesis (14). In addition, choline metabolite betaine acts as an alternate methyl donor to folate, providing one methyl group to form methionine from homocysteine; thus, it is a major methyl donor needed for DNA and histone methylation (15,16). ...
The current study aimed to lay a theoretical foundation for further development of choline as an anti-hypoxia damage drug. Wild-type, 3- to 5-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180–220 g, were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into a normoxic control group (n=16) and a chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) group (n=16). The effects of CIH on acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the rat cerebral basilar arterioles and mesenteric arterioles, as well as the protective effects of choline on the arterioles damaged by hypoxia were observed. Moreover, the effects of choline on endothelial cell proliferation during hypoxia were observed, and choline's functional mechanism further explored. The ACh-mediated vasodilatation of rat cerebral basilar and mesenteric arterioles significantly reduced during hypoxia (P<0.01). Choline significantly increased dilation in the rat cerebral basilar (P<0.01) and mesenteric arterioles (P<0.05) damaged by CIH compared with those in the control group. In addition, under hypoxic conditions, choline significantly promoted the proliferation of rat aortic endothelial cells (P<0.05) and significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase activity in the cell culture supernatant in vitro (P<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of choline could be related to its ability to significantly increase the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (P<0.01) and activation of α7 non-neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors under hypoxia (P<0.01). This study demonstrated that choline could have protective effects against hypoxic injuries.
... 20,21 The enzyme activity of those homozygous for MTHFR A1298C (CC genotype) is reduced by approximately 30-40% compared with that of the wild type (AA genotype). 18,22 In the last decade, a number of studies have focused on the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and peripheral blood folate concentration, but conflicting results have been reported. 23,24 The inconsistencies in results may be because of differences in sample sizes, study designs, ethnicities, and random errors. ...
... A previous study confirmed that, compared with the AA genotype, the MTHFR enzyme activity of those with the CC genotype is reduced by approximately 40%. 22 In this meta-analysis, no association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism with peripheral blood folate concentration was found in the MTHFR A1298C heterozygote (AC vs AA), homozygote (CC vs AA), and dominant models (AC + CC vs AA) when all studies were included. It is known that folate intake (dietary or supplementary) interacts with gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathways. ...
Background and objectives:
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) irreversibly converts 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which is the main form of folate used in the body. Previous studies suggest that MTHFR polymorphism influences folate metabolism, but conflicting results are reported. We performed a meta-analysis to accurately characterize the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and peripheral blood folate concentration in healthy populations.
Methods and study design:
Studies focusing on MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and folate concentrations were identified and subjected to a metaanalysis using Review Manager 5.1. Standard mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the association between these variables.
A total of 14 studies with 5616 healthy individuals were included in this meta-analysis. Significant differences in folate concentration were found in the MTHFR homozygote model (SMD=0.12, 95% CI=0.00-0.24, I2=17%, p=0.04) and the dominant model (SMD=0.07, 95% CI=0.01-0.14, I2=22%, p=0.02) in the general population excluding the elderly. While abnormal folate concentrations are more common in elderly, no association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and peripheral blood folate concentration was found in the meta-analysis when elderly were included.
This meta-analysis indicates that, in the general population excluding the elderly, the C allele of MTHFR 1298 polymorphism is associated with the risk for an increased folate concentration.
... Vitamin B 9 (Folic acid) is necessary for red blood cells production, cell division and growth , maintenance of DNA synthesis and methylation, and consequently chromatin structure and gene expression . Vitamin B 12 is important in cellular replication especially for the synthesis of RNA and DNA . Zinc (Zn) is a trace element essential to maintain optimal functional levels of antioxidant enzymes, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune function, DNA replication and transcription as well as for reproduction due to its fundamental role in germ cell development and expression of steroid receptors for spermatogenesis . ...
Objective: Over recent decades, there is a growing concern around the infertility problem in Algeria. In the latest census of the health and populations ministry, the infertility affects approximately 10-12% of the couples and in 30% of these cases and the male is the main associated origin. Thus in this research, we attempt to determine the etiology of reproductive failure in infertile men and to assess the effectiveness therapy of Fertimax™ treatment as combination of a specific micronutrients and antioxidants on their semen quality. Methods: Thirty six men consulting for infertility spousal in clinic of assisted reproductive techniques “El Bordj”- Algiers were interviewed, examined for clinical signs and their sperm was analyzed, then after, some of them were subjected to Fertimax™ treatment for six months and their sperm was reanalyzed. Results: The obtained results revealed that Fertimax™ intake for six months can improve significantly all semen parameters including seminal volume and viscosity, spermatozoa number, mobility, vitality and morphology in these patients. Besides, in 33.33% of cases, these treated patients with Fertimax™ have fertilized their partners without recourse to in vitro fertilization process. Conclusion: This wonderful ameliorating role of Fertimax™ may be related to the particularly potent antioxidant properties of its components and thus we recommend this treatment as remedy for patients suffered from subfertility in both sexes.
... Other important micronutrient deficiencies include iron, vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B12 . Many nations have developed recommendations for the daily intake of micronutrients so as to prevent these sorts of deficiency based pathologies . As a result, multivitamin and multi-mineral supplementation (MVMM) has become common in children and adults . ...
There is growing interest in the role of micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) in the optimization of health, and prevention and treatment of diseases. As multivitamin -multimineral supplementation (MVMM) is the most commonly reported supplement, it is important to study the health benefits associated with regular intake. We investigated the use of a particular MVMM supplement, developed by the Pure North Foundation, on blood chemistry parameters and lipid profiles, along with the inflammation marker C - reactive protein, in 100 steel company workers over a one year period of supplementation. According to our study, participants with lower levels of vitamins D, B2, and C before supplementation tended to show higher levels of inflammation. Vitamin D levels correlated with a variety of lipid profile parameters. Analysis of the data after one year of supplementation demonstrated that participants with blood vitamin D concentrations above 30 ng/ml showed decreases in triglycerides, cholesterol to HDL ratio, and improvement of HDL levels. In addition, higher vitamin C levels were associated with lower triglyceride and VLDL levels. Blood concentrations of vitamin C, D, and E increased substantially as a result of supplementation, but coenzyme Q10 levels, lutein, lycopene, and vitamin A levels were not greatly affected. Furthermore, looking into the distinction between smokers and non-smokers, our data indicate that improvements in antioxidant levels during MVMM supplementation are less dramatic in smokers. After one year supplementation, smokers had lower plasma antioxidant concentrations than nonsmokers. The greatest differences were found with lycopene, lutein, and vitamin A, while improvements in vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E were practically the same for both groups. Smokers had less improvement of the health score in comparison with non-smokers. For all participants, half year and one year of supplementation eliminated very low health scores, and increased the number of people with high scores.
... A small study consisting of children with autism reported a positive correlation between dietary intakes and plasma levels of the nutrients . It is reported that the serum choline level is lower than betaine, although dietary choline intake is higher than betaine in the general populations [12, 19, 27, 53] . This difference between dietary intakes and serum levels highlights the importance to perform independent studies and suggesting that relationship between dietary choline and betaine with obesity might differ from that with serum levels. ...
Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.
To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.
A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.
Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), percent android fat (%AF), percent gynoid fat (%GF) and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all). Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001). Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.
Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body composition in humans.
... The total folate contents were found to be 191 (±2.52), 229 (±3.80), and 301 (±2.29) µg/100 g for Zahdi, Rubai, and Muzafti, respectively. According to Institute of Medicine, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of folate is 400 µg per day (26). Thus, serving 100 g of date fruits (without seeds) would provide 48, 57, and 75% of the total folate, respectively, with the cultivar Muszafti contributing the most. ...
Folates belong to the essential B vitamins group and participate in one-carbon metabolism. Date palm fruits ( Phoenix dactilyfera L. family Arecaceae ) are consumed by millions of people and are good sources of folates. To date, no detailed study has been carried out on suitable methods for folate extraction from date palm fruits. In the present study, an experimental design using response surface methodology (RSM) was used to maximize the extraction yield of folates from date palm fruits by including enzymatic depectinization. By applying this new strategy and a UHPLC-MS/MS technique for analysis, total folate and different folate vitamers of three cultivars of date palm fruits (Muzafti, Zahdi, and Rubai), brewer's yeast, and fermented date wine were analyzed. The optimized extraction conditions of folates from date palm fruits were found to be a pectinase activity of 47.7 U, an incubation temperature of 40°C, and an incubation time of 38 min, which yielded a total folate content of 191–301 μg/100 g. In brewer's yeast, the extracted total folate content was very high (4,870 μg/100 g), and, in the resulting date wine, it reached a maximum of 700 μg/L on the fifth day. The predominant folate vitamers in date fruit and fruit wine were 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-CHO-THF) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH 3 -THF). During date palm fruit fermentation for up to 8 days, the 5-CHO-THF content gradually decreased by 20%, while 5-CH 3 -THF increased linearly from day 1 to day 5 (y = 0.058 x + 0.0284, R ² = 0.9614). This study shows that date palm fruit and fruit wine are excellent sources of folate, and further study can be focused on different methods to improve folate stability during wine storage.
... Other B vitamin plasma levels at baseline were also lower than reported in the other German study evaluating a folic acid-only MMP in 2009 , but >95% of our baseline values remained at least within normal ranges. Both MMPs contained the same amounts of vitamins B2, B6, and B12, i.e., 1.4 mg, 1.9 mg, and 2.6 µg, respectively, which are more or less representing current dietary reference intakes for pregnant women in the US . However, whereas in the earlier study supplementation over 16 weeks resulted in corresponding plasma level increases of 12%, 72%, and 25%, respectively, we observed a comparable increase for B6 levels only; B2 and B12 remained mostly unchanged. ...
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a multi-vitamin/mineral preparation (MMP) in achieving erythrocyte folate levels (Fol-E) considered preventive of neural tube defects (NTDs). Methods: In this single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo (PBO)-controlled trial, healthy women of childbearing potential (WCBP) took either an oral MMP containing 400 μg folic acid and 451 μg L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) or PBO once daily for 16 weeks. Primary endpoints were achievement of Fol-E ≥ 906 nmol/L at Week 4 and maintenance of this level once achieved. Secondary efficacy variables were plasma concentrations of folate, homocysteine, and vitamins B2, B6, and B12 at Week 4, 8, 12, and 16. Results: Of the 40 women enrolled, 20 were randomized to each study arm. All but one PBO-subject completed the study as planned. Baseline characteristics in both groups were comparable with mean Fol-E around 500 nmol/L. In contrast to only one PBO-subject, all MMP subjects achieved and maintained the target Fol-E (MMP: 100% vs PBO: 5%, p<0.001), 14 (70%) MMP subjects already by Week 4 (means ± SD: 976 ± 186 vs 629 ± 215 nmol/L, p<0.001). In plasma, the only change under PBO was a 10% decrease of vitamin B12 whereas under MMP folate and vitamin B6 significantly increased and homocysteine significantly decreased. There was no serious and only one severe adverse event (AE); most common AEs were gastrointestinal with greater incidence in the MMP group (30% versus 5%). Conclusion: Supplementation with folic acid and MTHF at equimolar amounts was efficacious in replenishing Fol-E of WCBP within 4 weeks to levels considered protective of NTDs.
... Thus the increase in selenium intake with egg consumption is not of clinical significance. However, the recommendations for dietary choline were not being met with intake of 0 or 1 egg/day . With intake of 2 and 3 eggs/day, participants were able to meet or exceed recommendations. ...
Eggs are a source of cholesterol and choline and may impact plasma lipids and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) concentrations, which are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, the effects of increasing egg intake (0, 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day) on these and other CVD risk biomarkers were evaluated in a young, healthy population. Thirty-eight subjects [19 men/19 women, 24.1 ± 2.2 years, body mass index (BMI) 24.3 ± 2.5 kg/m²] participated in this 14-week crossover intervention. Participants underwent a 2-week washout with no egg consumption, followed by intake of 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day for 4 weeks each. Anthropometric data, blood pressure (BP), dietary records, and plasma biomarkers (lipids, glucose, choline, and TMAO) were measured during each intervention phase. BMI, waist circumference, systolic BP, plasma glucose, and plasma triacylglycerol did not change throughout the intervention. Diastolic BP decreased with egg intake (P < 0.05). Compared to 0 eggs/day, intake of 1 egg/day increased HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) (P < 0.05), and decreased LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) (P < 0.05) and the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio (P < 0.01). With intake of 2–3 eggs/day, these changes were maintained. Plasma choline increased dose-dependently with egg intake (P < 0.0001) while fasting plasma TMAO was unchanged. These results indicate that in a healthy population, consuming up to 3 eggs/day results in an overall beneficial effect on biomarkers associated with CVD risk, as documented by increased HDL-c, a reduced LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, and increased plasma choline in combination with no change in plasma LDL-c or TMAO concentrations.
... In the artificial eggs they have become the major components; they are not beneficial to the human body. Artificial egg has little or no nutrition value compare with the real egg . ...
In 21th century, the human being has gained the ability to make the clone of natural things and one of the most wonderful examples is fake egg production which is looked real as the original one. Fake egg or artificial egg is made by using various types of raw materials, colors and flavors. Normally eggs provide about six grams of protein-half of this protein is in the egg white. Most of the nutrients in eggs are found in yolk. But artificial eggs are full of chemicals, additives and auxiliary agents. So fake eggs contain no nutritional values compared to the real eggs. In China it was claimed in various news that fake eggs are sold in the local market because of money. The chemicals used for artificial eggs causes metabolic disorders, brain damage, liver disease, cancer and many other diseases. So the productions of fake eggs haven't any health benefit rather it's a chemical hazard. Generally the artificial creation of natural things doesn't blessing for human being.
... The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of niacin, a collective term for NA and Nam, is around 15mg/day and can be met through the consumption of meat, fish and dairy products 12,62 . More recently, NR was also detected in milk and yeast 32, 63 . ...
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) is an established cofactor for enzymes serving cellular metabolic reactions. More recent research identified NAD+ as a signaling molecule and substrate for sirtuins and poly-ADP polymerases; enzymes that regulate protein deacetylation and DNA repair, and translate changes in energy status into metabolic adaptations. Deranged NAD+ homeostasis and concurrent alterations in mitochondrial function are intrinsic in metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver and age-related diseases. Contemporary NAD+ precursors show promise as nutraceuticals to restore target tissue NAD+, and have demonstrated the ability to improve mitochondrial function and sirtuin-dependent signaling. This review will precis the accumulating evidence for targeting NAD+ metabolism in metabolic disease, map the different NAD+ boosting strategies and discuss the challenges and open questions in the field. The health potential of targeting NAD+ homeostasis will inform clinical study design to identify nutraceutical approaches for combating metabolic disease and the unwanted effects of aging.
... After absorption, significative plasma levels of vit B 6 can last up to 20 days , but knowing that inflammatory processes lead to vit B 6 depletion, we cannot assume that animals presented a sufficient level of vit B 6 in the systemic circulatory system to have any long-term effect at the time of behavioral tests. However, it was demonstrated that vit B 6 exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and possibly a KYN pathway regulatory effect 24 h after sepsis induction. ...
Neurological dysfunction as a result of neuroinflammation has been reported in sepsis and cause high mortality. High levels of cytokines stimulate the formation of neurotoxic metabolites by kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Vitamin B6 (vit B6) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and also acts as a cofactor for enzymes of the KYN pathway. Thus, by using a relevant animal model of polymicrobial sepsis, we studied the effect of vit B6 on the KYN pathway, acute neurochemical and neuroinflammatory parameters, and cognitive dysfunction in rats. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were submitted to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) and divided into sham + saline, sham + vit B6, CLP + saline, and CLP + vit B6 (600 mg/kg, s.c.) groups. Twenty-four hours later, the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were removed for neurochemical and neuroinflammatory analyses. Animals were followed for 10 days to determine survival rate, when cognitive function was assessed by behavioral tests. Vitamin B6 interfered in the activation of kynurenine pathway, which led to an improvement in neurochemical and neuroinflammatory parameters and, consequently, in the cognitive functions of septic animals. Thus, the results indicate that vit B6 exerts neuroprotective effects in acute and late consequences after sepsis.
... Se content and availability in soil determine Se levels in plants and water, which determine the Se status in the human body. Besides, Se levels in various plants differ because of diverse geological conditions, growth conditions, absorptive capacities, growth periods, and protein contents (Levander 1987(Levander , 1982Temmerman et al. 2014) ;Finglas 2000;Yu et al. 2015). Therefore, the dietary Se intake of humans worldwide considerably varies because of different Se contents in food and various dietary structures (Mcnaughton and Marks 2002). ...
Shuang'an in Ziyang is a typical high-selenium (Se) area in China, where human selenium (Se) poisoning was reported 30 years ago. To assess the risk of Se poisoning in the area, the Se content in agricultural soil, plant, and water in Naore, Shuang Hekou, and Lin Benhe villages of Ziyang was systematically investigated. The probable daily intake (PDI) was calculated on the basis of Se contents in food, water, and dietary habits to evaluate the risk of selenosis. Se content in hair from local habitants (32 men and 34 women) was determined to further verify the risk. Results showed that Se content in the soil ranged from 0.21 to 36.07 mg/kg, with a geometric means of 3.02 ± 5.16 mg/kg, respectively. Approximately 60% of soil reached the Se toxicity threshold (>3 mg/kg). The Se content in plants ranged from 0.02 to 17 mg/kg, with an average of 0.76 ± 2.51 mg/kg. Approximately 40% of the plant reached the toxicity standard (1 mg/kg). Se content in soil and plant of Naore village was significantly higher than that from two adjacent villages. The Se content in vegetables (on fresh weight basis) was higher than that in cereals. Se contents were 3.73 ± 9.08 and 1.32 ± 3.50 mg/kg in eggplant and pepper, respectively. The Se content in drinking water was 7.85 ± 6.04 μg/L, lower than the upper tolerable limit (40 μg/L) set by WHO. The Se content in stream water (18.5 μg/L) was significantly higher than that in drinking water because of soil erosion. The calculated PDI of habitants in Naore village (1801 μg/day) was significantly higher than that in Lin Benhe (666 μg/day) and Shuang Hekou (686 μg/day), all of which was higher than the tolerable upper Se intake (400 μg/day) set by WHO. The calculated blood Se content was relatively high, especially for habitants of Naore village (2783-2824 μg/L). Moreover, the Se content in the hair of local habitants reached as high as 12.72 ± 13.81 mg/kg, and 78.79% exceeded hair Se toxicity threshold (>3 mg/kg), which further verified the potential selenosis risk. Our study provides significant implications of the potential Se intoxication of local residents. Therefore, governments and other institutions should implement various measures to reduce the daily Se intake and to mitigate the associated health risks.
... Pantothenic acid is an essential component of coenzyme A (CoA) that plays a central role in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and in the synthesis of fatty acid as acetyl CoA or acyl CoA. Pantothenic acid also functions as a phosphopantetheine that is a cofactor of acyl carrier proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism 47 . The level of pantothenic acid in the blood is generally quite low; thiamine supplements increase the circulating levels of the compound 48 . ...
The present study was aimed at determining the characteristics of plasma metabolites in bottlenose dolphins to provide a greater understanding of their metabolism and to obtain information for the health management of cetaceans. Capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) and liquid chromatograph-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) were conducted on plasma samples after overnight fasting from three common bottlenose dolphins as well as three beagle dogs (representative terrestrial carnivores) for comparison. In total, 257 and 227 plasma metabolites were identified in the dolphins and the dogs, respectively. Although a small number of animals were used for each species, the heatmap patterns, a principal component analysis and a cluster analysis confirmed that the composition of metabolites could be segregated from each other. Of 257 compounds detected in dolphin plasma, 24 compounds including branched amino acids, creatinine, urea, and methylhistidine were more abundant than in dogs; 26 compounds including long-chained acyl-carnitines and fatty acids, astaxanthin, and pantothenic acid were detected only in dolphins. In contrast, 25 compounds containing lactic acid and glycerol 3-phosphate were lower in dolphins compared to dogs. These data imply active protein metabolism, differences in usage of lipids, a unique urea cycle, and a low activity of the glycolytic pathway in dolphins.
... A plasma folate level of 3 ng/mL indicates folate deficiency. A plasma Vitamin B 12 level of 200 pg/mL indicates folate deficiency (Finglas 2000). ...
Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is ongoing in Guiyu, so toxic heavy metals may continue to threaten the health of children in the area.
This study primarily aimed to evaluate the effect of e-waste exposure on haemoglobin (Hb) synthesis in preschool children.
Medical examinations were conducted with the permission of children’s guardians and the approval of the Ethics Committee of the Medical College of Shantou University. This study recruited 224 children (aged 3–6 years, exposed group) who lived in Guiyu and 204 children (aged 3–6 years, control group) who lived in a town free of e-waste pollution. Blood levels of lead, Hb, ferritin, folate and vitamin B 12 were tested in all children. Furthermore, all children were assessed for thalassemia, and their parents were asked to fill in questionnaires.
There were no significant differences in the level of ferritin, folate, or vitamin B 12 between the exposed and control groups ( P > 0.05). No children were identified as having thalassemia in all study participants. Blood lead level (BLL) and the risk of children with BLL ≥ 10 µg/dL in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the control group (all P < 0.01). Three subgroups of each group were created according to BLL (Group A: < 5.0 µg/dL; Group B: 5.0–9.9 µg/dL; Group C: ≥ 10.0 µg/dL). Hb level decreased with elevated BLL in the exposed group ( P = 0.03), but not in the control group ( P = 0.14). Hb levels in group B and group C were also significantly lower in the exposed group than in the control group (Group B: 122.6 ± 9.5 g/L versus 125.8 ± 8.2 g/L, P = 0.01; Group C: 120.3 ± 7.3 g/L versus 123.6 ± 8.3 g/L, P = 0.03). In addition, the prevalence of anaemia associated with BLLs above 10 µg/dL and between 5.0 and 9.9 µg/dL were both significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control group (4.0% vs. 0.5%, 5.4% vs. 1.5%, respectively, both P < 0.05).
Lead exposure more significantly inhibits Hb synthesis in children who live in e-waste dismantling areas than in those who live in non-e-waste dismantling areas. Other toxins released from e-waste may also contribute to the inhibition of Hb synthesis and may lead to anaemia in local children. Further investigations are needed to provide evidence for the development of relevant protective measures.
... It is well-established that folic acid fortification and supplementation are safe . According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines, the tolerable upper intake level (UL) of folic acid (but not total food folate) is 1000 micrograms (1 mg) of folic acid, only because of possible neurological damage of vitamin B12 deficiency at levels exceeding 1000 micrograms . The daily mentioned dosage of folic acid in included studies in our analysis varied between 0.8 and 10 mg/d. ...
It has been theorized that folic acid supplementation improves inflammation. However, its proven effects on inflammatory markers are unclear as clinical studies on this topic have produced inconsistent results. To bridge this knowledge gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on serum concentrations of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Methods: To identify eligible RCTs, a systematic search up to April 2021 was completed in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and Google Scholar using relevant keywords. A fix or random-effects model was utilized to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: Twelve RCTs were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled analysis revealed that serum concentrations of CRP (WMD: −0.59 mg/L, 95% CI −0.85 to −0.33, p < 0.001) were significantly reduced following folic acid supplementation compared to placebo, but did not affect serum concentrations of IL-6 (WMD: −0.12, 95% CI −0.95 to 0.72 pg/mL, p = 0.780) or TNF-α (WMD: −0.18, 95% CI −0.86 to 0.49 pg/mL, p = 0.594). The dose–response analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between an elevated dosage of folic acid supplementation and lower CRP concentrations (p = 0.002). Conclusions: We found that folic acid supplementation may improve inflammation by attenuating serum concentrations of CRP but without significant effects on IL-6 and TNF-α. Future RCTs including a larger number of participants and more diverse populations are needed to confirm and expand our findings.
... Its adequate supply is essential for red blood cell generation and optimal function of central nervous system. 350 Russell-Jones et al. showed that conjugation of NPs (50 nm, 100 nm and 200 nm) with vitamin B 12 highly enhanced their uptake into Caco-2 cells, an intestine cell line, compared to uncoated NPs. 351 Wang et al. investigated the endocytosis and cytotoxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs and vitamin C co-exposure in gastric epithelial and neural stem cells. ...
Nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted considerable attention in various fields, such as cosmetics, the food industry, material design, and nanomedicine. In particular, the fast-moving field of nanomedicine takes advantage of features of NPs for the detection and treatment of different types of cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, arthritis as well as neurodegenerative and gastrointestinal diseases. To this end, a detailed understanding of the NP uptake mechanisms by cells and intracellular localization is essential for safe and efficient therapeutic applications. In the first part of this review, we describe the several endocytic pathways involved in the internalization of NPs and we discuss the impact of the physicochemical properties of NPs on this process. In addition, the potential challenges of using various inhibitors, endocytic markers and genetic approaches to study endocytosis are addressed along with the principal (semi) quantification methods of NP uptake. The second part focuses on synthetic and bio-inspired substances, which can stimulate or decrease the cellular uptake of NPs. This approach could be interesting in nanomedicine where a high accumulation of drugs in the target cells is desirable and clearance by immune cells is to be avoided. This review contributes to an improved understanding of NP endocytic pathways and reveals potential substances, which can be used in nanomedicine to improve NP delivery.
... Here, two kinds of lipid metabolism detected were: i) Glycerophospholipid metabolism: The observed increase in contents of LysoPC (18:1(9Z)) in the model group could be attributed to the risk of HF . Choline is an essential nutrient for humans . Choline is metabolized to Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which could exacerbate cardiac dysfunction and myocardial hypertrophy in a model of cardiovascular disease [72,73]. ...
Heart failure (HF) is an important and leading cause of substantial morbidity and mortality globally. The angiotensin-converting enzymatic (ACE) is the causative source for congestive heart failure. Natural products and its derivatives play a vital role in drug discovery and development owing to their efficacy and low toxicity. Pyxinol is a potent natural agent for cardiovascular disease. Thus we investigated the effect on ACE and HF of pyxinol derivatives. We designed and synthesized 32 novel fatty acid ester derivatives of pyxinol via esterification. Among them, compounds 2e (IC50=105 nM) and 3b (IC50=114 nM) displayed excellent ACE inhibitory activity in vitro, and exhibited non-toxic to H9c2 cells. The interactions between ACE and compounds were predicted by molecular docking respectively. In verapamil-induced zebrafish HF model, the activity assay showed that these two derivatives could improve cardiovascular physiological indexes including heart beats, venous congestion, heart dilation, cardiac output, ejection fraction and fractional shortening in a dose-dependent manner. A UPLC-QTOF-MS-based serum metabolomics approach was applied to explore the latent mechanism. A total of 25 differentiated metabolites and 8 perturbed metabolic pathways were identified. These results indicated that pyxinol fatty acid ester derivatives 2e and 3b might be considered as potent drug candidates against heart failure and deserved further research and development.
... Another limitation is that participants' dietary intake was self-reported and thus subject to reporting bias, especially when we asked about diet over a long period of 12 months. Protein intake was very high compared to the US Dietary Reference Intake for pregnant women [62,63]. However, FFQs may not accurately capture absolute dietary intake or active dose of nutrients, although FFQs have strong validity in correctly ranking nutrition intake compared to a food diary that does not rely on recall and memory . ...
Prenatal inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is associated with pregnancy outcomes. Maternal capabilities of arsenic biotransformation and elimination may influence the susceptibility of arsenic toxicity. Therefore, we examined the determinants of arsenic metabolism of pregnant women in Bangladesh who are exposed to high levels of arsenic.
In a prospective birth cohort, we followed 1613 pregnant women in Bangladesh and collected urine samples at two prenatal visits: one at 4-16 weeks, and the second at 21-37 weeks of pregnancy. We measured major arsenic species in urine, including iAs (iAs%) and methylated forms. The proportions of each species over the sum of all arsenic species were used as biomarkers of arsenic methylation efficiency. We examined the difference in arsenic methylation using a paired t-test between first and second visits. Using linear regression, we examined determinants of arsenic metabolism, including age, BMI at enrollment, education, financial provider income, arsenic exposure level, and dietary folate and protein intake, adjusted for daily energy intake.
Comparing visit 2 to visit 1, iAs% decreased 1.1% (p < 0.01), and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic level (U-As) increased 21% (95% CI: 15, 26%; p < 0.01). Drinking water arsenic concentration was positively associated with iAs% at both visits. When restricted to participants with higher adjusted urinary arsenic levels (adjusted U-As > 50 μg/g-creatinine) gestational age at measurement was strongly associated with DMA% (β = 0.38, p < 0.01) only at visit 1. Additionally, DMA% was negatively associated with daily protein intake (β = - 0.02, p < 0.01) at visit 1, adjusting for total energy intake and other covariates.
Our findings indicate that arsenic metabolism and adjusted U-As level increase during pregnancy. We have identified determinants of arsenic methylation efficiency at visit 1.
... Fontes: Levedo de cerveja, fígado bovino, vegetais folhosos, leguminosas, gérmen de trigo, suco de laranja(ACCIOLY et al, 2009;GROPPER, SMITH & GROFF, 2011). Recomendação: Gestação 600 g/dia e lactação 500 g/dia (GROPPER,SMITH & GROFF, 2011;INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE, 1998).Definição: A vitamina C, ou ácido ascórbico (AA), é uma substância hidrossolúvel essencial, visto que seres humanos não possuem a enzima (gulonolactona oxidase) necessária para sua síntese a partir da glicose, necessitando assim da obtenção desse micronutriente a partir da dieta. Existem duas formas igualmente ativas da vitamina C, a forma reduzida, o ácido ascórbico, e sua forma oxidada, o ácido dehidroascórbico.(HALLIWELL, ...
A gestação é um período de marcantes alterações no metabolismo materno acompanhadas por um importante aumento das necessidades nutricionais da gestante, visto que além de suprir seu próprio metabolismo, os nutrientes são essenciais para o desenvolvimento fetal. Dessa forma, quando essas adaptações nutricionais não são adequadamente ajustadas, observam-se as deficiências de macro e micronutrientes, que podem provocar possíveis efeitos adversos para ambos, mãe e feto. Há importantes evidências na literatura demonstrando o papel de vitaminas e minerais como determinantes no desfecho da gestação. Embora alguns nutrientes como o cálcio, zinco e folato já tenham sido amplamente estudados, o papel de outros no período gestacional, como as vitaminas do complexo B e vitamina E, foi pouco explorado. O presente artigo visa à compilação de informações sobre o papel metabólico dos micronutrientes cuja deficiência afeta a saúde materna e fetal, principalmente em países de baixa renda. Será descrita a função e papel desses micronutrientes na gestação, bem como as consequências da deficiência nessa etapa da vida da mulher. As principais fontes alimentares e recomendações de ingestão para cada um deles também serão descritas.
Niacin is one of the vitamins belonging to vitamin B complex. By definition, niacin refers to nicotinic acid (pyridine-3-carboxylic acid), nicotinamide (nicotinic acid amide and pyridine-3-carboxamide), and derivatives. These compounds are precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, which play an important role in metabolism. Niacin vitamers are found in both plant and animal foods, and due to the contribution of tryptophan, foods containing balanced protein may also contribute to high niacin equivalent. Its deficiency is apparent in conditions of poverty, malnutrition, chronic alcoholism psychosis, and some types of tumor. If supplemented at pharmacological level, niacin compounds provide potential health benefits like combating cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, neurological problems, and skin diseases. Apart from having such benefits, excess doses of niacin could lead to side effects.
Cardiovascular disease; Cholesterol; Dermatitis; Nicotinamide; Pellagra
This study was conducted to create a selenium database for the representative food items
in Saudi diet and to estimate the dietary selenium intake of Saudi Arabians. Three samples for each
food item selected were purchased from the markets. Each pooled sample was analyzed in triplicate
by ICP–MS after thorough homogenization. The rich sources of selenium were meats (0.216–
0.658 lg/g), eggs (0.226 lg/g) and cereals and cereals products (0.043–0.165 lg/g). Vegetables and
fruits contained trace amounts of selenium (0.001–0.067 lg/g). The major food sources of selenium
intake were cereals and cereals products (30.2%), legumes (24.7%) and meats (20%). The daily
intake of Se was calculated taking into account the concentration of this element in the edible part
and the daily consumption data which were derived from two sources, (a) the food balance sheet of
KSA given by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and (b) from questionnaires distributed
among 200 families in Jeddah. The results showed that the daily intake of Se according to the two
sources is 75.00–121.65 lg/person/day.
Praziquantel ist das Mittel der Wahl bei der Behandlung der Bilharziose. Für die Wirksamkeit des Medikaments spielt die Immunantwort des Wirts eine wichtige Rolle. Mikronährstoffe sind wichtig für die Funktion des Immunsystems. In Endemiegebieten der Bilharziose findet sich meist ein Mikronährstoffmangel. In dieser Studie wurde untersucht, ob ein Ausgleich des Mikronährstoffmangels das Behandlungsergebnis optimieren kann und Reinfektionen vermindert werden können. Für die randomisierte Interventionsstudie wurden 331 infizierte Kinder zwischen acht und 14 Jahren mit einer Eiausscheidung von über 30 Schistosoma haematobium Eiern pro 10 ml Urin ausgewählt. Die Kinder wurden zuvor in einer an zehn Grundschulen erhobenen Querschnittsstudie in einem blasenbilharzioseendemischen Gebiet in Tansania identifiziert. Die Interventionsgruppe erhielt vier Wochen lang ein Mikronährstoffpräparat und wurde danach mit Praziquantel behandelt, die Kontrollgruppe erhielt nur Praziquantel. Bei der Kontrolle des Therapierfolgs fanden sich keine signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen der Interventions- und der Kontrollgruppe hinsichtlich der Heilungsraten und der Infektionsstärke der Nichtgeheilten. Nach zehn Monaten wurden die Kinder nochmalig auf Eier im Urin untersucht, um Reinfektionen festzustellen. Fehlende bzw. spärliche Niederschläge machten jedoch Neuinfektionen fast unmöglich, da sich kaum Wasserstellen gebildet hatten, welche die Habitate von Bulinus nasutus - dem Zwischenwirt von S. haematobium im Untersuchungsgebiet - darstellen. Es waren nur 10 % der Kinder reinfiziert mit sehr geringen Infektionsstärken ohne signifikante Unterschiede zwischen den Studiengruppen. Es konnte nicht nachgewiesen werden, dass eine Mikronährstoffgabe den Therapieerfolg nach der Behandlung mit Praziquantel verbessern kann. Ob Reinfektionen verringert werden können, ließ sich aufgrund der anhaltenden Dürre in den Jahren 1999 und 2000 in dieser Studie nicht feststellen, sollte aber Gegenstand weiterer Studien sein.
Folic acid is an essential water soluble B vitamin which has been used for decades in the prevention of folate deficiency anemia of pregnancy. In 1991, folic acid taken prior to the start of pregnancy was shown unequivocally to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly—two of the most serious and common birth (neural tube) defects. Soon governments recommended that women of reproductive age consume folic acid daily to prevent these birth defects. Because compliance was low and since more than half of pregnancies are unplanned, the United States Food and Drug Administration mandated in 1998 that all enriched flour be fortified with folic acid at a concentration estimated to give the average woman an intake of 100 micrograms of folic acid a day. Canada and Chile followed with similar requirements for folic acid fortification of wheat flour. Now there is mandatory fortification in more than 50 countries globally.
Where fortification has been implemented and studied, it has led to dramatic increases in serum folate concentrations, reduction in neural tube defects, folate deficiency anemia, as well as the reduction in homocysteine concentrations and stroke mortality with no known risk. Australia implemented mandatory folic acid fortification in 2009. To date, no country in Europe has implemented mandatory folic acid fortification of flour, although it has been recommended by the UK Food Safety Authority. This review discusses the vital importance of mandatory flour fortification with folic acid and vitamin B12, for public health food security and as a challenge to the New Public Health in Europe and globally.
The importance of food in disease prevention and maintenance of health was known from ancient times and has been an established practice through observations and logical reasoning. With the advancement in modern medicine, the importance of food other than as a source of energy and essential nutrients, was given less importance. Recently, the importance of food in disease prevention is becoming more apparent. This chapter provides trends in the use of functional foods and nutraceuticals and its benefits in disease prevention. Aspects of government recognition of these trends are also highlighted.
Historical OverviewChemistry and Biological ActivityDietary Sources and BioavailabilityAbsorption, Transport and MetabolismBiochemical FunctionsRegulation of Steroid Hormone ActionImmune FunctionVitamin B6 DeficiencyNutritional AspectsFurther ReadingReferences
Historical OverviewChemistryDietary Sources and BioavailabilityAbsorption, Transport and MetabolismBiochemical FunctionsHomocysteine-related Occlusive Arterial and Thrombotic DiseasesFolate and Neural Tube DefectsFolate DeficiencyDietary IntakeFurther ReadingReferences
Historical OverviewChemistryDietary Sources and BioavailabilityAbsorption, Transport and MetabolismBiochemical Functions of Coenzyme A and Acylcarrier Protein in Cellular MetabolismPhysiological Roles of Coenzyme A in the Modification of ProteinsDeficiency in Animals and HumansFurther ReadingReferences
Urine color (Ucol) as a hydration assessment tool provides practicality, ease of use, and correlates moderately to strongly with urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm). Indicative of daily fluid turnover, along with solute and urochrome excretion, Ucol may also reflect dietary composition. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of Ucol as a hydration status biomarker after nutritional supplementation with beetroot (880 mg), vitamin C (1000 mg), and riboflavin (200 mg). Twenty males (Mean ± SD; age, 21 ± 2 y; body mass, 82.12 ± 15.58 kg; height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m) consumed a standardized breakfast and collected all urine voids on one control day (CON), and one day after consuming a standardized breakfast and a randomized and double-blinded supplement (SUP), over 3 weeks. Participants replicated exercise and diet for one day before CON, and throughout CON and SUP. Ucol, Usg, Uosm, and urine volume were measured in all 24-h samples, and Ucol and Usg were measured in all single samples. Ucol was a significant predictor of single sample Usg after all supplements (p<0.05). Interestingly, 24-h Ucol was not a significant predictor of 24-h Usg and Uosm after riboflavin supplementation (p=0.20, p=0.21). Further, there was a significant difference between CON and SUP 24-h Ucol only after riboflavin supplementation (p<0.05). In conclusion, this investigation suggests that users of the UCC should consider riboflavin supplementation when classifying hydration status and utilize a combination of urinary biomarkers (e.g., Usg and Ucol), both acutely and over 24-h.
Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of children.
We used a targeted metabolomics approach to measure serum amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and other metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 313 children, aged 12–59 months, from rural Malawi. Children underwent anthropometry.
Sixty-two percent of the children were stunted. Children with stunting had lower serum concentrations of all nine essential amino acids (tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, valine, methionine, threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine) compared with nonstunted children (p < 0.01). In addition, stunted children had significantly lower serum concentrations of conditionally essential amino acids (arginine, glycine, glutamine), non-essential amino acids (asparagine, glutamate, serine), and six different sphingolipids compared with nonstunted children. Stunting was also associated with alterations in serum glycerophospholipid concentrations.
Our findings support the idea that children with a high risk of stunting may not be receiving an adequate dietary intake of essential amino acids and choline, an essential nutrient for the synthesis of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids.
Vitamin production by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has gained the attention of the scientific community. It has been shown that certain foods fermented with LAB contain high levels of B-group vitamins as a result of microbial biosynthesis. Recently, it has also been reported that LAB and other beneficial microorganisms have the potential to produce vitamins in situ in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This chapter reviews the newest studies describing B-group vitamin-producing LAB, and shows that increasing the B-group vitamin concentrations in yogurts and fermented milks is possible through judicious selection of the microbial species and cultivation conditions. The B-group (or B-complex) vitamins include thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folate, and cobalamin. The chapter discusses the most recent applications of beneficial microorganisms in order to increase the concentration of vitamins through microbial biosynthesis as an economically attractive alternative to mandatory fortification of foods.
Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences for the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce risk of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanistic and association research links multiple antenatal micronutrients with plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and filling extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce the risks of being born with low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure might persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring.
In Brazil, children’s eating patterns have been characterised by an increased consumption of ultra-processed foods that are fortified. Our aims were to (1) estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake among children from low-income families and (2) to assess micronutrient intake from fortified foods. We carried out a cross-sectional study from a randomised field trial conducted at healthcare centres in Porto Alegre, Brazil, with 446 mother–child pairs, with the children aged 2–3 years. Dietary data were assessed using two 24-h recalls. The prevalence of inadequacy for six micronutrients was estimated using the proportion of individuals with intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR). Micronutrient intakes from fortified foods were evaluated using EAR and upper tolerable level (UL). Healthy foods consumption was below the recommendations, except for beans, and 88·1 % of the children consumed ultra-processed foods. A low prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake was observed for Fe (1·2 %), vitamin C (4·7 %), vitamin A (5·2 %), Ca (11·4 %) and folate (15·2 %). None of the children had intakes less than the EAR for Zn. Fortified foods contributed between 11·3 and 38·3 % to micronutrient intakes, and 43·0 % of the children met the EAR for Fe, 13·9 % for vitamin C and 12·3 % for Zn using fortified foods only. In addition, 4·0 % of the children exceeded the UL for vitamin A, 3·1 % for Zn, 1·1 % for folic acid and 0·2 % for Fe. These results highlight a low prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes among children and suggest that such a group could be at risk of excessive micronutrient intakes provided by ultra-processed foods.
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake associated with the erythrocyte transketolase activity coefficient (αETK) < 1.15, generally considered to reflect an adequate thiamin status, or with the restoration of normal (baseline) erythrocyte transketolase activity, without a sharp increase in urinary thiamin excretion, can be used to estimate thiamin requirement. In the absence of new scientific evidence, the Panel endorses the average requirement (AR) of 0.072 mg/MJ (0.3 mg/1,000 kcal) for all adults proposed by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) in 1993 on the basis of one depletion–repletion study, in which both αETK and urinary thiamin excretion were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference intake (PRI) of 0.1 mg/MJ (0.4 mg/1,000 kcal) set by the SCF for all adults. The same AR and PRI as for adults, expressed in mg/MJ, are proposed for infants aged 7–11 months, children aged 1 to < 18 years, and during pregnancy and lactation, under the assumption that the relationship between thiamin requirement and energy requirement is the same in all population groups.
Maternal folate and vitamin B12 status during pregnancy may influence development of central nervous system (CNS) in the offspring. Very little attention has been paid to understand the combined effects of both the vitamins during pregnancy. The present study was designed to evaluate the biochemical and behavioral outcomes following alterations in folate and vitamin B12 levels in C57BL/6 mice. The female mice were fed with different combinations of folate and vitamin B12 whereas; males were fed with normal diet for 4 weeks. The mice were mated and the pregnant mice received the same diets as before pregnancy. The F1 male mice were further continued on maternal diet for 6 weeks following neurobehavioral and biochemical assessment. The body weight of the F1 male mice was significantly decreased in the mice that received folate and vitamin B12 deficient diet. Altered cognitive functions were observed in the folate and B12 deficient F1 male mice as assessed by Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests. Spontaneous locomotor activity was decreased in F1 male mice fed with folate and B12 deficient diets. Elevated homocysteine levels and decreased hydrogen sulfide levels were also observed in the brain of F1 male mice on folate and B12 deficient diets. However, GSH and GSSG levels were increased in the brain of the animals supplemented with folate deficient diet with different combinations of B12. The study suggests that exposure of female mice to folate and vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy effects in-utero development of fetus, which further leads to behavioral anomalies in adult life and is sufficient to cause impaired cognitive behavior in the subsequent generation. Thus, elucidating the role and importance of maternal dietary folate and B12 ratio during pregnancy.
An 8‐week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary choline levels on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolites in juvenile Pacific white shrimp. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to supply 0, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 6,000, 10,000 mg/kg choline chloride, and dietary choline levels were analysed to be 1,317 (basal diet), 1,721, 2,336, 3,294, 5,421 and 9,495 mg/kg, respectively. Dietary choline levels significantly influenced percent weight gain (PWG) and protein efficiency ratio (PER), with the highest PWG was observed in shrimp fed the 5,421 mg/kg choline diet. However, there were no significant differences in proximate composition of whole body and muscle. Shrimp fed the diet containing 2,336 mg/kg choline had lower HDL and LDL in haemolymph than those fed the basal diet (1,317 mg/kg diet). Dietary choline prevented the accumulation of free radicals and improved antioxidant capacity by increasing catalase activity and reducing malondialdehyde content. Based on broken‐line regression and quadratic regression analysis between PWG against dietary choline levels, the optimal choline requirements were estimated to be 3,254.1 and 6,488.3 mg/kg for juvenile L. vannamei, respectively.
Heart failure (HF), with a high fatality rate, is seriously harmful to human health. Ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5) is the major active component in black ginseng. The effect and mechanism of Rg5 on HF were investigated for the first time. Firstly, the in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was evaluated. Then, the verapamil-induced zebrafish HF model was used to assay the effect of Rg5. Finally, the untargeted metabolomics based on UPLC-QTOF-MS was applied to explore the latent mechanism by analyzing the metabolic perturbation. The results showed that Rg5 had a similar ACE-inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.124 μM) to the reference drug enalapril. Rg5 could dramatically improve cardiac function in a dose-dependent manner. A total of 22 differentiated metabolites and 8 perturbed metabolic pathways were identified. In summary, this study indicated that Rg5 could be a potential agent for protecting heart function in the clinical treatment of heart failure.
The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.
A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T, results in a thermolabile variant with reduced activity. Homozygous mutant individuals (approximately 10% of North Americans) are predisposed to mild hyperhomocysteinemia, when their folate status is low. This genetic–nutrient interactive effect is believed to increase the risk for neural tube defects and vascular disease. In this communication, we characterize a second common variant in MTHFR (A1298C), an E to A substitution. Homozygosity was observed in approximately 10% of Canadian individuals. This polymorphism was associated with decreased enzyme activity; homozygotes had approximately 60% of control activity in lymphocytes. Heterozygotes for both the C677T and the A1298C mutation, approximately 15% of individuals, had 50–60% of control activity, a value that was lower than that seen in single heterozygotes for the C677T variant. No individuals were homozygous for both mutations. Additional studies of the A1298C mutation, in the absence and presence of the C677T mutation, are warranted, to adequately address the role of this new genetic variant in complex traits. A silent genetic variant, T1317C, was identified in the same exon. It was relatively infrequent (allele frequency 5%) in our study group, but was quite common in a small sample of African individuals (allele frequency 39%).
A common mutation (C677T) in the gene encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (5-methyltetrahydrofolate:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 188.8.131.52), a key regulatory enzyme in one-carbon metabolism, results in a thermolabile variant of the MTHFR enzyme with reduced activity in vitro. In the present study we used a chromatographic method for folate analysis to test the hypothesis that this mutation would be associated with altered distribution of red blood cell (RBC) folates. An alteration was found as manifested by the presence of formylated tetrahydrofolate polyglutamates in addition to methylated derivatives in the RBCs from homozygous mutant individuals. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate polyglutamates were the only folate form found in RBCs from individuals with the wild-type genotype. Existence of formylated folates in RBCs only from individuals with the thermolabile MTHFR is consistent with the hypothesis that there is in vivo impairment in the activity of the thermolabile variant of MTHFR and that this impairment results in an altered distribution of RBC folates.