Abstract and Figures

The nutritional worth of vegetable wastes like cauliflower leaves, cabbage leaves, pea pods and pea vines was assessed in comparison to conventional green oats fodder in bucks. Each of the vegetable waste, supplemented with minerals and common salt, was fed ad lib as complete feed, to 3 bucks (Beetle×Anglo Nubian×French Alpine; 6 years old of 62.6±1.1kg BW). The leaves of cauliflower and cabbage had low (P
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Small Ruminant Research 64 (2006) 279–284
Nutritive evaluation of vegetable wastes as
complete feed for goat bucks
M. Wadhwa, S. Kaushal, M.P.S. Bakshi
Department of Animal Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India
Received 13 April 2004; received in revised form 7 April 2005; accepted 4 May 2005
Available online 13 September 2005
Abstract
The nutritional worth of vegetable wastes like cauliflower leaves, cabbage leaves, pea pods and pea vines was assessed in
comparison to conventional green oats fodder in bucks. Each of the vegetable waste, supplemented with minerals and common
salt, was fed ad lib as complete feed, to 3 bucks (Beetle ×Anglo Nubian ×French Alpine; 6 years old of 62.6 ±1.1kg BW). The
leaves of cauliflower and cabbage had low (P< 0.05) concentration of cell wall constituents, but high (P< 0.05) concentration of
CP, except that CP of pea pods was comparable with cabbage leaves. Cabbage leaves had highest (20.6%) and pea pods had lowest
(4.8%) concentration of water soluble sugars. Cauliflower leaves had highest concentration of phenolics (5.9%), comparable
with cabbage leaves, but lowest concentration was observed in pea pods (0.3%). The fractionation of proteins indicated that
vegetable waste in general had high concentration of water soluble (54–62%) and low concentration of alcohol soluble (8–9%)
fractions. Digestibility of nutrients except that of NDF was comparable in cabbage and cauliflower leaves, but higher (P< 0.05)
than in other vegetable wastes and conventional green oats fodder. The total purine derivatives excreted in urine were high
(P< 0.05) in cauliflower leaves (1.5 mmol/kg BW0.75/day) followed by those fed pea pods, and lowest in those fed pea vines
(0.29 mmol/kg BW0.75 /day). Allantoin constituted the major portion (69–91%) of purine derivatives excreted in urine. Microbial
protein synthesis was high (P< 0.05) in animals fed cauliflower leaves followed by those fed pea pods and low in bucks fed pea
vines. The N-excretion as % of N-intake was lowest (P<0.05) in animals fed pea pods (65.1%) resulting in significantly higher
N-retention (24.5 g/day) and apparent biological value (BV), which was comparable to cauliflower leaves and green oats. In spite
of maximum CP digestibility, the apparent BV was lowest in cabbage leaves. The ME value of both cabbage and cauliflower
leaves was significantly higher than that of pea vines. It was concluded that cabbage leaves, cauliflower leaves and pea pods
could serve as excellent source of nutrients for ruminants and can economize the production of animals.
© 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Vegetable wastes; Nutritional evaluation; Purine derivatives; Goat bucks
Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 161 3098253; fax: +91 161 2400945; mobile: +91 9316905009.
E-mail address: bakshimps@yahoo.com (M.P.S. Bakshi).
0921-4488/$ – see front matter © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.05.017
280 M. Wadhwa et al. / Small Ruminant Research 64 (2006) 279–284
1. Introduction
The margin of profit in traditional crops like wheat
and rice has gone down considerably and has forced
farmers to diversify to other promising enterprises.
Vegetable farming is one of such highly profitable ven-
tures in India. India is the second largest producer of
vegetables in the world (about 90 million MT of vegeta-
bles are produced/annum), but hardly 2% of vegetables
are processed (Anonymous, 2002) and about 33% are
wasted during harvesting, marketing and processing
(Gangadhar et al., 1993). Domestic use or export of
fresh or processed fruits and vegetables leave huge
amounts of wastes, which are being ploughed back
into the field and act as soil conditioner, or are left
on the road side posing great threat to the environ-
ment. Otherwise, if used judiciously, these wastes may
serve as good sources of nutrients for livestock. Pre-
liminary studies from this lab revealed that cabbage
leaves, cauliflower leaves and pea pods are good source
of CP, have low NDF and lignin contents (Wadhwa and
Bakshi, in press), indicating their potential for higher
VDMI. These wastes are available in bulk and that too
at zero cost, as compared to conventional green fodder.
This study was, therefore, taken up to assess the nutri-
tional worth of these vegetable wastes as complete feed
for goat bucks.
2. Materials and methods
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. italica) leaves,
cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) leaves (after
removing core for human consumption), pea (Pisum
sativum) pods and pea vines, available in plenty dur-
ing November to March were procured locally, and
their nutritional worth was assessed in comparison to
conventional green oats (Avena sativa) fodder. Water
extract of fresh samples of vegetable waste was pre-
pared by blending the test sample and distilled water
in a 1:9 ratio and the filtrate was used for estimation of
the water-soluble nutrients by the methods described
later in analytical methods.
2.1. Animal feeding
All vegetable wastes were offered as fresh except
pea vines, which were offered after sun drying. Each
of the vegetable waste supplemented with mineral mix-
ture and common salt was fed ad lib to 3 bucks (Bee-
tle ×Anglo Nubian ×French Alpine; 6 years old of
62.6 ±1.1 kg BW) as complete feed once a day at
9:00 h. Fresh water was offered twice a day. The ani-
mals were adapted to the test diet for 30 days followed
by a 7 day metabolism trial. During the metabolism
trial, the animals were kept in individual metabolic
cages and record of feed intake, orts, faeces and urine
voided was maintained. Urine was collected in plas-
tic cans (kept underneath the metabolic cages) over
300 ml of 20% sulphuric acid in order to maintain the
pH below 3. A portion of urine sample was diluted
five times with distilled water, kept in a deep freezer at
20 C until analyzed for purine derivatives and cre-
atinine. The animals were weighed at the start and at
the end of experimental period, for 3 consecutive days,
while the animals were fed the test diet.
2.2. Analytical methods
The finely ground samples of feedstuffs (in trip-
licate), orts and faeces were analyzed for DM, CP
and total ash (AOAC, 1990), cellulose (Crampton
and Maynard, 1938) and other cell wall constituents
like NDF, ADF, and ADL (Robertson and Van Soest,
1981). Hemi-cellulose was determined by difference in
NDF and ADF. Proteins in water extract were precip-
itated with equal volume of 60% TCA (kept at 4 C
overnight). The precipitates were dissolved in 0.2N
NaOH and used for protein assay (Lowry et al., 1951).
Supernatant was used for the estimation of total sug-
ars (Dubois et al., 1956), reducing sugars (Nelson,
1944) and phenolics (Swain and Hills, 1963). The non-
reducing sugars were calculated by difference between
total and reducing sugars. The samples were defatted by
using Soxhlet apparatus (AOAC, 1990) and were frac-
tionated into four protein fractions based on solubility;
distilled water soluble (albumin), sodium chloride sol-
uble (globulin), ethanol soluble (prolamin) and sodium
hydroxide soluble (glutelins) as reported by Monteiro
et al. (1982). The protein content of these fractions
was estimated by Lowry’s (1951) method. The ME
was determined from apparent digestible OM by using
the relationship given by Broster and Oldham (1981).
The urine samples were analyzed for total-N (AOAC,
1990), purine derivatives (PD); allantoin (Young and
Conway, 1942), uric acid (Trivedi et al., 1978), and
M. Wadhwa et al. / Small Ruminant Research 64 (2006) 279–284 281
creatinine by the method of Folin and Wu described
by Hawk et al. (1976). Purines absorbed were calcu-
lated from the daily urinary PD excreted (Anonymous,
1997). Purine nitrogen index (PNI) presents the ratio
between purine-N and total-N in urine. The data were
analyzed by using a completely randomized design
(Snedecor and Cochran, 1968).
3. Results and discussion
Amongst the non-conventional vegetable wastes,
the pea pods had lowest total ash and highest OM
content; pea vines and conventional green oats fod-
der had OM comparable to pea pods. Cabbage leaves
(P< 0.05) had lowest OM and highest CP content; pea
pods had CP content comparable to cabbage leaves but
significantly higher than in other vegetable wastes and
conventional green oats (Table 1). The values of OM
and CP content were comparable to the earlier report
(Mekasha et al., 2002). However, higher CP content in
pea pods and lower CP content in cauliflower leaves
than reported earlier (Khattab et al., 2000; Khan and
Atreja, 2001) could be due to different agronomic prac-
tices adapted in different regions. Cell wall constituents
(NDF, ADF and cellulose) of cauliflower and cabbage
leaves were lower (P<0.05) than that of pea pods, pea
vines and green oats. Low NDF content of these leaves
is indicative of their potential for high VDMI. The high
lingo–cellulose complex (ADF) and lignin content of
pea vines may explain its poor VDMI and digestibility
of nutrients.
Leaves of vegetable wastes, like cauliflower and
cabbage, had high (P< 0.05) concentration of total sug-
ars, phenolics and true protein (Table 2) as compared to
that in pea vines. In these wastes, non-reducing sugars
constituted the major portion (76–85%) of total water
soluble sugars.
The pattern of protein fractionation revealed that
cauliflower leaves had highest concentration of water
soluble (62%) and alcohol soluble (9%) protein frac-
tions, whereas cabbage leaves had highest concentra-
tion of salt soluble (16%), and pea pods had that of
alkali soluble (26%) fraction. The relative proportion of
water soluble and alkali soluble fractions was observed
to be almost the same in cabbage leaves and pea pods.
On an average, water soluble protein fractions consti-
tuted the major portion (54–62%) in these vegetable
wastes, whereas the alcohol soluble fraction constituted
only 8–9%.
The in sacco rumen degradability of DM of these
vegetable wastes assessed in buffaloes (Wadhwa and
Bakshi, in press) indicated that cauliflower leaves
had highest rapidly soluble fraction (46.7%), whereas
Table 1
Chemical composition of vegetable wastes (%) DM basis
Component Cauliflower leaves Cabbage leaves Pea pods Pea vines Green oats Pooled S.E.
Ash 14.0b17.2c8.5a8.8a9.2a0.9
OM 86.0b82.8a91.5c91.2c90.8c0.7
CP 16.1b20.4c20.2c12.2a10.9a1.0
NDF 28.0a34.0b57.0c60.0c67.0d0.9
ADF 20.0a23.0a36.5b48.0c37.5b0.9
Hemi-cellulose 8.0a11.0ab 20.5c12.0b29.5d0.9
Cellulose 16.0b12.5a26.0c35.5c32.0d0.9
ADL 3.68a4.22a3.92a7.40b3.00a0.4
Superscripts in a row differ, P<0.05.
Table 2
Water-soluble nutrients in vegetable wastes (%) DM basis
Component Cauliflower leaves Cabbage leaves Pea pods Pea vines Green oats Pooled S.E.
Total sugars 18.6d20.6e4.8a6.4b8.1c0.8
Reducing sugars 3.6c5.0e0.2a1.1b4.0d0.9
Non-reducing sugars 15.0c15.6c4.6ab 5.3b4.1a0.7
Phenolics 5.9d5.9d0.3a4.5c1.9b1.0
Superscripts in a row differ, P<0.05.
282 M. Wadhwa et al. / Small Ruminant Research 64 (2006) 279–284
Table 3
Voluntary DMI and digestibility of nutrients
Parameter Cauliflower leaves Cabbage leaves Pea pods Pea vines Green oats Pooled S.E.
DMI (kg/day) 1.5b1.4ab 2.2c1.3a1.4ab 0.1
DMI (% BW) 2.5c2.4bc 3.2d2.0a2.1ab 0.1
Digestibility coefficient (%)
DM 80.9c82.1c74.3b54.5a71.6b1.3
OM 86.9c88.7c77.4b56.2a74.8b1.4
CP 84.9cd 89.2d80.3bc 67.2a76.1b2.1
NDF 71.8c76.5e74.7d45.9a64.1b0.5
ADF 79.4d80.8d72.7c52.6a64.9b1.4
Hemi-cellulose 79.8b82.0b78.0b57.5a80.6b2.7
Cellulose 90.8c90.0c80.4b62.5a78.9b1.4
Superscripts in a row differ, P<0.05.
cabbage leaves had highest insoluble but potentially
degradable fraction (76.4%). The effective degradabil-
ity of cauliflower and cabbage leaves was comparable
(86.1% versus 82.1%), but significantly higher than that
of pea pods (68.1%) and pea vines (52.3%). The low
rumen fill value in the leaves of cauliflower (9.8) and
cabbage (9.2) compared to that in pea pods (17.6) and
pea vines (21.9) predicted high VDMI of these leaves
as compared to pea pods and pea vines.
In vivo evaluation of these vegetable wastes revealed
that the VDMI and DMI as per cent of BW in animals
fed pea pods was highest (P< 0.05) followed by that
of cabbage, cauliflower leaves and pea vines (Table 3).
The DMI as % of BW varied from 2.0 (pea vines) to
3.2% (pea pods). These values were 18.8 (cauliflower
leaves), 12.7 (cabbage leaves) and 50.7% (pea pods)
higher than for conventional green oats fodder, indi-
cating their excellent palatability. The digestibility of
proximate as well as cell wall constituents, except
for NDF, was comparable in cauliflower and cab-
bage leaves, but significantly higher than in the other
vegetable wastes and conventional green oats fodder
(Table 3). The digestibility of all nutrients, except for
NDF and ADF, was comparable in pea pods and green
oats. Lowest DMI as well as digestibility of nutrients of
pea vines could be because of high lignin content. The
DM, ADF and CP digestibility of cauliflower leaves,
cabbage leaves and pea pods was 12.9, 14.6 and 3.7%;
22.2, 24.4 and 11.9%; 15, 14.1 and 1.9%, respectively,
higher than that of conventional green oats, showing
their worth as a good source of nutrients.
The urinary excretion of PD is an indicator of micro-
bial biomass produced in the rumen. The urinary excre-
tion of allantoin and uric acid was higher (P< 0.05) in
bucks fed cauliflower leaves than for the other veg-
etable wastes tested. The total urinary excretion of
purine derivatives was maximum (P< 0.05) in animals
fed cauliflower leaves followed by those fed pea pods
and minimum in those fed pea vines (Table 4). Allan-
toin constituted the major portion (69–91%) of purines
excreted in urine. The values are quite comparable
to those reported earlier (Lindberg, 1985) for goats.
Dapoza et al. (1999) reported that allantoin constituted
the larger fraction of total PD (>80%). The urinary
creatinine (CRT) excretion varied between 0.21 and
0.55 mmol/kg BW0.75/day. The excretion of urinary
creatinine was comparable in all the groups except in
animals fed pea vines, which exhibited significantly
low urinary creatinine excretion. The ratio of PD to
creatinine corrected for metabolic weight varied from
8.15 (cabbage leaves) to 57.74 (cauliflower leaves).
The purine nitrogen index (PNI) an indicator of
efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (Chen et al.,
1999) was high (P< 0.05) in animals fed cauliflower
leaves and low in animals fed cabbage leaves, indi-
cating that cauliflower leaves had best conversion
efficiency. The microbial protein synthesis was high
(P< 0.05) in animals fed cauliflower leaves followed
by those fed pea pods and low in bucks fed cabbage
leaves. Chen et al. (1995) reported that microbial N
supply was 16 g/day for lucerne, 16.3 g/day for hay
and barley, 7.6 g/day for straw and 10.4 g/day for barley
diet.
Higher (P< 0.05) N-intake (70.2 g/day) was
observed on feeding pea pods than on feeding the
other vegetable wastes (Table 5) or conventional green
M. Wadhwa et al. / Small Ruminant Research 64 (2006) 279–284 283
Table 4
Urinary excretion of purine derivatives (mmol/kg BW0.75 /day)
Parameters Cauliflower leaves Cabbage leaves Pea pods Pea vines Green oats Pooled S.E.
Allantoin 1.33d0.27a0.93c0.23a0.64b0.05
Uric acid 0.13c0.11bc 0.12c0.06a0.09b0.01
Total PD excreted 1.46d0.38a1.05c0.29a0.73b0.05
CRT 0.55b0.43b0.54b0.21a0.50b0.04
PD:CRT 2.69d0.88a1.94c1.32ab 1.43b0.17
PD:CRT/BW0.75 57.74d18.57a45.63c30.27b32.63b2.93
Purines absorbed 34.94d1.84a26.94c5.29a17.14b1.37
PNI 0.103d0.016a0.051b0.040b0.087c0.005
Microbial N (g/day) 25.40d5.29a19.59c3.85a12.46b1.10
Superscripts in a row differ, P<0.05; PD, purine derivatives; CRT, creatinine; PNI, purine nitrogen index.
Table 5
Nitrogen utilization in bucks (g/day)
Parameter Cauliflower leaves Cabbage leaves Pea pods Pea vines Green oats Pooled S.E.
N-intake 38.9b47.3c70.2d25.6a27.4a1.3
Fecal-N 5.9a5.1a13.8c8.3b6.6ab 0.6
Urinary N 21.4b35.0c31.9c12.9a13.2a1.5
Total-N-excreted 27.3b40.2c45.7c21.3a19.8a1.8
N-excretion as % of intake 69.9a84.8b65.1a83.2b83.8b3.1
N-retained 11.0c7.2ab 24.5d4.3a7.6b1.0
Apparent BV (%) 35.3bc 17.1a43.5c25.2ab 36.4c1.3
Nutritive value
DCP (%) 9.8d10.0e9.0b7.9a9.2c
ME (MJ/kg DM) 13.6c18.4e15.4d8.3a9.5b
Superscripts in a row differ, P<0.05; BV, biological value.
oats fodder (27.4 g/day). The lowest N-excretion in
feces was in animals fed cabbage leaves, indicating
good digestibility of CP, but high excretion of urinary
N resulted in low retention of N by the bucks, and low
apparent biological value (BV) of cabbage leaves. The
total-N-excretion as % of N-intake was low (P< 0.05)
in bucks fed pea pods, but statistically comparable
with that of cauliflower leaves. It resulted in high
(P< 0.05) N-retention and apparent BV in pea pods as
compared to other vegetable wastes and conventional
green oats fodder.
The higher N content and higher (P< 0.05)
digestibility of CP resulted in significantly higher DCP
content in cabbage leaves, pea pods and cauliflower
leaves. Looking at efficiency of utilization of absorbed
N, it was highest (P< 0.05) in animals fed pea pods,
which was statistically comparable with green oats
and cauliflower leaves, but low in animals fed cabbage
leaves confirming that DCP value does not give a true
picture of the protein availability to the animal. On the
contrary, cabbage leaves had the highest ME value fol-
lowed by cauliflower leaves and green oats. Pea vines
had low nutritive (ME and DCP) value.
On the basis of chemical composition, digestibility
of nutrients and efficiency of utilization of these nutri-
ents, vegetable wastes, like cauliflower and cabbage
leaves, and pea pods, proved to be excellent uncon-
ventional feedstuffs for ruminants, equivalent to any
conventional green fodder like green oats.
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... Earlier studies revealed that fresh empty pea pods were highly palatable and relished by goat bucks when fed ad-lib, supplemented with common salt and mineral mixture. The EPPs served as an excellent source of nutrients and did not have any adverse effect on their health (Wadhwa et al., 2006). ...
... The daily DM intake was improved (P<0.05) in animals fed TMR containing EPP-WS silage as compared to those in control group (Table 6), but comparable with those fed KW-WS based TMR. Wadhwa et al. (2006) reported that fresh EPP supplemented with mineral mixture fed ad-lib as complete feed in comparison to conventional green oats to goat bucks were highly palatable and digestible. The digestibility of nutrients was improved numerically (P>0.05) in KW-WS or EPP-WS silage based TMRs as compared to control TMR. ...
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Children in governmental schools need food supplement that can substitute the possible dietary deficiency of any nutrient. Those in private schools have to be encouraged to replace the fast food they consume by high nutritional and health value meals. In the present study, 5 meals were formulated and prepared on a pilot scale in the pilot plant of the NRC in Egypt. The ingredients used in formulation were food sources that are known to be of high nutritional and health value. These were germinated broad bean, soybean, peanut, chickpea, sesame, spinach, cauliflower and dry dates in addition to, whey protein, wheat germ, carrot and tomato. The mix made from some of this ingredients was each used as fillings to make a patte (fillings wrapped in a wheat dough then baked), the cover of which is formed of wheat flour, whey protein concentrate, corn oil and sugar. These meals contain 10.24-13.68 % of protein, 13.0-15.02 fat and 51.45-57.15 % carbohydrates. One meal (100 g) of any was calculated to satisfy 60-70 % of the protein requirements and 30 % of the energy. The sensory evaluation of the different meals proved remarkable palatability and acceptance. The feeding experiment proved that these meals could improve growth indicated by increase in body weight to value about double that of controls. In conclusion, these meals can be used in the school feeding programs. They are characterized by being palatable, accepted, of high nutritional and health values, beside, the diverse form and taste which makes them attractive and not rejected by children in governmental or private school.
... In India, total quantity of green pea pods available on annual basis accounts to 68.5×10 3 tones. Pea pods are relished by ruminants and are highly palatable with high nutritive value and an effective method of utilization of pea waste after removal of pea grains from pea pods as complete feed in ruminant animals (Wadhwa et al., 2006). Wenk and Zurcher (1990) found that soybean hulls and barley hulls proved to be very well suited for growing pigs (11.4 MJ DE/ kg DM and 10.0 MJ DE/ kg DM, respectively) However pea hulls showed a mean content of digestible energy (5.6 MJ DE/ kg DM), whereas the millet hulls (1.1 MJ DE/ kg DM) did not contribute significantly to the energy supply of the pigs. ...
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... Fruit and vegetable waste such as carrot peels, outer leaves of cabbage, potato peels, cauliflower by-products, tomato peel, and others has been used as a good source of polyphenols, dietary fibers, and antioxidants [10][11][12][13] . Pea pod waste was used for cellulolytic enzyme production, as a feed for goat bucks 14 , and ruminants 15 , and as a source of dietary fiber in biscuits 16 , bread 17,18 , cake 17 and instant soup 19 . Previous studies have shown that the extracted juice from pea peel is rich in protein and mineral contents 20,21 . ...
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... For instance, evaluation of the vegetable waste as feed on lactating Holstein cows (Angulo et al., 2012) showed an increase in the amount of a-linolenic acid and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk. Similar studies were researched to understand the nutrition value of the vegetable waste containing a mixture of cabbage and cauliflower (leaves and peapods), where the results showed its potential as excellent nutrition for herbivorous animals (Wadhwa et al., 2006). Investigations were also conducted on the usage of research and household vegetables as animal feed as they contain high protein content. ...
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... Cauliflower leaves, a nutrient rich by-products generated from retail markets along the Indian sub-continent are also treated as wastes and disposed without any scope of recycling [28] . Incorporation of cauliflower leaves in the diet of terrestrial animals has been suggested previously [29] . However, this plant resource has not so far been experimented in fish diet to a great extent. ...
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Fishmeal (FM), serves as the prime source of dietary protein in the formulated feed of carps and catfish. However, FM is a costly ingredient in the formulated feed and is being gradually scarce due to continuous growth in aquaculture with subsequent requirement of FM in the formulation of feed and demand of FM in other animal husbandry resources. Therefore, in recent years intensive researches have been conducted to search less expensive alternative protein sources among plant and animal wastes in order to reduce aquaculture production cost. However, there are inherent problems of using these wastes as feed stuff including poor digestibility and cross contamination by hazardous microorganisms. Fermentation has been found to be a convenient, environment friendly and cost effective technique to remove these difficulties and render the wastes as suitable supplement to replace FM in fish feed formulation The main objectives of this review was to explore possibilities of utilizing abundantly available organic wastes as feed stuff to replace FM in the formulation of feed for fish after processing through microbial fermentation, to find out a cost effective pathway for aquaculture industry.
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Pea (Pisum sativum L.), a leguminous crop, is majorly processed into canned, dehydrated, and frozen forms. The outer pod comprehends about 35–40% of the pea’s weight. Globally, significant quantities of pea residues are generated; an enormous amount of which is used as feed for animals. Pea pods not only yield an adequate quality of dietary fiber but provide a substantial amount of proteins, sugars, and minerals. The pea pods consist of appreciable amount of polyphenols including phenolic acids such as 5-caffeoylquinic acid and flavanols like catechin and epicatechin. The pharmacological benefits offered by pea pods are antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, renoprotective, reproprotective, antibacterial, and α-amylase inhibition activity. The trend for a healthy lifestyle has led to a concern about a fiber-rich diet. It can be deduced from the review that pea pods have the potential to be used in the bakery and ready-to-eat product industries. The pea pod powder when added to food products is known to provide nutritional enhancement and structural strength. This review summarizes the relevant literature and available data pertaining to the nutritional profile, pharmacological benefits, and its use in functional foods. The potential applications of pea pods in other industries apart from food industries have also been detailed.
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Fruit and vegetable by-product production produces a large amount of waste material, which poses a significantdisposal issue for the food industry and can have harmful effect on the environment, if left unused. This waste includes nutrients like dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals, as well as bioactive like flavonoids and lycopene. The functional and nutritional characteristics of by-products of fruit and vegetable processing, as well as their possible utilization in food extrusion technology as noble ingredients for enhancing the nutritional value in snack foods are the subject of this study. This review also proposes a method for producing a less expensive value-added ingredient, which reduces the current methods of disposing of these waste (that can have a negative impact on the environment) but still saving money for the manufacturer. The potential and opportunity for fruit and vegetable by-products incorporation in extruded snack products, thereby enriching the fibre and other nutritional components of the snack, is reflected in this paper. Ingredient industries are constantly searching for cheaper but value-added raw materials. So, this review will also enhance the horizon for not only the food industries but also encourage micro food entrepreneurs, the Self Help Groups and certain other domestic food enterprises in terms of the utility of the food waste, the methods of development and value added aspects as a whole.
Chapter
Lowering food loss and wastage leads to the conservation of energy and resources, and ensures a sustainable global diet. Food loss and wastage indicates an overall loss of both macro- and micronutrients. Food waste is the result of negligence or a conscious decision to throw food away. This food loss or waste happens in all segments of the food cycle starting from harvesting till slaughtering and especially while processing (Kamal et al., 2021). To meet the world’s nutritional demand, the researcher’s interest is growing towards recovery and utilization of food industrybased wastes. Food is an essential part of all living organisms, especially protein-rich food because proteins are the building blocks of life forms. They are required for critical functions of cells, tissues, organs, and systems. Among the three main chemical components of food, protein is one of the macromolecules, besides lipids, carbohydrates, that are integral to the food systems. With the predicted increase in population growth over the next two to three decades, the concern for feeding this large population nutrient-rich food is the concern of many (Nadathur et al., 2017). This availability of adequate supplies of protein, which is of an appropriate quality to maintain health, has been one topic of concern and is the biggest challenge for researchers tasked with finding an alternative source to protein. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Bongaarts, 2007) estimates that 32% of all food produced in the world was lost or wasted in 2009. This agrofood industry produces 190 million tons of wastes in the form of plant and animal proteins. Plant proteins include soybean, wheat, pea, rice, sunflower nuts oilcakes, pomace, seeds, peel etc. These plant waste proteins also can be utilized to play an important role in daily appetite. Whereas, animal proteins include poultry carcasses, liver, skin, feathers, fish wastes like fish bones, skin, collagen, and milk waste such as whey protein etc. They have a balanced combination of all amino acids hence they are called complete proteins, which are essential for an organism’s diet (Virtanen et al., 2019). So, based on protein waste availability and quantity can be valorized using various recovery techniques and its utilization. As we know, this recovery depends on the cell matrix of the product and technology used (Gençdağ et al., 2021). Therefore, keeping in mind the increase in demand of the protein-rich foods and the crisis to avail it, has given rise to valorize the waste of industries rich in nutrients. This will help both to meet the protein necessity demand and will also help in zero waste produce. Industries will also benefit from this waste utilization by increasing income from the byproducts (Shahid et al., 2021).To this end, this chapter suggests ways to meet protein-rich food waste sources, which can serve as the potential source of protein and reduce the waste by extracting and utilizing the protein from the waste to be used for human and animal feed.
Chapter
In the current global circumstances (e.g., food insecurity, economic instability, recession, pandemic situation through COVID-19, etc.), a sustainable approach needs to be adopted ensure successful food production and supply chain. Globally, along the entire agri-food supply chain, enormous amounts of wastes and by-products are generated. Ineffective and unsustainable management of these wastes and by-products can be seen as a representative reflection of the socioeconomic situation of a region. In addition, environmental issues and policies adopted by a region can also have their own effects. Recent decades have witnessed globalization and free trade policies that have led to a wide range of innovative food products entering the international market. Accordingly, it is anticipated that agri-food processing industries will continue to expand in the coming decades, thus contributing toward the production of huge volumes of wastes and/or by-products. In this sense, an ecologically conscious system revolving around zero waste generation and circular economy concepts for effective valorization of agri-food industrial wastes/by-products is envisaged to contribute toward an improved economy as well as minimizing the negative impacts on the environment. Also, effective valorization of agri-food wastes/by-products can contribute significantly to regional food security, and thereby ensure sustainability in the entire production and supply chain. In this chapter, some of the crucial sustainability challenges witnessed with regard to valorization of agri-food wastes/by-products, innovations in the complex agri-food supply systems, and overcoming some of the industrial barriers are discussed. Further, the currently existing gaps, future sustainability challenges, and opportunities are identified and deliberated on.
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Microbial protein constitutes a considerable proportion of the duodenal amino-acid nitrogen flow in ruminants and its maximization is the more economic form to supply protein to the cattle. In addition, the amino acid composition in true protein is similar to the one in protein from main animal products, characterized by its high nutritional quality. The microbial protein synthesis varies due to the influence of several factors related to diet or ruminal environment, reason why its quantification is a tactically important point in the of nutritional valuation systems, especially for animals with high production levels. The procedure based on the determination of markers for the measurement of microbial protein production has been the most used, but it displays several conflicting points, among them the necessity to use fistulated animals. Purine derivatives are constituents of microbial cells, they are mainly in the form of nucleotides and the most representative are those from adenine and guanine. Microbial nucleic acids that leave the rumen undergo an extensive digestion in the small intestine, this way the purine nucleotides are hydrolyzed into nucleosides and free bases, which after being absorbed are degraded in different forms depending on the animal species, because of the difference in the tissue distribution of xanthine oxidase. Urinary excretion is the first route for purine derivatives, saliva and milk being other routes of excretion that quantitatively represent a small proportion. Because the purines that arrive at the duodenum can later be degraded by the animal and excreted in the urine in form of allantoin and other metabolic end products, urinary excretion has been proposed as a valid parameter to estimate, through equations, the duodenal microbial protein flow. The magnitude of this fraction is not constant between species and it seems that animals from the tropics excrete a smaller proportion of the plasma purine derivatives than those from temperate latitudes.
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The effect of the physiological state and dietary protein level on urinary excretion of creatinine (C) and purine derivatives (PD) was studied in two experiments carried out with pregnant and lactating ewes to evaluate whether the PD/C ratio in urine can he confidently used as an index of PD excretion. In both experiments ewes were given ammonia-treated straw and concentrates including different levels of fish meal and the excretion in urine and milk and the plasma concentration of C, allantoin (AL), xanthine, hypoxanthine and uric acid was measured. Creatinine excretion (in urine and milk) was higher in pregnant ewes than in those lactating (492 and 420 (s.e. 10.0) μmol/kg maternal live weight 0.75 ) and no significant differences were found due to number of foetuses and dietary protein level. The coefficient of variation was 0·10 in both pregnancy and lactation and individual variation accounted for proportionately 0·78 and 0·93 of total variation. The AL/C ratio in urine was highly correlated with daily AL excretion ( r = 0·90 and 0·78 in pregnant and lactating ewes, respectively). Changes in PD excretion with experimental treatments were mainly reflected in AL, as the main component (0-83) of total PD. Most of the variation in AL excretion was explained by differences in rumen fermentable organic matter intake (RFOMI) (R ² = 0·79) and AL excretion did not differ between treatments when expressed per kg of RFOMI. In contrast to this the ratio AL/digestible organic matter intake decreased with increasing levels of fish meal in the diet. Urinary PD excretion was better related to estimated PD kidney tubular load ( r = 0·76) than to PD plasma concentration ( r = 0·64). The results suggest that creatinine excretion is scarcely affected by the number of foetuses in pregnancy and dietary protein level but if the AL/С in urine is used instead of total collection as an index of purines absorbed in the duodenum, differences in urinary creatinine excretion due to physiological state must be accounted for.