God invented war to teach Americans geography

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... Undoubtedly, the United States is greatest military power across the world. With regard to the implications of the massive US military capability, there are many similar scenarios cited in academic manuscripts, from world systems and hegemonic cycles' analysis to various discussions about world leadership and other geopolitical discourses (Agnew, 2003;Flint & Falah, 2004;Ikenberry, 2002;Modelski & Thompson, 1999;O' Tuathail, 2003;Taylor, 2004;Wallerstein, 1993). In this respect, emphasising the continental, maritime and aerial power in the theories of Mahan (1840-1914), Mackinder (1861-1947), Spykman (1893-1943), Seversky (1894-1974 and others has confirmed the importance of military power to control geostrategic and geopolitical realms and to conduct grand strategies. ...
... Perhaps unilateralism as an element of the Bush doctrine was a product of neoconservative thinking, which took the view that due to military ability, the United States as a unipolar power did not need to act multilaterally and thus they did not perceive this to be an important obstacle to obtain UN Security Council support to use force against Iraq. This was compatible with this realist position that views the UN an ephemeral organization to be used when it is useful and ignored when it does not serve the national interests (Taylor, 2004). They criticised the multilateral policy of the Clinton administration as well as rejected some international agreements such as Kyoto and the International Criminal Court (Schmidt & Williams, 2008). ...
... Obviously, powerful actors such as Russia, China, Japan, European community, and even India, are posed as great powers (Cohen, 1991;Huntington, 1999;Ikenberry, 1996;Nye, 2002;Taylor, 2004;Wallerstein, 2003), capable of challenging the US world leadership, as well as being contenders of leadership in the new era. In addition, at this time of uncertainty, some regional states like Iran and non-state groups like Al-Qaeda have attempted to challenge the US leadership as well. ...
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This paper seeks to explore the relationship between the geopolitical code and global objectives of the United States in the context of its efforts of preserve its world leadership position in the post-Cold War era. To examine this relationship, the first term of George W. Bush's presidency has been selected as a notable period during which the US geopolitical code and that country's actions, in particular prosecution of the Iraq War, were redefined. Modelski's long cycles are applied to analyze the US geopolitical position within the international system, as well as to understand more about its desire to continue its world leadership. Geo-economics as a recent concept is also used to help analyze the US geopolitical code and the intentions behind its foreign policy. The resultant analysis suggests the US geopolitical culture, and as a result that state's geopolitical code, prescribes the necessity for the US to project the Iraq War and control the Persian Gulf in order to continue its world leadership position. It would be done by defining a global threat and also implementing a worldwide response to that threat, and thus, the 'War on terror'.
... Some geographers have studied war-making, and such geographic contributions to militarism (and war, more broadly) have come under scrutiny. As Taylor (2004) sardonically reiterated (cf. Bryan this issue), "God invented war to teach Americans geography." ...
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The discipline of geography has a long albeit uneven engagement with militarism. This is witnessed in the on-going efforts of geographers to influence military policy as well as the development of technologies used in military action. This forum, based on papers originally presented at the 2014 Association of American Geographers annual meeting in Tampa, Florida, provides a critical introduction to contemporary issues related to geographies of militarism. Collectively, these essays demonstrate that geographers located within the nonmilitary academy have failed to reflect adequately on the implications of militarism on the discipline. Consequently, we forward the argument that the American Association of Geographers must initiate a review of the relationship between academic geography and militarism.地理学门长久以来涉入军事主义, 儘管涉入程度不均。而这见证于地理学者持续不懈的努力, 企图影响军事政策与军事行动中所使用的科技发展。此一论坛是根据 2014 年美国地理学家协会于佛罗里达州坦帕市的年度会议所发表之文章, 批判性地介绍有关军事主义地理的当前议题。这些文章共同显示出, 身处于非军事学术界的地理学者, 未能充分反思军事主义对自身领域的意涵。最终, 我们推进美国地理学家协会必须开始着手回顾学术地理与军事主义之间的关係之主张。La disciplina geográfica tiene un largo aunque irregular compromiso con el militarismo. De esto dan fe los esfuerzos actuales de los geógrafos por influir sobre las políticas militares lo mismo que en el desarrollo de tecnologías usadas en el accionar militar. Este foro, basado en trabajos presentados originalmente en la reunión anual del 2014 en Tampa, Florida, proporciona una introducción crítica a cuestiones contemporáneas relacionadas con las geografías del militarismo. Colectivamente, estos ensayos demuestran que los geógrafos ubicados en la academia no militar han fallado en reflexionar adecuadamente sobre las implicaciones que el militarismo tiene para la disciplina. En consecuencia, promovemos el argumento de que la Asociación Americana de Geógrafos debe empezar a revisar la relación entre la geografía académica y el militarismo.
... If one were to take seriously Peter Taylor's (2004) claim that "God invented war to teach Americans geography", then we propose as a corollary that Geographies are invented to legitimate war to Americans. Since 9/11 the Bush Administration has repeatedly reinvented (and simplified) the geographies of the Middle East and beyond to forward an aggressive neoliberal agenda. ...
Since the late eighteenth century, academic engagement with political, economic, social, cultural and spatial changes in our cities has been dominated by theoretical frameworks crafted with reference to just a small number of cities. This book offers an important antidote to the continuing focus of urban studies on cities in ‘the Global North’.
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