Pagtatanong-tanong: A cross-cultural research method

International Journal of Intercultural Relations (Impact Factor: 1.14). 01/1989; 13(2):147-163. DOI: 10.1016/0147-1767(89)90003-5


Pagtatanong-tanong, a Filipino word which means "asking questions, " has been identified as an indigenous research method in Philippine social science research. This paper discusses its usefulness in cross-cultural studies particularly those among ethnic minority groups. Pagtatanong-tanong has four major characteristics: (a) It is participatory in nature; the informant has an input in the structure of the interaction in terms of defining its direction and in time management, (b) The researcher and the informant are equal in status; both parties may ask each other questions for about the same length of time. (c) It is appropriate and adaptive to the conditions of the group of informants in that it conforms to existing group norms, (d) It is integrated with other indigenous research methods. Different aspects of pagtatanong-tanong are discussed: preparation, procedure, levels of interaction, language, insider-outsider issue, cultural sensitivity, reliability/validity and ethical issues. Emphasis is given to the basic guiding principle: that the level of interaction between the researcher and the informant influences the quality of data obtained. Eight levels of interaction which are divided into the "One-of-Us" and the "Outsider" categories are described.

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    • "We cannot be so sure that this continued to be the case for other methods and other times, even in Japan. By the end of the twentieth century, however, signs appeared that Asian psychologies were creating models of their own (e.g., Paranjpe et al. 1988; Pe-Pua 1989). "
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    ABSTRACT: Miki Takasuna describes knowledge transfer between elite communities of scientists, a process by which ideas become structurally transformed in the host culture. By contrast, a process that we have termed knowledge transfer by deelitization occurs when (a) participatory action researchers work with a community to identify a problem involving oppression or exploitation. Then (b) community members suggest solutions and acquire the tools of analysis and action to pursue social actions. (c) Disadvantaged persons thereby become more aware of their own abilities and resources, and persons with special expertise become more effective. (d) Rather than detachment and value neutrality, this joint process involves advocacy and structural transformation. In the examples of participatory action research documented here, Third World social scientists collaborated with indigenous populations to solve problems of literacy, community-building, land ownership, and political voice. Western social scientists, inspired by these non-Western scientists, then joined in promoting PAR both in the Third World and in Europe and the Americas, e.g., adapting it for solving problems of people with disabilities or disenfranchised women. Emancipatory goals such as these may even help North American psychologists to break free of some methodological chains and to bring about social and political change.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science
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    • "It is in their own mother tongue that a person can truly express their innermost sentiments, ideas, perceptions, and attitudes. Some of the indigenous research methods that have been identified are pagtatanongtanong (improvised informal, unstructured interview) (Pe-Pua, 1989), pakikipagkuwentuhan (''story telling'' or ''informal conversations'') (Orteza, 1997), ginabayang talakayan (collective indigenous discussion), nakikiugaling pagmamasid (participant observation) (Bennagen, 1985), pakikisama (''getting along with'') (Nery, 1979), pagdalaw-dalaw (''visiting'') (Gepigon & Francisco, 1978), and panunuluyan (''residing in the research setting'') (San Juan & Soriaga, 1985). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Filipino psychology) refers to the psychology born out of the experience, thought and orientation of the Filipinos, based on the full use of Filipino culture and language. The approach is one of “indigenization from within” whereby the theoretical framework and methodology emerge from the experiences of the people from the indigenous culture. It is based on assessing historical and socio-cultural realities, understanding the local language, unraveling Filipino characteristics, and explaining them through the eyes of the native Filipino. Among the outcomes are: a body of knowledge including indigenous concepts, development of indigenous research methods and indigenous personality testing, new directions in teaching psychology, and an active participation in organisations among Filipino psychologists and social scientists, both in the Philippines and overseas.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2000 · Asian Journal of Social Psychology
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    ABSTRACT: The recent emphasis on reflexivity has caused cross‐cultural researchers to re‐examine their methods and the assumptions that underlie them. This article contributes to this ongoing discussion by examining the impact of cultural factors on both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Specifically, this article examines the impact of cultural values, political constraints, educational level of informants, and context.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1996
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