Article

A study of the selective leaching of complex sulphides from the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey

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Abstract

Recovery of copper, lead and zinc from complex sulphide concentrates with hydrometallurgical processes has been used as an alternative due to the technological and environmental impacts. In laboratory evaluation of the selective leaching, the metal values in the flotation concentrates were selectively recovered by sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and ferric sulphate (Fe2SO4)3. The experimental parameters studied were pulp density, temperature and time for leaching. From the experimental results, it is concluded that recovery of Cu and Zn from sulphide concentrates can be as high as 89% and 97%, respectively under laboratory conditions.

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... Chalcopyrite is the most abundant copper mineral and the most refractory and difficult to leach (Plumlee, 1999;Vanhanen, 1999). For that reason, numerous leaching studies have been performed by many researchers using various oxidants in acidic media, such as cupric ion (Liddicoat and Dreisinger, 2007;Al-Harahsheh et al., 2008;Yevenes et al., 2010;Skrobian et al., 2005;Lundstrom et al., 2005;Tchoumou and Roynette, 2007), ferric ion (Al-Harahsheh et al., 2008;Akcil and Ciftci, 2002;Dutrizac, 1990;Hirato et al., 1987;Yoo et al., 2010;Córdoba et al., 2008;Nazari andAsselin, 2009), dichromate ion (Antonijevic et al., 1994;Aydogan et al., 2006;Altundogan et al., 2004), nitrate ion (Sokić et al., 2009), hydrogen peroxide (Balaz and Briancin, 1990;Antonijević et al., 2004;Mahajan et al., 2007;Turan andAltundogan, 2013), hypochlorite (Ikiz et al., 2006) and oxygen (Padilla et al., 2007;Puvvada and Murthy, 2000). Among these agents, hydrogen peroxide is a strong and environmentally safe oxidizing agent. ...
Article
Full-text available
The leaching conditions of chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2) concentrate in a hydrogen peroxide medium were investigated by studying the effects of its leaching parameters, such as stirring speed, temperature, hydrogen peroxide concentration and the particle size of the concentrate on Cu extraction. It was found that stirring speed has no effect on the leaching. Copper extraction from chalcopyrite is directly proportional to hydrogen peroxide concentration, but the extraction decreases at temperatures above 60°C. The maximum copper extraction was obtained with the following conditions without stirring: 240 min of leaching time, 3.0 M hydrogen peroxide concentration, 40°C leaching temperature and 53-75 m particle size fraction.
... Leaching of copper sulphides like chalcopyrite by strong and weak acidic medium has been investigated by many researchers (Akcil and Ciftci, 2002;Arbiter and McNulty, 1999;Berezowsky et al., 1991;Filippou et al., 1997;Forward and Veltman, 1959;Habashi, 1999a;Harvey and Yen, 1998;Hiroyoshi et al., 2002;Kawulka et al., 1978;Perek and Arslan, 2002;Rao and Ray, 1999;Subramanian and Jenninc, 1972;Swinkels and Berezowsky, 1978;Xu et al., 2000). The research focused on chalcopyrite concentrates and its slags with dissolution by various leachants including sulphuric acid, ammonia, hydrolic acid, cyanide and acetic acid. ...
Article
Currently, low-grade and complex ores and mining wastes can be processed economically by using bacteria in heap and agitation leaching processes. Bacterial leaching tests are performed on the run-of-mine ore which is a mixture of two different massive and dissemine copper ores, fed to Küre Copper Plant. In this leaching process, using "Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans" culture, bacteria count, pH, copper and iron recoveries are monitored during the 576 hours of test period. By increasing the solid ratio (1 %→5 %) the oxidation ability of bacteria decreases, thus the leaching rate. Therefore copper and iron recoveries decreased from 68 %, 35 % and 45 %, 20 %, respectively. As a result of laboratory tests, it is found that as the pulp density increased, the efficiency of copper recovery decreased using this bacterial culture.
... The pressure leaching was conducted in a standard 2-l autoclave equipped with a heater, an agitator, and a water-cooling system (Fig. 2). Table 3 Particle-size distribution of the base metals in concentrate (Akcil and Ciftci, 2002) Size ( Feed sample was used as a minus 225-Am size. As atmospheric conditions, the experiments were carried out in a Teflon reactor with an agitator (automatic) and an oxygen inlet. ...
Article
A laboratory-scale method for treating a bulk concentrate (CuFeS2–PbS–ZnS) for metals recovery was developed utilising a combination of thermal process (roasting) and pressure leaching as an alternative to conventional pyrometallurgical processing. Pyrometallurgy is becoming less acceptable from environmental standpoints for the treatment of bulk concentrates. Additionally, high capital costs make modern facilities cost prohibitive. The leaching agents employed, namely, sulphuric acid (lixivant) and ferric sulphate, are selective for metal sulphides, this coupled with the fact that they create fewer environmental problems and are economical makes this new process highly favourable. In the laboratory evaluation of this process, the metal values in the flotation concentrates were selectively recovered by combining roasting and pressure leaching. The experimental parameters studied included roasting temperature, and pressure leaching pulp density, temperature, and retention time. Laboratory results indicate that roasting followed by pressure leaching is an efficient and cost effective method of treating base metal sulphide concentrates.
... The elimination of the roasting step is an important advantage, and the high zinc extraction also turned the focus to the importance of hydrometallurgical treatment processes. For this purpose, various leaching studies have been performed by many researchers in basic medium using ammonia solution [2][3][4][5][6][7] or in acidic medium using nitric acid [8], hydrochloric acid [9][10][11], sulphuric acid [12,13], and oxidating agents such as ferric ions [14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. ...
Article
The kinetics of dissolution of sphalerite with hydrogen peroxide in sulphuric acid solution was investigated. The influence of stirring speed (0–600 rpm), dissolution temperature (10–60 °C), sulphuric acid concentration (0.5–6.0 M), hydrogen peroxide concentration (0.1–6 M), and particle size were studied. The dissolution kinetics was found to follow a shrinking-core model, with the surface chemical reaction as the rate-determining step. This finding is in concordance with the activation energy of 43 kJ/mol and a linear relationship between the rate constant and the reciprocal of particle size. Increasing concentrations of sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide have a positive effect on the dissolution of sphalerite, and orders of reaction of 0.35 and 0.48 were established with respect to sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, respectively. Stirring speed had no effect on the rate of sphalerite dissolution.
... Leaching of copper sulphides like chalcopyrite by strong and weak acidic medium has been investigated by many researchers (Akcil and Ciftci, 2002;Arbiter and McNulty, 1999;Berezowsky et al., 1991;Filippou et al., 1997;Forward and Veltman, 1959;Habashi, 1999a;Harvey and Yen, 1998;Hiroyoshi et al., 2002;Kawulka et al., 1978;Perek and Arslan, 2002;Rao and Ray, 1999;Subramanian and Jenninc, 1972;Swinkels and Berezowsky, 1978;Xu et al., 2000). The research focused on chalcopyrite concentrates and its slags with dissolution by various leachants including sulphuric acid, ammonia, hydrolic acid, cyanide and acetic acid. ...
Article
The combination of roasting and pressure leaching is an alternative process that offers advantages over conventional processes because of the shorter leaching time and higher metal recovery. The copper and iron sulphide minerals examined in this study were chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and pyrite (FeS2). The best results obtained were with a pre-treatment by roasting followed by acid pressure leaching in an autoclave system. The extraction of copper achieved was over 85%. Copper dissolution in this system is affected by particle size, leaching time and oxygen pressure. This paper presents the preliminary research on acid leaching of pyritic copper ore in an autoclave system under laboratory conditions.
... hydrometallurgical treatment processes. For this purpose, various leaching studies have been performed by many researchers in basic medium using ammonia solution [2][3][4][5][6][7] or in acidic medium using nitric acid [8], hydrochloric acid [9][10][11], sulphuric acid [12,13] and also oxidating agents, such as ferric ions [14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. ...
Article
This paper presents a study for leaching kinetics of sphalerite concentrate in FeCl3–HCl solution. The shrinking core model was applied to the results of experiments investigating the effects of stirrer speed of 200–600 rpm, ferric ion concentration in range of 0–1 M, solid/liquid ratio in range of 1/100–1/5, leaching temperature range of 40–80 °C and particle size on zinc dissolution rate. The activation energy for the leaching process was found to be 45.30 kJ/mol and the Arrhenius constant was calculated to be 5.454 s−1. The order of reaction for ferric ion concentration, solid/liquid ratio and particle size were also obtained. The rate of the reaction based on reaction-controlled process can be expressed as,The dissolution of sphalerite with acidic ferric chloride solution was found to be controlled by reaction-controlled process.
... 0045 Copper removal from liquid effluents as well as leaching and selective leaching of complex sulphides from fine particles and dust is of actual interest (i.e. Akcil and Ciftci, 2002;Abisheva et al., 2003;Vracar et al., 2003;Antonijevic and Bogdanovic, 2004;Lazaridis et al., 2004). ...
Article
Mine tailing from the El Teniente-Codelco copper mine situated in VI Region of Chile was analysed in order to evaluate the mobility and speciation of copper in the solid material. Mine tailing was sampled after the rougher flotation circuits, and the copper content was measured to 1150 mg kg (-1) dry matter. This tailing was segmented into fractions of different size intervals: 0-38, 38-45, 45-53, 53-75, 75-106, 106-150, 150-212, and >212 microm, respectively. Copper content determination, sequential chemical extraction, and desorption experiments were carried out for each size interval in order to evaluate the speciation of copper. It was found that the particles of smallest size contained 50-60% weak acid leachable copper, whereas only 32% of the copper found in largest particles could be leached in weak acid. Copper oxides and carbonates were the dominating species in the smaller particles, and the larger particles contained considerable amounts of sulphides.
Chapter
As an important treatment method of processing the sphalerite, the technology of pressure acid leaching has many benefits, such as process flow short, no waste pollution, low production costs, high leaching rate of Zn, and S output in elemental form, which can be sold as a product. This paper takes the high indium sphalerite provided by Kunming Metallurgical Research Institute as the research object. A metallurgical behavior of sulfur conversion process is studied under high temperature and high pressure. The results indicate that the conversion rate of sulfur increases with the increasing liquid-solid ratio, leaching temperature, initial acid concentration and partial oxygen pressure in a certain range. With increasing leaching time, the conversion rate of sulfur increases first and then decreases. Considering all the aspects, the optimum parameters in the condition of conventional electric heating and microwave heating of the process are as follows: liquid-solid ratio 8:1, leaching temperature 423 K, initial acid concentration 120 g/L, partial oxygen pressure 1.0 Mpa, leaching time 90 min. The conversion rate of sulfur reaches 72.00% under the condition of conventional electric heating, 65.74% under the condition of microwave heating.
Thesis
Aus den supergene Erzen der polymetallischen Lagerstätte Sanyati (NW Zimbabwe) wird im heap leaching - solvent extraction - electrowinning (HL-SX-EW) Verfahren hochwertiges Kupfer gewonnen. Das Kupferausbringen entspricht jedoch nicht den Erwartungen. Um genauere Erkenntnis für die Gründe des geringen Ausbringens zu erlangen, wurde die Zusammensetzung, die Bildung und das Laugungsverhalten der supergenen Erze mit mineralogischen (Polarisationsmikroskopie, SEM und XRD), geochemischen (XRF, EMPA, AAS, ICP-OES und LA-ICP-MS) sowie experimentellen Methoden untersucht. Die Bildung der supergenen Erzkörper erfolgte seit dem Miozän (LISTER 1987). Rezent stehen diese Erzkörper als Inselberge in einer seit dem Pliozän gebildeten Erosionsmorphologie. Die Verwitterungsprofile der Erzkörper sind nur rudimentär zoniert. Die Mineralisation der Oxidationszone ist sehr heterogen und eine Zementationszone ist nur reliktisch als vereinzelte Erzlinsen ausgebildet. Neben physikalischen (ungünstige Korngrößenverteilung) und technischen Gründen (zu hohe Erzkompaktion auf den Laugungsbetten), führen mineralogische und texturelle Eigenschaften zu einer Fixierung von Metallen im Erz. Wertmetalle wie Cu und Zn, aber auch Pb und As sind an Limonitphasen (hauptsächlich Goethit und Hämatit) gebunden, die Hauptmineralbestandteile der supergenen Erze sind. Diese "unsichtbaren" Metallgehalte in Hämatit und Goethit sind in Sanyati deutlich höher als die in vergleichbaren Lagerstätten beschriebenen (SCOTT 1986; SCOTT 1992). Die Elementverteilungen in goethit- und hämatitreichen Abbautexturen von Sulfidmineralen enthalten keinen geochemischen "Fingerabdruck" der Ausgangssulfide. Cu, Zn und As (sowie die Spurenelemente Ga, Ge, Se, Ag, Cd und Sb) sind im allgemeinen in goethitreichen Bereichen der Abbautexturen angereichert, während Pb-Gehalte in hämatitreichen Bereichen erhöht sind. Die Buntmetallgehalte in Goethit und Hämatit sind in Roherz sowie gelaugtem Erz etwa gleich. Extraktionsexperimente mit Roherz ergeben, daß 19 % des Cu und 6 % des Zn adsorptiv an die Limonitphasen gebunden sind. Der restliche Anteil ist im Gitter der Limonitphasen fixiert. Laugungs- und Adsorptionsexperimente zeigen, daß ein Teil der Limonitphasen unter den Bedingungen der technogenen Laugung gelöst wird. Davon wird ein Teil des mobilisierten Cu und Zn durch Copräzipitation mit Goethit und Hämatit jedoch wieder fixiert. Aus diesen Gründen geht ein signifikanter Teil der Wertmetalle dem Ausbringen verloren.
Article
The aim of this study was to recover hydrogen sulfide, copper and cobalt from the pyrite samples provided from Ergani and Küre Copper Mining Co., Turkey. The samples were subjected to two different processes: in first process, the sample was mixed with different rates of iron at varying temperature and time and then subjected to roasting process in closed vessel system. In the second process, the sample was directly exposed to roasting process in a closed vessel system. In both processes, conversion values of pyrite into FeS were determined. After direct roasting the pyrite at 725°C for 1 h, the conversion rate of pyrite into FeS was found to be 98.9 ± 0.1 %. By addition of H2SO4 the sample converted into FeS structure, H2S gas was formed. Through reaction of water with the residue remaining after separation of H2S gas from solid phase, iron passed into solution, while copper and cobalt remained in the solid phase. In order to recover cobalt and copper from the sample in which iron was removed, two procedures were followed; first procedure includes taking cobalt and copper in solution by direct roasting the sample in air atmosphere at 600°C. The second process involves taking cobalt and copper in solution medium trough roasting the sample under the same conditions after enrichment with flotation. As a result of roasting the samples enriched with flotation, the optimal conditions in which copper and cobalt could be taken into solution with high yield were determined.
Conference Paper
Chalcopyrite as a major and most abundant copper mineral is also known as the most resistant to leaching. In particular, oxidative leaching of chalcopyrite in lower temperatures is affected by numerous problems such as a formation of passive layers on the chalcopyrite surface. A low grade deposit of copper is the next problem with recovering copper, because a conventional smelter technology is not cost-effective. Several methods of processing of copper sulphide ores, by-product or concentrates were invented and applied world wide in various scale. Most of them were characterized in the literature and presented during international conferences.
Article
Effects of particle size of the zinc sulfide concentrate, leaching temperature, solid-to-liquid ratio and additive amount on pressure acid leaching process of the zinc sulfide concentrate were studied. The results indicate that the additive can improve the reaction kinetics and the conversion rate. And sulfur can be successfully separated from the zinc sulfide concentrate as elemental sulfur. The reasonable experiment parameters are obtained as follows: the leaching temperature 150 °C, oxygen partial pressure 1 MPa, additive amount 1%, solid-to-liquid ratio 1:4, leaching time 2 h, initial sulfuric acid concentration 15%, and particle size less than 44 μm. Under the optimum conditions, the leaching rate of the zinc can reach 95% and the reduction rate of the sulfur can reach 90%.
Article
The chemical analysis of a complex sulphide concentrate by emission spectrometry and X-ray diffraction shows that it contains essentially copper, lead, zinc and iron in the form of chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena. A small amount of pyrite is also present in the ore but does not be detected with X-ray diffraction. The cupric chloride leaching of the sulphide concentrate at various durations and solid/liquid ratios at 100 °C shows that the rate of dissolution of the ore is the fastest in the first several hours, and after 12 h it does not evolve significantly. If oxygen is excluded from the aqueous cupric chloride solution during the leaching experiment at 100 °C, the pyrite in the ore will not be leached. The determination of principal dissolved metals in the leaching liquor by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical analysis of solid residues by emission spectrometry and X-ray diffraction allow to conclude that the rate of dissolution of the minerals contained in the complex sulphide concentrate are in the order of galena >sphalerite>chalcopyrite.
Article
Bacterial leaching of minerals is a simple, effective and environmental by benign technology in the treatment of sulphidic ores. This method has been successfully applied for the recovery of copper, gold and uranium in commercial scale for the past 25 years. Efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the bacterial leaching process depend mainly on the activity of bacteria and mineralogical and chemical composition of the ores. Bacterial leaching is based on the activity of mesophilic iron- and/or sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, notably Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. These bacteria oxidize metal compounds to water soluble metal sulphates by a series of biological and chemical oxidation reactions occurring in leaching medium. After the isolation of above bacteria from acidic mine drainage waters, two oxidation mechanisms (direct and indirect bacterial leaching) have been discussed as related to oxidation/leaching of sulphidic ores in leaching systems. Fully understanding the bacterial leaching mechanisms of sulphidic ores improves the design and operation of bacterial leaching plants. In this article, the importance of various leaching mechanisms employed for metal recovery and their application aspects are critically reviewed with emphasis on copper, lead, zinc and nickel minerals.
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The failure of the trial impeller of slurry pump used in zinc hydrometallurgy process occurred only after a service of about a month, the expected service life was more than 3 months. The failure impeller was subjected to serious corrosive wear. This paper deals with failure analysis of the impeller (mainly including composition analysis of the slurry, corrosive wear surface characteristics by visual inspection and optical microscopes as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM), composition analysis of the impeller material by spectrum analyser and SEM–EDX, microstructure analysis by optical microscopes) and an improved method. Failure analysis revealed that an improper austenite/ferrite ratio of duplex stainless steel (DSS) material resulting from a too high nitrogen content was primarily responsible for the rapid failure of the impeller. In addition, a melting test in a vacuum furnace verified again that nitrogen content had a significant effect on austenite/ferrite ratio of duplex stainless steel, a comparing corrosive wear test revealed further that DSS consisting of equal austenite/ferrite volume showed better corrosive wear resistance.
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In this study, a parametric investigation is carried out to estimate the hydrogen energy potential depending on the quantities of H2S in Black Sea deep waters. The required data for H2S in Black Sea deep waters are taken from the literature. For this investigation, the H2S concentration and water layer depth are taken into account, and 100% of conversion efficiency is assumed. Consequently, it is estimated that total hydrogen energy potential is approximately 270 million tons produced from 4.587 billion tons of H2S in Black Sea deep waters. Using this amount of hydrogen, it will be possible to produce 38.3 million TJ of thermal energy or 8.97 million GWh of electricity energy. Moreover, it is determined that total hydrogen potential in Black Sea deep waters is almost equal to 808 million tons of gasoline or 766 million tons of NG (natural gas) or 841 million tons of fuel oil or 851 million tons of natural petroleum. These values show that the hydrogen potential from hydrogen sulphur in Black Sea deep water will play an important role to supply energy demands of the regional countries. Thus, it can be said that hydrogen energy reserve in Black Sea is an important candidate for the future hydrogen energy systems.
Article
Full-text available
The book covers the general principles of solution chemistry, engineering aspects, and detailed studies of hydrometallurgical processes in 750 pages fully illustrated with drawings and photographs. It contains a selected list of over 250 review articles, proceedings volumes, and books directly related to the subject. Emphasis is laid on chemical reactions, equipment used, and flowsheets.
Article
A critical appraisal has been made of methods that have been proposed for the hydro metallurgical treatment of chalcopyrite concentrates. Those methods in which the primary breakdown of chalcopyrite is effected by leachants are discussed. Methods in which leaching is preceded by pyrometal-' lurgical decomposition of the mineral include selective sulphation and nonoxidizing treatments in which the ratios of _copper, iron and ulphur are changed. No process has yet been found that can replace conventional pyrometallurgical processing, although several have reached the pilot plant stage. The incentives for devising an eco- _nomic hydrometallurgicalprocess for extracting copper frosulphide ores are the avoidance of air pollution and the possibility of recovering iron, elemental sulphur and other nonferrous metals.
Article
Low pressure oxidative ammoniacal leaching was used to extract 95% zinc and 85% copper from complex sulphide concentrates of Ambamata, Gujarat. Copper and zinc were completely separated using LIX 64N and Hostarex DK-16 respectively. Conditions for electrowinning copper and zinc after stripping the loaded solvents were determined. Current efficiency for copper electrowinning was about 99% while that for zinc was about 94%.
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The author reviews current practice in separation from complex ores containing minerals of all three metals in economic quantities. Flotation is the only process that can be applied and the major problems encountered are related specifically to mineralogy.
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A critical appraisal has been made of methods that have been proposed for the hydro metallurgical treatment of chalcopyrite concentrates. Those methods in which the primary breakdown of chalcopyrite is effected by leachants are discussed. Methods in which leaching is preceded by pyrometal-lurgical decomposition of the mineral include selective sulphation and nonoxidizing treatments in which the ratios of copper, iron and sulphur are changed. No process has yet been found that can replace conventional pyrometallurgical processing, although several have reached the pilot plant stage. The incentives for devising an economic hydrometallurgical process for extracting copper from sulphide ores are the avoidance of air pollution and the possibility of recovering iron, elemental sulphur and other nonferrous metals. Résumé Une appréciation critique a été faite des méthodes proposees pour le traitement hydrométallurgique des concentrés de chalcopyrite. Les méthodes par lesquelles la deécomposition originale de la chalcopyrite est affectée par les lixiviants, sont décrites. Les méthodes selon lesquelles la lixiviation est précédée par la décomposition pyrométa1lurgique du minerai comprennent la sulphatation sélective et les traitements non-oxydants dans lesquels les concentrations relatives de cuivre, fer et souffre sont changées. Aucun procédé pouvant remplacer les procédés pyrométallurgiques conventionnels n'a encore été trouvé, bien que plusieurs soient parvenus au stade de l'exploitation sur pilote. L'intérêt d'un procédé hydrométallurgique économique, pour l'extraction du cuivre, à partir des minerais de souffre, serait la non-pollution de l'air et la possibilité de récupération du fer, du souffre élémentaire et des autres métaux non-ferreux.
Article
Systematic studies have been made to understand the oxidation behaviour and dissolution reaction mechanisms operative while pure copper, zinc and lead sulphide minerals and mixtures, and single concentrates/mixtures are treated by oxidative ammonia leaching. The information thus obtained is useful for characterisation of both the reactants and the products. During the leaching of bulk concentrate, it is possible to obtain high extraction rates (> 95%) for copper from chalcopyrite, Zinc from sphalerite, and lead from galena. Pyrite remains in the leach residue along with oxidised lead compounds and goethite is formed due to oxidation of iron from chalcopyrite.
Article
Bulk lead-zinc concentrates are an important feedstock for the production of zinc metal. Bulk concentrates are recovered from the processing of complex sulphide ores, as either the primary concentrate product, or as a coproduct with zinc, lead and copper concentrates.The Sherritt Zinc Pressure Leach Process has been successfully commercialized, in integration with existing roast leach electrowin plants, for the treatment of conventional zinc concentrates which contain up to 6% Pb. The nature of the integration allows for the recovery of the lead content of the concentrates treated in the pressure leaching circuit. Flowsheets are presented for the treatment of bulk concentrates alone or a combination of bulk concentrate and zinc concentrate, in a greenfield zinc pressure leaching plant. The integration of a zinc pressure leach treating bulk concentrate with an existing roast leach electrowin plant is considered.Bulk concentrates contain significant quantities of iron, normally present as pyrite. Options for disposal of iron are discussed.
Many industrially important metallurgical processes are accompanied by the emission of light, the analysis of which often supplies useful information concerning the current state of the process while also providing insight into the details of specific process mechanisms. Optical diagnostic techniques are finding an increasingly wide range of application throughout the metallurgical community. This paper discusses the application of emission spectroscopy and imaging techniques to the analysis of such diverse processes as vacuum arc remelting, laser welding, and arc welding. A discussion of these techniques will be presented addressing such subjects as instrumentation, data analysis, the kind of information available and its potential impact on the selection of process parameters. Special attention will be given to discussing the difficulties encountered in applying these diagnostic technologies to “real life” processes in non-laboratory environments.
Separation zinc, lead, copper and precious metals from HBM&S stockpiled oxide residue
  • M J Collins
  • M E Chalkley
  • D G Kerfoot
  • I M Masters
  • B Krysa
Collins, M.J., Chalkley, M.E., Kerfoot, D.G., Masters, I.M., Krysa, B., 1993. Separation zinc, lead, copper and precious metals from HBM&S stockpiled oxide residue. EPD Congress, 877-892.
A Textbook of Hydrometallurgy Kinetics of Metallurgical Processes Recovery of zinc and lead from complex low grade sulphide concentrates by acid pressure leaching
  • F Habashi
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  • F Habashi
Habashi, F., 1999a. A Textbook of Hydrometallurgy, second ed. M e etallurgie Extractive Qu e ebec, Qu e ebec, Canada. Habashi, F., 1999b. Kinetics of Metallurgical Processes, second ed. M e etallurgie Extractive Qu e ebec, Qu e ebec, Canada. Mackiw, V.N., Veltman, H., 1965. Recovery of zinc and lead from complex low grade sulphide concentrates by acid pressure leaching. Can. Inst. Min. Metall. Bull. 60 (657), 80–85.
Advantages of the Sherritt Zinc Pressure Leach Process. Lead and Zinc in the 1990's World and Latin America
  • M Makwana
  • M J Collins
Makwana, M., Collins, M.J., 1991. Advantages of the Sherritt Zinc Pressure Leach Process. Lead and Zinc in the 1990's World and Latin America, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
Pressure Leaching Process for Complex Zinc-Lead Concentrates
  • G L Bolton
  • N Zubryckyj
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Bolton, G.L., Zubryckyj, N., Veltman, H., 1979. Pressure Leaching Process for Complex Zinc-Lead Concentrates, vol. 1, Polish Scientific Publ., Warsaw, pp. 581-607.
Review of the hydrometallurgy of chalcopyrite concentrates
  • K M Subramanian
  • P H Jenninc
Subramanian, K.M., Jenninc, P.H., 1972. Review of the hydrometallurgy of chalcopyrite concentrates. Can. Metall. O. 11 (2), 387-399.