Article

Emotion expression and the locution “I love you”: A cross-cultural study

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Abstract

This exploratory study is aimed to advance the understanding of emotion expression across cultures by focusing on the declaration of love and studying its expression across cultures. In particular, the use of the locution “I love you” was investigated. Results indicate that the use of the locution “I love you” fluctuates greatly across cultures: It is used exclusively for romantic declarations of love in some cultures, but has a much wider distribution in others. Interestingly, nonnative speakers seem to use the locution “I love you” more in English than their native language. Differences are also noticeable within cultures, particularly across genders and age groups. Thus, females tend to use the expression more often than males. In addition, there seems to be more widespread use of the locution now than just a few decades ago.

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... Cultural Linguistics assumes that emotions are cultural categories characterised by a culturally constructed conceptual dimension. Because people from different cultural backgrounds may draw on different culture-specific schemas and foster different values or attitudes towards the expression of love (Wilkins and Gareis 2006), we can reasonably assume that the cultural conceptualization of the above-mentioned slogan differs between Polish and English speakers. ...
... The influence of culture on the meaning of love becomes evident in comparative studies on love expressions across speakers from different countries. A cross-cultural study on the locution I love you as a form of emotion expression (Wilkins and Gareis 2006) shows that this phrase is used far more often by Americans than members of some other societies. At the same time, in the U.S. it seems to lack the gravity that it has in a variety of other cultures, in which this phrase implies a deeply emotional, committed relationship. ...
... It may be somewhat striking that only seven translators decided to render the meaning of the slogan with the verb 'kochać' , which is the prototypical equivalent of the verb love in Polish. What must be taken into consideration in this case is that the direct expression of love varies between different cultures (Gareis and Wilkins 2011;Wilkins and Gareis 2006). As noted by Dziwirek and Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (2010: 90), in Polish an overt declaration of love is very rarely uttered in direct statements to an addressee. ...
Chapter
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This study discusses cross-cultural re-conceptualization as a key part of translation competence. The discussion is based on 45 proposals submitted by Polish translators for rendering the meaning of the slogan “I’m lovin’ it”, popularized in Poland by a global fast-food restaurant chain. The elicited proposals demonstrate the slogan poses a challenging task for Polish translators. For instance, while some translators employed the verb “uwielbiać” (‘adore’) to convey the meaning of the slogan, most other translators skipped the emotional aspect altogether and used phrases like “Ale pycha!” (‘So delicious!’) to put across its sense. Strikingly, the verb “kochać” (‘love’) featured in relatively few proposals. It is because Polish speakers draw on culture-specific schemas and foster culture-specific attitudes towards the expression of emotions. While the straightforward reference to love in the fast-food context may be appropriate for English speakers, for Poles it seems to be too exaggerated or even inappropriate. As one moves away from basic, concrete terms into culturally constructed concepts, a competent translator needs to look further beyond the linguistic transcoding of lexical and syntactic correspondences between the source and target text because the equivalence in translation depends on the culturally constructed re-conceptualization, which strongly affects picking up particular target language forms.
... Since cultural identity provides a strong sense of belonging for people, it is highly likely that people will carry over their beliefs, behaviors, and norms into their relationships (Wilkins & Gareis, 2005). EFT can be helpful to intercultural couples as long as therapists are intentional in how they expand Stage 1 to include externalizing conversations. ...
... Even though they appear to be universal processes, emotional expression and attachment needs are governed by culturally specific rules, and these rules influence how couples visibly interact with each other (Greenman et al., 2009). Furthermore, in their article, exploring cross-cultural importance of the phrase, "I love you," Wilkins and Gareis (2005) discuss that while emotional experiencing appears to be cross-cultural, the variation in expression can be explained by culture. Verbal declarations of love appear to be more important in individualistic, industrialized societies, which is a reflection of certain cultures privileging independence and self-agency (Wilkins and Gareis, 2005). ...
... Furthermore, in their article, exploring cross-cultural importance of the phrase, "I love you," Wilkins and Gareis (2005) discuss that while emotional experiencing appears to be cross-cultural, the variation in expression can be explained by culture. Verbal declarations of love appear to be more important in individualistic, industrialized societies, which is a reflection of certain cultures privileging independence and self-agency (Wilkins and Gareis, 2005). Verbal expressions of love may be less important to the maintenance of romantic relationships in some cultures for varying reasons. ...
Article
Intercultural relationships continue to rise in the United States while the fields of couple and family therapy research lag in their inclusion of diverse samples that best reflect these relationship realities. Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) is an empirically supported approach to working with coupes that offers promise for working with intercultural couples. In this article we first review clinical considerations when working with intercultural couples then discuss how therapists can expand EFT using narrative techniques to ensure the realities intercultural couples face are included in the therapeutic process. We conclude with specific suggestions for working with intercultural couples.
... Research investigating love expression and first language use has contributed to a sizeable body of literature as well (see Dewaele, 2008;Gareis and Wilkins, 2011;Thompson, 2013;Wilkins and Gareis, 2006). These studies have highlighted the importance of the socio-cultural environment in shaping the socially-constructed activity of expressing love in one's first language (Dewaele, 2008;Garies and Wilkins, 2011;Lutz, 1998;Thompson, 2013;Wilkins and Garies, 2006). ...
... One important use of bahasa gado-gado that this novel demonstrates, especially among younger characters, is to verbally express love. Indonesian popular novels such as 9S10A provide examples of love as a socio-cultural and emotional act without distinguishing the types of love, such as passionate love etc. (see Wilkins and Gareis, 2006). Accordingly, "I love you" and other explicit love expressions allow an exploration of why Indonesian writers prefer expressing love in English, as opposed to their first language, be it the regional language or Indonesian, in otherwise Indonesian discourse. ...
... In this manner, Iwan, who learned English as a foreign language later in his life, may have picked up the new habit of expressing love explicitly while living in New York. For him, the United States may have provided him a space to learn in which expressing love verbally in the contexts of family and friendship is common (see Gareis and Wilkins, 2011;Wilkins and Gareis, 2006). In incorporating it into his existing linguistic habits and literacy, he has created a hybrid self, while transgressing social and cultural boundaries at the same time. ...
Article
In the post-New Order era, the use of English in Indonesia is noticeably increasing, particularly in otherwise Indonesian popular print texts, a domain where language selection is evident and publicly accessible. The appearance of English in Indonesian popular texts is linguistically known as code-switching, called bahasa gado-gado in the Indonesian context. Although noticeably increasing, English is still unfairly treated by many Indonesians and by the government as a foreign language that carries the “West” ideology. In other words, English not only functions as a linguistic resource but also as a language of Otherness that may carry some Western ideologies for many Indonesians. In fact, the juxtaposition of English and Indonesian in otherwise Indonesian speech acts still receives social censure or is seen as an interference to Indonesian-ness. Using an interpretive textual analysis, I show that code-switching with special reference to English effectively functions to express the overt love expressions and to project one’s socio-cultural hybridity and lingustic proficiency.
... Cultural Linguistics assumes that emotions are cultural categories characterised by a culturally constructed conceptual dimension. Because people from different cultural backgrounds may draw on different culture-specific schemas and foster different values or attitudes towards the expression of love (Wilkins and Gareis 2006), we can reasonably assume that the cultural conceptualization of the above-mentioned slogan differs between Polish and English speakers. ...
... The influence of culture on the meaning of love becomes evident in comparative studies on love expressions across speakers from different countries. A cross-cultural study on the locution I love you as a form of emotion expression (Wilkins and Gareis 2006) shows that this phrase is used far more often by Americans than members of some other societies. At the same time, in the U.S. it seems to lack the gravity that it has in a variety of other cultures, in which this phrase implies a deeply emotional, committed relationship. ...
... It may be somewhat striking that only seven translators decided to render the meaning of the slogan with the verb 'kochać' , which is the prototypical equivalent of the verb love in Polish. What must be taken into consideration in this case is that the direct expression of love varies between different cultures (Gareis and Wilkins 2011;Wilkins and Gareis 2006). As noted by Dziwirek and Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (2010: 90), in Polish an overt declaration of love is very rarely uttered in direct statements to an addressee. ...
Book
Translator education is a concept that defies definition and requires comprehensive analysis in order to be appreciated. The volume reports on research from various educational environments and displays an array of statements on current translator education which are important for translators, translation scholars and particularly translator educators. The contributors present various methods of evaluation of both individual translation assignments and students’ overall performance in academic courses. They analyse the correlation between student performance in translation and the quality of their self-reflective translation commentary.
... Research investigating love expression and first language use has contributed to a sizeable body of literature as well (see Dewaele, 2008;Gareis and Wilkins, 2011;Thompson, 2013;Wilkins and Gareis, 2006). These studies have highlighted the importance of the socio-cultural environment in shaping the socially-constructed activity of expressing love in one's first language (Dewaele, 2008;Garies and Wilkins, 2011;Lutz, 1998;Thompson, 2013;Wilkins and Garies, 2006). ...
... One important use of bahasa gado-gado that this novel demonstrates, especially among younger characters, is to verbally express love. Indonesian popular novels such as 9S10A provide examples of love as a socio-cultural and emotional act without distinguishing the types of love, such as passionate love etc. (see Wilkins and Gareis, 2006). Accordingly, "I love you" and other explicit love expressions allow an exploration of why Indonesian writers prefer expressing love in English, as opposed to their first language, be it the regional language or Indonesian, in otherwise Indonesian discourse. ...
... In this manner, Iwan, who learned English as a foreign language later in his life, may have picked up the new habit of expressing love explicitly while living in New York. For him, the United States may have provided him a space to learn in which expressing love verbally in the contexts of family and friendship is common (see Gareis and Wilkins, 2011;Wilkins and Gareis, 2006). In incorporating it into his existing linguistic habits and literacy, he has created a hybrid self, while transgressing social and cultural boundaries at the same time. ...
Article
Abstract In the post-New Order era, the use of English in Indonesia is noticeably increasing, particularly in otherwise Indonesian popular print texts, a domain where language selection is evident and publicly accessible. The appearance of English in Indonesian popular texts is linguistically known as codeswitching, called bahasa gado-gado in the Indonesian context. Although noticeably increasing, English is still unfairly treated by many Indonesians and by the government as a foreign language that carries the “West” ideology. In other words, English not only functions as a linguistic resource but also as a language of Otherness that may carry some Western ideologies for many Indonesians. In fact, the juxtaposition of English and Indonesian in otherwise Indonesian speech acts still receives social censure or is seen as an interference to Indonesian-ness. Using an interpretive textual analysis, I show that code-switching with special reference to English effectively functions to express the overt love expressions and to project one’s socio-cultural hybridity and lingustic proficiency. Keywords Bahasa gado-gado, code-switching, discourse analysis, English, Indonesia, Indonesian novel, popular print, textual analysis
... US and Italian subjects were found to equate 'love' with happiness; Chinese individuals had a 'darker' view of 'love', such as passionate love which was associated with ideographs as unrequited love, nostalgia and sorrow (Shaver, Wu, & Schwartz, 1991). Additionally, the use of the locution 'I love you' seems to fluctuate across cultures: while it is used exclusively for romantic declarations of love in some cultures, it possesses a much wider distribution in others (Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). Yet, scientists distinguish two forms of love. ...
... Even so, the findings cannot lead towards a clear explanation or description of what 'love' entails. This rests on the fact that the notion seems to be subject to differing personal and subjective interpretations, as also proven in previous studies (for example, Shaver et al., 1991;Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). More specifically, certain informants could not specify whether what they experienced/received was an outward expression of 'love', with comments such as: "I'm not sure I feel 'love' …". ...
Article
This study explored the extent to which tourists take part in a distinct type of love, agape, which is described as sincere and not selfseeking. Findings from 80 semi-structured interviews in Cyprus reveal that tourists acknowledge the constructive effects of love in general, at a personal and societal level, despite no consensus being reached on the interpretation of the term. Even so, love seems not to be solely the outcome of human transactions. It is also determined by the cultivation of a caring culture towards the facilitative and natural setting in which social dealings take place. Although responses betray the conveyance of offerings that are in line with agape's dogmata, one might argue whether what tourists experience, is agape in its essence. Nonetheless, managerial implications are discussed.
... Cultural differences have been found in the extent to which love is explicitly expressed versus implicitly symbolized through actions. For example, Wilkins and Gareis (2006) found that nonverbal declarations of love (e.g., making sacrifices, listening obediently) were more common for international students than domestic students. Caldwell-Harris, Kronrod, and Yang (2013) found that American students listed more reasons for saying, "I love you" in close relationships than Chinese students. ...
... Importantly, however, the way people seek and provide support differs by culture, and these differences are consistent with the cross-cultural studies reviewed above about the expression of love and approach to conflict (Dillion et al., 2015;MacNeil & Adamsons, 2014;Ting-Toomey,-1991;Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). Thus, the CBR 2 model suggests that similarity between partners on emotional processes and relationship norms may promote more effective responsiveness to a partner's emotional disclosures, which in turn may help to build trust, increase communication and mutual respect between intercultural partners. ...
Article
Intercultural romantic relationships have increased worldwide. Yet, there is a lack of empirical knowledge about intercultural couples. The studies that do suggest that intercultural couples have higher rates of conflict and long‐term instability, but most studies have measured intercultural couples using categorical responses of race/ethnicity, which limits theoretical insight to the interpersonal characteristics that make up high‐quality intimate relationships. This review integrates findings from several research fields into a new model, called the culturally based romantic relationship (CBR²) model, to understand how similarities/differences in within‐person emotional processes and relationship norms relate to between‐person emotional functioning, and in turn relationship quality. Theoretical models of this nature are essential because they can impact therapy and counseling programs developed for diverse groups of people, but also advance research fields that are related to culture, emotions, and interpersonal relationships.
... The words people use in communication reflect their expressions, ideas, beliefs and points of view. The research studies on 'emotion and culture' (Kitayama & Markus & Kurokawa, 2000) and 'cultural and love' (Gareis & Wilkins, 2009) show that culture has a great influence on love expression or discussion. Despite a significant amount of attention by academic researchers, as represented in various social media networks, to the best of our knowledge, no work has been invested in the field of culture analysis from social media through emotions analysis to date. ...
... From this research, we adopt the underlying idea of using the positivity or negativity of an emotion and its strength as a feature for cross-culture analysis. The goals of the research conducted by Gareis and Wilkins's (2009) and Horton et al. (2009) are similar to ours in that they analyze love expressions to understand cultural differences but they did not use social media as data source. Nakasak et al. (2009) developed a visual interface from multilingual blogs with a topic keyword by analyzing cross-lingual/cross-cultural differences in concerns and opinions. ...
Article
We present a methodology for analyzing cross-cultural similarities and differences using language as a medium, love as domain, social media as a data source and 'Terms' and 'Topics' as cultural features. We discuss the techniques necessary for the creation of the social data corpus from which emotion terms have been extracted using NLP techniques. Topics of love discussion were then extracted from the corpus by means of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Finally, on the basis of these features, a cross-cultural comparison was carried out. For the purpose of cross-cultural analysis, the experimental focus was on comparing data from a culture from the East (India) with a culture from the West (United States of America). Similarities and differences between these cultures have been analyzed with respect to the usage of emotions, their intensities and the topics used during love discussion in social media.
... In fact, the two kinds of emojis, the faces and the hearts, perfectly match two typical situations in traditional verbal communication studies. Women are reported to show more facial-related activities than men [29,40,41], and they are more likely to express love in real life [1,33,38]. In textual communications, the face-related emojis emphasize the facial expressions through the eyes, eyebrows, or mouth shapes. ...
... However, we are surprised to find that male users are significantly more likely to use heart-related emojis than females (female: 17.62%, male: 19.41%, p-value≪0.01). This is contrary to psychological literature where males are reported to be less willing to express love in real life [1,33,38]. Such a finding implies that although men reserve to express their love in real life, they are more willing to express love through emojis in textual communication. ...
Conference Paper
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Based on a large data set of emoji using behavior collected from smartphone users over the world, this paper investigates gender-specific usage of emojis. We present various interesting findings that evidence a considerable difference in emoji usage by female and male users. Such a difference is significant not just in a statistical sense; it is sufficient for a machine learning algorithm to accurately infer the gender of a user purely based on the emojis used in their messages. In real world scenarios where gender inference is a necessity, models based on emojis have unique advantages over existing models that are based on textual or contextual information. Emojis not only provide language-independent indicators, but also alleviate the risk of leaking private user information through the analysis of text and metadata.
... The influence of culture on the meaning of the verb love becomes evident in comparative studies on love expressions across speakers from different countries. A cross-cultural study on the locution I love you as a form of emotion expression (Wilkins/ Gareis 2006) shows that this phrase is used far more often by Americans than members of some other societies. At the same time, in the U.S. it seems to lack the gravity that it has in many other cultures, in which this phrase implies a deeply emotional, committed relationship. ...
... Emotional terms and the sentences in which they are used in different cultures are embedded in distinct semantic networks because of different values and life experiences (Kagan 2007;Wierzbicka 1999). The cultural variation in the semantic networks implies that we cannot assume that a particular term or sentence has the same meaning across speakers from different speech communities, which makes it virtually impossible to translate all emotional words from one language into another and assume that they have the same intended meaning. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study discusses the cross-cultural re-conceptualization of the slogan ‘I’m lovin’ it’, popularized in Poland by a global fast-food restaurant chain, which occurs in the inter-linguistic transfer between English and Polish. The analytical framework for the study is provided by Cultural Linguistics and the Re-conceptualization and Approximation Theory. The analysis is based on proposals submitted by 45 translators asked to come up with a Polish equivalent of the slogan. The results indicate that because the semantic networks for the meaning of love do not overlap between English and Polish perfectly, attempts at the cross-cultural transfer of the slogan can be approached only as more or less accurate approximations of the original meaning constructed according to culture-specific norms, expectations, and attitudes.
... This may cause them to perceive the L2 as more appropriate for expressing strong emotions, such as anger, while the L1 is perceived as more painful and uncomfortable, which often leads to a decrease in L1 use, and ultimately to L1 attrition. Piller 2001Piller , 2002Piller , 2007Wilkins & Gareis 2006;Zhengdao Ye 2004). Research into emotional communication in cross-cultural couples has explored choices, challenges (Dewaele 2018;Piller 2001Piller , 2002Piller , 2007, and difficulties which may emerge in these relationships because of language and cultural differences (Dewaele & Salomidou 2017). ...
Article
This study examines language preferences to express anger and happiness among 15 Russian Australians belonging to the 1.5 generation, who acquired Russian as first language (L1) and English as second language (L2), after migration during childhood. While most research into these topics has focused on L1-dominant bilinguals, this study offers a novel perspective, as 1.5-generation migrants are generally L2-dominant or multidominant (L1+L2-dominant), and possibly L1 attriters. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and underwent qualitative thematic analyses. From the results it emerges that these speakers mostly express emotions in the L2 or both languages, in line with their language dominance, but their choices do not seem to relate to language emotionality, as the L1 maintains the highest emotional resonance for them. While research on multilinguals’ expression of emotions has mainly focused on anger, this study calls attention to the expression of happiness, and points to the importance of L2-dominant and multidominant multilinguals.
... Gonzaga, Keltner, Turner, Campos, and Altemus (2006) found a correlation between love and sexual desire. In the same year, Wilkins and Gareis (2006) also investigated the expression of love or declaration of love "I Love You" in a cross-cultural study. Chapman (2010) in his book "The Five Love Languages: The Secret to Love That Lasts" also offers his view on love. ...
Article
Full-text available
Five Love Languages (FLL) is a theory proposed by Chapman (2010) about five ways a person feel most loved. This study was based on a lack of empirical evidence supporting the construct. Therefore, it aimed to validate five love languages and the results of this study were expected to be an empirical evidence to support Chapman’s idea. A Likert scale was constructed and tested toward 400 participants (148 males, 252 females; Mage = 19.85 years, SDage= 1.51 years). The FLL scale showed a promising composite reliability score ( .884) and satisfying item-total correlations (averagely > .250). Statistical analyses showed that there were 17 valid items in the Five Love Languages Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the five factors in Chapman’s initial proposal.
... This idea, that the language one speaks shapes one's cognitions and worldview, is associated with a complex and often contradictory research literature (e.g., Enfield, 2015). Yet, there is general agreement that cultural values and systems are often reflected in language, and that an understanding of language is often a window into understanding the culture of its speakers (e.g., de Bres, Holmes, Marra, & Vine, 2010; Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). An awareness of linguistic relativity may reinforce the value of language learning even for students attending programs where courses are taught in their native language. ...
Article
In response to recent research indicating that the benefits of study abroad are significantly enhanced by pre-departure training, tertiary institutions are increasingly offering pre-departure courses to students preparing to study abroad. Teachers of psychology are well positioned to contribute to such courses in that a large number of psychological concepts are relevant to the student sojourner experience and the goals of pre-departure training. In this article I present the goals, format, content, and assessment of a psychology-based study abroad pre-departure course, describe relevant psychological concepts, and provide suggestions for psychology instructors interested in developing and teaching such courses.
... For girls, emoji with hearts seemed to be more relevant to describe positive emotions elicited by foods of recalled contexts. Girls might be able to perceive or express more "lovable" and "endearing" emotions when describing their feelings towards foods, which could be explained by findings showing that women were more probable to communicate love in real life (Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). Boys might exhibit restrictive emotionality for some particular emotions (Jansz, 2000) or they think that emoji with hearts are something for females. ...
Thesis
Given the rise of food products targeted at children and the need of healthier products to combat the global rise of childhood obesity, children take an important role in nowadays’ consumer testing. Although children between 4-11 years are already able to perform a range of consumer tests similar to adults, the assessment of children’s food preferences requires engaging and age-appropriate methods. Emotions have been shown to give additional information about food products compared to hedonic measurements, however, they are understudied in children. Growing interest for emoji to measure consumer’s product-elicited emotions emerged in the field of sensory and consumer science over the past years. However, previous studies often selected emoji without the consideration of how emoji are interpreted by preadolescents regarding their semantic and dimensional meanings. Moreover, research found associations between personality traits, taste responsiveness and food preferences, which constitutes another understudied topic in emotion research with children. Understanding this relationship could further help to understand factors influencing preadolescents’ food preferences. To tackle this problem, the aim of the PhD thesis was to develop an emoji-based self-report questionnaire, the Emoji Pair Questionnaire, for preadolescents consisting of a food-specific emoji list with identified emotional meaning and to validate and apply the tool to test its discriminant ability in response to food. A further aim was to investigate individual differences in emotional responses to foods by clustering children according to patterns of emotional responses and by testing the clusters for differences in personality traits, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) status and sensory responsiveness to basic tastes. A total of 711 children (9-13-y.o.) participated in seven studies, which attended primary and secondary school classes in schools based in Italy (n=454, Study 1-5) and Norway (n=257, Study 6 and 7). Study 1 identified 46 of 92 emoji as food-related and relevant for children to describe their emotions in response to food experiences. Study 2, that used projective mapping, showed that emoji were discriminated along three dimensions, that were interpreted as valence, power, and arousal. Results of Study 3 and 4, that used the Check-All-That-Apply method with emoji and emotion words respectively, were congruent in linking emoji and emotions words. Positive emoji were described by more words in general, which could be xii explained by the context dependent use of emoji, which was clarified in Study 5 (qualitative interviews). Emoji expressing similar semantic and dimensional meanings were grouped in pairs of two, based on the idea that the grouping of the two emoji with the most similar semantic and dimensional meaning allows to better identify the overall meaning of the emoji pair. Emoji with ambiguous meaning were excluded. Finally, the Emoji Pair Questionnaire contained a reduced list of 17 emoji pairs (n=34 emoji) varying in valence, power, and arousal dimension. Italian and Norwegian preadolescents were found to describe emoji with overlapping emotional meaning (Study 6), which allowed the validation and application of the Emoji Pair Questionnaire in Norway. Findings of Study 7 showed that emoji pairs varied between food categories and were able to discriminate between familiar foods despite similar liking. Emoji also discriminated significantly among food products despite similar liking within the food categories of vegetables and desserts/juices, but not within the fruit category. The tasted samples (grapefruit juice spiked with sucrose) differed in liking and in associated emoji. Children were classified into three clusters according to their emotional patterns in Principal Component Analysis. The three clusters differed also in liking, surprise, sensitivity to reward, responsiveness to sweet, sour, and ability to discriminate between food samples. The findings obtained in this PhD thesis illustrate that the newly developed Emoji Pair Questionnaire can be used to not only understand children’s food behavior but also to develop novel products targeted at specific clusters of children considering their individual differences in emotions, personality traits and sensory responsiveness by providing target-specific products.
... In the traditional verbal communication studies for the real life [5,47,48,56], females are reported to show more facial-related activities than males. Previous studies also suggest that females are more likely to express love in real life [57,58,59]. Since emojis act as non-verbal cues in text communication, could we observe the similar behavior characteristics in their usage? ...
Article
Full-text available
Emojis have gained incredible popularity in recent years and become a new ubiquitous language for Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) by worldwide users. Various research efforts have been made to understand the behaviors of using emojis. Gender-specific study is always meaningful for HCI community, however, so far we know very little about whether and how much males and females vary in emoji usage. To bridge such a knowledge gap, this paper makes the first effort to explore the emoji usage through a gender lens. Our analysis is based on the largest data set to date, which covers 134,419 users from 183 countries, along with their over 401 million messages collected in three months. We conduct a multi-dimensional statistical analysis from various aspects of emoji usage, including the frequency, preferences, input patterns, public/private CMC-scenario patterns, temporal patterns, and sentiment patterns. The results demonstrate that emoji usage can significantly vary between males and females. Accordingly, we propose some implications that can raise useful insights to HCI community.
... Compared with younger participants, older ones reported fewer negative emotional expressions and greater emotional control. Furthermore about culture influence, Mesquita and Frijda (1992) and Wilkins and Gareis (2006) in their study reported the significant effects of cultural variations in emotion expressions. At the present study, the age of the participants and also their culture, were supposed to be at an approximate range without any sharp difference. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gender's trace in the use of language, although not evidently, is commonly present in all classroom situations. It is commonly believed that women are expressive and emotional, while men are self-asserting and power-oriented in the use of language. The present study, in adopting an empirically-supported approach to the negative and positive emotional content of the narrative autobiographical reports, concentrated on 103 female and 82 male graduate EFL students' writing. The collected written data were then analyzed by on-line language processing programs for emotional linguistic content. Although statistical analysis did not offer significant differences across genders, the data do show a slight tendency on the females' part to use a higher rate of emotional words. The results, while not very revealing in statistical terms, can point to a growing trend of equality, especially among the academically educated population in contexts like Iran as a Middle Eastern country. Implications of the study are discussed in the light of the literature, and theoretical background.
... Using a more elaborate and complex representation, children were gradually able to access more expressive ideas to depict the emotion of love in their drawings (Brechet et al., 2009;Jolley, 2010). For instance, the increasing use of the indicator 'speech' with age is likely to be related to children's developing comprehension that words are a powerful medium through which romantic love can be expressed (i.e., a love declaration; Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). This developing representation of romantic love can be related to various sources of influence in children's socio-cultural environment. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to fill our current knowledge gap in children's representation of romantic love. To this end, we used a drawing task: 127 children ages 6 to 10 were asked to draw a person and a person in love. Performing content analysis, we identified seven graphic indicators used by children to depict romantic love in their drawings. As expected, results exhibited age and gender differences. First, older children used a higher number of graphic indicators than younger children. The use of each type of indicator (except for one) varied with age. Second, girls used a higher number of graphic indicators than boys. These gender differences were specific to three graphic indicators. Results are discussed in terms of children's developing representation of romantic love and of the potential impact of their socio-cultural environment on this representation.
... Finally, Wilkins and Gareis (2006) examined the usage of the locution, "I love you" by testing bilinguals. They found that, of those whose first language was not English, 67.7% reported using the English expression, I love you, more often; 16.1% said they used it equally often; and 16.1% said they used it less often. ...
... Interpersonal love theories that examine partnering love have looked into various aspects of love. Theories, models, and frameworks have been developed to understand expressions of love (for example, Murstein, 1988;Wilkins & Gareis, 2006); people's individual experiences (for example, Sternberg, 1988Sternberg, /2006Berscheid, 2006;Lee, 1988;Aron, Dutton, Aron, and Iverson, 1989); types of love (for example , Sternberg, 1988, Sternberg, /2006Aron, Fisher, and Strong, 2006;Aron, Paris, and Aron, 1995); the time course of love (for example, Levinger, 2002;Cunningham & Antill, 1981;Sternberg, Hojjat, and Barnes, 2001); the nature of love (for example, Sternberg & Gradjek, 1984;Fehl & Russel, 1991); measures of love (Hendrick & Hendrick, 1989;Sternberg, 1997); maintenance and repair of love relationships (for example, Canary & Daiton, 2006;Sternberg, 2006;Levinger, 2002), and more. All these regard love as a rewarding, dynamic, and long-term experience. ...
Article
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People often say they love a product. What do they really mean when they say this, and is this a phenomenon that is relevant to the field of design? Findings from a preliminary study in this thesis indicated that people describe their love as a rewarding, long-term, and dynamic experience that arises from a meaningful relationship built with products they own and use. Inspired by existing approaches to the experience of love from social psychology, research tools are developed for the closer study of person-product love. Using those tools the research in this thesis investigates how person-product interactions are linked to the experience of love and how these influence love over time. The findings reveal how the experience of love arises from person-product relationships, how love relationships develop over time, and which factors can provoke change in the love experience and love relationships over time. These findings present opportunities for design researchers and designers to foster rewarding experiences and long-lasting person-product relationships. Person-product love relationships can bring emotional rewards that benefit people’s wellbeing and stimulate sustained efforts to keep loved products for longer.
... Thus, it makes sense that such understandings are more culturally variable. The literature is peppered with numerous other studies documenting cultural differences in emotional meanings, including cultural differences in the meaning of and narratives related to emotions such as shame, guilt, or embarrassment (Bedford, 2004; Bierbrauer, 1992; Ho, Fu, & Ng, 2004; Hong, 2004; Lebra, 1983; Liem, 1997); the social sharing of emotions (SinghManoux & Finkenauer, 2001); comfort in expressing emotions (Stephan, Stephan, Saito, & Barnett, 1998); folk theories of emotion and expression (Ye, 2004); beliefs about verbal expressions about emotions (Wilkins & Gareis, 2006); beliefs about self and other emotions (Johnson, 2007); and desires for emotions (Diener & Lucas, 2004). These cultural differences occur because the dependent variables in these studies were ratings of attitudes, values, beliefs, or lay theories about emotion, sampling emotional meanings. ...
Article
In this article, the authors integrate the seemingly disparate literature on culture and emotion by offering a biocultural model of emotion that offers three premises heretofore not introduced in the literature: (1) emotions need to be distinguished from other affective phenomena, (2) different types of emotions exist, and (3) within any emotion different domains can be studied. Previous controversies have occurred because writers have called all affective states “emotion” without regard to the type or domain of emotion sampled. The authors argue that not all affective states should be called emotion, that emotions that may be biologically innate are different than those that are not, and that different domains of emotion are more relatively influenced by biology or culture. The authors offer researchers a terminology—biological versus cultural emotions, Priming Reactions, Subjective Experience, and Emotional Meanings—provide hypotheses concerning the relative contributions of biology and culture, review the available literature that supports those hypotheses, and argue that the literature can be somewhat neatly integrated into a cohesive whole. The authors contend that the relative contribution of biological and cultural factors to emotion depends on what emotion is being studied and the specific domain of emotion assessed. While the authors acknowledge that their delineations are not the only or the best delineations that can or should be used, they contend that some kind of delineations should be made and can help to synthesize and integrate a large and seemingly disparate, contradictory literature. The authors offer theirs as a first step in this effort.
... For a Chinese, love and affection are embodied in care and concern, in doing what we believe are good things for the other party' (Ye, 2004, p. 140). In contrast, frequent verbal declarations of love are the norm in western cultures, especially North America (Matsumoto, 2001;Wilkins & Gareirs, 2006). The media depict family members showering each other with I love you and dating websites discuss how soon is too early for love declarations. ...
Article
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Chinese—English bilinguals residing in the US were interviewed about their experience of using emotional expressions. They judged L1-Mandarin expressions as feeling stronger than L2-English expressions. Respondents nonetheless preferred to express their emotions in English, citing more relaxed social constraints in English-speaking environments. Electrodermal monitoring was conducted on a similar sample of Chinese—English bilinguals in order to determine how physiological reactivity corresponds to self-reports. For those who had both good Mandarin and good self-reported English ability, English and Mandarin emotional expressions elicited similar magnitude skin conductance responses (SCRs), with the exception of the category of endearments (e.g., Thank you, I miss you, I love you ), where larger SCRs occurred for English expressions. Given cross-cultural reports that English-speaking societies encourage more open expression of positive emotion than do Chinese cultures, hearing English endearments may have led to easy retrieval of personal situations with strong emotional resonances; these memories then resulted in increased affect and increased SCRs. However, ratings of the emotional intensity of endearments were similar in the two languages, thus conflicting with the SCR findings. Additionally, English childhood reprimands were rated as less intense than L1-Mandarin reprimands, consistent with other studies showing that childhood reprimands are felt to be more intense in the native language. Future work will be needed to understand the conditions under which physiological responses differ from self-report.
... Cross-cultural comparisons support these observations and suggest that parents use emotion-related language to socialize their culture's expectations toward emotion. Asians and Asian Americans have been found to favor nonverbal rather than verbal expressions of love and to praise their children less frequently than European American parents (Ng, Pomerantz, & Lam, 2007;Pavlenko, 2005;Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). Similarly, in discussing children's emotional states, European American mothers tend to provide explanations for their child's emotions, whereas Chinese mothers utilized more didactic strategies for emotion regulation, such as emphasizing moral standards and behavioral expectations (Fivush & Wang, 2005). ...
Article
Parents regularly use words to express and discuss emotion with their children, but does it matter which language they use to do so? In this article, we examine this question in the multilingual family context by integrating findings from both psychological and linguistic research. We propose that parents' use of different languages for emotional expression or discussion holds significant implications for children's emotional experience, understanding, and regulation. Finally, we suggest that an understanding of the implications of emotion-related language shifts is critical, particularly in adapting interventions within a rapidly diversifying society. © The Author(s) 2012.
... The null association may be attributed to cultural irrelevance of the affectionate support measure, which focuses on direct expression of affection, e.g., shows you love and affection, loves and makes you feel wanted, and hugs you. These supportive actions may be considered as foreign and too explicit for Chinese Americans who are emotionally restrained [40]. ...
Article
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Purpose Social support does not always lead to health benefits; the outcomes depend on the match between the need and the provision of social support. Culture shapes individuals’ preference of social support types (e.g., supportive communication, social companionship, and tangible support). The present study examined how the association between social support and well-being may vary as a function of acculturation among minority cancer survivors. Methods One hundred and twenty-three Chinese American breast cancer survivors were invited to complete a questionnaire package. Results Findings showed that acculturation moderated the association of social support subtypes with psychological and physical well-being. Higher emotional/information support was associated with better quality of life and less physical symptoms among highly acculturated cancer survivors but more physical symptoms among those who were less acculturated. Tangible support was associated with more physical symptoms among highly acculturated cancer survivors but less physical symptoms among those who are less acculturated. Positive social interaction was associated with better quality of life and less physical symptoms among less acculturated cancer survivors but not associated with quality of life or physical symptoms among their highly acculturated counterparts. Conclusion The findings pointed to the significance of acculturation in breast cancer experience among minority women, especially its interplay with social support transactions.
... Few experiences are as cherished as love, with surveys consistently reporting it to be among the most sought-after and valorised of human emotions (Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). At the same time though, few concepts are as contested, with the label encompassing a vast range of phenomenaspanning diverse spectra of intensity, valence, and temporal duration, and being used in relation to a panoply of relationships, objects and experiences. ...
Article
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Linguists have often remarked upon the polysemous nature of love, whereby the term encompasses a wide diversity of emotional relationships. Several typologies have been constructed to account for this diversity. However, these tend to be restricted in scope, and fail to fully represent the range of experiences signified by the term ‘love’ in discourse. In the interest of generating an expanded typology of love, encompassing its varied forms, an enquiry was conducted into relevant concepts found across the world's cultures, focusing on so-called untranslatable words. Through a quasi-systematic search of published and internet sources, 609 relevant words were identified. These were organised through a version of grounded theory into 14 categories, representing 14 different forms or ‘flavours’ of love. The result is an expanded theoretical treatment of love, allowing us to better appreciate the nuances of this most cherished and yet polysemous of concepts.
... They examined expressions of intimacy between Americans and Japanese, and found substantial differences between Americans and Japanese, with Americans reporting greater openness, expressiveness, and physical contact for expressing intimacy, and Japanese citing greater understanding as an intimacy form. In another recent study, Wilkins and Gareis (2006) examined the locution '''I love you''' cross-culturally. They found that the use of this phrase differed across cultures, and was used more by females and by those who used English. ...
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This study examined cultural differences in communicating love among 143 young adults from the US and East Asian countries of China, Japan, and South Korea. Through inductive analyses we examined similarities and differences in the activities and beliefs Americans and East Asians have about love in friendship and marriage, as well as the activities and ways in which love is expressed. Americans and East Asians reported that caring, trust, respect, and honesty were all important beliefs about love in friendship, and trust was an important belief about love in marriage. Love in marriage was seen as important and unconditional for Americans, while East Asians were more likely to report caring as an important belief. Sports, preparing food, and shopping were activities associated with expressing love for Americans, while talking and preparing food constituted activities for expressing love for East Asians. Finally, both US and East Asian students expressed love to a friend through acts of support, open discussion, and the sharing of common experiences, while they expressed love to a spouse through physical intimacy, acts of support, and expressions of love such as “I love you” and “I miss you.”
... For girls, emojis with hearts seemed to be more relevant to describe positive emotions elicited by foods of recalled contexts. Girls might be able to perceive or express more "lovable" and "endearing" emotions when describing their feelings towards foods, which could be explained by findings showing that women were more probable to communicate love in real life (Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). Boys might exhibit restrictive emotionality for some particular emotions (Jansz, 2000) or they think that emojis with hearts are something for females. ...
Article
Emojis were suggested for children to be used to measure food-elicited emotions. The present study was aimed to explore the appropriateness of emojis to describe pre-adolescents’ emotions elicited by foods recalled in relation to different evoked eating contexts and to explore related age- and gender differences. Fifty-five boys and forty-one girls aged 9-13 participated to the study. First, subjects were asked to recall, by means of an open-ended question, the foods they had in specific eating contexts: “Most liked food” and “Most disliked food”, “Breakfast”, “Dinner”, “Snack”, “Birthday” and “Novel food”. Then, they were asked to select the emojis appropriate to describe their feelings for the context-related foods by selecting from a list of 92 facial emojis (CATA method). Emojis selected by more than 20% of children in at least one eating context qualified as food-related. In total, 46 emojis resulted as appropriate to describe emotions in different eating contexts. Pre-adolescents used mainly positive emojis, except for the context “Most disliked food”, where mainly negative emojis were used. Most food-related emojis resulted from “Most liked food” and “Most disliked food”, but the context “Birthday” also added some context-specific emojis. The number of selected emojis varied across evoked eating contexts eliciting different foods. Age and gender significantly affected emoji selection across and within foods elicited by varied eating contexts, with girls and 9-11-year-old subjects selecting some emojis more frequently across all contexts, but also within contexts. The approach used in the present study has the potential to be used for the development of a food-related emotion measurement tool for pre-adolescents. Future research aimed at interpreting the meaning of facial emojis is needed and should consider age- and gender differences.
... Men report falling in love faster and express feeling of passionate love first. Later, women tend to tell their partners "I love you" more often than do men (Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). On the other hand, women are faster at perceiving other emotions and are more confident in expressing affection, liking, and love to the opposite sex (Harrison & Shotall, 2011). ...
Thesis
The main goal of this thesis is to explore the romantic feelings of passionate love widely defined as a state of longing with another. This construct is generally considered to be a universal experience strongly associated with sexual arousal and capable of having a strong effect in emotional, cognitive and behavioral dimensions. The main goal of this project is to provide further evidence about the contention that although subjective experiences of passionate love are culturally and contextually determinate, people all over the world present the same symptoms of passionate love with the same intensity when they consider being in love. Plus, the influences of passionate love on cognitive processes were tested in other studies. A total of 1000 college students participated in 4 different studies. The Passionate Love Scale (PLS) was administrated on Brazilian and French subjects in order to explore their evaluation of passionate love through cognitive, emotional and behavioral components. The social representations of these same groups about passionate love were explored with a structural analysis of word associations. Cognitive processes were tested through one study about the relationship between passionate love and sensory experience and another one about the effect of passionate love in creative productions. The results found with the PLS indicated the same psychometric properties in France and in Brazil. In both cases, the factorial analysis indicated one stronger dimension with high internal consistencies. Subjects in love seemed to love with equal passion in both cultures but gender differences were found in Brazil. The analysis of the word association revealed contextual, cultural and gender differences. Passionate love had a positive effect in low cognitive processes (physical attraction and sensory experience) but no effect in high cognitive tasks (divergent and convergent thinking). The results of these different studies are presented and discussed in the light of cross-cultural, neuropsychological and evolutionary perspectives on romantic love. Passionate love might be experienced in a number of ways but its manifestation is universally the same. It is concluded that passionate love might be mainly a biological phenomenon with minor cultural variations directed to insure reproductive success in our species.
... Such finding was in line Ervin-Tripp's (1974) study, who claimed that once a bilingual and/or multilingual code switches this may show the emotional representation of particular code (in other words, language) s/he have in his/her access. This finding of the present study was also reported in the literature which focused on the emotional representations of bilinguals and/or multilinguals and revealed first language usage to be more emotional (Derne, 1994;Dewaele, 2006Dewaele, , 2008Ekman 1972;Kitayama et al., 1995;Panayiotou, 2004;Wallbott & Scherer 1995;Wilkins & Gareirs, 2006). This may suggest that "every language imposes its own classification upon human emotional experiences" (Wierzbicka, 1995, p.546). ...
Article
This study investigated the educational functions of code switching instances that occur during the classroom interactions of novice teachers who teach English at an English medium institution of higher education. The study also aimed to explore teachers’ and their students’ perceptions regarding CS in teachers’ teaching practices and the role of the functions of CS in the classrooms. Three novice English language teachers and 12 of their students volunteered to take part in the study. A number of six pre-intermediate level preparatory school classes of an English medium university were observed, video recorded and fieldnotes were taken. Additionally stimulated recall interviews were conducted with the participants. Results indicated that CS served for variety of educational functions being but not limited to create a feeling of connectedness, to put forward teachers’ inner voice and to express feelings emotions and abstract concepts. Finally, in contrast to what has been emphasized in English-only policy-related studies, the study revealed that both teacher and student participants perceived CS as a positive contributor to teaching and learning environment in the classrooms.
... Chapman (2010) initially justified that love language is a universal construct and wellreceived in various countries. However, studies regarding love expression showed that each cultural background or country had a different emphasis on emotional expression (Gareis & Wilkins, 2011;Kline et al., 2008;Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). This cultural differentiation implied that love languages might have different shapes in a different context. ...
Article
Love is an essential part of human experience and love languages have been studied to validate its factors’ structures to explain what makes people feel loved. The current study addresses the gap that love research shall not rely on student samples and it needs to measure the actual outcome of love languages. This study aims to gather empirical evidence for love languages’ factor structure and its relation to the outcome variable. The method for this study is a quantitative survey with 250 couples reported their love languages using a rating-scale and forced-choice scale. The data analysis examined the factor structure of the love languages model and estimated the association between love languages compatibility and marital satisfaction. The factorial analysis showed that the five factors solution was not supported and love languages compatibility did not affect couples’ marital satisfaction. This result brought discussions on how popular psychology concepts need to be under the scrutiny of scientific investigation and that different contexts may have different factors on what makes people feel loved.
... The word "love" and the locution "I love you" are used in many collectivistic cultures in a more restricted way (Bengtsson, 2003;Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). ...
Article
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Brand love is becoming central to modern marketing theory and practice. In academia, researchers are showing increasing interest in investigating its causes and consequences. In practice, a growing number of consultancies and advertising agencies are currently proposing love scores, love indices, and love rankings for brands. An exacting examination of the extant literature reveals, however, that: (1) brand love’s conceptual proprieties have always been entirely elusive; (2) its measurement is still substandard; (3) extant empirical studies are full of methodological flaws and far-fetched findings; and that (4) researchers have ignored one important issue while investigating brand love, that is, culture. This paper tries to draw attention on the aforesaid four deficits with the intent of instigating discussions, debates and, in due course, a deeper understanding of this concept.
... Importantly, however, the way people seek and provide support differs by culture, and these differences are consistent with the crosscultural studies reviewed earlier about relationship goals (Dillion et al., 2015;MacNeil & Adamsons, 2014;Ting-Toomey, 1991;Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). Similarly, what is considered to be constructive responsiveness depends on what each partner perceives to be culturally appropriate or inappropriate during an intimate interaction (MacNeil & Adamsons, 2014;Ting-Toomey, 1991). ...
Article
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Intercultural romantic relationships and multicultural families have increased in the United States and worldwide. Researchers have found that intercultural couples report high rates of conflict and relationship instability, which may be partly explained by differences between partners in relationship goals (e.g., how much intimacy is desired and how to approach conflict). Using data from 40 intercultural couples (N = 80), we test whether greater similarity in relationship goals between romantic partners is related to greater perceived partner responsiveness and, thereby, greater relationship quality. By means of Bayesian analyses, our results suggest that similarity of relationship goals is associated with both perceived responsiveness and relationship quality, but without evidence of mediation. Our results show that cultural similarities and differences exist in relationship goals in intercultural couples, and they are connected to relationship functioning. This information can be used to assist clinicians in understanding the interpersonal processes that make-up healthy relationship functioning in intercultural couples.
... With love, the value of exploring untranslatable words to bring greater granularity was particularly evident, as articulated in Lomas (2018c). Perhaps few emotional states are as cherished as love, with surveys consistently reporting it to be among the most sought-after and valorised of experiences (Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). Yet few concepts are as broad -"polysemous in the extreme," as Berscheid (2010, p.6) puts itwith the label encompassing a vast range of phenomena, spanning diverse spectra of intensity, valence, and duration, and used for all kinds of relationships, objects and experiences. ...
Article
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Positive psychology has been critiqued as Western-centric, influenced by the mostly Western contexts in which it has developed. English is its dominant mode of discourse, for example, which has shaped its understanding of its subject matter. To generate a more comprehensive cross-cultural 'map' of wellbeing, the author is creating a lexicography of relevant 'untranslatable' words (without exact translation in English). An initial analysis of 216 words, published in the Journal of Positive Psychology in 2016, identified six main categories: positive feelings, ambivalent feelings, love, prosociality, character, and spirituality. Subsequently, over 1,400 more words have been added to the lexicography to date. As a result, analyses have been published of each category separately, revealing their internal structure. In addition, six further categories have been identified: cognition, embodiment, aesthetics, eco-connection, competence, and understanding. This paper summarises these analyses, and outlines their significance in terms of augmenting the conceptual map in positive psychology.
... Of all the examples given, we see that these popular texts have transcended the stigma surrounding the West, English, and the ideological attachments they carry. In many countries, anti-American sentiment is strong, as many people believe that 'American culture' has a negative influence (Wilkins & Gareis, 2006). However, the authors suggest that people may gradually submit and adapt to globalized (presumably Western) values. ...
Article
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This study explores the relationship between language selection and identity construction in contemporary Indonesia via an examination of Indonesian popular texts published after 1998. Utilizing an interpretive textual analysis, I examine how the socio‐political situation has influenced language selection in the period following Suharto's rule (1966–1998), popularly known as the Reformasi era. Whereas national identity has been heavily government‐imposed and homogenous, in large part due to governmental regulation of language use, popular texts demonstrate that Indonesian identities are in fact multi‐faceted. I shed light on language selection (bahasa gado‐gado) as a strategic mechanism of resistance toward policies and social norms that privilege monolingualism.
Article
The study had the goal to compare love expression in the United States and Germany. The data offer insight into love expression as a cultural script and symbol of culture change, suggesting competing ways of using the locution “I love you” in the two cultures. Not only is verbal love expression less central in Germany, but for the German, the locution “I love you” is traditionally reserved for private disclosure of a formal love, governed by a communal imperative for feelings of meaningfulness. This is juxtaposed with an American desire for disclosing love in expressive ways and in a broad range of contexts, including nonromantic relationships. Globalization issues, such as the universal (expressive culture) versus the particular (reserved culture), are evoked, and the spreading in Germany of an expressive culture across a variety of settings suggested. Spurred by the use of telecommunication technology and often met with resistance, the tensions arising from these semantic and pragmatic changes in the use of love expression represent one of the interesting aspects of this paper.
Article
Intimate relationships matter to health and happiness. However, the vast scope of relationship research and the abundance of precise micro-theories has presented obstacles to the development of integrative theories with contextual-behavioral foundations that are oriented towards application of findings in domains of public health significance. Derived from the well-validated Interpersonal Process Model, which described intimacy as a dyadic exchange in which Person A engages in a vulnerable self-disclosure, Person B enacts a response, and Person A perceives the response as responsive, we present an integrative, analytic-abstractive, contextual-behavioral model of intimate relations. The model describes the intimacy process as a set of functional relations describing behaviors and responses of Persons A and B in context, languaged as middle-level terms to facilitate cross-disciplinary applications. Three primary relations of the model are non-verbal emotional expression (Person A) and safety (Person B), verbal self-disclosure (Person A) and validation (Person B), and asking (Person A) and giving (Person B). The model also emphasizes the importance of self- and other-awareness, expressions of closeness, and reciprocity as additional terms. Future research directions and potential applications are discussed.
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Reticence to express emotions verbally has long been observed in Chinese culture, but quantitative comparisons with Western cultures are few. Explanations for emotional reticence have typically focused on the need in collectivist culture to promote group harmony, but this explanation is most applicable to negative emotions such as anger, not positive expressions such as Wo ai ni [I love you]. A survey on verbal usage of Wo ai ni was administered to university students in Beijing and Shanghai, and compared to uses of I love you by American students in the United States. Chinese respondents were not only overall more reticent than Americans in their love expressions, but differed from Americans in avoiding I love you expressions with family (especially parents). Interviews revealed that Chinese and American students, the two groups endorsed different reasons for saying Wo ai nil I love you. The reasons Americans provided most often related to the inherent importance of saying I love you, while this was the least frequently mentioned reason by Chinese. Bicultural Chinese interviewees observed that one could perform nonverbal actions or even say English I love you as substitutions for saying Wo ai ni. Chinese survey respondents did not endorse these options, and instead consistently minimized both verbal and nonverbal love expressions. The pattern of responses is consistent with theoretical proposals about high vs. low context cultures, especially with regards to the usefulness of saying I love you for relationship management purposes, and for asserting (or avoiding) statements of one's individual autonomy.
Article
Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by STIs and HIV. In addition to traditional risk factors, increasing attention has been given to the potential role of affective components of a sexual encounter, including mood state. To date, no study has described sexual behaviors engaged in by those who report being in love (or not) during a given sexual event. Internet-based survey data were collected from 24,787 gay and bisexual men who were members of online websites facilitating social or sexual interactions with other men. Measures included sociodemographics, recent sexual behavior history, sexual event characteristics, and perceptions of "love" with men's most recent male sexual partner. Participants' mean age was 39.2 years; ethnicities included white (84.6 %), Latino (6.4 %), and African American (3.6 %). Nearly all men (91 %) were matched by presence (I love him/he loves me), absence (I don't love him/he doesn't love me), or uncertainty (I don't know if I do/I don't know if he does) of love with their most recent sexual partner. Men who reported love for their partner and believed their partner loved them were significantly more likely to have engaged in behaviors, such as cuddling and kissing on the mouth. Differences were also seen in regard to love and men's reports of anal intercourse and oral sex. Findings highlight differences in sexual behaviors based on perceptions of love and suggest the need to further explore how these differences influence sexual health.
Article
The cross-cultural differences experienced by pilgrims during the world's largest religious ritual, Hajj, have yet to be explored. It is worthwhile to investigate this issue from an Indonesian perspective. This study uses a phenomenological approach to examine cross-cultural differences experienced by Acehnese pilgrims during Hajj. The perceptions of Acehnese who have never been to Mecca ('villagers') and Acehnese who stayed in Saudi Arabia and its neighbouring countries ('stayers') were also probed. The Findings show that the pilgrims experienced cross-cultural differences in verbal communication, body movement, physical appearance and dress, the use of space, time, touch, voice, and smell. Cross-culturally, the pilgrims have a different perspective to villagers and stayers. The pilgrims expressed culture shock, while the villagers' perceptions were primarily shaped by imagined and unverified stories, and the stayers understood their pilgrimage through their long experiences of residing in Arab countries. © 2018 Gedung Pusat Pengkajian Islam dan Masyarakat (PPIM) UIN Jakarta. All rights reserved.
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The South African Police Service (SAPS) is an organisation where employees are exposed to numerous stressful and traumatic episodes which affects the employee’s emotion functioning. Although several pro-active psychological programs exist within the organisation, they do not effectively assist the employee with coping with stressors on an emotion level. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an emotion competence intervention for the SAPS. From the literature study, several emotion competencies were found that will illustrate emotion intelligent behaviour. The criteria, methodology and content to include in an emotion competence intervention for the SAPS was established and included in the development of the intervention. The intervention was evaluated by a panel of experts (N=13), suggesting only a few minor adaptations. These suggestions were incorporated in the final emotion competence intervention. Limitations included the small amount of experts that evaluated the intervention, as well as the absence of functional SAPS members as part of the panel of experts. Recommendations for future studies were made.
Chapter
Chapter 10.1007/978-3-030-15020-4_2 illuminates the diversity of cultural conceptions of love. Despite cross-cultural universality of love, as an all-embracing concept, its specific interpretation differs from culture to culture. These cultural differences definitely reflect on people’s experience and expression of love. The chapter attempts to integrate methodological approaches to the constructions of the concept of love from sociology, psychology, anthropology, and linguistics. Different types of definitions of love and cross-cultural reality of love experience are reviewed. The chapter also emphasizes the role of cultural parameters in culturally diverse conceptions of love and cross-cultural differences in love expressions.
Article
This article summarizes the main themes in the book What is Emotion? by Jerome Kagan (Yale University Press, 2007). The issues considered include: (1) the advantage of studying each phase of the cascade that begins with a brain reaction to an incentive and ends with an appraisal of a feeling state and/or a behavioral reaction; (2) distinguishing among appraisals with different origins; (3) replacing the current concern with consequences with more attention to the features of the brain and feeling states; (4) a recognition of the weak relation between the language used to describe a feeling and both the underlying brain profile and a response; and (5) the reasons for variation in the feelings evoked by an incentive and for the appraisals of the feelings.
Article
Friends-they are generous and cooperative with each other in ways that appear to defy standard evolutionary expectations, frequently sacrificing for one another without concern for past behaviors or future consequences. In this fascinating multidisciplinary study, Daniel J. Hruschka synthesizes an array of cross-cultural, experimental, and ethnographic data to understand the broad meaning of friendship, how it develops, how it interfaces with kinship and romantic relationships, and how it differs from place to place. Hruschka argues that friendship is a special form of reciprocal altruism based not on tit-for-tat accounting or forward-looking rationality, but rather on mutual goodwill that is built up along the way in human relationships.
Article
This chapter discusses the consequences of exporting U.S. models and strategies of counseling to other countries, and it presents a few ethical issues linked with the internationalization of the field. Additionally, an in-depth discussion and analysis of specific lines of cross-cultural research in psychology and counseling (i.e., emotions, coping, and psychological help-seeking) is included and evaluated in terms of its cross-cultural validity and applicability to diverse cultures. Methodological challenges of cross-cultural research, theory, and practice are also highlighted, as are alternative approaches to performing cross-cultural research. The chapter ends with a brief discussion about the importance of cross-cultural collaboration and future opportunities for counseling professionals.
Chapter
The introduction of new technologies effects rapid social change and challenges social norms. A major challenge with the advent of mobile phones is how the technology tests traditional notions of personal privacy and interaction involvement, particularly in public settings. Communication privacy management (CPM) theory provides a means of explaining the tensions between mobile phone users and proximate others. In this article, components of communication privacy management theory are outlined and its application to mobile communication is discussed. Next, privacy issues associated with specific mobile technology are reviewed and cultural differences in mobile communication privacy needs are examined. In light of the limited research in this area, suggestions for future research are also presented.
Article
When communicating love, what is the right thing to do or say, when, where, by whom, and to whom? This chapter focuses on how love is expressed across culture and time. Following a review of definitions of love (including the questions of prototypicality, universality, and social construction), the chapter details historical and contemporary practices, in particular communication variables (such as mode, context, and gender), cultural dimensions, and recent changes in the use of verbal love expression in a number of cultures. The chapter concludes by grounding the prevailing understandings of love within the dialectics of expression versus restraint, autonomy versus unity, and role versus personal.
Chapter
Marriage is considered the foundation of paternity, yet it is largely taken for granted. Fathers believe that by fulfilling their responsibility to provide and to guide, they can create a happy family with filial children. They therefore do not pay particular attention to their marriage. However, paradoxically, the paternal responsibility of economic provision and education can alienate spousal relations. When the promised outcome of a happy family does not occur, fathers tend to blame themselves and their spouses for failing to fulfil their respective roles and duties. Divorce, in particular, puts fathers in a vulnerable position as they may risk losing contact with their children. It can trigger the father to find ways to reconcile with their spouses or to proactively get close to their children.
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Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - The New Psychology of Love - edited by Robert J. Sternberg
Article
This study examines how home and host region affect international students' friendship experiences in the United States. Based on surveys completed by 454 international students, this study finds that home and host regions are significant factors influencing the number of American friends international students make as well as their satisfaction with these friendships. With respect to home region, students from English-speaking countries and from Northern and Central Europe had the most positive experiences, while students from East Asia had the least positive. Regarding host region, students fared better in the South than the Northeast, and better in non-metropolitan than metropolitan environments.
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Three criticisms of the individualism-collectivism dichotomy are explicated. The dichotomy leads one to overlook values that inherently serve both individual and collective interests (e.g., wisdom), it ignores values that foster the goals of collectivities other than the ingroup (e.g., universal values, such as social justice), and it promotes the mistaken assumption that individualistic and collective values each form coherent syndromes that are in polar opposition. These problems are illustrated by applying a more fine-tuned analysis of ten types of values postulated to be present in all cultures (Schwartz, 1987) to data from four empirical studies. This analysis reveals meaningful group differences that are obscured by the individualism-collectivism dichotomy. As an impetus to future research, hypotheses are offered about the types of values likely to differ in importance between societies with a more collectivist (communal) social structure and those with a more individualistic (contractual) structure.
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While several scholars have examined the influence of emotions on bilingual performance (Anooshian and Hertel 1994; Bond and Lai 1986; Javier and Marcos 1989) and second language learning and use (Arnold 1999; Schumann 1994, 1997, 1999), to date very little is known about ways in which bilinguals talk about emotions in their two languages. The present study investigates discursive construction of emotions in the two languages of Russian-English bilinguals. Previous studies (Pavlenko 2002; Wierzbicka 1992, 1998, 1999) have demonstrated that Russian and English differ in ways in which emotions are conceptualized and framed in discourse. The goal of the present study is to examine ways in which late Russian-English bilinguals, who learned their English post puberty, negotiate these differences in narratives elicited in both languages. It will be argued that in cases where the two speech communities differ in the conceptualization of emotions, the process of second language socialization may result in the conceptual restructuring of emotion categories of adult language learners, as evident in instances of second language influence on first language performance.
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College students from secondary population centers in India, Pakistan, Thailand, Mexico, Brazil, Japan, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Australia, England, and the United States were asked to rate the importance of love for both the establishment and the maintenance of a marriage. Love tended to receive greatest importance in the Western and Westernized nations and least importance in the underdeveloped Eastern nations. These differences were stronger and clearer for decisions regarding the establishment of a marriage than for the maintenance and dissolution of a marriage. There were few significant sex differences, either across or within countries. Individualistic cultures, as opposed to collective cultures, assigned much greater importance to love in marriage decisions. Respondents assigning greater importance to love also tended to come from nations with higher economic standards of living, higher marriage rates and divorce rates, and lower fertility rates.
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Life is a sequence of emotional states. But what are emotions and why are they so important to us? In one of the most extensive investigations of the emotions ever published, Robert Roberts develops a novel conception of what emotions are and then applies it to a large range of types of emotion and related phenomena. Aimed principally at philosophers and psychologists, this book will certainly be accessible to readers in other disciplines such as religion and anthropology.
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This paper investigates the verbal construction of emotions in a bilingual/bicultural setting, the target languages and cultures being American English and Cypriot Greek. To examine whether bilingual speakers express different emotions in their respective languages, a study was carried out with 10 bilingual/bicultural professionals. A scenario was presented to them first in English and a month later in Greek and their verbal reactions were recorded. The participants' responses were then analysed through three questions: (1) whether they translate from one language to the other; (2) whether and when codeswitching occurs; (3) whether there is a pattern in the use of emotion words. The analysis of the results shows that respondents displayed different reactions to the same story depending on the language it was read to them in. The paper argues that participants changed their social code, i.e. sociocultural expectations, with the change in linguistic code. These findings raise interesting questions about the relationship between language, emotions and cognition, and the formation of the bilingual self.
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People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Suggests that since 2nd languages are typically mastered in more emotionally neutral settings than are 1st languages, less arousal will be conditioned to 2nd-language words. It should be easier, therefore, to discuss embarrassing topics in one's 2nd, compared to one's 1st, language. 48 female Chinese undergraduates interviewed one another in Cantonese and English to test this hypothesis. Results show that Ss answered questions on embarrassing topics compared to unembarrassing topics at greater length in their 2nd language than in their 1st. This suggests that code-switching may serve a distancing function, permitting bilinguals to express ideas in their 2nd language that would be too disturbing in their 1st. Possible adverse consequences for cross-cultural person perception and interaction are raised. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study was undertaken to examine young women's and men's orientations toward love in three very different cultures: Japan (N = 223), Russia (N = 401), and the United States (N = 1,043). The love variables examined were: frequency of lore experiences, attachment types, love styles, love as a basis for marriage, romantic attitudes, and predictors of falling in love. Many cultural differences were found in the love variables, but the effect of culture was not always in the expected direction. We also examined how the pattern of gender differences in love variables differed across the three societies. Some of the gender differences and similarities found in previous love research and also in the U.S. sample of this study were not replicated in the Japanese and/or Russian samples. We discuss the importance of studying love and other aspects of close relationships with data collected from more than one culture.
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A theory of cultural differences in emotions was tested in a questionnaire study. Hypotheses about the differences between emotion in individualist and collectivist contexts covered different components of emotion: concerns and appraisals, action readiness, social sharing, and belief changes. The questionnaire focused on 6 types of events that were rated as similar in meaning across cultures. Participants were 86 Dutch individualist respondents and 171 Surinamese and Turkish collectivist respondents living in the Netherlands. As compared with emotions in individualist cultures, emotions in collectivist cultures (a) were more grounded in assessments of social worth and of shifts in relative social worth, (b) were to a large extent taken to reflect reality rather than the inner world of the individual, and (c) belonged to the self-other relationship rather than being confined to the subjectivity of the self.
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Reviews the major controversy concerning psychobiological universality of differential emotion patterning vs cultural relativity of emotional experience. Data from a series of cross-cultural questionnaire studies in 37 countries on 5 continents are reported and used to evaluate the respective claims of the proponents in the debate. Results show highly significant main effects and strong effect sizes for the response differences across 7 major emotions (joy, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, shame, and guilt). Profiles of cross-culturally stable differences among the emotions with respect to subjective feeling, physiological symptoms, and expressive behavior are also reported. The empirical evidence is interpreted as supporting theories that postulate both a high degree of universality of differential emotion patterning and important cultural differences in emotion elicitation, regulation, symbolic representation, and social sharing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Friendships in Biographical Context Friendship Styles Maintenance and Termination Friendships The Significance of Age and Gender to Friendship Through the Life Course Friendships in Old Age Biography and Friendship
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Married couples in which one of the spouses has terminal cancer reported their expression of love, marriage problems, and commitment to each other after the diagnosis of cancer and as they recall their relationship before the diagnosis of cancer. They were compared with a matched comparison group of healthy subjects. The cancer couples reported expressing more love to each other after the diagnosis of cancer and more love than the comparison group. There was no difference in marriage problems. The cancer couples were found to be less committed to each other after the diagnosis of cancer.
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Balswick and Peek's conceptualization of “male inexpressiveness” is reviewed and critiqued. Where they see such inexpressiveness simply as a deeply socialized temperament trait that poses certain dilemmas for the American style of companionate marriage, an alternative analysis that stresses the origin of male inexpressiveness in the instrumental requisites of the male power role is developed.
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A 148-item random sample of self-disclosure topics was drawn from the 671-item pool of Taylor and Altman (Note 1) and presented to male and female university students in the U. S. and Australia for ratings of intimacy of content. For S of 13 content categories the same item was regarded as more intimate in opposite-sex than in same-sex conversation. Most items were rated less intimate than in the Taylor and Altman study-evidence that contemporary male students report themselves as more open and disclosing than male students did a decade ago. Sex differences were few, but Austrplians rated items in 7 categories less intimate than Americans did.
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The study investigates differences in self-disclosure, comparing patterns of Americans versus the Chinese. Two hundred American students and 144 Chinese students completed a questionnaire regarding the degree of self-disclosure on different conversational topics and to selected target persons. The results of MANOVA show that Americans disclose more than the Chinese in both categories. Sex differences are also found between the two nations.
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This cross-cultural research explored the relationship between Hatfield & Rapson's (1993) love types and subjective well-being. College students from an individualistic culture (USA) and a collectivist culture (Korea) completed the Passionate Love Scale (PLS; Hatfield & Rapson), the Companionate Love Scale (CLS; Sternberg, 1986), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Pivot & Diener, 1993), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS; Watson, Clarke, & Tellegen, 1988). It was found that two love types are related to subjective well-being in a different way: life satisfaction was more strongly predicted by companionate love than by passionate love, whereas positive and negative emotions were more accounted for by passionate love than by companionate love. No culture and gender difference was found in this overall relationship, but gender difference was found in the extent of the association between companionate love and satisfaction with life, and between passionate love and emotional experiences, respectively.
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Investigated the expression of love and the ramifications of this discourse on developing relationships. Data were collected over a 2-yr period from university students who wrote daily diaries for a 4–5 mo duration on each of their dating relationships. Each diary was analyzed for the recurrence, repetition, and forcefulness of discourse that indicated love as a thematic locus of concern. The locution, "I love you," was the critical event participants used as a metacommunicative frame for their relationship. Results show that males were more likely than females to utter "I love you" first because they are sanctioned by society to step forward with a bid for relationships. They were less able to withhold such an oral event because of societal pressure. Females, on the other hand, were influenced to wait, to be cautious, and to react to male overtures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Previous work by the authors and colleagues (1984) extended J. A. Lee's (1973/1976) theory of 6 basic love styles: eros (passionate love); ludus (game-playing love); storge (friendship love); pragma (logical, "shopping list" love); mania (possessive, dependent love); and agape (all-giving, selfless love). In Study 1, 807 undergraduates completed a 42-item rating questionnaire, with 7 items measuring each of the love styles. Six love style scales emerged clearly from factor analysis. Internal reliability was shown for each scale, and the scales had low intercorrelations with each other. Significant relationships were found between love attitudes and several background variables, including gender, ethnicity, previous love experiences, current love status, and self-esteem. Study 2, with 567 Ss, replicated the factor structure, factor loadings, and reliability analyses of the 1st study. The significant relationships between love attitudes and gender, previous love experiences, current love status, and self-esteem were also consistent with the results of Study 1. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The Second Edition of this classic work, first published in 1981 and an international bestseller, explores the differences in thinking and social action that exist among members of more than 50 modern nations. Geert Hofstede argues that people carry "mental programs" which are developed in the family in early childhood and reinforced in schools and organizations, and that these programs contain components of national culture. They are expressed most clearly in the different values that predominate among people from different countries. Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Cultures Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included. The book is structured around five major dimensions: power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism versus collectivism; masculinity versus femininity; and long term versus short-term orientation. --Publisher.
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One's attitudes toward love and sexuality are influenced by many factors, including gender. To explore the role of gender (and other variables) in participants' attitudinal orientations toward love and sexuality, data were collected in the United States at three time points (1988, 1992, 1993), resulting in a total sample of 1,090 participants. Data analyses showed gender differences in both sexual attitudes and love. Men were more sexually permissive than women (consistent with previous research), although women and men similarly endorsed other aspects of sexuality, including sex as an emotional experience. Men and women differed on several relationship variables (e.g., women were more oriented to friendship-based love, and men to game-playing love). However, correlational analyses showed many similar patterns for women and men. These findings underline the need to consider both gender differences and similarities in sex and love within intimate relationships.
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This study compares the current state of direct marketing in Japan and the U.S. Questionnaire responses (109 Japanese and 101 U.S.) were obtained from students of major Japanese and U.S. universities in order to test three hypotheses posed in this study: (a) general attitude toward direct marketing; (b) privacy issues; and (c) environmental concerns. The results show that (a) Japanese and U.S. respondents have similar levels of ambivalence toward direct marketing as well as concern toward environmental issues; and (b) contrary to expectations. Japanese respondents more strongly express a concern about privacy issues than do U.S. respondents. This article concludes with implications of these results for the practice of international direct marketing, followed by suggested directions for future studies. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and Direct Marketing Educational Foundation, Inc.
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In this study we examined the personality and relationship correlates of the six different “styles of loving” described by Lee (1973). Eighty-eight subjects completed a battery of tests, including the Love Attitudes Questionnaire, the Personality Research Form, the Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the Social Skills Inventory, and a questionnaire dealing with their current relationship and their relationship history. In contrast to previous research on this topic, the only loving style which showed clear gender differences was Eros, on which males scored significantly higher than females. The patterns of personality correlates for Ludus, Mania, and Pragma, on the other hand, were generally consistent with predictions derived from Lee's descriptions. In addition, the patterns for personality correlates were generally stronger and more consistent than those for relationship variables. These results are discussed in terms of both Lee's original account and also more recent research and theorizing on loving styles.
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Recently, theorists have begun to speculate about the nature of passionate and companionate love. Evolutionary psychologists have tended to emphasize the pan-cultural nature of passionate love. Historians have stressed the fact that, in different historical eras, people's attitudes toward love, sex, and intimacy have varied widely. Cross-cultural researchers contend that, even today, societies differ greatly in their attitudes toward love. In this study, 124 men and 184 women from four ethnic backgrounds were asked if they were currently in love and how passionately and companionately in love they were. The four groups differed, as predicted, in their general orientations toward life. European-Americans were the most individualistic, Japanese-Americans and Pacific Islanders were intermediate in individualism/collectivism, and Chinese-Americans were the most collectivist. Nonetheless, in the specific area of love, the various American ethnic groups did not differ significantly in the likelihood of being in love, nor in the intensity of the passionate love (PL) or companionate love (CL) they felt. In all ethnic groups, men's and women's adult attachment styles predicted romantic feelings and experiences. The anxious were the most likely to be in a love relationship, and they scored the highest on the PL scale; avoidants scored lowest. The secure scored the highest on the CL scale; avoidants scored the lowest.
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This study contributes to the literature on gender differences (and similarities) in relationship beliefs by comparing men and women on several relationship beliefs, by comparing men and women from two different cultures (North America and China), and also by examining gender differences in more than 1 subculture within the American sample. In the American sample (n = 693; 73.3% White, 11.7% Black, 8.5% Hispanic/Latino; 80% of middle or higher social class), men, as compared to women, were more willing to marry without love, scored higher on the idealization component of a romanticism scale, were more ludic and agapic but less erotic and pragmatic in their love styles, and were less likely to view emotional satisfaction as important to the maintenance of marriage. Although men were also more agapic than women in the Chinese sample (n = 735; Asian ethnicity), the other gender differences found in the Chinese sample were different from those found in the North American sample: Chinese men were more romantic (particularly in the belief that love can overcome any obstacle) and storgic than Chinese women, but less likely to believe in destiny or fate concerning love. Chinese men were also more likely than Chinese women to view physical pleasure as important for maintaining marriage. Overall, culture explained more variance than did gender in love beliefs. In general, the Chinese had both a more idealistic and a more practical approach to love than did the Americans. Gender differences and similarities did not vary across subcultures within the American culture, although main effects for race/ethnicity and social class were found for a few relationship beliefs.
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The marriage relationship among 210 retired married couples was investigated as a function of sex, retirement status, relationship to children, commitment of the couple, and stage of ego development of the couple. The marriage relationship was assessed by measuring the expression of love between husbands and wives, and measuring their marriage problems. These older couples expressed less love to each other and had fewer marriage problems than younger married couples. Those couples who were committed to each other as persons, had fewer marriage problems. Those at more complex levels of ego development expressed more love to each other. Sex, retirement, and interaction with children were not related to the marriage relationship.
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The purpose of this study was to examine cultural variability influence on intimacy expressions of love commitment, disclosure maintenance, ambivalence, and conflict in France, Japan, and the United States. The MANOVA analyses revealed significant main effects for culture type (France. Japan, and the United States) and for gender type (male versus female) on the intimacy expression patterns. No significant interaction effect was found for culture and gender. Respondents in France and the United States reported a significantly higher degree of love commitment and disclosure maintenance than the Japanese respondents. In addition, the U.S. respondents reported a higher degree of relational ambivalence than their Japanese counterparts. Further, the French respondents reported the lowest degree of conflict expression in comparison to the Japanese group and the United States group. In terms of gender differences, females reported a significantly higher degree of love commitment, disclosure maintenance and interpersonal conflict expressions than their male counterparts. The findings and the implications of the study along culture and gender lines are discussed.
Article
We examine three possible explanations for differences in Internet privacy concerns revealed by national regulation: (1) These differences reflect and are related to differences in cultural values described by other research; (2) these differences reflect differences in Internet experience; or (3) they reflect differences in the desires of political institutions without reflecting underlying differences in privacy preferences. Using a sample of Internet users from 38 countries matched against the Internet population of the United States, we find support for (1) and (2), suggesting the need for localized privacy policies. Privacy concerns decline with Internet experience. Controlling for experience, cultural values were associated with differences in privacy concerns. These cultural differences are mediated by regulatory differences, although new cultural differences emerge when differences in regulation are harmonized. Differences in regulation reflect but also shape country differences. Consumers in countries with sectoral regulation have less desire for more privacy regulation.
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Reviews and discusses the book "Therapy, Counseling and Survival Through Interpersonal Connectedness by Paul Drew
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"An outstanding contribution to psychological anthropology. Its excellent ethnography and its provocative theory make it essential reading for all those concerned with the understanding of human emotions."—Karl G. Heider, American Anthropologist
Article
The major controversy concerning psychobiological universality of differential emotion patterning versus cultural relativity of emotional experience is briefly reviewed. Data from a series of cross-cultural questionnaire studies in 37 countries on 5 continents are reported and used to evaluate the respective claims of the proponents in the debate. Results show highly significant main effects and strong effect sizes for the response differences across 7 major emotions (joy, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, shame, and guilt). Profiles of cross-culturally stable differences among the emotions with respect to subjective feeling, physiological symptoms, and expressive behavior are also reported. The empirical evidence is interpreted as supporting theories that postulate both a high degree of universality of differential emotion patterning and important cultural differences in emotion elicitation, regulation, symbolic representation, and social sharing.
Article
Through the use of the critical incident technique one may collect specific and significant behavioral facts, providing " a sound basis for making inferences as to requirements " for measures of typical performance (criteria), measures of proficiency (standard samples), training, selection and classification, job design and purification, operating procedures, equipment design, motivation and leadership (attitudes), and counseling and psychotherapy. The development, fundamental principles, present status, and uses of the critical incident technique are discussed, along with a review of studies employing the technique and suggestions for further applications. 74-item bibliography.
Speaking culturally: Explorations in social communication
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Philipsen, G. (1992). Speaking culturally: Explorations in social communication. State University of New York Press.
Producer) 60 minutes: Tango Finlandia
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Tiffin, J. (Producer). (1993, February 7). 60 minutes: Tango Finlandia. New York, NY: CBS. (Television broadcast).
Some social-psychological differences between the United States and Germany Resolving social conflict and field theory in social research Ethnic differences in the expression of affection and other emotions
  • K Lewin
Lewin, K. (1997). Some social-psychological differences between the United States and Germany. In K. Lewin (Ed.), Resolving social conflict and field theory in social research (pp. 15–34). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Lum, J. L. (1997). Ethnic differences in the expression of affection and other emotions. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58(3-B), 1596 (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, 1997).
Cultural differences between Americans and Japanese in meanings of love
  • Kimura
Kimura, T. (1998). Cultural differences between Americans and Japanese in meanings of love. Dissertations Abstracts international, 59(4-B), 1877 (Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, 1998).