Article

WICS as a model of giftedness

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

This article presents WICS as a model of giftedness. WICS stands for Wisdom, Intelligence, Creativity, Synthesized. The article considers the relation between giftedness and expertise, and argues that giftedness is, ultimately, expertise in development. One cannot clearly distinguish between giftedness and expertise, because all measures of giftedness assess some kind of expertise, at least to an extent. The article then considers intelligence, creativity, and wisdom as elements of giftedness. It then draws some conclusions.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Many conceptions of giftedness include creativity (Feldhusen, 2005;Gagné, 2003;Marland, 1972;Renzulli, 2005Renzulli, , 2011Sternberg, 2005). Renzulli's (1978Renzulli's ( , 2011 Three-Ring Conception of Giftedness suggests that giftedness emerges from the combination of above-average ability, creativity, and task commitment. ...
... Renzulli's (1978Renzulli's ( , 2011 Three-Ring Conception of Giftedness suggests that giftedness emerges from the combination of above-average ability, creativity, and task commitment. Sternberg (2005) views giftedness as the synthesis of wisdom, intelligence, and creativity, and Gagné (2003) elucidates that intellectual, creative, social, and sensorimotor gifts contribute to talent development when there are appropriate environmental catalysts. Thus, Renzulli, Sternberg, and Gagné agree that creativity supports the manifestation of gifts and talents. ...
... For example, Rothenberg (2014) studied Nobel laureates in various science domains and found that creative thinking processes were essential for these scientists' contributions to their respective fields. For this reason, many researchers emphasize the importance of including creativity measures in gifted identification protocols (Kettler & Bower, 2017;Lemons, 2011;Sternberg, 2005Sternberg, , 2010Sternberg & Lubart, 1999;Treffinger, 2009;Treffinger & Reis, 2004). ...
Article
We examined the divergent validity and utility of the Test for Creative Thinking–Drawing Production (TCT-DP) in an identification protocol for high-ability students that included measures of intelligence, school motivation, inquisitiveness, creativity, and academic achievement. Data were collected from seventh-grade students across 6 years ( n = 710). Small significant correlations between the different measures indicated that the TCT-DP did measure a construct separate from intelligence, school motivation, inquisitiveness, and academic achievement. Furthermore, creativity did not significantly affect academic achievement when controlling for intelligence, school motivation, and inquisitiveness. We did not find support for threshold theory. Finally, we concluded that the TCT-DP provides useful additional information on creativity for high-ability identification in which measures of intelligence, school motivation, and inquisitiveness are already included. Thus, this study’s findings provide evidence for the utility and divergent validity of the TCT-DP when used with a Dutch population.
... To this end, several widely acknowledged theories of wisdom were used as theoretical references in this study, including Berlin wisdom paradigm (Baltes & Staudinger, 2000), balance theory of wisdom (Sternberg, 1998(Sternberg, , 2003, three-dimensional wisdom model (Ardelt, 2003), H.E.R.O.(E.) wisdom model (Webster, 2003(Webster, , 2010, and wisdom theory of integration of virtue and intelligence (Li & Wang, 2019;Wang & Zheng, 2014). Although these models differ in their definitions of wisdom, all consider wisdom as a multi-component construct and the commonly mentioned subcomponents include decision making/knowledge, prosocial attitudes and behaviors, self-reflection, acknowledgment of uncertainty, and emotional homeostasis (see Bangen et al., 2013;Jeste & Lee, 2019;Sternberg, 2019a, for reviews). ...
... Although these models differ in their definitions of wisdom, all consider wisdom as a multi-component construct and the commonly mentioned subcomponents include decision making/knowledge, prosocial attitudes and behaviors, self-reflection, acknowledgment of uncertainty, and emotional homeostasis (see Bangen et al., 2013;Jeste & Lee, 2019;Sternberg, 2019a, for reviews). Among these variables, emotional homeostasis and prosocial attitudes and behaviors can be summarized as virtue, and the other three can be classed as (successful) intelligence, a concept proposed by Sternberg (2003). This suggests that despite the lack of a unified definition of wisdom among existing theories, most researchers regard wisdom as an integration of virtue and intelligence. ...
... When in bureaucratic circles, clearly analyze the situation and plan far ahead. In such instances of wisdom, the protagonist consciously chooses those courses of action that, in the long run, are beneficial to the survival and sustainable development of the country, the nation, or the vast majority of people (Sternberg, 2003). Facing immediate benefits and temptations, they can restrain their greed with reason. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to use summarizing content analysis and descriptive analysis to examine features related to wisdom in Zhinang Quanji, a collection of classical Chinese wisdom stories by 17th-century writer Feng Menglong, so as to investigate the real-life manifestations of wisdom of ancient Chinese. The results are as follows: (1) the wisdom of ancient Chinese is mainly manifested in 20 different kinds of events. Among these, the following are the five instances of wisdom that appear most frequently: (a) act resourcefully and calmly as the situation demands to deal with emergencies; (b) assist those in a higher position (especially through admonishment or remonstration); (c) take note of even the finest detail and wisely settle disputes; (d) when in bureaucratic circles, clearly analyze the situation and plan far ahead; and (e) on the battlefield, ascertain the mentality of the enemy force, take them by surprise, and overcome them. (2) A total of 932 wise characters are included in Zhinang Quanji. Here, several characteristics are commonly found, including dominant maleness, numerical minority of persons aged under 18 and above 60, and predominance of characters who possess human wisdom. The current findings can provide a useful framework for understanding the manifestation of wisdom in concrete life contexts, thus helping us to better understand and grasp the meaning and nature of wisdom.
... We build the conceptual content of FACEthe answers to the four guiding questions in the inclusive-exclusive spectrumby making use of different strands of literature that all deal with the development of learning potential towards excellence (Mudrak et al., 2019). We combine insights coming from literature on student excellence in higher education (e.g., Brusoni et al., 2014;Joosten, 2014;Scager et al., 2013), theories on giftedness (e.g., Gagné, 2004;Harder et al., 2014;Heller, 2012;Sternberg, 2003), and theories of motivation (e.g., Dweck, 2012;Laine et al., 2016;Maehr & Zusho, 2009;Pullen et al., 2018). These different strands of literature provide various ideas regarding 'student excellence', which we have interpreted as possible answers to the four guiding questions and located on the inclusive-exclusive axis in FACE. ...
... Inclusive and exclusive views on who is excellentpotential Literature on giftedness and high-ability students provides several types of characteristics of a student's potential that can lead to excellence, such as innovativeness (Banis-den Hertog, 2016), creativity, high intrinsic motivation, above-average cognitive ability and high task commitment (e.g., Gagné, 2004;Pullen et al., 2018;Renzulli, 1986;Sternberg, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Honors programs and similar initiatives aimed at evoking excellence of students are increasingly promoted in higher education. However, there is a lack of conceptual clarity with regard to the concept of ‘student excellence’. The purpose of this article is to present a conceptual framework, called FACE (Framework for Analyzing Conceptions of Excellence), which provides a reflective tool for analyzing ideas on who is excellent, what is student excellence, why is student excellence important, and how is excellence taught. The content of FACE is based on literature on giftedness, motivation and excellence in higher education. FACE consists of a horizontal axis with inclusive and exclusive views at the extremes, and vertically distinguishes between possible answers to the ‘who’-, ‘what’-, ‘why’- and ‘how’-questions. FACE as a reflective tool can facilitate constructive debate among teachers that work together to develop educational programs aimed at evoking excellence of students.
... Identification procedures at [INSERT name of school] will also target students who are able to extend what is taught at school and can make links with ideas beyond what is taught. These students are the creatively gifted (Renzulli, 2005;Sternberg, 2005). ...
... Teachers at [INSERT name of school] will provide opportunities for gifted students to share their understanding of a topic, in its multiple forms, so that students can benefit from gifted students' unique understanding of the topics (Munro, 2017). This will provide opportunities for gifted students to develop their capacity to share their knowledge in meaningful ways (Sternberg, 2005). ...
Book
Building Better Schools with Evidence-based Policy: Adaptable Policy for Teachers and School Leaders provides an extensive set of free-to-use policies for building better schools. The policies included in this book cover a broad range of popular topics for schools that are not readily accessible, and each policy is built on theory, driven by research, and created by and experts. Each policy is based on substantial evidence and this is ensured through the inclusion of contributors who are active and highly reputable in their respective field. Most schools are obliged to write and maintain policy and not all school leaders have the required skills, time or expertise to do this effectively. Building Better Schools with Evidence-based Policy: Adaptable Policy for Teachers and School Leaders is a time-saving resource for schools. It aims to address the reported research to practice gap in education by delivering accessible evidence-based practice in a ready-to-use adaptable format. All policies within this book are designed to be adapted and tailored to the unique diversity and needs of each school as reflected by the context and the people that make up the school community. This book is relevant to every person who works in a school - worldwide. Users of this book can rest assured that each policy has been carefully formulated from the current understandings of best practice. This is a practical innovation and an example of how schools can use research-evidence in their day-to-day practices. Download here: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/oa-edit/10.4324/9781003025955/building-better-schools-evidence-based-policy-kelly-ann-allen-andrea-reupert-lindsay-oades?refId=632274ab-eee7-4293-bb4a-6c1366715472
... Although knowledge has been accepted as a component of wisdom in major theories such as the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes & Smith, 1990;Baltes & Staudinger, 2000) and the WICS model (Sternberg, 2003), our study offers a new understanding of knowledge. We propose a wise person should have a broad knowledge of the world, domain-specific knowledge, and meta-knowledge. ...
... 295). This concurs with Sternberg's (2003) proposition of wisdom as judgment regarding how to achieve a common good through the infusion of values ...
Article
No consensus on a definition of wisdom exists. Hence, 50 articles were systematically reviewed from the fields of psychology, management and leadership, and education to examine points of consensus among conceptions of wisdom. These articles were limited to the most cited peer-reviewed articles published between 2006 and 2018 that include wisdom in the title and key words. Based on the review, the Polyhedron Model of Wisdom was developed with components that characterize wisdom including knowledge management, self-regulation, altruism and moral maturity, openness and tolerance, sound judgment and decision making, intelligence and creative thinking, and dynamic balance and synthesis translated into action. This study is a step toward defining wisdom components upon which strategies to foster wisdom could be built. In the future, researchers should investigate ways of fostering wisdom through enhancing components of wisdom.
... Identification procedures at [INSERT name of school] will also target students who are able to extend what is taught at school and can make links with ideas beyond what is taught. These students are the creatively gifted (Renzulli, 2005;Sternberg, 2005). ...
... Teachers at [INSERT name of school] will provide opportunities for gifted students to share their understanding of a topic, in its multiple forms, so that students can benefit from gifted students' unique understanding of the topics (Munro, 2017). This will provide opportunities for gifted students to develop their capacity to share their knowledge in meaningful ways (Sternberg, 2005). ...
... Σύμφωνα με τον Sternberg (2005), τα δημιουργικά άτομα διαθέτουν τα ακόλουθα χαρακτηριστικά: επαναπροσδιορίζουν τα προβλήματα, αμφισβητούν και διερευνούν τις εικασίες, συνειδητοποιούν ότι οι δημιουργικές ιδέες δέχονται αυστηρή κριτική και διαδίδονται με κόπο, αναγνωρίζουν ότι η διαδικασία απόκτησης της γνώσης είναι αέναη, επιθυμούν να υπερβαίνουν τυχόν εμπόδια, αναλαμβάνουν λογικά ρίσκα, ανέχονται την ασάφεια και την αβεβαιότητα που προηγείται της σύλληψης μιας ιδέας, ΕΥΑΓΓΕΛΙΑ ΚΑΡΑΝΑΝΑ, ΟΛΓΑ ΚΟΦΑ, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ-ΣΤΑΜΑΤΙΟΣ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΟΥ ΠΑΙΔΑΓΩΓΙΚΟΣ ΛΟΓΟΣ 1/2021 216 διαθέτουν υψηλά επίπεδα αυτοαποτελεσματικότητας, αγαπούν τις ασχολίες τους, στοχεύουν σε μακροπρόθεσμες ανταμοιβές και επιδεικνύουν θάρρος και υπομονή κατά την ενασχόλησή τους με μια δημιουργική δραστηριότητα. ...
... Παράλληλα, είναι απόλυτα αληθές το γεγονός ότι η δημιουργική ικανότητα και παραγωγικότητα όλων των ανθρώπων μπορούν να εξελιχθούν και να αναπτυχθούν. Άλλωστε, τα υψηλά επίπεδα δημιουργικότητας προέρχονται από συνειδητές αποφάσεις, όπως είναι για παράδειγμα, ο επαναπροσδιορισμός των προβλημάτων, η υπερπήδηση των εμποδίων και η πίστη και αγάπη στον εαυτό μας (Sternberg, 2005). Περίληψη Η σοφία αποτελεί βασικό παράγοντα προσδιορισμού των αξιακών επιλογών του ατόμου. ...
Article
Full-text available
Η σοφία αποτελεί βασικό παράγοντα προσδιορισμού των αξιακών επιλογών του ατόμου. Η σοφία και η δημιουργικότητα σχετίζονται θετικά ως έννοιες, αφού η ορθή κρίση για τα απαιτητικά προβλήματα της ζωής συνεπάγεται έναν προαπαιτούμενο βαθμό δημιουργικής σκέψης. Οι χαρισματικοί μαθητές, δεδομένης της προηγμένης ηθικής τους ανάπτυξης και ηθικής συλλογιστικής, διακρίνονται για τα υψηλά επίπεδα σοφίας και δημιουργικότητάς τους. Κατά καιρούς, οι ερευνητές έχουν αναπτύξει διάφορα μοντέλα εκπαίδευσης των χαρισματικών μαθητών, τα οποία εστιάζουν στην ανάπτυξη της σοφίας και την καλλιέργεια των ηθικών αξιών, με απώτερο σκοπό την ανάληψη ηγετικών ρόλων. Παράλληλα, έχουν σχεδιαστεί κατάλληλες διδακτικές στρατηγικές για την ενίσχυση της δημιουργικής και κριτικής σκέψης των χαρισματικών μαθητών. Πρωταρχικός στόχος των προγραμμάτων χαρισματικής εκπαίδευσης οφείλει να είναι η διαμόρφωση σοφών και ηθικών προσωπικοτήτων, οι οποίες θα μπορούν να αντιμετωπίσουν τις προκλήσεις και τα ηθικά διλήμματα που προκύπτουν τον 21ου αιώνα.
... Conclui-se, a partir dos estudos mencionados, que os resultados acerca da relação criatividade e inteligência não são conclusivos. Vale lembrar que autores como Sternberg (1999Sternberg ( , 2005 e Gardner (1983) ampliaram a concepção de inteligência, propondo uma visão multidimensional do fenômeno, na qual os indivíduos podem se desenvolver em algumas dimensões, mas não necessariamente em outras. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumo As diferenças entre indivíduos superdotados e não superdotados vêm sendo alvo de muitos estudos e controvérsias. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar alunos que ingressaram precocemente na universidade (grupo I), alunos que ingressaram na universidade no tempo regular (grupo II) e alunos superdotados do ensino médio (grupo III) a respeito da inteligência, criatividade e personalidade, bem como investigar a relação entre essas variáveis. Participaram do estudo 30 alunos (15 de cada sexo), com média de idade de 17,3 anos. Foram utilizados instrumentos de inteligência (Matrizes Progressivas de Raven), criatividade (Teste Torrance de Pensamento Criativo) e personalidade (Inventário Fatorial de Personalidade e Rorschach), e os dados foram tratados com análises não paramétricas de Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney e correlação de Spearman. Os resultados apontaram diferenças significativas em relação à inteligência (X² [2, N = 30] = 5,975; p = 0,05) e aos fatores de criatividade: fluência (X² [2, N = 30] = 6,302; p = 0,043) e flexibilidade (X² [2, N = 30] = 6,415; p = 0,040). Observou-se correlação positiva entre inteligência e o fator analogia (r s = 0,426; p = 0,019). Os alunos dos grupos I e III demonstraram vantagens nos fatores de inteligência e criatividade em relação aos do grupo II, e os do grupo I demonstraram ainda maior abertura a novas experiências e mudanças do que os alunos dos outros dois grupos. Os resultados apontam que inteligência e criatividade são construtos diferentes, mas relacionados, sugerindo que inteligência seria um subconjunto de criatividade.
... Through the WICS Model of Giftedness (WICS -Wisdom, Intelligence, Creativity, Synthesized), Sternberg (2003) contributed to the systematization and development of knowledge about the metacognitive functioning of gifted people. Observing giftedness as a synthesis of wisdom, intelligence, and creativity, Sternberg ultimately pointed out and emphasized the role of culture in the conceptualization of giftedness (Sternberg, 2007(Sternberg, , 2012. ...
Article
Full-text available
Primary school teachers have an important role in the early identification and further development of a child's musical giftedness. The research was aimed to examine the opinions of primary school classroom teachers (N = 1130) employed in Croatian primary schools regarding conceptualization of musical giftedness and its impact on identification of musically gifted students. Furthermore, their opinions about the support of parents, professional team and collective as well as competencies for recognizing and further development of the child’s musical giftedness were investigated. Although most respondents assess their competencies in identifying musical giftedness, most of the surveyed teachers, especially younger ones, are willing to be additionally trained in this area. They stated that the existing curriculum should be expanded and enriched and stressed the need for more support from the expert assistants (psychologists and pedagogues). In addition to the teachers' age, their title (teacher, teacher mentor and teacher advisor) also proved to be a significant factor in the identification and development of a child's musical giftedness. Findings of research have implications for theory and practice of primary school teacher’s music education and education for work with gifted children both during their higher education and lifelong learning. Keywords: musical giftedness, musically gifted students, primary school teachers, Republic of Croatia
... A különböző tehetségmodellek is rámutatnak a kreativitás jelentőségére a kiemelkedő képességű tanulók esetében (pl. Renzulli, 2005;Sternberg, 2005). Ezek a megközelítések a kreativitást elsősorban a személyhez kötődő módon, az egyénen belüli tényezőkre fókuszálva írják le. ...
... Giftedness is a term commonly used in research. However, there is no widely accepted definition of the concept, and assumptions about and criteria for giftedness differ between theoretical models (Gagne, 1985;Sternberg and Zhang, 1995;Renzulli, 1999;Heller et al., 2000;Sternberg, 2003;Siegle and McCoach, 2005;. Despite these differences, common features can be found in the models: there are multiple domains of giftedness (e.g., artistic, athletic, cognitive). ...
Book
Full-text available
This issue on advanced learning focuses on the educational and developmental needs of advanced learners as they develop towards excellence. We speculated that those needs could be observed in at least three ways. The first is that the advanced learner requires educational interventions that are more closely aligned to the “deliberate practice” approach delineated by Ericsson et al. (1993). Ericsson et al. (1993) identified that the number of hours of deliberate practice differentiated among the performance levels of musicians. Deliberate practice can be described as individualised instruction whereby a teacher or coach identifies the goals and activities that need to be adopted by an individual during practice to improve their performance. A second assumption is that advanced learners do not attain high levels of performance in the absence of environmental factors but the factors that support the talent developmental trajectory of advanced learners will not be the same as those that support them at earlier stages. The expertise reversal effect, for example, suggests that the instructional activities designed for novices may have a detrimental effect on more advanced learners Kalyuga (2007). The third premise is the need for more tailored and well-designed learning resources to support talent development. Such learning resources include highly-specialised learning materials and curricula, expert teachers and coaches, mentors, and so on, which are purposefully designed to meet the individual’s specific needs at a specific point in the talent development process. Again, this echoes the deliberate practice approach described earlier.
... Intelektové nadanie patrí k mnohovýznamovým konštruktom, ktoré sa vymedzuje mnohými prístupmi (napr. Shavinina, 2009;Sternberg, 2005). Zo všeobecnejšieho hľadiska ho môžeme ponímať ako geneticky podmienenú vysoko nadpriemernú intelektovú spôsobilosť rozvíjanú prostredím (napr. ...
Article
The publication analyzes research and studies on the preferred values of intellectually gifted students. Considering the obtained data, it defines four values, more significantly represented in gifted students than in children from the general population. The first value described concerns the aspect of justice. Gifted students show greater sensitivity in matters of justice and a higher level of moral judgment. The following one describes the value of the family and social relationships, whose preference stems from a quality parental relationship and supportive family background. The third area focuses on the ethical and virtuous values that we observe, such as prosocial behavior or positive environmental attitudes. The last value concerns the education obtained and the information obtained. The paper, in conclusion, states the relationship between above-average intellectual abilities and higher life values development.
... Jest to możliwe przez zaangażowanie trzech rodzajów zdolności: analitycznych praktycznych i twórczych (Strernberg, 2001(Strernberg, , 2002(Strernberg, , 2005a. Najnowszy z zaproponowanych modeli teoretycznych -znany jako WICS -uwzględnia aż cztery wyznaczniki życiowego powodzenia: mądrość, inteligencję, twórczość i syntezę -skrót od angielskich słów daje akronim WICS (Sternberg, 2005b). Stanowiska badacza ewoluowały zatem w kierunku ujęć całościowych, a ostatnia propozycja teoretyczna ilustruje wielką złożoność uwarunkowań powodzenia życiowego. ...
Book
Full-text available
Jedna z najczęściej pojawiających się w literaturze definicji inteligencji opisuje ją jako zdolność, która ułatwia człowiekowi przystosowanie do środowiska. Badania psychologiczne prowadzone już od drugiej połowy XIX w. (m.in. przez Francisa Galtona) zdają się potwierdzać adaptacyjny charakter inteligencji. Od samego początku badacze łączyli sprawność intelektualną z funkcjonowaniem szkolnym. W kontekście badania uczniów szkoły średniej zrodziła się koncepcja czynnika inteligencji ogólnej zaproponowana przez Charlesa Spearmana. Nowo powstałe testy inteligencji u progu XX w., początkowo stworzone dla celów edukacyjnych przez Alfreda Bineta, szybko wzbudziły zainteresowanie pracodawców, ponieważ stanowiły efektywne narzędzie wyboru najlepszych kandydatów do pracy. Proces rozpowszechniania się testów inteligencji przyspieszyła I wojna światowa i potrzeba szybkiej selekcji kandydatów do służby wojskowej na różnych stanowiskach. Szkoła i praca, niewątpliwie ważne obszary aktywności człowieka, nie wyczerpują jednak dziedzin, w których inteligencja okazała się ważna. Późniejsze badania, prowadzone m.in. przez zespół szkockiego badacza Iana Deary’ego, pokazały znaczenie inteligencji dla zdrowia i długości życia. Inteligencja jest ogólną zdolnością, która przesądza o sprawności funkcjonowania poznawczego człowieka. Praktycznie każda aktywność ludzka angażuje w jakimś stopniu procesy poznawcze. Nie dziwi zatem fakt, że inteligencja ma znaczenie w niemal każdej sferze życia, od samoregulacji, osobowości, przekonań o świecie, kontroli niepożądanych zachowań i emocji, po aktywność fizyczną, preferencje dobowe i funkcjonowanie w związkach. W niniejszym zbiorze przyglądamy się niektórym z tych obszarów, wskazując na różnorodność wątków związanych z inteligencją. (...) W pierwszej części książki znalazły się rozdziały odwołujące się bezpośrednio do adaptacyjnego charakteru inteligencji oraz związanymi z nią funkcjami poznawczymi. Pierwszy rozdział autorstwa Marcina Zajenkowskiego stanowi wprowadzenie do całego zbioru i przedstawia rys historyczny dociekań nad inteligencją, jej definicję oraz przegląd badań nad znaczeniem inteligencji dla osiągnięć szkolnych, funkcjonowania w pracy oraz zdrowia i długości życia. Następne trzy rozdziały opisują rolę zdolności poznawczych dla adaptacyjnego zachowania w zakresie samoregulacji (Jan Jędrzejczyk), agresywnego zachowania (Marta Bodecka) oraz uzależnień (Iwona Nowakowska, Karolina Lewandowska, Karol Lewczuk). Druga część zbioru obejmuje teksty, w których przedyskutowano związki inteligencji i zdolności poznawczych z przekonaniami i emocjami. Marcin Zajenkowski i Oliwia Maciantowicz wskazują na wagę przekonań o własnej inteligencji dla różnych obszarów życia. Kinga Szymaniak przedstawia badania nad związkami gniew–poznanie, wskazując na najnowsze teorie z zakresu psychologii emocji. Paweł Łowicki omawia powiązania inteligencji i zdolności emocjonalno-społecznych z przekonaniami religijnymi. Maria Ledzińska prezentuje obszerny przegląd badań nad metapoznaniem, a więc wiedzą na temat własnych procesów poznawczych, jej związkami z inteligencją i codziennym funkcjonowaniem. W trzeciej części zbioru przedstawiono rozdziały opisujące rolę inteligencji w specyficznych obszarach życia. Wojciech Waleriańczyk i Maciej Stolarski zebrali informacje na temat roli inteligencji w sporcie. Konrad Jankowski przedstawia badania nad związkami zdolności poznawczych z chronotypem, cechą opisującą preferencje pory dnia dla aktywności człowieka. W ostatnim rozdziale Maria Leniarska i Marcin Zajenkowski dokonują przeglądu badań nad inteligencją ogólną oraz inteligencją emocjonalną i funkcjonowaniem osób w bliskich związkach.
... Jest to możliwe przez zaangażowanie trzech rodzajów zdolności: analitycznych praktycznych i twórczych (Strernberg, 2001(Strernberg, , 2002(Strernberg, , 2005a. Najnowszy z zaproponowanych modeli teoretycznych -znany jako WICS -uwzględnia aż cztery wyznaczniki życiowego powodzenia: mądrość, inteligencję, twórczość i syntezę -skrót od angielskich słów daje akronim WICS (Sternberg, 2005b). Stanowiska badacza ewoluowały zatem w kierunku ujęć całościowych, a ostatnia propozycja teoretyczna ilustruje wielką złożoność uwarunkowań powodzenia życiowego. ...
... Jest to możliwe przez zaangażowanie trzech rodzajów zdolności: analitycznych praktycznych i twórczych (Strernberg, 2001(Strernberg, , 2002(Strernberg, , 2005a. Najnowszy z zaproponowanych modeli teoretycznych -znany jako WICS -uwzględnia aż cztery wyznaczniki życiowego powodzenia: mądrość, inteligencję, twórczość i syntezę -skrót od angielskich słów daje akronim WICS (Sternberg, 2005b). Stanowiska badacza ewoluowały zatem w kierunku ujęć całościowych, a ostatnia propozycja teoretyczna ilustruje wielką złożoność uwarunkowań powodzenia życiowego. ...
... Jest to możliwe przez zaangażowanie trzech rodzajów zdolności: analitycznych praktycznych i twórczych (Strernberg, 2001(Strernberg, , 2002(Strernberg, , 2005a. Najnowszy z zaproponowanych modeli teoretycznych -znany jako WICS -uwzględnia aż cztery wyznaczniki życiowego powodzenia: mądrość, inteligencję, twórczość i syntezę -skrót od angielskich słów daje akronim WICS (Sternberg, 2005b). Stanowiska badacza ewoluowały zatem w kierunku ujęć całościowych, a ostatnia propozycja teoretyczna ilustruje wielką złożoność uwarunkowań powodzenia życiowego. ...
... Sternberg' e göre tüm kültürlerde başarılı zeka; bireyler güçlü yanlarından yararlanarak ve zayıflıklarını geliştirerek veya bunları telafi ederek yaşam hedeflerine ulaştıklarında ortaya çıkar. Bunun bir parçası olarak, zekanın analitik, pratik ve yaratıcı yönlerinin bir kombinasyonu yoluyla çevrelerini etkin bir şekilde uyarlamalı, şekillendirmeli ve seçmelidirler (Sternberg, 2005). ...
Book
Full-text available
Değerlendirme, özel eğitim alanının en önemli konularından birisidir. Özel gereksinimli bir öğrencinin sahip olduğu yetenek ve beceri düzeyine uygun eği- timden yararlanması en temel hakkıdır. Bu temel haktan yararlanabilmek için amaca uygun bir değerlendirme sürecinin işletilmesi gerekmektedir. En genel haliyle birey hakkında bilgi toplama süreci olarak tanımlanan değerlendirme kavramı, özel gereksinimli öğrencilerin ilk belirlenmesinden başlayarak, gönderme öncesi süreç, gönderme, ayrıntılı değerlendirme, özel eğitim hizmetlerine uygunluğuna karar verme, bireyselleştirilmiş eğitim programı hazırlama ve programın etkililiğini değerlendirme basamaklarından oluşan oldukça kapsamlı ve dinamik bir süreçtir. Değerlendirme sürecinde kullanılacak olan yöntem, teknik ve araçlar değerlendirmenin amacına göre farklılık gösterir. Özel eğitim alanının gereksinimini karşılamak üzere hazırlanmış olan Özel Eğitimde Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Kitabı dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde Değerlendirmenin Temelleri başlığı altında değerlendirme kavramına açıklık getirilmeye çalışılmış; geçmişten günümüze değerlendirmenin tarihsel süreç içerisindeki gelişimi ile değerlendirme basamakları ayrıntılarıyla açıklanmıştır. Değerlendirme Yöntemleri başlığını taşıyan ikinci bölümde ise Formal ve İnformal teknikleri ayrıntılarıyla açıklanmıştır. Kitabın üçüncü bölümü Yeteneklerin Değerlendirilmesi başlığını taşımaktadır. Bu başlık altında Zekanın–Bilişsel Alanın Değerlendirilmesi, Uyumsal Davranışların Değerlendirilmesi, Davranışların ve Duygusal Durumun Değerlendiril- mesi ve Dilin Değerlendirilmesi konuları ele alınmıştır. Akademik Becerilerin Değerlendirilmesi başlığını taşıyan dördüncü bölümde ise Okuma-Yazmanın Değerlendirilmesi, Matematik Becerilerinin Değerlendirilmesi, Değerlendirmede Özel Konular başlıklı beşinci bölümde ise Erken Çocuklukta Değerlendirme, Aile Gereksinimlerinin Değerlendirilmesi ve Mesleki/ Geçiş Becerilerinin Değerlendirilmesi konuları ele alınmıştır.
... Diverse teorie e modelli hanno cercato (e tuttora tentano) di definire la plusdotazione, concordando nell'ultimo periodo nel considerare la plusdotazione come sistema (Renzulli 1994;Sternberg 2003;2005;Gagnè 2004;Tannenbaum 1986;Feldman 1994;Dai 2010;Sawyer 2012;Kaufman 2013) che include fattori personali e ambientali. La visione è, quindi, quella di una potenzialità che va sostenuta e sviluppata sia in ambito privato sia in quello scolastico, attraverso percorsi adatti alle caratteristiche individuali dello studente. ...
Chapter
The series is the expression of the Center for Research on Teaching of Languages, which in Edizioni Ca’ Foscari also has a magazine, Linguistics Education - Language Education, EL.LE, and a necklace, Intercultural Communication, COMINT, dedicated to this important but overlooked aspect of language mastery. In the series, the volumes of which are approved by three blind referees before publication, are three types of search space: a. studies on the epistemologic nature of the science that studies language education, in the wider meaning that includes Italian mother tongue, second and foreign, modern languages and classical ones; b. operational studies on methods, strategies, language teaching methodologies; c. quantitative and qualitative surveys on particular aspects of language teaching in the various training areas. The collection hosts studies of scholars working both at Ca’ Foscari University and in other institutions.
... Initially, giftedness and excellence were conceived of from a unilateral perspective, i.e., the individual gifted with exceptional mental and creative abilities. For this reason, models focusing on giftedness and talent on an individual basis have long prevailed (Gagné, 2003;Gardner, 1994;Maker, 1992;Moenks, 1992;Renzulli, 1986;Sternberg, 2003;Tannenbaum, 1983). There were many theories explaining giftedness in this direction (Belsky & Pleuss, 2009;Dabrowski, 1964;Rogers & Silverman, 1997;Silverman, 1993) and identification models emerged (Pfeiffer, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Actiotope Model of Giftedness (AMG) is one of the most promising models in the field of the nurture of the gifted. It addresses education of the gifted from a comprehensive perspective, unlike other unilateral models around the world. To the best of the researchers’ knowledge, not a single study has been conducted on this model in Arab countries. The current study sought to identify the reality of the nurture provided to gifted students in Sudan by surveying the historical beginnings and the current reality, and then reviewing this reality from the perspective of learning sources in the AMG. This review was based on examining documents and surveying the various aspects of this reality based on comprehensive systemic learning resources. The study examined exogenous and endogenous learning sources and clarified the limitations in each. It was recommended that great effort be exerted by the state, its institutions, and the whole of society to promote education of gifted students in Sudan.
... At the time of writing, national implementations for a "new upper level scheme" is being introduced to academic secondary schools (AHS), secondary technical and vocational schools (BMS) and colleges for higher vocational education (BHS) that "will increase the intensity of the learning/studying process, which will provide an improved overview of individual learning deficits." 13 One of the key elements of this reform is the development of a package for gifted students to be able to complete curriculum areas before other students. In Finland's educational policies, while gifted students are unlabelled at the school level, acceleration in the form of grade-skipping, ungraded systems and subject matter acceleration are used to cater to their particular needs (Tirri and Kuusisto, 2013[130]; Laine and Tirri, 2016 [131]).The available research on acceleration tends to agree on the benefits of accelerated programming. ...
Article
Full-text available
To date, no international consensus exists on the definition of giftedness. There is a great diversity in conceptualising giftedness not only between, but also within countries. Inevitably, this has a major influence on how countries design and implement gifted education programmes. This paper starts with an overview of the extended academic literature on the definition and identification of giftedness. It then describes OECD countries’ policy initiatives to respond to the needs of gifted students and to foster their inclusion in education systems. Following the Strength through Diversity project’s framework, the analysis focuses on the areas of governance, resourcing, capacity building, school-level interventions, and monitoring and evaluation of gifted programmes. The paper finds that a greater emphasis is placed on the governance of gifted education, often related to broader equity and inclusion concerns. Nonetheless, further research and evaluations are needed to understand what policies and practices can best benefit gifted learners while ensuring positive educational and well-being outcomes for all students.
... e Student Product Assessment Form was developed to evaluate the creative products of gifted students (Reis & Renzulli, 1991). Sternberg's (2005Sternberg's ( , 2009) WICS model posits that gifted individuals synthesize wisdom, intelligence, and creativity. is model builds on his concept of successful intelligence, which is the ability to achieve one's life goal by adapting to, manipulating, and choosing one's context, maximizing one's strengths and compensating for weaknesses (Sternberg, 1996). Even if a person displays high levels of intelligence and creativity, those alone are not su cient to be gifted in the WICS model. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we highlight creativity’s role in giftedness. We first highlight the three Ds present in how creativity can apply to giftedness: its developmental trajectory, issues of domain specificity, and array of diverse perspectives. We highlight some theories of creativity that are particularly relevant for the field of giftedness, and then we discuss some specific concepts that we believe will guide us forward to help creativity play a more important role in giftedness. A core principle is that of creativity for all. This concept includes multiculturalism (considering non-Western perspectives), embracing the contributions of many mini-c creators as opposed to a single great Big-C creator, the potential of new technologies to help identify and promote creativity, and the ways in which creativity can help identify underrepresented gifted children.
... Both wisdom and the drive for truthfulness have been considered important features of giftedness. Sternberg (2003) acknowledged wisdom as distinct components of giftedness, conceptually similar to intelligence and creativity. Wisdom implies balancing intrapersonal and interpersonal interests and, above all, employing creative, analytical, and practical skills for a common good (Sternberg, 2010). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to outline a framework of values for Giftedness and Talent Education (GTE). We begin by discussing the functions of education and the issue of purpose in educating the gifted and talented. We then address the meaning of values and their role in guiding research and practice. Our discussion is centered around five pairs of fundamental values: wisdom and truth, beauty and aesthetics, compassion and cooperation, freedom and autonomy, and equity and justice. We conclude by proposing the integration of the different functions of education as a fundamental endeavor for understanding the purpose of education for the gifted and talented.
... Експертиза има аналитички, креативни и практични аспект. Мудрост омогућава примену интелигенције и креативности које су посредоване оријентацијом ка постизању заједничког добра кроз равнотежу интраперсоналних, интерперсоналних и екстраперсоналних интереса (Sternberg, 2003). ...
Book
Full-text available
U knjizi se kreativnost u obrazovanju posmatra iz perspektive nastavnika. U prvom delu je napravljen pregled naučnih teorija i modela kreativnosti, razmatrani su rezultati ispitivanja implicitnih teorija kreativnosti i diskutovana glavna pitanja o ispoljavanju i razvoju kreativnosti u obrazovnom procesu. Sledi istraživački deo u kojem su prikazani rezultati ispitivanja implicitnih teorija kreativnosti zaposlenih u obrazovnim ustanovama od predškolskog do visokoškolskog nivoa u Srbiji. Glavni doprinos predstavljaju modeli koji su konstruisani za potrebe ovih ispitivanja: modifikacija 4P modela kreativnosti, Razvojni model kreativnosti u detinjstvu i mladosti, Ekspertski model za podsticanje kreativnosti u školi i Integrisani model kreativnosti. U završnom delu, izvedene su pedagoške implikacije nalaza i dati predlozi za buduća ispitivanja.
... Both wisdom and the drive for truthfulness have been considered important features of giftedness. Sternberg (2003) acknowledged wisdom as distinct components of giftedness, conceptually similar to intelligence and creativity. Wisdom implies balancing intrapersonal and interpersonal interests and, above all, employing creative, analytical, and practical skills for a common good (Sternberg, 2010). ...
... Também se questiona acerca da maneira como os padrões sociais determinam e diferenciam o indivíduo altamente criativo do "louco". Sternberg (2005) afirma que ideias criativas desafiam a sociedade e, quando propostas, são majoritariamente entendidas como algo bizarro. "A sociedade geralmente percebe a oposição ao status quo como irritante, ofensiva e motivo suficiente para ignorar ideias inovadoras" (Sternberg,p. ...
Article
Full-text available
O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar a relação entre criatividade e transtornos mentais, discutindo suas implicações psicológicas e sociais. Isso nos possibilita refletir acerca da extensão em que a criatividade é valorizada e aceita em nossa sociedade e como os estereótipos envolvendo pessoas altamente criativas influenciam na sua trajetória de vida. Com base na literatura na área de criatividade, discutiu-se o conceito de criatividade e transtorno mental e buscou-se analisar a inter-relação entre os dois construtos. Pode-se concluir que não há um consenso acerca dessa associação. Tais divergências podem ser explicadas em função da ausência de definição específica dos construtos e da necessidade de se determinar qual transtorno foi investigado e em relação a qual dimensão de criatividade. Não se trata de uma relação direta, causal, simplista ou global. Também discute-se acerca da maneira como os padrões sociais determinam e diferenciam o indivíduo altamente criativo daquele que apresentam comportamentos desviantes.
... Gifted education theorists have proposed myriad definitions of giftedness, and most conceptualizations include creativity. For example, creativity is emphasized within (a) Renzulli's (2005) Three-Ring Conception of Giftedness and (b) Sternberg's (2005) Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity, Synthesized Model. Other definitions describe creativity as an area in which to be gifted. ...
... Diante da relevância dessa característica para este fenômeno, faz-se notar que ela vem sendo incluída em diferentes modelos teóricos. No Modelo Diferenciado de Dotação e Talento de Gagné, a criatividade é compreendida como um dos domínios da dotação ou do talento (Gagné, 2014), a Teoria Triárquica da Inteligência de Sternberg reconhece a existência da inteligência do tipo criativa (Kolligian & Sternberg, 1987;Sternberg, 2003Sternberg, , 2005 ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO O presente estudo teve como objetivo buscar evidências de validade baseadas nas relações com variáveis externas, do tipo convergente, para um subteste para avaliação da criatividade figural, parte de uma Bateria para Avaliação das Altas Habilidades/Superdotação (BAAH/S). A amostra constituiu-se por 114 estudantes do 2º ano (n=15) e 3º ano (n=99) do ensino médio, com idades entre 15 e 20 anos (M=17; DP=0,85), sendo 52 do sexo masculino, provenientes de uma escola pública. Os participantes responderam ao Teste de Criatividade Figural Infantil (TCFI) e ao Subteste Completando Figuras (em processo de validação). Por meio da Correlação de Pearson, os fatores que avaliam aspectos criativos semelhantes apresentaram correlações positivas e significativas (r=0,64 entre os fatores emocionais; r=0,60 entre os fatores cognitivos; r=0,56 entre os fatores de enriquecimento de ideias), indicando convergência entre as medidas. A correlação entre as características criativas isoladas, avaliadas em ambos os testes se mostrou, em sua maioria, significativa, com valores oscilando entre r=0,21 e r=0,61. Tais resultados tornam possível confirmar as evidências de validade do subteste em desenvolvimento. Palavras-chave: desenho, criatividade, superdotação, validade de testes.
Chapter
Due in large part to technological advances, society has changed in unprecedented ways and at a breakneck pace. Yet conceptions of giftedness and models for gifted education have not kept pace with these changes. One conceptual change widely applied to other fields is the use of sociocultural theories, which are rarely applied to the study of and education for giftedness and talent development. Such perspectives emphasize the interrelated nature of the individual and their social and cultural contexts. A sociocultural approach to giftedness focuses less on the individual student and more on the ways in which that student is supported by and interacts with their immediate social context. The emphasis in a sociocultural approach to talent development is primarily on the need to provide enriched contexts for students as they interact with each other and cultural tools, resulting in the emergence of talent.
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents an analysis of diagnostic and exploratory the author’s studies carried out in various Polish cities, whose main purpose was to identify and analyze specific manifestations of wisdom (with creativity as its strong predictor) in older preschool children. Such research and analysis of collected research material would only be possible using mixed methods. Integration of quantitative and qualitative analyses enabled the analysis of collected research materials to be more in-depth and broader. Likewise, when drawing wider conclusions, the use of this approach allowed to generalize results. Combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis of the research material also allowed to compare research results against a number of studies and concepts supporting child development, especially in cognitive sphere.
Article
The Psychology of Wisdom: An Introduction is the first comprehensive coursebook on wisdom, providing an engaging, balanced, and expert introduction to the psychology of wisdom. It provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the psychological science of wisdom, covering wide-ranging perspectives. Each chapter includes extensive pedagogy, including a summary, a glossary, bolded terms, practical applications, discussion questions, and a brief description of the authors' research. Topics include the philosophical foundations, folk conceptions, and psychological theories of wisdom; relations of wisdom to morality and ethics, to personality and well-being, to emotion; wisdom and leadership, wisdom and social policy. These topics are covered in a non-technical, bias-free, and student-friendly manner. Written by the most eminent experts in the field, this is the definitive coursebook for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as interested professionals and researchers.
Book
Full-text available
The series is the expression of the Center for Research on Teaching of Languages, which in Edizioni Ca’ Foscari also has a magazine, Linguistics Education - Language Education, EL.LE, and a necklace, Intercultural Communication, COMINT, dedicated to this important but overlooked aspect of language mastery. In the series, the volumes of which are approved by three blind referees before publication, are three types of search space: a. studies on the epistemologic nature of the science that studies language education, in the wider meaning that includes Italian mother tongue, second and foreign, modern languages and classical ones; b. operational studies on methods, strategies, language teaching methodologies; c. quantitative and qualitative surveys on particular aspects of language teaching in the various training areas. The collection hosts studies of scholars working both at Ca’ Foscari University and in other institutions.
Article
If we view the civilizational development through the prism of the socio-historical continuum, it seems that we must agree with the claim that the gifted and talented are the creators of the general development of civilizations. This trend continues today, when it is claimed that in the next 20 years, the talented and gifted will inevitably be the most important asset in every institution, especially in contemporary companies. Most of these individuals are believed to perform cognitive tasks at higher mental levels, in which metacognitive thinking that is dominant. This thinking forms a special mental structure, recognizable in such individuals. This paper operates under the assumption that, there is no clearcut picture of the psychological profile of the exceptionally talented with their awe-inspiring performances of their extraordinary abilities which impress the world. Their impressive and fascinating achievements in one or more areas of human life motivate them to be more involved in the world of today. Hence, papers that deal with both theoretical and empirical findings often face a variety of dilemmas and problems regarding the demystification of the psychological code of the exceptionally talented in various scientific and artistic fields. The focus of this paper are the talented and the factors which determine their "superhuman achievements". This paper strives to identify the psycho-physical features of the exceptionally talented and their noteworthy performance in various fields - performance that is often referred to as exceptional or expert-like. The aim is to identify the different traits that exceptionally talented individuals working in different fields and arts (science, sports, music, etc.) have. The paper uses the meta-analysis of documentation method, which enables an objective insight into the most significant performances of the exceptionally talented. The results obtained through this method show that the exceptionally talented show a clear, distinctive psychological pattern or. The results obtained reflect a recognizable psychological cod which is unique and specific to those at the pedestal of great achievements. The results will be especially useful for the harmonization of the social view of talent and for the institutional treatment of the talented individuals. Finally, it will improve the talented individuals' self-perception which will positively impact their self-perception which is of great importance for their further educational, psychological and social perception.
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure of mathematical talent based on the proposed model developed on multiple criteria approach. According to this approach, math talent is known as an evolutionary product of the interaction of cognitive, personality and environmental characteristics of individuals. Methods:The present study was a descriptive, correlational one and Structural Equation Modeling was used for the data analysis. The study population included all students of exceptional talents middle schools, in the academic year 2018-2019, in Tehran. The required data were gathered using the online version of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Corsi Block-Tapping Test, Deary-Liewald Reaction Time Task, Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory, Mathematics Skills Self-Efficacy, Classroom Climate in the Mathematics Lesson, Fennema-Sherman Attitude Mathematics Scale, Test of the Three-Mathematical Minds and the first-semester math score of the students. A sample of 243 middle school students (8th grade) was selected by convenience sampling method. Results: The results showed that in this study cognitive variables had a significant effect on math talent, but the statistical effect of personality and environment variables was not confirmed. Also, the results showed that the effect of cognitive variables on environmental variables and the effect of environmental variables on personality variables were confirmed. Conclusion: Given the fact that mathematical talent is a multidimensional construct, the identification of gifted and talented students requires different tools and multiple criteria.
Chapter
Full-text available
The Psychology of Wisdom: An Introduction is the first comprehensive coursebook on wisdom, providing an engaging, balanced, and expert introduction to the psychology of wisdom. It provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the psychological science of wisdom, covering wide-ranging perspectives. Each chapter includes extensive pedagogy, including a summary, a glossary, bolded terms, practical applications, discussion questions, and a brief description of the authors' research. Topics include the philosophical foundations, folk conceptions, and psychological theories of wisdom; relations of wisdom to morality and ethics, to personality and well-being, to emotion; wisdom and leadership, wisdom and social policy. These topics are covered in a non-technical, bias-free, and student-friendly manner. Written by the most eminent experts in the field, this is the definitive coursebook for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as interested professionals and researchers.
Chapter
We live in a world shaken by a pandemic and the subsequent (currently ongoing) lockdown. The COVID-19 virus is invisible yet has been the dominant topic since 2020. This increasing awareness (and respect) for the invisible may, we hope, transfer to how gifted programs perceive the new conception of transformational giftedness. In this chapter, we contrast the transactional, easily detectable approach with the transformational, not-as-easily-detectable conception. We debate how to best move toward transformational giftedness; do we aim to teach transactionally gifted people how to be transformationally gifted? Or do we continue to pursue ways to assess transformational giftedness? We ultimately propose a fluid approach which follows the adage of transformational giftedness for all. We then discuss the subsequent emphasis on collaboration that can emerge from this fluid approach and potential roadblocks that may arise.
Article
Conflicts increasingly waged at the request of one's ego are taking on socially significant proportions. The real manifestation of ethics pays attribute to wisdom. Pedagogical activities complemented by wisdom help students use knowledge to promote the idea of the common good. Therefore, we believe that the development of wisdom should become a vital goal of upbringing and education. In the research, we tried to determine whether the components of clever thinking are integrated into the curricular content of subjects. The analysis showed that reflective, dialogical, and dialectical thinking, as components of wise thinking, are not significantly involved in the curriculum for high school. The paper aims to understand the phenomenon of wisdom, contribute to the enrichment of literature, and also provide a theoretical framework that will apply to future research. It pointed out the need to change the dominant paradigm in the teaching process and offered indications of the education of wisdom through three forms of teaching; teaching about wisdom, teaching for wisdom and teaching with wisdom.
Book
Full-text available
A Czeizel Professzor által írt első fejezet a tehetség genetikai alapjairól szól, melyben sajátos, a szakirodalomban ritkán megjelenő orvos-genetikusi perspektívából tekint a tehetségre... ... A tehetségkoncepciók fejlődésének az iránya ma a kiszélesítés felé tart, a második fejezetben részletezett többféle értelemben. Ezek közül az egyik, hogy azoknak a fiataloknak a tehetsége, kiemelkedő képessége kerül a fókuszba, akik a gaussi axióma szerint az átlagos, illetve átlag körüli 95%-ba tartoznak. Az ő vizsgálatuk során még inkább kell számolni olyan tényezőkkel, amelyek módosítják a tehetség talentummá való formálódását. A második fejezet ez utóbbi szellemben a módosító tényezőkre fókuszál. A fejezet tartalmi egységeiben számot adunk a pszichológiai szakirodalomban fellelhető tudományos fejleményekről, amelyeknek közvetlen tanulságai lehetnek a tehetségről való gondolkodásra és azon keresztül a tehetséggondozás gyakorlatára.
Book
Full-text available
Uno dei compiti fondamentali dell’educazione linguistica è valorizzare la diversità, non solamente perché ci si trova spesso dinanzi ad apprendenti di nazionalità diverse, ma anche perché vari sono i motivi per cui si apprendono le lingue oggi, sovente determinati da esigenze di integrazione sociale e di opportunità lavorative. Tramite il multilinguismo si valorizzano competenze linguistiche e si creano opportunità di comunicazione interculturale. Nel contempo le politiche linguistiche vanno valutate e rinnovate in continuazione. Questi temi vengono affrontati in questo volume grazie a contributi che si diversificano sia sul piano delle lingue oggetto di studio sia quello teorico-concettuale, pur avendo in comune l’interesse per la linguistica applicata e per l’educazione linguistica.
Article
Full-text available
Ovim istraživanjem se nastoji, na kvalitativan način, doći do saznanja kako nastavnici opažaju darovite učenike. Interesuje nas koje su to intelektualne, motivacione, ličnosne i emocionalne, a potom i socijalne karakteristike darovitih učenika prema viđenju nastavnika. Istraživanje je obuhvatilo ukupno 15 nastavnika, iz dvije osnovne škole sa područja grada Doboja, u Bosni i Hercegovini. Za dobijanje kvalitativnih podataka korišten je polustrukturisani intervju. Rezultati dobijeni tematskom analizom ukazuju da nastavnici darovite učenike percipiraju kao učenike sa visokim intelektualnim sposobnostima, visokom unutrašnjom motivacijom, širokim interesovanjima i određenim nivoima aspiracije. Samouvjereni su, arogantni, skloni perfekcionizmu i autonomiji. Odlikuje ih ekstroverzija, ali i introverzija. Mogu biti emocionalno hladni, osjetljivi, vulnerabilni, ali i stabilni i impulsivni. U pogledu socijalnih karakteristika su ili društveni ili usamljeni. Dobijeni rezultati upućuju da nastavnici dobro prepoznaju navedene karakteristike, ali u kontekstu škole i školskih postignuća nastavnici darovitim učenicima smatraju učenike koji su dobro uklopljeni u školski sistem. Ovakvi nalazi pružaju mogućnost budućim istraživanjima da percepciju nastavnika detaljnije ispitaju i ustanove potencijalne razloge za takvu sliku darovitih učenika.
Article
This study aims to give insight into teachers’ beliefs of high-ability students and how this relates to their classroom teaching. Thirteen teachers from six different elementary or secondary schools participated in in-depth interviews. The participants talked about cognitive functioning, social skills, classroom behaviour, motivation and specific characteristics of high-ability students. In addition, regarding educational practices with high-ability students, teachers agreed that providing challenging learning tasks is deeply important. Finally, we found that teachers with a limited frame of reference on high-ability students are likely to have a less extended repertoire of educational practices.
Book
Full-text available
Giftedness, Douance, Dotação, Talento, Altas Habilidades, Altas Capacidades, Sobredotação, Talent, Intelligence, Neurodiversity, Inclusion, Esporte, Desporto, Sports
Chapter
Uma das áreas mais complexas nas ciências do esporte insere-se na investigação e conceituação de Habilidades/Superdotação de talentos esportivos em adultos. Muitas são as abordagens que circundam o conceito de atletas classificados com capacidade esportiva acima da média, e desmistificar as crenças quanto à superdotação em adultos com talentos esportivos, ainda é uma lacuna presente na literatura. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste capítulo é contribuir para o embasamento teórico dos conceitos de habilidades/superdotação na área do esporte. Adicionalmente, o capítulo descreve alguns instrumentos de identificação e avaliação em talentos esportivos, a partir da classificação de capacidades físicas, utilizados pela literatura científica. Sua base metodológica conta com uma revisão bibliográfica, operacionalizada por buscas em bases indexadoras. Na produção científica levantada, pode perceber-se a preocupação dos pesquisadores, não apenas na identificação, mas também nos investimentos para o desenvolvimento e treinamento desses talentos, a fim de contribuir para o processo de formação esportiva. [Español] Talento deportivo en adultos: desde los conceptos hasta la evaluación e intervención Una de las áreas más complejas en la ciencia del deporte es la investigación y conceptualización de las habilidades/talentos superdotados de los deportistas adultos. Existen muchos enfoques que tratan el concepto de atletas clasificados con una capacidad deportiva superior a la media, e intentan desmitificar las creencias sobre los talentos superdotados en adultos con talentos deportivos, aunque aún existe un vacío en la literatura. En este sentido, el objetivo de este capítulo es contribuir a la base teórica de los conceptos de habilidades/talento en el campo del deporte.Además, el capítulo pretende describir algunos instrumentos para identificar y evaluar talentos deportivos basados en la clasificación de habilidades físicas, utilizados por la literatura científica. La base metodológica consiste en una revisión bibliográfica, operativa mediante búsquedas en bases de datos indexadas. En la producción científica presentada, la preocupación de los investigadores no solo fue la identificación, sino también las inversiones para el desarrollo de estos talentos, con el fin de contribuir al proceso de entrenamiento deportivo. [English] Sports Talent in Adults: from Concepts to Assessment and Intervention One of the most complex areas in sports sciences is the investigation and conceptualization of skills/giftedness of sports talents in adults. Many approaches surround the concept of athletes classified with above-average sporting ability. Demystifying the beliefs about giftedness in adults with sporting talents is still a gap in literature. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to contribute to the theoretical foundation of the concepts of skills/giftedness in sports. Moreover, the chapter describes some instruments for the identification and assessment of sports talents based on the classification of physical abilities, which is used by scientific literature. The methodology is based on a bibliographic review conducted by searches in indexing bases. In the scientific productions studied, it is possible to perceive the researchers' concern, not only in the identification but in the investments for the development and training of these talents, to contribute to the sports formation process.
Article
We propose that wisdom should be considered in understanding, identifying, and developing skills of thought translated into action in gifted children and adults. First, we review some of the history of the gifted field and conclude that ideas about understanding, identification, and instruction are largely obsolete and based on assumptions that might have seemed valid in the early 20th century but that now are known not to be. Second, we discuss wisdom—what it is and how it is structured. Third, we discuss different kinds of wisdom and why they matter. We further discuss “4W’s” of wisdom. Fourth, we discuss the role of wisdom in the identification of gifted individuals. Fifth and finally, we conclude that our emphasis in the understanding, identification, and development of gifted individuals needs to be expanded to include wisdom, and certainly not just IQ.
Article
Identifying creatively gifted students remains a challenging yet important task. Often, teacher rating scales are used to assess students’ creative behaviors; however, the school environment may not always provide opportunities for students to demonstrate creative ability, making it challenging for teachers to observe students’ creative potential. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (1) explore students’ perceptions of their own creativity, (2) determine the discriminatory validity of the creativity subscale of the Scales for Identifying Gifted Students (SIGS-C), and (3) compare students’ and teachers’ ratings on the SIGS-C. Data were collected from 236 middle and high school students and their teachers in the United States. Significant differences existed between how students perceived their creativity in general and at school (t(217) = 7.946, p < .001), and their SIGS-C scores more closely correlated with their general ratings (r = .64, p < .001) than their school ratings (r = .20, p < .001). SIGS-C items were analyzed using an IRT approach, and two items (breaking gender stereotypes, spending time alone) did not adequately differentiate between levels of creativity on teacher or student rating scales. Finally, teachers’ ratings were minimally but significantly correlated with the students’ ratings (r = .14, p = .046), demonstrating the importance of considering multiple sources of data when identifying creatively gifted students.
Article
Full-text available
The Classroom Practices Survey was conducted by The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) to determine the extent to which gifted and talented students receive differentiated education in regular classrooms. Six samples of third and fourth grade teachers in public schools, private schools and schools with high concentrations of four types of ethnic minorities were randomly selected to participate in this research. The major finding of this study is that third and fourth grade classroom teachers make only minor modifications in the regular curriculum to meet the needs of gifted students. This result holds for all types of schools sampled. It also holds for classrooms in different parts of the country and for different types of communities. Implications of these findings for researchers and gifted education specialists are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The author developed a model that explains and predicts both longitudinal and cross-sectional variation in the output of major and minor creative products. The model first yields a mathematical equation that accounts for the empirical age curves, including contrasts across creative domains in the expected career trajectories. The model is then extended to account for individual differences in career trajectories, such as the longitudinal stability of cross-sectional variation and the differential placement of career landmarks (the ages at first, best, and last contribution). The theory is parsimonious in that it requires only two individual-difference parameters (initial creative potential and age at career onset) and two information-processing parameters (ideation and elaboration rates), plus a single principle (the equal-odds rule), to derive several precise predictions that cannot be generated by any alternative theory.
Article
Full-text available
The present text addresses the laxity in terminology that afflicts our field, especially the definitions of our two central constructs: giftedness and talent. A differentiated model is proposed, based on a distinction between two types of abilities, natural abilities and systematically developed skills, labeled respectively gifts (or aptitudes) and talents. Both types of abilities are clearly described and exemplified. The model also specifies the developmental relationship between these two types of abilities, aptitudes being the constituent elements of talents, the crucial role of learning and practice in the transformation of natural abilities into the systematically developed skills of a talent field, and the contributive role of various related constructs (motivation, temperament, surroundings, significant persons, events, etc.) to that developmental process. The model is then used as a guide for a series of comments on the appropriate use of labels to describe more accurately our target population(s), emphasizing the predominance of IGAT (intellectually gifted and academically talented) pupils, and to situate other related concepts, like precocity, able‐ness, genius, and prodigy.
Article
Full-text available
This article summarizes research on various aspects of the Schoolwide Enrichment Triad Model and research on eight categorical components of the model carried out over the past 20 years will be presented. These components include: the effectiveness of the model, creative productivity, personal and social development, underserved populations, self-efficacy, SEM as a curricular framework, research relating to learning styles and curriculum compacting, and longitudinal research on the model. Programs based on enrichment models and enrichment activities are the most commonly used approach in gifted education, however, enrichment approaches are not as well supported by research as are programs based on acceleration. Research on acceleration has provided strong support for the benefits of acceleration in the area of mathematics; and the objectivity of the variables being examined (e.g., math grades and math performance) has enabled researchers to use powerful quantitative research designs. Research on variables associated with enrichment, on the other hand, usually examine more complex student outcomes such as, escalation of the quality of student products, the influence of process-training activities on subsequent applications to real world problems, creativity, independence in work habits, and perhaps most important, love of learning and desire to continue to pursue creative productive work in the future.
Article
Full-text available
In the scientific literature, there is ambiguity in the distinction between the concepts of giftedness and talent. This paper examines several common definitions of these two terms, with particular emphasis on the models proposed by Renzulli (1979) and Cohn (1981). Our critique of these two models leads to a clear differentiation between giftedness and talent: the former is associated with domains of abilities which foster and explain exceptional performance in varied fields of activities, that is, talents. Thus, one can be gifted without necessarily being talented (as with the case of underachievers), but not vice versa. Several factors which can act as catalysts for the actualization of giftedness in specific talents are discussed, particularly motivation and environmental quality.
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the three‐ring conception of giftedness. A detailed process is presented illustrating how students can be effectively screened for gifted and talented programs through the three‐ring conception approach.*A version of this paper first appeared in Roeper Review: A Journal of Gifted Education, Volume 11, No. 1. Permission is gratefully acknowledged.
Article
Full-text available
To test the hypothesized cumulative advantages of educative factors, the science-achievement scores on a 69-item test of science knowledge of 1,284 young adults, ages 26 to 35, surveyed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1977, were regressed on three composite independent variables: motivation and prior and current educative experiences. The test scores were related significantly to prior experience-embodied variables, such as parental socioeconomic status, respondent education, and specific scientific training, as well as to motivation to learn and current amount and intensity of information acquisition, such as news media exposure and reading. Early educative experience predicts current educative activities and motivation; and all three factors contribute significantly and independently to the prediction of achievement.
Article
Full-text available
Although the long-term impact of early entrance to college has been examined, one issue that has received inadequate attention in the gifted education literature is how students enrolled in early-entrance programs adjust during their first semester of college, which is arguably the most critical juncture for them in terms of their transition from high school. The purpose of this study was to identify the unique academic, social, family, and transition issues that challenged the inaugural class of the National Academy of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering (NAASE), an early-entrance program at the University of Iowa. Through the use of in-depth interviews, behavioral observations, and student and parent surveys, a rich picture of the students' satisfaction and challenges with their first-semester college experiences emerged. While the primary aim of this research was to examine the NAASE students' first-semester adjustment, the study also served to evaluate the effectiveness of the NAASE program from the students' perspectives.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess gifted adolescents' views of their own giftedness and their perceptions regarding how giftedness is viewed by others. One hundred eighty-four gifted adolescents completed an open-ended questionnaire on giftedness. Resutts indicated that their views of giftedness were not unidimensional. They were positive about their giftedness but did not believe that others were positive. Also, gifted adolescents viewed giftedness as positive with regard to their personal growth and academic performance but as negative in social relations with others. Gifted adolescents have strongly mixed attitudes about their giftedness.
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an overview of the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. A discussion of assumptions underlying the Center and some of the problems that have been encountered in past research efforts serve as a rationale for the structure and mission of this new organization. Each of the component parts of the Center is described along with how the interacting components will attempt to provide the field with a sound research base that is responsive to the needs and interests of practitioners and that will lead to the development of a variety of consumer-oriented products. Special emphasis is given to procedures that are used to focus research efforts on populations that have traditionally been underrepresented in special programs for the gifted and talented. The Center is currently conducting a national research needs assessment study to ensure that studies carried out by the Center will be responsive to the perceived needs of practitioners. Information concerning the first year research studies from each of the participating universities is provided.
Article
Full-text available
Although creativity is an important part of cognitive, social, and emotional activity, high-quality creativity assessments are lacking. This article describes the rationale for and development of a measure of creative ideation. The scale is based on the belief that ideas can be treated as the products of original, divergent, and creative thinking - a claim J. P. Guilford (1967) made years ago. Guilford himself assessed ideation with tests of divergent thinking, although through the years scores from these tests have only moderate predictive validity. This may be because previous research has relied on inappropriate criteria. For this reason, the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS) was developed. It can be used as a criterion of creative ideation. Most items describe actual behaviors (i.e., overt actions and activities) that clearly reflect an individual's use of, appreciation of, and skill with ideas. Results obtained using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis are reported in this article. These suggest the presence of 1 or 2 latent factors within the scale. Based on the theoretical underpinnings of the scale, a 1-factor solution was judged to be more interpretable than a 2-factor solution. Analyses also supported the discriminant validity of the RIBS.
Article
This article presents a theory of successful intelligence. The opening addresses some general issues of problems with conventional thinking about intelligence. The rest of the article is divided into 4 main sections. The 1st argues that conventional and some other notions of intelligence are, at best, incomplete and, at worst, wrong. The 2nd section suggests an alternative notion of successful intelligence that expands on conventional notions of intelligence. The 3rd section discusses how we have gotten to the point in psychology and society in which we draw heavily on theories and tests that are inadequate. The final section draws some conclusions about the nature of intelligence. The main conclusion is that it is time to replace conventional notions of intelligence and especially the notion of a general factor of intelligence.
Article
Journal of Democracy 6.1 (1995) 65-78 As featured on National Public Radio, The New York Times, and in other major media, we offer this sold-out, much-discussed Journal of Democracy article by Robert Putnam, "Bowling Alone." You can also find information at DemocracyNet about the Journal of Democracy and its sponsor, the National Endowment for Democracy. Many students of the new democracies that have emerged over the past decade and a half have emphasized the importance of a strong and active civil society to the consolidation of democracy. Especially with regard to the postcommunist countries, scholars and democratic activists alike have lamented the absence or obliteration of traditions of independent civic engagement and a widespread tendency toward passive reliance on the state. To those concerned with the weakness of civil societies in the developing or postcommunist world, the advanced Western democracies and above all the United States have typically been taken as models to be emulated. There is striking evidence, however, that the vibrancy of American civil society has notably declined over the past several decades. Ever since the publication of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America, the United States has played a central role in systematic studies of the links between democracy and civil society. Although this is in part because trends in American life are often regarded as harbingers of social modernization, it is also because America has traditionally been considered unusually "civic" (a reputation that, as we shall later see, has not been entirely unjustified). When Tocqueville visited the United States in the 1830s, it was the Americans' propensity for civic association that most impressed him as the key to their unprecedented ability to make democracy work. "Americans of all ages, all stations in life, and all types of disposition," he observed, "are forever forming associations. There are not only commercial and industrial associations in which all take part, but others of a thousand different types -- religious, moral, serious, futile, very general and very limited, immensely large and very minute. . . . Nothing, in my view, deserves more attention than the intellectual and moral associations in America." Recently, American social scientists of a neo-Tocquevillean bent have unearthed a wide range of empirical evidence that the quality of public life and the performance of social institutions (and not only in America) are indeed powerfully influenced by norms and networks of civic engagement. Researchers in such fields as education, urban poverty, unemployment, the control of crime and drug abuse, and even health have discovered that successful outcomes are more likely in civically engaged communities. Similarly, research on the varying economic attainments of different ethnic groups in the United States has demonstrated the importance of social bonds within each group. These results are consistent with research in a wide range of settings that demonstrates the vital importance of social networks for job placement and many other economic outcomes. Meanwhile, a seemingly unrelated body of research on the sociology of economic development has also focused attention on the role of social networks. Some of this work is situated in the developing countries, and some of it elucidates the peculiarly successful "network capitalism" of East Asia. Even in less exotic Western economies, however, researchers have discovered highly efficient, highly flexible "industrial districts" based on networks of collaboration among workers and small entrepreneurs. Far from being paleoindustrial anachronisms, these dense interpersonal and interorganizational networks undergird ultramodern industries, from the high tech of Silicon Valley to the high fashion of Benetton. The norms and networks of civic engagement also powerfully affect the performance of representative government. That, at least, was the central conclusion of my own 20-year, quasi-experimental study of subnational governments in different regions of Italy. Although all these regional governments seemed identical on paper, their levels of effectiveness varied dramatically. Systematic inquiry showed that the quality of governance was determined by longstanding traditions of civic engagement (or its absence). Voter turnout, newspaper readership, membership in choral societies and football clubs -- these were the hallmarks of a successful region. In fact, historical analysis suggested that these networks of organized reciprocity and civic solidarity...
Article
This article critically reviews the research literature on peer modeling among children as a function of model attributes. Peer modeling is hypothesized to depend in part on perceived similarity between model and observer. Similarity serves as an important source of information for gauging behavioral appropriateness, formulating outcome expectations, and assessing one’s self efficacy for learning or performing tasks. Research is reviewed on the effects of model age, model sex, model competence, number of models, and model background. Peer models can foster diverse types of behavioral change in children, but attribute similarity does not automatically enhance modeling. The conditions under which similarity promotes behavioral change are discussed. Future research needs to assess children’s self-perceptions, as well as maintenance and generalization of behavioral changes. It is suggested that classroom peers can help train social skills, enhance self-efficacy, and remedy skill deficiencies.
Article
This study discusses the goals and objectives of the Advanced Academy of Georgia at the State University of West Georgia, an innovative, full-time residential early-college-entrance program for gifted and talented high school juniors and seniors. Also included is a comprehensive report of its progress, as well as entering SAT scores, academic performance, retention rates, and scores on the Dimensions of Self-Concept, which was developed to measure noncognitive factors associated with self-esteem or self-concept in a school setting. In addition to these areas, noteworthy student accomplishments are discussed, including several anecdotal comments about student achievement from the university's faculty. The paper concludes with a discussion of the progress to date and recommendations for further studies on this program.
Article
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of pull-out programs in gifted education. Nine experimental studies were located that dealt with pull-out programs for gifted students. The variables of self-concept, achievement, critical thinking, and creativity were quantified via meta-analysis. The results indicate that pull-out models in gifted education have significant positive effects for the variables of achievement, critical thinking, and creativity. However, gifted students' self-concepts were not affected by the pull-out programs.
Article
Gifted children, those with unusually high ability in one or more domains, not only develop more rapidly than typical children, but also appear to be qualitatively different. They have an intense drive to master, require little explicit tuition, and, if intellectually gifted, often pose deep philosophical questions. Although some psychologists have tried to account for the achievements of gifted individuals solely in terms of drive or “deliberate practice,” no evidence allows us to rule out innate differences in talent. Profiles of gifted individuals are often uneven: Extremely high ability in one area can coexist with ordinary or even subnormal ability in another area. Scientific investigation of the gifted reveals the importance of drive and hard work in achievement of any kind, and the lack of necessary correlation among abilities in different areas.
Article
An experiment was conducted directly to test the hypothesis that the ability to cope with relative novelty is a key aspect of intelligence. 50 subjects performed both novel and non-novel versions of a sentence-verification task. In the novel condition, subjects were presented with a counterfactual presupposition which they were to assume was true in verifying each of a set of subsequent statements. In the non-novel condition, the task was the same, but the presupposition to be assumed true was a factual one. We found that the difference score based on subtracting non-novel from novel response times, which controlled for non-novel aspects of the task, was significantly correlated with two of three fluid ability tests, thereby confirming our hypothesis.
Article
For nine years personnel of the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) at Johns Hopkins have found thousands of youths, chiefly seventh‐graders, who reason extremely well mathematically. SMPY strives in various ways to help these students proceed considerably faster and better in mathematics and related subjects than is usually permitted or encouraged. Its work is offered as an example of important problems that, in the judgment of the author, educational psychologists should attack vigorously. SMPY's four‐D model is described, which emphasizes educational acceleration of youths who arc highly able and eager to move ahead quickly.
Article
Creativity and morality are often defined with reference to conventionality, the former involving nonconformity, rebelliousness, and unconventional tendencies, and the latter involving traditional, dogmatic, and conventional tendencies. These definitions imply that creativity and morality are contradictory or mutually exclusive. The primary argument in the present article is that it is misleading to emphasize conventionality when defining creativity or morality. It is misleading in part because creativity is not entirely unconventional; rules and traditions are important in many expressions of creativity. Similarly, morality is not always conventional. The emphasis on conventionality also detracts from other important aspects of creativity and morality, such as intentionality. Creativity and morality can be understood as a combination of conventional and unconventional behaviors, but intentionality is necessary. Two areas of creativity research are especially helpful for the understanding of creative morality. They are reviewed in this article. The first involves problem‐finding skills and the second evaluative skills.
Article
The relations between creativity and morality require fresh attention in a time of rapid social and technological change and multiple global crises. World civilization as presently constituted is committed to policies entailing exponential growth, which in the long run, unfortunately, will be impossible to maintain (e.g., in any variable 2% growth per year yields a doubling period of about 40 years). Such conditions affect moral issues of fairness, justice, caring for others, and even truth. As a result, we witness a growing awareness of moral diversity and the slow—too slow?—emergence of new moral orientations, not least of which is planetary morality.In stable and simple enough conditions we may say that “Ought”; statements imply “Can”; and in turn Ought and Can together imply “Act”;: We can reasonably insist that something ought to be done only if it can be done, and when ought and can converge, a moral imperative arises, we must do it.But if there is no such clear road to moral action then only through creative effort can we discover or invent what is possible. This argument is summed up in the expression, Ought implies Can implies Create. It is this idea that has led us to the present exploration of creativity in the moral domain.
Article
The goal of this article is to provide a link between the literatures on human abilities and on expertise. The main argument of this article is that human abilities are forms of developing expertise. In a sense, then, tests of abilities are no different from conventional tests of achievement, teacher-made tests administered in school, or assessments of job performance. Although tests of abilities are used as predictors of these other kinds of performance, the temporal priority of their administration should not be confused with some kind of psychological priority. Abilities, as they are measured by these tests, are as much forms of developing expertise as are any other forms of developing expertise measured in whatever way. There is no qualitative distinction among the various kinds of measures. The article presents a model that implies a shift away from educational practice grounded in traditional ability-achievement relationships and toward practice grounded in the development of knowledge-based expertise in all children.
Article
In Britain, the academic achievements of gifted girls in grade school are surpassing those of gifted boys in almost all areas of study and at all ages, whereas this does not appear to be the case in the U.S. The evidence suggests 2 major reasons for this difference. Emotionally, British girls are now showing greater confidence in their abilities. Educationally, changes in the style and content of British curriculum and assessment may favor female study patterns, along with a national system of inspection that checks for equal gender opportunities in the classroom. Although this managed change in gender equality of opportunity in schools is seen to be highly effective, female school advantage has yet to make a significant difference in the workplace.
Article
In this article, an overives of some of the major issues, questions and problems related to gifted females will be presented. These issues include the underachievement of gifted females; creative productivity of females; male dominance in mathematics and science; cultural stereotyping, sex roles and mixed messages; lack of planning; the perfection complex and the imposter syndrome; concerns about counseling and special populations, Research related to the issues of ability, achievement, personality, social and environmental pressures related to gender will be briefly discussed and suggestions for future research directions will be made.
Article
Two-hundred seventy-one elementary age high-IQ children and their parents completed an extensive battery of questions on social and emotional development. Eighty-eight children (37%) conceptualized themselves as differing from their peers. Although they described differences in a positive fashion, and although their self-esteem was above the mean reported for a large normative sample, it was lower than that of high-IQ children who did not think of themselves as being different. Furthermore, the reports about peer relations given by children who thought themselves different contained more signs suggesting difficulties than did those of children who did not. These results suggest that many cognitively gifted children need increased psychological support if they are to optimize their personal and social development.
Article
A persistent problem in education is the underrepresentation of diverse students in gifted education programs. Many educators attribute the poor participation of diverse students in gifted programs to the ineffectiveness of standardized tests in capturing the ability of these students. Thus, a primary agenda of school selection committees is to find more culturally sensitive measures. This study examined the effectiveness of the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) in identifying gifted Black and Hispanic students in comparison to White students. The sample was comprised of 20,270 students in grades K-12 who were similar to the U.S. population on several demographic variables. The distributions of NNAT standard scores were studied separately for White, Black, and Hispanic groups. Results indicate that similar percentages of White (5.6%), Black (5.1%0/), and Hispanic (4.4%) children earned an NNAT standard score of 125 (95th percentile rank). These findings suggest that the NNAT may be useful as part of a procedure to identify diverse students for gifted education services.
Article
Young children with advanced mathematical skill (N = 276) were followed for two years, during kindergarten through 1st grade or 1st through 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to an intervention condition reflecting a constructivist approach or a control condition. Mean scores for the control group on standardized math verbal, and visual-spatial measures increased or remained the same. Boys gained more than girls on the quantitative and visual-spatial measures. The treatment group made greater gains than the control group on quantitative measures only. Gender did not interact with treatment condition. Correlations among the quantitative, verbal, and visual-spatial factors remained stable for control children, but the correlation between quantitative and verbal factors increased for the intervention group.
Article
Although many authors have recommended counseling for the gifted (Colangelo, 1991; Kerr, 1986; Silverman, 1993b), little research has been done to find out what types of counseling services parents, teachers, and counseling professionals believe to be most beneficial to the development of gifted and talented individuals (Myers & Pace, 1986; Passow, 1991; Shore, Cornell, Robinson, & Ward, 1991). In this study 335 parents, school personnel, and related counseling professionals were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the specialized counseling needs of gifted children and adolescents as part of a needs assessment for a proposed university-based counseling center. Results indicated that all groups of respondents believed that gifted and talented youth have important social, emotional, family and talent and career development needs that can best be met by differentiated counseling services; and that such services are not readily available to gifted youth. Implications of the study for the development of counseling services and the training of counseling professionals are discussed.
Article
A number of models are available for use in gifted education. The theory of successful intelligence, one such model, provides a basis for identification, intervention, and evaluation in gifted programs. This article describes the model, allowing practitioners and other interested parties to apply the model in a gifted education environment. The article contains four main parts. The first part presents the theory of successful intelligence and data in support of it. The second part shows how to implement the model in schools and presents data in support of the success of its school implementation. The third part relates the theory of successful intelligence to other models of gifted education. The fourth part briefly draws some conclusions.
Article
A relatively new, nontraditional approach to assessing cognitive ability is to instruct students on how to perform on certain tasks and then measure their progress in learning to solve similar problems. This approach, called dynamic assessment, usually consists of a test-intervene-retest format that focuses attention on the improvement in student performance when an adult provides mediated assistance on how to master the testing task. The dynamic assessment approach can provide a means for assesstog disadvantaged, disabled, or limited English proficiency students who have not demonstrated high ability on traditional tests of intelligence and creativity. Dynamic assessment methods should be considered by school districts with large numbers of disadvantaged students which are dissatisfied with the effectiveness of traditional methods for identifying students for specialized enrichment programs.
Article
High-abitity and gifted students tend to benefit most from like-ability grouping, because the strategy provides them with the opportunity to access more advanced knowledge and skills and to practice deeper processing. Most likely, this access can be provided when instructors are not forced to divide their teaching energies and efforts among widely diverse tevels of ability and achievement.
Article
Educators know that variables beyond abilities affect students’ performance in school and their interactions with their teachers. Thinking styles are such a variable. Thinking styles are preferred ways of thinking. They are not abilities but rather preferred ways of expressing these abilities. Both students and teachers vary in thinking styles, and in systematic ways. For example, teachers tend to match the stylistic pattern of the school, and students to match the stylistic pattern of their teachers. Teachers tend to overestimate the extent to which their students match their own styles, and also evaluate more favorably students whose styles match their own. Thus, teachers are more likely to identify as “gifted” not only high ability students, but those who match them stylistically. Research for this article was supported under the Javits Act Program (Grant #R206R00001) as administered by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement of the US Department of Education. Grantees undertaking such projects are encouraged to express freely their professional judgments. This article, therefore, does not necessarily represent positions or policies of the Government and no official endorsement should be inferred.
Article
Following a short discussion of conceptual and theoretical problems of giftedness, the methodological foundations and selected results of a (presently) four year longitudinal study are presented. This study is based on a multidimensional concept of giftedness: intelligence, creativity, social competence, musical ability, psychomotor ability (or practical intelligence). Both academic achievements and leisure activities, as well as cognitive and motivational personality factors and school and family socialisation conditions relevant to giftedness, were studied. During the second project phase developmental aspects and achievement analyses of gifted and normal students aged 6 to 18 years were the central aspects of the study. Finally, methodological problems in the identification of gifted children and adolescents as well as consequences for the nurturing of giftedness are discussed.
Article
Intellectually gifted children were compared to high‐average and low‐average IQ children on a combinatorial problem solving task and a metacognitive questionnaire. When compared to their counterparts, gifted children used fewer moves to solve the problem and exhibited higher metacognitive knowledge on the person and strategy variables on the questionnaire. Qualitatively different intercorrelational patterns among problem solving, metacognition, and psychometric measures reflected qualitative differences were found within ability groups. Gifted children exhibited a high level of independence among measures, whereas lower IQ children's correlational patterns were more interdependent. Results were interpreted as supporting the notion that the processing advantages in gifted children may be related to a superior central processing system.
Article
Little is known and limited research has been completed about creative women, their creative processes, and the decisions they face about their own creative productivity. Few books or even articles suggest how creativity can be better developed, enhanced, or increased in a diverse population of girls and women. The social and political movement focusing on women during the past five decades has provided some understanding of women's creative processes as well as the creative roles that women have played in our society and the forces that shape those roles. In this article, current research is analyzed, focusing on the development of women's creativity and the classification of this research into major themes. Internal and external blocks to creativity in women are discussed, as is current research on these blocks, and an explanation is suggested for different types of creative productivity exhibited by women. A theory is proposed regarding the diversion of women's creativity into multiple areas in their lives, including relationships, work related to both family and home, personal interests, and aesthetic sensitivities. This diversion of creative efforts may result in different levels of creativity applied to work, as well as the existence of very different patterns of creative productivity in creative women.
Article
Three decades of research have failed to produce general agreement concerning the effects of reward on creativity. We believe that the problem stems not from any great complexity of research findings, but primarily from the clash between romantic and behav- iorist worldviews concerning basic human nature. Iso- lation of these research camps has produced narrow perspectives and failures to correct persisting method- ological flaws. Research correcting these flaws sug- gests that rewards for novel performance increase intrinsic motivation and creativity, whereas rewards for conventional performance decrease intrinsic moti- vation and creativity. Creative motivational orienta- tion, enhanced by rewards, strongly affects innovative performance.
Article
Recent empirical research has challenged the common belief in the existence of talent, suggesting that exceptional performance is entirely the product of nurture rather than nature. However, this research has been based on a simple conception of what talent entails. Rather than involving a unidimensional, additive, and static genetic process, talent may instead emerge from a multidimensional, multiplicative, and dynamic process. This latter possibility is described in a two-part model that combines multidimensional and multiplicative inheritance with dynamic development. The first part of the model handles domain specificity, profile heterogeneity, the distribution of individual differences, familial heritability, and domain complexity. The second part explicates early-versus late-bloomers, early signs of talent, talent loss, and shifts in the domain of talent. The resulting model has crucial implications for how best to gauge the impact of nature in the development of talent.