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... The Quranic term 'Halal' which means lawful or permissible (Bergeaud-Blackler, Fischer, & Lever, 2015;Che Man & Sazili, 2010;Munir & Regenstein, 1994) has been gaining significant attention due to the increasing demand for Halal products (Che Man & Sazili, 2010;Shariff, Akma, & Lah, 2014). Even though some aspects related to Halalness of food enzymes are mentioned in a few publications (Al-Mazeedi, Regenstein, & Riaz, 2013;Alzeer & Abou Hadeed, 2016;Khattak et al., 2011;Nakyinsige, Man, & Sazili, 2012;Riaz & Chaudry, 2004a), the information about the Halal status of enzymes used in food industry is scarce. ...
... The substances which are stated forbidden in Qur'an and Hadith are (i) carrion (the dead animal by itself, without cause of human effort), (ii) animals which died due to strangulation, or hit, or dropped (iii) animals which are not slaughtered prior to their death under the terms of religion (except fish and grasshopper), (iv) meat from an animal while the animal is still alive, (v) blood, (vi) pig (including all the parts), (vii) disgusting (extremely unpleasant) substances, (viii) fanged beasts, (ix) animals that live on land and in water, (x) hunted animals not complying with Islamic rules, (xi) intoxicants (all kind of alcoholic drinks) and (xii) narcotics (Awan, 1988;Che Man & Sazili, 2010;Munir & Regenstein, 1994;Satiawihardja, 2012;Shafii & Wan Siti Khadijah, 2012). In addition to these, OIC/SMIIC's General Guidelines on Halal Food (OIC/ SMIIC, 2011) detailed the Halal and Haram status of different food sources including animals. ...
... Isolation from Haram sources such as pig's gut may lead to doubtful situation and therefore need to be further discussed. It is crucial that the media in which the fermenting microorganisms are grown in has to be derived from Halal sources (Munir & Regenstein, 1994;Riaz & Chaudry, 2004a). Further discussions are also necessary with regards to other metabolites from the microorganisms during fermentation and residues of raw materials/purifying agents (i.e. ...
Background: Enzymes are extensively and increasingly used in research and food processing as important processing aids/biocatalysts. They can be produced by microorganisms through fermentation and can also be extracted from animal or plant tissues. Halal status of enzymes for industrial application is vague to consumers since they may not be properly traced back to their source of origin or production method.
Scope and approach: This review focuses on Halal related issues of enzymes i.e. used during industrial processing for food, feed, pharmaceutical and other consumer goods, with a particular focus on fermentation processes that might pose risks to Halal assurance.
Key findings and conclusions: The status of enzymes including the raw materials used and the current production methods is needed to facilitate Halal food production and comply with religious demands. Enzymes derived from Haram (not allowed) animals or from raw materials obtained from Haram sources are considered to be Haram. Whereas, enzymes derived from microorganisms during fermentation are considered to be Halal if the raw materials or any other ingredients used in the growth medium and in the final product are not from Haram or doubtful sources. If genetically modified (GM) microorganisms are used for enzyme production, recombinant DNA should not be from Haram or doubtful sources.
... According to Chaudry and Regenstein , genetic alterations that enhance product flavour, colour, texture, and composition may not raise any issues with Muslim acceptance if such items are metabolized by the human body in the same way and are otherwise safe to consume. In this situation, questions about the Halal status of genetically modified organisms such as EMs have been raised. ...
This paper aims to review the literature on ‘Effective Microorganism (EM)’ and ‘Fertilizer’ from the Scopus database and to discuss EMs using Halal-based sources for biofertilizer production from socio economic insights. Based on EM and fertilizer publications on the Scopus database, all the 17 papers reviewed provided no detailed information on the Halal-status of the biofertilizers inoculated with EM. The impacts of Halal-certified biofertilizers will trigger the Halal certification in food products by (a) catering for the increasing Halal food demand due to expectedly Muslim population expansion, (b) contributing to the sustainable buying behaviour of Halal products’ consumers in the future, (c) catering for the increasing number of Muslim travellers around the world, (d) becoming a positive driver for higher production of more Halal foods that can enhance food safety, human health and well-being, and (e) creating a cost-effective and increasing food marketability. The later three points (c, d and e) play a very important role in a country’s societal well-being and economic growth and development. Although Halal-status is not a must for the world’s food marketing, Halal-certified biofertilizer for the Halal-status of food carries the greatest potential to enter the ever-expanding Muslim markets. Finally, it is postulated that the successful usage of EM using Halal-based sources for biofertilizer production will result in two major outcomes from the points of United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals # 9 (Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure) and # 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production). Hence, the presented review provides a starting point for future research considering sustainability and innovation as priorities.
... Jika bahan dasar gelatin yang digunakan sebagai bahan dasar hewani, maka hewan tersebut harus memenuhi beberapa persyaratan sesuai syariah islam. Hewan tersebut bukanlah hewan non halal yang tidak boleh dikonsumsi umat muslim yaitu (1) babi dan anjing, (2) hewan yang disembelih tidak dengan menyebut nama Allah dan tidak sesuai dengan syariah islam, (3) bangkai, (4) darah, (5) hewan yang bertaring atau memiliki cakar tajam atau memiliki bisa atau sengat, (6) hewan yang menjijikkan, (7) hewan yang dilarang dibunuh dalam islam, (8) keledai jinak (9) hewan halal yang diberi makan dari makanan tidak halal secar terus menerus, (10) hewan yang mati karena dicekik, dipukul, atau jatuh, (11) daging yang diambil dari hewan yang masih hidup, (12) hewan yang hidup di dua alam (air dan darat) (Awan, 1988;Che Man & Sazili, 2010;Munir & Regenstein, 1994;Nurdeng, 2009;Satiawihardja, 2012;Shafii & Wan Siti Khadijah, 2012, OIC/SMIIC 2017. Apabila gelatin diproduksi dari bahan dasar tumbuhan maka produk tersebut bisa dikategorikan halal kecuali jika berasal dari tumbuhan yang memabukkan dan beracun. ...
Drug delivery system describe the journey of a drug to get the target of action. The material used in drug delivery is very diverse and according to the therapymethod. So far, the use of gelatin in the pharmaceutical is very extensive, such as material in the drug delivery system. Gelatin can be produced from the extraction of animal collagen like from skin, bone and connective tissue. They are usually taken from the products of animal slaughterhouse products such as pigs and cattles. To produce a halal material, starting from the selection of basic materials until production of a material must be appropiate with Islamic rules. Like the selection of basic materials that getting from halal animals, the slaughter process is according to Islamic law and does not contain alcohol or other non-halal ingredients. However, today the use of pig skin as a gelatin base material is preferred because of its abundant availability and ease of processing. But actually pigs are animals that should not be consumed in Islam. The large number of pharmaceutical products derivating from pigs is a problem for a Muslim because it can be non-halal product. Therefore it is necessary to look for alternative gelatin as drug delivery system. One of the alternative material that can be used is a polysaccharide which is a natural polymer with very abundant availability in nature. For example carrageenan which is a polysaccharide extracted from the red seaweed, alginate extracted from brown seaweed, and xanthan gum which is the excretion of Xanthomonas campestris bacteria. The polysaccharide can be used as a halal drug delivery system and has the potential to be developed further so that it has better quality than gelatin.
... Il s'est très largement inspiré de ceux rédigés avant lui par Joe Regenstein à l'intention des laboratoires et industriels intéressés par la cacheroute (Regenstein, Regenstein 1979, 1988. Chaudry a cosigné plus tard un article comparatif halal/casher avec J.M. Regenstein (1994). Jusqu'il y a peu, la sphère religieuse était restée plutôt en retrait par rapport à cette « science du halal » proactive des marchands et sa cohorte de scientifiques disciplinés des technologies alimentaires, agro-industriels, pharmaceutiques. ...
... A second reason is that these three religions together, with Christianity as the largest religion of the world (31.4 per cent in 2010 and expected 31.4 per cent in 2050), Islam the second largest religion of the world (23.2 per cent in 2010 and expected 29.7 per cent in 2050) and Judaism (0.2 per cent in 2010 and expected 0.2 per cent in 2050), is followed by more than half of the world population, and growing from 54.8 per cent in 2010 to 61.3 per cent in 2050, which influence could have significant impact on the sustainability of our food system ( PewResearch, 2015). Existing literature compares the kosher and halal food laws ( Chaundry and Regenstein, 1994;Regenstein et al., 2003a, b) and the laws of Moses vs the Christians practices ( Dorsey, 1991;Douglas, 1966), whereas the food laws of all three religions have not been compared, other than on fasting and feasting practices ( Corn, 2006). ...
– The purpose of this paper is to investigate if religious food laws can provide answers to current issues with the food systems.
– This paper provides a discussion of the dietary and food system principles from a Judaism, Christianity and Islamic perspective for the design of a more sustainable and healthy food system.
– The commercialisation of the natural resources, industrial food production approach and consumerism is endangering the food security, health and environment. Current industry practices are not sustainable and do not comply with Jewish, Christian and Islamic scriptures. Kosher, Christian and halal food laws share common principles in prohibition of certain animals (like pig), prohibition of blood, role of fasting and animal welfare. As a change in the diet is the solution, there is a key role for the food industry to comply and for religious leaders to radically reduce meat consumption and food waste of its followers.
– This viewpoint paper shows that religious food laws provide answers to current problems with the industrialised food production approach and consumerism.
– New food industry directives should convert meat-based to plant-based ingredients and additives; replace porcine by bovine sources; and emphasise on animal welfare to better serve the Jewish, Christian and Muslim consumer. Religious logos (kosher and halal) should incorporate nutrient profiling through a traffic light system to promote healthy food choice.
– Religious food laws are important for a big part of the world population (Jews, Christians and Muslims), which share many common principles. This study contributes to a better understanding of the commonalities and differences in these religious food laws.
... In Islamic law, halal means "allowed", "lawful" or "permitted" (Chaudry and Regenstein, 1994). Any ingredients that are used in food production are either permissible (halal) or prohibited (haram). ...
... Hence, it has long been a stated goal of the Malaysian government to establish Malaysia as a global halal hub for the promotion, distribution, and production of halal products and services to Muslim countries throughout the world . According to Mian and Chaudry, if genetic modifications improve product flavor, color, texture, composition, etc., but do not alter the way such products are metabolized by the human body, and are otherwise safe to consume, there might not be any acceptance problems by Muslims . In this context, the use of genetically modified organisms such as EM has raised concerns about their halalness. ...
Contemporary Malaysia faces rapid population growth that will increase competition for land and water resources for industrial use and urban growth. Solutions are needed to increase agricultural productivity to combat hunger and poverty. Since the agriculture sector has long been the backbone of the economy, the nation has found effective microorganism (EM) technology that has potential use in developing a sustainable agriculture sector. Malaysia is recognized as a modern Islamic country; citizens have concerns regarding halal issues associated with EM ingredients, which are not clearly mentioned by the manufacturer. Hence, a halal-based source is suggested in utilization of EM technology. This paper presents the development and applications of EMs that are not restricted to the agriculture system.
... The Hebrew word "kosher" refers to foods that are "fit or proper" for consumption by Jewish consumers who observe dietary laws that are Biblical in origin, deriving mainly from the original five books of the Holy Scriptures (Chaudry and Regenstein, 1994). Over time, rabbis have interpreted and extended details of the kosher dietary laws as needed to address changes in culture and technology. ...
... makrooh) food products, which are disapproved and may be offensive to one's psyche , or are otherwise harmful for human health (e.g. smoking ) (Chaudry & Regenstein, 1994). New food products have to be considered by the Fatwa Commission. ...
... On the other hand, the implementation of halal by Muslims obviously has triggered some thought from the non-Muslims on how halal food could make huge differences on the way of life between the non-Muslims and Muslims. To a person of a scientific mind, some of the obvious reasons could be the best explanation why halal should be implemented at the first place as follows (Latif, 2006;Chaudry and Regenstein, 1994;): a. The carrion and dead animals are unfit for human consumption because the decay process leads to the formation of chemicals harmful to humans. ...
The halal food products have become increasingly popular among non-Muslims worldwide, as the concept of halal is associated with what is good, healthy, safe and high quality assessment. As for that reason, Malaysia has expressed its aspiration to become a global hub for the production and distribution of halal goods and services years ago. Believing more business opportunities to be grasped, the government has recently announced the formation of the Halal Industry Development Corporation (HDC) and reaffirmed its determination to play a leading role in the halal industry. With a majority Muslim population, Malaysia has a ready domestic market for halal food. Recognized as a modern Muslim nation, Malaysia is well positioned to be an international halal food hub in the branding, processing and marketing of halal foods to Muslim populations. Moreover, as early as 2004, Malaysia has worked out its own halal standard (MS 1500:2004), which meets both the requirements of the Muslim community and international health and safety standards. Hence, Malaysia views its certification standard as strength over other competing countries and hopes it could be recognized as the benchmark for the global standard. To strenghten all the standards and procedures, the development of the halal industry has been written into the Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006-2010). One of the major objectives is to transform Malaysia into a production and distribution hub of halal products and to upgrade the necessary infrastructure to attract more traders and investors. Furthermore, with the growth of the Muslim population worldwide which now stands at around 1.8 billion, the potential of halal food market is indeed immense. What’s more, the concept of Halal is not just confined to food itself but also include cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, clothing, financial services and even tour packages.
Halal is an Arabic word that means “permissible.” Food consumed by Muslims meets the Islamic dietary requirement called Halal food. Muslims use two major terms describe food: Halal and Haram. Halal means permissible or lawful. Haram means forbidden or unlawful. Other terms used are makrooh, mashbooh and dhabiha. Makrooh is an Arabic word meaning religiously discouraged or disliked. Mashbooh is also an Arabic word meaning suspected: It covers the gray area between Halal and Haram. Dhabiha means slaughtered and implies that the animal has been slaughtered according to the Islamic methods. Halal foods are those that are: free from any component that Muslims are prohibited from consuming according to Islamic law and processed, made, produced, manufactured and/or stored using utensils, equipment and/or machinery that have been cleansed according to Islamic law. Haram foods are mainly Haram foods are mainly, pork and its by-products; alcohol and products made with it; blood and its by-products; dead animals and their products and animals slaughtered while reciting a name other than God. This may include Halal food that have been contaminated or mixed with haram ingredients. Over the past few years, Halal food products have become popular among both Muslim and non-Muslim consumers as they have evolved from being an identification mark of religious observation to assurance of food safety, hygiene, and reliability. This trend led to Halal market growth not only in USA and Europe but worldwide. To make sure food companies follow Halal guideline to produce Halal products, they need to certify their product as Halal with Halal certifying bodies. The products that may be certified include: meat and poultry fresh, frozen and processed products; meat and poultry ingredient; dairy products and ingredients; prepared foods and meals; all other packaged food products; cosmetics and personal care products; pharmaceuticals; nutritional and dietary supplements and packaging materials.
The kosher dietary laws provide spiritual health to those of the Jewish faith who observe these Biblical mandates. The major aspects of these laws are the allowed animals for food, the prohibition of blood, the avoidance of mixing of milk and meat, and the special laws for the holiday of Passover. These rules limit the foods that can be cooked and eaten, and also what can be eaten with what at a particular time. Some of the special preparation of meat and poultry may have public health significance, especially the salting and soaking of meat.
The rise in the Muslim population with the economic disability of Muslim countries have made the term halal common all around the world. The lack of information about halal in non-Muslim countries has made the status of imported halal products uncertain for Muslim countries. Halal meat is the most critical product due to the precise rules and requirements needed. In this review, we attempt to explain the types of halal and haram animals as well as the requirements needed for the allowed animals to be halal. Muslims must follow the halal rules mentioned in the Quran, Sunna and doctrines (scholars). The halal animals have been categorized with special and essential slaughtering requirements. However, the slaughtering should be performed in accordance with Islamic rules. The application of animal stunning has been allowed in some Islamic countries since the animal is still alive at the time of slaughtering with respect to animal welfare. Moreover, halal meat loses its halalness as soon as it becomes contaminated with najis (unclean). Indeed, it is important to understand the requirements of halal food, which cover religious aspects..
Chickens represent the most widely consumed meat in the world. Modern breeds are generally from a narrow genetic base. The genetic diversity of chickens consumed in urban areas of Malaysia has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of chickens available for purchase in urban areas of Selangor adjacent to Kuala
Lumpur. DNA of chickens were isolated from meats and livers. Seven microsatellite markers were selected and fluorescently labeled to allow the identification of each individual chicken from the seventeen populations based on the amplification of target DNA. A total of 52 different alleles was observed for the seven markers, giving a mean of 7.1 alleles per marker. The
cumulative power of discrimination (CPd) of the seven microsatellites used was 0.999 based upon our population study. The data showed that most of the chickens consumed in the urban areas came from a very narrow genetic base. The supply is thus vulnerable to disruption caused by outbreaks of disease. Furthermore the data obtained illustrates the potential of this system to be used in chicken lineage identification. This would help to resolve uncertainties over the origin of the chickens. This system could be used for product assurance as well as safety.
The kosher dietary laws determine which foods are “fit or proper” for consumption by Jewish consumers who observe these laws. The laws are Biblical in origin, coming mainly from the original five books of the Holy Scriptures. Over the years, the details have been interpreted and extended by the rabbis to protect the Jewish people from violating any of the fundamental laws and to address new issues and technologies. The Jewish laws are referred to as the “halacha.”.
Introduction / DefinitionsToxicological ConsiderationsFAO/WHO and Council of EuropeEuropean Union GeneralFlavour LegislationFood Additive LegislationOther Rules Concerning FlavouringsAmerica IntroductionThe NAFTA CountriesSouth American CountriesAsia GeneralThe “Middle East”The “Far East”South Africa, Australia and New ZealandReligious Dietary Rules Introduction“Kosher”“Halal”Comparison of Kosher and Halal Requirements GeneralFlavour LegislationFood Additive LegislationOther Rules Concerning Flavourings IntroductionThe NAFTA CountriesSouth American Countries GeneralThe “Middle East”The “Far East” Introduction“Kosher”“Halal”Comparison of Kosher and Halal Requirements
A Complete Course in Canning and Related Processes, Fourteenth Edition: Fundamental Information on Canning provides readers with a complete course on canning. This latest edition continues the tradition for both professionals in the canning industry and students who have benefitted from this collection for over 100 years. It contains extensively revised and expanded coverage, and the three-title set is designed to cover all phases of the canning process, including planning, processing, storage, and quality control. Major changes for the new edition include new chapters on regulation and labeling that contrast the situation in different regions worldwide, updated information on containers for canned foods, and new information on validation and optimization of canning processes, among other topics. • Continues the tradition of the series that has educated professionals and students for over 100 years • Covers all aspects of the canning process, including planning, processing, storage, and control • Analyzes worldwide food regulations, standards, and food labeling • Incorporates processing operations, plant location, and sanitation.
This chapter describes the kosher and halal food laws as they apply to the food industry, particularly in the United States. It explains how secular regulatory authorities ensure the integrity of the process. To understand their impact in the marketplace and the courtroom one must have some understanding of how kosher and halal foods are produced, and how important kosher and halal compliance is related to the consumers' purchasing of these products. The chapter also includes information that might assist kosher supervision agencies in addressing the specific needs of consumer groups and regulatory agencies in understanding some of the issues that need to be addressed in assuring the integrity of the marketing process.
Contemporary Malaysia faces rapid population growth that will increase competition for land and water resources for industrial use and urban growth. Solutions are needed to increase agricultural productivity to combat hunger and poverty. Since the agriculture sector has long been the backbone of the economy, the nation has found effective microorganism (EM) technology that has potential use in developing a sustainable agriculture sector. Malaysia is recognized as a modern Islamic country; citizens have concerns regarding halal issues associated with EM ingredients, which are not clearly mentioned by the manufacturer. Hence, a halal-based source is suggested in the utilization of EM technology. This study presents the development and applications of EMs that are not restricted to the agriculture system.
The aim of this research was to study the biosynthesis of natural flavor-active ethyl esters with a commercial lipase, Palatase 20 000 L, in coconut cream by coupling with yeast alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation was carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which generated ethanol as one substrate for ester synthesis. Lipase was added into the fermentation medium at three different time points (12, 24, and 48 h) during the time-course fermentation of 72 h. The concentrations of ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl laurate were the highest when lipase was added at 12 h, indicating early coupling of ethanol production with ester synthesis catalyzed by lipase. Although the growth of S. cerevisiae was slightly inhibited when lipase was added into the fermentation medium due to the formation of fatty acids, no adverse effect on ester synthesis was observed. This novel approach may be useful in the production of relevant flavors of fermented coconut cream with lipase treatment, which could be used as a new food ingredient.Practical applications: Esters are a group of valuable flavor compounds that have wide applications in a variety of food products. In this work, we proposed one effective approach of coupling yeast alcoholic fermentation and lipase-catalyzed biocatalysis to synthesize natural fatty acid ethyl esters in coconut cream. This method provides a novel application of coconut cream for ester synthesis. In addition, the esters formed can be considered as natural according to current regulations. The ethanol generated can be effectively utilized for ester synthesis, therefore, complying with the Halal rules. The end product can be possibly used as a natural flavoring in the food industry after sensory evaluation and proper process. The esters formed may be further separated and purified as pure flavor compounds.
The kosher and halal food laws represent the food requirements of people of the Jewish and Muslim faiths, respectively. The kosher laws predominantly focus on the allowed animals, the removal of blood and the separation of milk and meat. Other kosher laws deal with the preparation of food, including plant products. There are special kosher laws for the eight-day festival of Passover. The halal laws regulate allowed animals and the removal of blood. Additionally, alcohol is prohibited, as well as other intoxicating drinks and drugs. Both kosher and halal regulatory systems have provisions for modern religious leaders to apply traditional religious laws to contemporary situations, eg in addressing biotechnology issues. Jewish religious leaders accept all current gene transfer reactions regardless of the source of the gene, believing that the product takes on the identity of the end product. Muslim religious leaders are currently reviewing issues related to the use of synthetic genes and genes obtained from non-halal animals. Other forms of gene transfer are accepted by the Muslim community.
Introduction The kosher laws The kosher market Kosher dietary laws Special kosher foods Other kosher processing issues Kosher and allergies Meat of animals killed by the Ahl-al-Kitab Scientific contributions Pet food Health concerns Regulatory considerations Animal welfare Appendix 1: Standards suggested for kosher/halal slaughter of poultry Appendix 2: Animal welfare report References
Knowledge of the kosher and halal dietary laws is important to the Jewish and Muslim populations who observe these laws and to food companies that wish to market to these populations and to interested consumers who do not observe these laws. The kosher dietary laws determine which foods are “fit or proper” for Jews and deal predominantly with 3 issues: allowed animals, the prohibition of blood, and the prohibition of mixing milk and meat. These laws are derived from the Torah and the oral law received by Moses on Mount Sinai (Talmud). Additional laws cover other areas such as grape products, cheese, baking, cooking, tithing, and foods that may not be eaten during the Jewish festival of Passover. Halal laws are derived from the Quran and the Hadith, the traditions of the prophet Muhammad. As with Kosher laws, there are specific allowed animals and a prohibition of the consumption of blood. Additionally, alcohol is prohibited.
There is growing market for kosher foods and for similarly certified products that are compatible with the dietary laws of specific religious faiths. For food companies, this offers opportunities for the expansion of markets for existing products and scope for the development of new products for particular market niches. Modern scientific methods appear to be playing an increasingly important role in kosher certification. However, some aspects of modern technology (e.g. biotechnology raise new contents for the kosher food manufacturer. a