Article

Spices as influencers of body metabolism: An overview of three decades of research

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  • CSIR - Central Food Technological Research Institute
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Abstract

The safety of the consumption of spices – turmeric, red pepper and black pepper and their respective active principles was established in animal studies by observing the influence on growth, organ weights, nitrogen balance and blood constituents upon feeding at levels close to human intake as well as upto 100-times the normal human intake. Exhaustive animal studies documented the beneficial influence of turmeric/curcumin, red pepper/capsaicin, and garlic on lipid metabolism, especially anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of the three spices and anti-lithogenic effect of curcumin and capsaicin. The anti-diabetic effects of turmeric/curcumin, onion and cumin seeds were also evidenced with particular ameliorative influence of curcumin and onion on diabetic nephropathy. The antioxidant effects of curcumin (of turmeric), capsaicin (of red pepper) and eugenol (of clove) were evidenced both in in vitro and in vivo systems and the consequential health beneficial anti-inflammatory influence in experimentally induced arthritis was documented. The mechanism of digestive stimulant action of common spices examined in experimental animals revealed to be mediated through phenomenal stimulation of bile secretion with an enhanced bile acid concentration (ingredients essential for fat digestion and absorption) and an appropriate stimulation of the activities of digestive enzymes of pancreas and small intestine. The protective influence of hypolipidemic spices – curcumin, capsaicin and garlic on the altered fluidity of erythrocytes under hypercholesterolemic situation was evidenced in experimental animal models. Antioxidant spices were also shown to greatly reduce LDL-oxidation and also modulate the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Several spices or their extracts were also found to beneficially inhibit platelet aggregation. All these observations strongly indicate that many spices and their active principles are excellent nutraceuticals.

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... Many herbs are applied topically to the skin in a variety of forms (Srinivasan, 2005). Essential oil extracts can be applied to the skin usually diluted in a carrier oil, many essential oils can burn the skin or are simply too high dose used straight-diluting in olive oil or another food grade oil such as almond oil can allow these to be used safely as a topical; salves, oils, balms, creams and lotion are other forms of topical delivery mechanisms (Srinivasan, 2005). ...
... Many herbs are applied topically to the skin in a variety of forms (Srinivasan, 2005). Essential oil extracts can be applied to the skin usually diluted in a carrier oil, many essential oils can burn the skin or are simply too high dose used straight-diluting in olive oil or another food grade oil such as almond oil can allow these to be used safely as a topical; salves, oils, balms, creams and lotion are other forms of topical delivery mechanisms (Srinivasan, 2005). Most topical applications are oil extractions of herbs. ...
... Most topical applications are oil extractions of herbs. Taking a food grade oil and soaked herbs in it for anywhere from weeks to months allows certain phytochemicals to be extracted into the oil (Srinivasan, 2005, Crawtto et al., 2010. This oil can then be made into salve cream lotions, or simply used as oil for topical application, Bruneton (1995) any massage oils, antibacterial salves and round healing compounds are made this way. ...
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The roles of plants in maintaining human health is well documented. In Nigeria and other parts of the world, many of these indigenous plants are used as spices, food, ornamentals or medicinal plants. Many of these plants possess bioactive compounds that exhibit physiological activities against bacteria and other microorganisms. However, these plants are used in treatment of many diseases such as rheumatism, dysentery, cough, diabetes, tuberculosis, malaria and other ailments. Herbal medicine however include: herbs, herbal materials, herbal preparations and finished herbal products that contain parts of plants or other plant materials as active ingredients. The term ‘medicinal’ as applied to a plant indicates that it contains a substance or substances which modulate beneficially the physiology of sick mammals and that it has been used by man for that purpose. The use of herbs to treat diseases is almost universal among non-industrialized societies. There are many forms in which herbs can be administered, the most common of which is in the form of a liquid that is drunk by patient either a tisane or a diluted plant extract. Whole herb consumption is also practiced either fresh or in dried form. In general, the safety and effectiveness of herbal medicine as an alternative medicine have not been scientifically proven and remain largely unknown. However, beyond adverse effects from the herb itself, adulteration, inappropriate formulation or lack of understanding of plant and drug interactions have led to adverse reaction that are sometimes life threatening or lethal. The importance of medicinal plants becomes more patent at the present time in developing countries. In Pakistan it is estimated that 80% of the people depend on plants to cure themselves, a 40% in China and in Nigeria 60-70%. In technologically advanced country as the United States, it is estimated that 60% of the population use medicinal plants habitually to fight certain ailment, while in Japan there is more demand of medicinal plants than of “Official” medicines. Modern medicine, through clinical tests, has been able to validate those plants that the tradition had used with the method of test and error. Many turned out to been worth it, others demonstrated to be innocuous and some potentially dangerous. Perhaps, biochemical tests have been the ones that determined the main components of the medicinal plants and then the active principles.
... Beyond their antimicrobial properties, the diverse therapeutic values of spices have been highlighted through in vivo and in vitro studies. Spices have been reported to possess therapeutic potential for their hypolipidemic [3], anti-diabetic [4], antilithogenic [5], antioxidant [6], anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic [7] activity. ...
... With a focus on specific spice/herb, such studies have discussed their health consequences to report heterogeneous results. While some of the surveys have attempted to collate and summarize this knowledge [3,6,8], a comprehensive picture of health impacts of culinary herbs and spices based on empirical evidence still evades us. Statistics from NCBI's PubMed data suggests an exponential increase in scientific reports associating culinary spices and herbs with diseases since 1990's. ...
... doi: bioRxiv preprint of diseases in contrast to their negative effects which are comparatively narrow-spectrum. In line with our analysis, spices have been reported to be effective against a range of disorders [3][4][5]7]. ...
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Spices and herbs are key dietary ingredients used across cultures worldwide. Beyond their use as flavoring and coloring agents, the popularity of these aromatic plant products in culinary preparations has been attributed to their antimicrobial properties. Last few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of biomedical literature investigating the impact of spices and herbs on health, presenting an opportunity to mine for patterns from empirical evidence. Systematic investigation of empirical evidence to enumerate the health consequences of culinary herbs and spices can provide valuable insights into their therapeutic utility. We implemented a text mining protocol to assess the health impact of spices by assimilating, both, their positive and negative effects. We conclude that spices show broad-spectrum benevolence across a range of disease categories in contrast to negative effects that are comparatively narrow-spectrum. We also implement a strategy for disease-specific culinary recommendations of spices based on their therapeutic tradeoff against adverse effects. Further by integrating spice-phytochemical-disease associations, we identify bioactive spice phytochemicals potentially involved in their therapeutic effects. Our study provides a systems perspective on health effects of culinary spices and herbs with applications for dietary recommendations as well as identification of phytochemicals potentially involved in underlying molecular mechanisms.
... In Asia, black pepper is considered a powerful curative in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurveda. Pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed that black pepper exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-toxic (Vijayan et al., 2000), anti-mutagenic, anti-bacterial (Srinivasan et al., 2005), antioxidant (Kapoor et al., 2009), anti-tumour (Sunila et al., 2004) and anti-apoptotic (Pathak et al., 2007) properties. ...
... Adulteration is illegal as the consumption of adulterated products which contain unlabeled or undeclared constituents may cause intoxication, allergies, or other undesirable side effects (Tremlova et al., 2001). Adulteration has been reported in commercially sold spices, especially those products that are sold in powdered form (Srinivasan et al., 2005), adversely affecting the quality of the products and their trade. There is evidence that the black pepper seeds and its value-added products are frequently adulterated with papaya seeds and chili to achieve economic gains in developing countries (Department of Export Agriculture, Sri Lanka, 2019). ...
... The term "spices" is quite broad and refers to natural (herbs, seasonings, salts, etc.) or industrialized food additives that add and enhance speci c avors to foods. It is de ned as products obtained from a mixture of spices and other ingredients, fermented or not, used to add avor or aroma to foods and beverages (Srinivasan, 2005;Anvisa, 2021). In addition to their organoleptic effects, natural spices have physiological bene ts, they are rich in antioxidants, and exert bene cial digestive stimulation through enzymes responsible for digestion and/or secretion of bile, which plays an important role in facilitating digestion (Platel and Srinivasan, 2001;Reinholds et al., 2017). ...
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Industrialized powdered spices are widely used by the population in food preparation, although they are associated with several health problems. This relationship between spices and health problems can be explained due to the presence of some substances used to enhance the flavor and preserve them. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the metal content in these products, allowing their characterization. In this work, six metals (Zn, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, and K) were determined in samples of dry industrialized spices that were sprayed and sold in sachets. Flame atomic absorption (FAAS) and emission (FAES) spectrometry were used to quantify the metals in the digestate obtained after the decomposition of the samples in a digester block. The following concentration ranges were found for the analyzed metals (mg Kg − 1 ): Zn (< LQ-15.53), Fe (10.82–205.3), Ca (27.45–1842), Mg (114.8–1374), Na (63739–268188) e K (1560-235864). These values were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) and Kohonen self-organizing maps (KSOMs) techniques. The multivariate analysis allowed the recognition of grouping trends according to the spice brands, which suggests the possibility of a base material, from which the flavors are differentiated.
... This means that ginger could mitigate or postpone the disease progressing associated with the oxidative stress [14]. Also ginger has been shown to alleviate the pain of arthritis by disrupting the inflammatory cascade and vanilloid nociceptors [15]. In addition, it had been demonstrated through in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies that ginger and its bioactive materials were efficient against various human cancers such as bile duct cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, and so on [16]. ...
... The improvement of egg quality seems related to active components of Moringa leaf which may have the ability to improve calcium storage, uterine functions and intestinal secretions, which ultimately lead to increase egg shell weight, thickness and Haugh units (Nadia et al., 2008;Liu et al., 2020). Some phytochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids can decrease fat absorption, which might reduce cholesterol content in eggs (Srinivasan 2005;Sikora et al., 2008) and increase the elimination of cholesterol through feces (Benakmoum et al., 2013). A recent study stated that carotenoid supplementation to hens feed in 43 weeks of age reduced cholesterol content in egg yolk and improved the shell thickness and yolk oxidative stability (Panaite et al., 2021). ...
Article
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The cost of feed ingredients in poultry production is constantly increasing and it is one of the main constraints globally and especially in low income countries. As a consequence, scientists search for cheap and available sources of feed protein. The M. oleifera leaves have not only high protein but also excellent nutritive and biological properties. This review summarises results and findings of research related to the application of M. oleifera leaf as source of feed protein in broiler and egg production. Studies showed that leaf meals used as protein source led to improvement in growth and egg production parameters with up to 10% M. oleifera leaves in chicken diets. On the other side, there are restrictions on utilization of leaf meal in chicken diets by its high dietary fibre content and the presence of anti-nutritive compounds. This review also highlights previous results indicating a positive effect of M. oleifera leaves on carcass traits and egg quality, specially pigmentation of broiler meat and egg yolk and a tendency in cholesterol reduction in blood and eggs. A couple of studies have shown a beneficial influence on the antioxidant status and intestinal microbiota which were considered as health promoting in birds. In conclusion the use of M. oleifera leaves meal can improve growth performance and egg production. Of high interest is its potential to promote animal health. However, more research is needed to find out effects of M. oleifera leaves meal on functional traits, including ileal nutrient digestibility, especially considering amino acids, and on the gut microbiota for a better understanding of the mode of action of this plant.
... Many of these spices have been recorded to show anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive potential. Many common spices have outstanding health benefits (Srinivasan, 2005). ...
Research
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Nowadays, the use of spices and other herbs have extensively increased due to their medicinal values all over the world. However, the monitoring of heavy metal contamination in spices has also been increased in recent years. A study has been conducted to determine the concentration of eight heavy metals such as Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Arsenic (As), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Manganese (Mn) in mainly three different types of turmeric samples (Curcuma longa). The turmeric samples analyzed were (i) Unpacked bulk powder available at three different local markets in Dhaka (ii) Packed and marketed by three branded companies, and (iii) Raw turmeric directly collected from different local farmlands. The samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The concentration of most of the heavy metals were found within the limit recommended by WHO (6.0000 ppm) except lead (12.3469 ppm) in unpacked-3 bulk sample. This study also showed the concentration of heavy metals were present in a lower amount in packed power samples compared to unpacked bulk powder samples. The result of this analysis would be helpful for public awareness in consumption of different spices. The concerned authorities who are responsible for monitoring and regulating the food chain in the market in our country may also get a great message about heavy metal contamination of spices.
... This might be due to the fact that DKTL includes bioactive compounds with a variety of modes of action on digestive processes. The majority of bioactive compounds discovered in herbs increase bile acid synthesis and excretion in the liver [48]. In the small intestine, bile is required for fat breakdown and absorption. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to see how dried Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves (DKTL) affected growth, hematological parameters, carcass characteristics, muscle chemical composition, and fatty acid profile in finishing goats. In a randomized complete block design, twenty crossbred males (Thai Native x Boer) weaned goats (17.70 ± 2.50 kg of initial body weight (BW)) were provided to the experimental animals (5 goats per treatment) for 90 days. Individual dietary treatments of 0, 2.22, 4.44, and 6.66 g/d of DKTL on a dry matter basis were given to the goats. The diets were provided twice daily as total mixed rations ad libitum. In comparison to the control diet, DKTL supplementation had no effect on BW, average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass composition, meat pH, or meat color (p > 0.05). After DKTL treatment, the hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, oleic acid (C18:1n9), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and protein content increased, but saturated fatty acids (SFA) and ether extract decreased (p < 0.05). To summarize, DKTL supplementation can improve goat meat quality.
... Bypass fat is considered as high energy supplement and used in ruminant feeding since ages [2,[6][7][8][9][10] . Similarly, herbal supplements were popular among farmers and also used in animal feeds [11][12][13] . Use of specific bypass fatty acids in place of bypass fat is recently developed technique and it ensures higher energy and better health of animals in comparison to bypass fat. ...
Research
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During early lactation high producing animals may undergo negative energy balance (NEB) which is having ill-effect on health of animal. Considering this, present investigation was undertaken to assess the effect of supplementation of bypass fatty acids and Tinospora cordifolia on body parameters of lactating Murrah buffaloes. Twenty freshly calved and healthy buffaloes were selected from institutional herd of NDRI, Karnal and divided into four groups having five buffaloes each on the basis of their previous milk yield, body weight and parity. Four groups were treated as T0 (control), T1 (fatty acid), T2 (Tinospora) and T3 (mix) and were fed with specific amount of supplements for 90 days. T0 was kept without any supplementation and given standard feed (ICAR-2013 standards) whereas T1, T2 and T3 were supplemented with 150gm of bypass fatty acids, 150gm of Tinospora and combination of 150gm bypass fatty acids and 150gm Tinospora, respectively. Results showed significant (P<0.05) improvement in BCS of buffaloes and decreased rate of reduction of body weight in treatment group buffaloes as compared to control group. On the basis of results, it was concluded that bypass fatty acids and Tinospora cordifolia supplementation helps in attaining good body conditions in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Introduction A healthy animal herd is first and foremost requirement for maintaining productive and economic livestock venture. After parturition the health and immune system of animals gets compromised [1]. This is mainly due to negative energy balance (NEB), which occurs due to the gap between the energy requirements and availability [2]. The demand of energy during early lactation gets increased due to increased requirement for milk production and dry matter intake of the animal gets lowered because of physiological stress [3, 4]. The incidences of metabolic diseases like ketosis and milk fever during early lactation are the evidences of the animal's inability to meet the elevated metabolic demands and such health concerns further elicit economic losses in dairy farming and also related to animal welfare issue [5]. Hence care and management of dairy animals during early stage of lactation plays a crucial role in coping the negative impacts of NEB and maintaining sound health of the animals. Supplementation involves adding specific quantity of feed additives into animal feed and expected to give desired effect. NEB energy balance and its ill effect on dairy animals can be prevented by the supplementation of high energy density feed along with immunomodulator [6]. Bypass fat is considered as high energy supplement and used in ruminant feeding since ages [2, 6-10]. Similarly, herbal supplements were popular among farmers and also used in animal feeds [11-13]. Use of specific bypass fatty acids in place of bypass fat is recently developed technique and it ensures higher energy and better health of animals in comparison to bypass fat. Tinospora cordifolia is an herbal immunomodulator having multidimensional properties which aids to health of animal. Previous reports on individual feeding of bypass fat [14-17] and Tinospora [18-20] revealed positive effect on health of dairy animals and improved body parameters. However, no systematic information is available on the use of bypass fatty acids along with combination of Tinospora in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of supplementation of bypass fatty acid and Tinospora cordifola on body parameters of lactating Murrah buffaloes.
... It is observed that other compounds which are found in EOs have pain reducing, edema relieving and anti-inflammatory characteristics e.g., 1,8-cineole (found in eucalyptus oil) and linalool from lavender oil (Peana et al. 2003). Other examples of plants which possess anti-inflammatory potential are anise, chamomile, liquorice and marigold (Srinivasan 2005). Turmeric is also called as Curcuma longa. ...
Article
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Now-a-days poultry production has high demand all over the world and for this purpose performance parameters are maximized for example fast growing of chicken with low usage of feed and with better health status of the flock. This increasing demand has led to use of many antibiotic free products. There is an increased pressure to decrease the amount of antibiotics which is used as bacteriostatic or bactericidal agents for poultry so there is an utmost need for unconventional resolutions to sustain the productivity and efficacy of poultry. Amongst the substitutions, essential oils (EOs) have a prodigious potential and are usually thought to be natural, also free from hazardous deposits and chemicals and less toxic. EOs are plant-based extracts and there are about 3,000 known Eos out of which 300 are identified as useful and commercially important. It is proven that EOs have abundant in vitro and in vivo research to yield special effects on numerous pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The current review provides information on the fundamentals of EOs, the anti-oxidation and immunomodulatory characteristics, the growth-promoting effects, and the activities of EOs against variety of pathogens in animals/poultry.
... Acuminatum on the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is a therapeutic method for the symptomatic management of Alzheimer's disease [23]. In animal assays, peppers have shown hypocholesterolemic properties [24,25]. Capsaicin, the main representative of the pungent components, is a lipophilic alkaloid and because of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity has been used in clinical practice. ...
Article
Full-text available
Plants possessing various bioactive compounds and antioxidant components have gained enormous attention because of their efficacy in enhancing human health and nutrition. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), because of their color, flavor, and nutritional value, are considered as one of the most popular vegetables around the world. In the present investigation, the effect of different solvents extractions (methanol, ethanol, and water) and oven drying on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties was studied of red, yellow, and green peppers. The green pepper water extract showed the highest total polyphenol content (30.15 mg GAE/g DW) followed by red pepper water extract (28.73 mg GAE/g DW) and yellow pepper water extract (27.68 mg GAE/g DW), respectively. The methanol extracts of all the pepper samples showed higher TPC as compared to the ethanol extract. A similar trend was observed with the total flavonoid content (TFC). The antioxidant assays (DPPH scavenging and reducing power) echoed the findings of TPC and TFC. In both antioxidant assays, the highest antioxidant activity was shown by the water extract of green pepper, which was followed by the water extract of red pepper and yellow pepper. Furthermore, all extracts were assessed for their potential antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Aqueous extracts of all three pepper samples exhibited slightly higher inhibition zones as compared to their corresponding ethanolic and methanolic extract. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 mg/ml. The lowest MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/ml concentration were recorded for aqueous extracts of green pepper. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed tannic acid as the major phenolic compound in all three pepper samples. Thus, it is envisaged that the microwave drying/heating technique can improve the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the pepper.
... Heat stress increases the free radicals formation in cells which cause oxidative stress which increases oxidation and decreases antioxidant molecules, so the body cannot compensate or renew in short period , Slimen et al 2014. Many current studies have focused on medicinal and nutritional plants and role as antioxidants to prevent heat and oxidative stress due to the importance of components as growth stimulator (Sarinivasan 2005), as anti-bacterial (Tagoe et al 2011) and antioxidants (Osman et al 2005). Therefore, less expensive and fewer alternatives in terms of side effects are explored. ...
... Bypass fat is considered as high energy supplement and used in ruminant feeding since ages [2,[6][7][8][9][10] . Similarly, herbal supplements were popular among farmers and also used in animal feeds [11][12][13] . Use of specific bypass fatty acids in place of bypass fat is recently developed technique and it ensures higher energy and better health of animals in comparison to bypass fat. ...
Article
Full-text available
During early lactation high producing animals may undergo negative energy balance (NEB) which is having ill-effect on health of animal. Considering this, present investigation was undertaken to assess the effect of supplementation of bypass fatty acids and Tinospora cordifolia on body parameters of lactating Murrah buffaloes. Twenty freshly calved and healthy buffaloes were selected from institutional herd of NDRI, Karnal and divided into four groups having five buffaloes each on the basis of their previous milk yield, body weight and parity. Four groups were treated as T0 (control), T1 (fatty acid), T2 (Tinospora) and T3 (mix) and were fed with specific amount of supplements for 90 days. T0 was kept without any supplementation and given standard feed (ICAR-2013 standards) whereas T1, T2 and T3 were supplemented with 150gm of bypass fatty acids, 150gm of Tinospora and combination of 150gm bypass fatty acids and 150gm Tinospora, respectively. Results showed significant (P<0.05) improvement in BCS of buffaloes and decreased rate of reduction of body weight in treatment group buffaloes as compared to control group. On the basis of results, it was concluded that bypass fatty acids and Tinospora cordifolia supplementation helps in attaining good body conditions in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Introduction A healthy animal herd is first and foremost requirement for maintaining productive and economic livestock venture. After parturition the health and immune system of animals gets compromised [1]. This is mainly due to negative energy balance (NEB), which occurs due to the gap between the energy requirements and availability [2]. The demand of energy during early lactation gets increased due to increased requirement for milk production and dry matter intake of the animal gets lowered because of physiological stress [3, 4]. The incidences of metabolic diseases like ketosis and milk fever during early lactation are the evidences of the animal's inability to meet the elevated metabolic demands and such health concerns further elicit economic losses in dairy farming and also related to animal welfare issue [5]. Hence care and management of dairy animals during early stage of lactation plays a crucial role in coping the negative impacts of NEB and maintaining sound health of the animals. Supplementation involves adding specific quantity of feed additives into animal feed and expected to give desired effect. NEB energy balance and its ill effect on dairy animals can be prevented by the supplementation of high energy density feed along with immunomodulator [6]. Bypass fat is considered as high energy supplement and used in ruminant feeding since ages [2, 6-10]. Similarly, herbal supplements were popular among farmers and also used in animal feeds [11-13]. Use of specific bypass fatty acids in place of bypass fat is recently developed technique and it ensures higher energy and better health of animals in comparison to bypass fat. Tinospora cordifolia is an herbal immunomodulator having multidimensional properties which aids to health of animal. Previous reports on individual feeding of bypass fat [14-17] and Tinospora [18-20] revealed positive effect on health of dairy animals and improved body parameters. However, no systematic information is available on the use of bypass fatty acids along with combination of Tinospora in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of supplementation of bypass fatty acid and Tinospora cordifola on body parameters of lactating Murrah buffaloes.
... Medicinal plants have more antioxidants than fruits and vegetables (Ninfali et al., 2005) and their antioxidant properties have been shown to inhibit intestinal adhesions (Parsaei et al., 2013). These plants have beneficial effects by stimulating the increased function of pancreatic enzymes (lipase, amylase, and protease) and also by increasing the activity of digestive enzymes in intestinal mucosal cells (Srinivasan, 2005). Their phenolic compounds reduce the number of pathogenic microbes in the gut and prevent nutrient loss, thus increasing intestinal health, increasing digestion and absorption of nutrients, and improving Vet Med Sci. ...
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One of the most valuable medicinal plants is milk thistle (Silybum marianum) or martighal. An annual or biennial plant of the Asteraceae family and English name Milk thistle, a Matte green colour and prickly plant with a standing stem that can be thick, simple, or slightly branched (ramified). Its seeds contain about 70%–80% of the flavonolignans of silymarin and about 20%–30% of polymeric and oxidized polyphenolic compounds (such as tannins). Traditionally, the plant has been used to increase milk secretion, relieve menstrual cramps, lessen depression, decrease gallstones, and jaundice as well as improve functions of the liver, spleen, and kidney. This review reviews studies on the effects of adding milk thistle to quail diet. Consumption (0.5% and 1%) of milk thistle powder in the diet of Japanese quail significantly increased feed intake, body weight, and improved carcass components. Blood constituents including total protein and albumin were improved along with decreased HDL, ALT, and AST. The use of milk thistle levels (0.5% and 1.5%) significantly improved the antioxidant total of plasma. Consumption of silymarin in quail diet increased the number of white blood cells, calcium, vitamin D3, and albumin. Silymarin also decreased the relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and spleen. This review indicates that milk thistle can improve growth performance, feed conversion ratio, and immune system in quail.
... Lots of secondary metabolites are present in plants, which are accountable for particular biological and physiological effects (Calsamiglia et al., 2007). Herbs and spices are known to have health favor such as appetite and digestion stimulants (Janz et al., 2007), anti-microbial action (Pasqua et al., 2006;Windisch et al., 2008), anti-inflammatory action (Craig, 1999, Srinivasan, 2005, antioxidative action (Craig, 1999;Fasseas et al., 2008) and immune-stimulant function (Craig, 1999) on animals when used as feed additives in animal nutrition. Non-ruminants (simple stomach) are able to utilize the plant materials less than the Ruminants because of a large part of the carbohydrate that contains simple sugars joined together by β-links such as cellulose (Van Soest, 1994). ...
Article
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The purpose of this review is to provide detailed information about the use of herbs and spices in ruminant and non-ruminant animal and its effect on meat quality. Herbs are dried leaves of any aromatic plants used to impart flavor and odour of food and spices are dried parts of any aromatic plants without leaves. Herbs and spices produced different natural and non-antibiotic phytogenic feed additives. Most usual and repeatedly used herbs and spices for phytogenic feed additives in swine, cattle and poultry production are garlic, chili, cayenne, pepper, peppermint, cinnamon, horseradish thyme, anise, rosemary sage, and oregano. Numerous useful properties of herbs and spices compounds derive from their bioactive molecules are piperine, linalool, carvacrol, capsaicin, cineole, allicin, thymol, allyl isothiocyanate and anethole. Herbs and spices have antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antiviral, antifungal, insecticidal and antitoxigenic properties. The prospective benefits of using herbs and spices in ruminant and non-ruminant nutrition are stimulate nutrient digestion and absorption, improved health status declined incidence of diseases, increased feed intake and average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio, increased carcass yield, improved meat quality and shelf life of meat. The aim of the review is to summarize on the current knowledge on the use of herbs and spices as a feed additive in ruminant and non-ruminant animals.
... Thus, the reduction in the activity of lipases at 24 DAH apparently did not have an impact on growth performance of the fish fed curcumin during the experiment. This contrasts with the well-known effect of curcumin as promoter of lipid digestion [73]. In fact, in two studies in tilapia and crucian carp, higher lipase activity was reported with dietary curcumin supplementation [31,72]. ...
Article
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The larval stage is highly prone to stress due to the ontogenetic and metabolic alterations occurring in fish. Curcumin inclusion in diets has been shown to improve growth by modulating oxidative status, immune response, and/or feed digestibility in several fish species. The aim of the present work was to assess if dietary curcumin could promote marine fish larvae digestive maturation and improve robustness. Gilthead seabream larvae were fed a diet supplemented with curcumin at dose of 0 (CTRL), 1.5 (LOW), or 3.0 g/Kg feed for 27 days. From 4 to 24 days after hatching (DAH), no differences were observed in growth performance. At the end of the experiment (31 DAH) LOW larvae had a better condition factor than CTRL fish. Moreover, HIGH larvae showed higher trypsin and chymotrypsin activity when compared to CTRL fish. LOW and HIGH larvae were able to maintain the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production during development, in contrast to CTRL larvae. In conclusion, curcumin supplementation seems to promote larvae digestive capacity and modulate the oxidative status during ontogeny. Furthermore, the present results provide new insights on the impacts of dietary antioxidants on marine larvae development and a possible improvement of robustness in the short and long term.
... A linear decrease in serum CHOL by increasing the inclusion levels of CBP in laying hens' diet was observed. This could be related to the hypocholesterolemic property that some plant molecules-usually found in essential oils-may exert [51,52], mainly through the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoA), which is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in CHOL synthesis [53]. Moreover, CB essential oil contains several bioactive compounds, among which is eugenol, which was also demonstrated to possess antioxidant properties [54]. ...
Article
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Plant feed additives (PFA) such as essential oils, extracts, and by-products from plant processing can be included in poultry diets. A total of 39 peer-reviewed articles were selected from the literature published in the last 20 years (2000–2020) comparing PFA antioxidant effects with synthetic antioxidant vitamins (mainly vitamin E) in poultry nutrition. The PFA can be used as an effective nutritional strategy to face poultry’s oxidative stress with positive impact also on their productivity and efficiency. They can partially or completely replace antioxidant synthetic vitamins (the latter administered at doses between 150 and 500 mg/kg) in animal diets, sometimes affecting important physiological functions or expressing synergistic effect with the synthetic antioxidants. It is crucial to take into consideration the issues related to the absorption and the metabolism of these additives and their interaction with gut microbiota. However, some form- and dose-dependent negative effects on growth performances are observed.
... al. , 1997). The antidiabetic action of essential oils seems to be mediated through: (i) stimulation of the pancreas to produce and recreate insulin, (ii) interference with dietary glucose absorption and (iii) insulin sparing action of the constituent bioactive compounds(Srinivasan, 2005b). ...
... Ginger supplementation increases the secretion of saliva resulting in increased secretion and activity of digestion enzymes and finally increases the digestion processes (Ernst and Pittler, 2000). Srinivasan (2005) reported stimulated secretion of digestive enzymes with most of the herbal plants. ...
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The supplementation with herbal and medicinal plants to animals showed positive effects on feed digestion, performance and animal’s health. Fifteen multiparous Egyptian buffaloes (537 ± 18.1 kg body weight), 7 days after parturition, were randomly assigned to 3 treatments in a quintupled 3 × 3 Latin square design in a 63-day experiment. Each experimental period lasted 21 days (15 days of adaptation + 7 days for measurements and sample collection). Buffaloes were assigned according to their previous milk production, weight and parity to study the effect of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) or ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation on feed utilization and lactational performance. Buffaloes were fed a basal diet of concentrates, berseem clover and rice straw in a ratio of 60:30:10 dry matter (DM) basis. The first group fed the basal diet with no additive as the control treatment, while other buffaloes were fed on the basal diet supplemented with 75 g fennel or ginger/buffalo daily. Additives supplementation did not affect feed intake; however, fennel followed by ginger improved (P<0.05) dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities compared to the control. Without affecting blood chemistry, fennel and ginger supplementation improved (P<0.05) production of milk and energy corrected milk, fat concentration and milk energy content and output. Fennel followed by ginger decreased the somatic cell count (P=0.035) compared with the control. Fennel and ginger improved feed efficiency (P<0.05) compared with the control. Fennel increased the proportion of milk trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 (P=0.028), total conjugated linoleic acid without affecting other fatty acids. It is concluded that fennel or ginger at 75 g/buffalo/d improved nutrient digestibility and milk production of lactating buffaloes. Fennel improved milk nutritive value than ginger.
... Epidemiological randomized clinical trials carried out in different countries have demonstrated numerous health effects related to functional food consumption like reduction of cancer risk, improvement of heart health, stimulation of immune system, decrease of menopause symptoms, improvement of gastrointestinal health, maintenance of urinary tract health, antiinflammatory effects, reduction of blood pressure, maintenance of vision, antibacterial effect, anti-viral effect, reduction of osteoporosis and anti-obese effect [7]. The main spices used in the preparation of rasam are tamarind, turmeric, chili pepper, cumin, garlic, black pepper, black mustard, curry leaves, coriander and asafetida [8]. ...
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Aims: To evaluate the physical and chemical properties of rasam, a traditional south Indian soup. Each ingredient present in rasam are known for their medicinal value individually. Moreover, rasam has being suggested as a general control measure in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 by Ministry of AYUSH. For formulation designing the properties of material under study is generally determined. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the physiochemical properties of rasam so that it would be convenient to chose a suitable dosage form. Study Design: The physical and chemical studies was carried simultaneously in order to achieve the confirmatory results. Place and Duration of Study: Study was performed at Parul Institute of Pharmacy & Research, Parul University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India. The study took about 45 days. Methodology: The physical parameters evaluated were pH, viscosity, density, boiling range, surface tension, miscibility, refractive index and loss on drying. The chemical evaluation included preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening. Results: The pH of rasam was 3.916 ±0.0133, viscosity was 0.956 cp, density was 0.993 g/mL, relative density was 0.995, boiling point was 110.3333 ± 0.333, surface tension was 107.093 N/m, refractive index was 1.37, and loss on drying was 80%. It contains several chemical constituents like alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, etc. Conclusion: The evaluated physical and chemical properties of rasam would provide a gateway for the formulation researchers to follow-up with various dosage forms designing.
... Additional dietary sanguinarine levels were found to decrease egg yolk cholesterol concentration. The inhibitory effects of the bioactive compounds exited in herbal medicines on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (i.e., the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis) might be responsible for the observed lower egg yolk cholesterol content (Srinivasan, 2005). Our findings are consistent with those of previously reports that indicated dietary inclusion of medicinal plants or their extracts decreased egg yolk cholesterol content (Mirbod et al., 2017;Mousavi et al., 2017). ...
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Abstract A major mean to minimize feeding costs and faecal nitrogen excretion on poultry farms is to decrease the supplied dietary protein content. This, however, is associated with the declines in productive performance and systemic health indices. Sanguinarine may improve protein efficiency via decreasing the intestinal amino acid decarboxylation and stimulating the tryptophan‐serotonin pathway. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sanguinarine on the performance, egg yolk biochemical parameters, serum enzyme activities, nutrient digestibility, ovarian follicles, and hepatic health indices in laying hens fed decremental levels of crude protein (CP). For this purpose, 180 laying hens were allocated into nine dietary treatments with four replicates of five birds each. The experimental treatments consisted of three levels of CP (85.0%, 92.5%, and 100% of Hy‐Line W‐36 manual recommendation) and three levels of sanguinarine (0.00, 3.75, and 7.50 mg/kg) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement administered during a 70‐day feeding trial. Results showed that the decremental levels of CP led to significant increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase (p
... Plant extracts act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal, anticoccidial and growth promoters (Tipu et al., 2006). Most of the herbs and spices stimulate the function of pancreatic enzymes and some increase the activity of digestive enzymes of the gastric mucosa (Srinivasan, 2005). Microbial ecosystem in the rumen is composed of the complex anaerobic microbial population of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and methanogenic-archaebacterium. ...
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Herbal medicines have always been a form of therapy for livestock among resource-poor smallholder farmers. This article is a review of present literature data of Fenugreek and Giloy as potential nutraceuticals and galactagogue in animal husbandry. Both these herbs are known to have pharmacological effects which include hypoglycemic, hypo-lipidemic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and galactagogue activity. The commercially available drugs pose health threats and prove detrimental to both human and animal health. The traditional use of herbal preparations suggests that they are safe and effective, however, scientific validation is still required for many of them especially for animal use. The phyto-pharmacological research on these two natural products show a ray of hope for the discovery of new active compounds with a novel structure that has potential to serve as a natural lead compound for the development of new nutraceuticals and galactagogue for animal health.
... The primary benefits of using plants or herbs (essential oil, spices, extracts) is that they are relatively safer than synthetic alternatives offering profound therapeutic benefits and more affordable (cheaper) in the treatment of diseases [22]. The presence of phytochemicals or bioactive (flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, phenol, oxalate etc.) confers plant the ability to perform multiple biological functions as antiinflammatory, antioxidants, antifungal, expectorant, antimicrobial, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antihyperglycemic and antidiabetics [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37]. ...
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The use of medicinal plants and probiotics has recently gained interest since the ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters by the European Union in 2006. They are new alternatives to bridge the gap between food safety and production. Medicinal plants are cheaper and loaded with several minerals, vitamins and phytochemicals such as: alkaloids, saponin, flavonoids, phenols, tannins etc. which allows them to perform multiple biological activities. Probiotics on the other hand, repopulates the gastro intestinal tracts (GIT) with beneficial bacteria which controls the action of pathogens and control their population, thereby reducing mortality and improving general performance of an animal.
... These benefits coupled with their attractive colors, aroma and taste have greatly increased the use of peppers. Healthful benefits range from reduction in gastric ulcers, cancer and cardiovascular diseases to the easing of pains associated with arthritis, headaches and muscle strains (Srinivasan, 2005). These healthful benefits are believed to be due to the large amounts of bioactive compounds (antioxidants) in the peppers, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamins. ...
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The effect of microwave cooking, steaming, stir-frying and boiling on the antioxidant potential of bell peppers (red and green), jalapeno, cayenne, serrano and habanero peppers was investigated. Antioxidant potential was measured employing two techniques: FRAP and DPPH, and the values reported based on dry matter content. Microwaving increased the antioxidant potential of all peppers studied 2 to 10 times above corresponding raw samples. Stir-frying and steaming resulted in enhancement of the antioxidant concentrations of peppers (1.4–3 and 1.6 − 7.3 times, respectively) above raw samples except steamed red bell peppers and stir-fried habanero peppers which yielded values below raw samples. Boiling resulted in a decrease in the antioxidant concentration of most peppers except those with medium pungency (jalapeno and serrano), which yielded values two and four times above raw samples, respectively. All cooked peppers showed an increase in antiradical activity (1.1–8.9 times) above raw samples, except boiled bell peppers (green) and cayenne peppers, which showed antiradical activities of 1.0 and 0.7 respectively below the raw samples. Our findings suggest that cooking most peppers with techniques such as microwave cooking and stir-frying that involve no addition of water may be a better way to prepare them as this generally increases the antioxidant potential of the peppers.
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Rasam is a popular traditional food in the southern part of India. It is consumed on a regular basis, generally with rice. It has a variety of constituents in it, like tomato, pepper, garlic, Indian sesame oil, cumin, mustard, coriander, chili pepper, asafoetida, turmeric and curry leaves, which provide different medicinal and health benefits to the human body. This review is an effort to compile all research work on rasam and to highlight its health benefits.
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To investigate the effects of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) powder on performances, the concentration of some blood parameters and carcass characteristics of broilers, 160 one-day-old Ross chicks were used in the form of a completely randomized design with four treatments and four repetitions. Experimental treatments included the levels of zero (control), 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% of pennyroyal powder. The treatment containing 0.6% of pennyroyal powder compared to the control group had higher feed consumption in the starter period (P <0.05). However, there was no significant difference during the growth period and the whole experimental period. In terms of average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio, there was no significant difference between the experimental treatments during the starter, growth and the whole experimental periods. The carcass percentage decreased significantly at the age of 42 days in treatments containing pennyroyal powder compared to the control group (P <0.05). There was no significant difference between experimental treatments in terms of weight percentage of carcass components including thigh, chest, abdominal fat, heart, liver, and gizzard. The concentration of triglycerides and plasma VLDL decreased significantly in treatments containing pennyroyal powder and decreased linearly compared to the control group (P <0.05). In terms of cholesterol and plasma HDL levels, a significant decrease was observed in treatment containing 0.4 level and treatment containing 0.2 percent of pennyroyal powder compared to the control group (P <0.05) respectively. Plasma LDL levels were not affected by experimental treatments. The results of the present study showed that the use of limited levels of pennyroyal powder up to 0.6% has no significant effect on the performance of broilers.
Chapter
Alternative medicine is a misnomer because it suggests that there are two kinds of medicine, alternative to each other. However, the author trusts there is no such thing as conventional/orthodox, alternative or complementary, integrative, or holistic medicine. There is one medicine, the one we have discovered through centuries of trial and error of saving lives and of increasing our evidence-based knowledge one step at a time.
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A two-way experimental design, comprising a total of 180 growing commercial cross-bred 30-day-old rabbits were assigned to five groups (36 kits in each group equally distributed between the sexes, with twelve replicates of 3 rabbits) was adopted to investigate the effects of dietary treatment (cinnamon and cloves supplemented at 150 and 250 mg/kg diet each) and sex on rabbit growth performance, carcass characteristics, hematological and biochemical indices. The first group was given a basal diet with no supplements as the control, the second and third groups were given cinnamon at 150 and 250 mg/kg diet, respectively. In turn, the fourth and fifth groups were administered cloves at 150 and 250 mg/kg diet, respectively. Treatment with cinnamon and clove powder supplements significantly increased live body weight (LBW), live body weight gain (LBWG) and feed consumption (FC). Also, it significantly increased red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), plasma total protein, albumin and globulin levels. The treatment with both supplements led to a significant decrease in feed conversion ratio (FCR), as well as levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Rabbits fed 250 mg cinnamon/kg diet had the highest LBW, LBWG, FC, dressing percentage, meatiness and plasma total protein, but had lowest levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST and ALT compared to the other groups. It was concluded that cinnamon supplement at 250 mg /kg diet may be an effective method to improve growth, carcass characteristics and health in both sexes of growing rabbits thanks to its advantageous effect on blood picture and biochemical constituents and consequently may be the primary factor promoting abundant production.
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The present study aimed to evaluate the dietary influence of nano-selenium and nano-curcumin on lipid profile, immune status and growth performance in Ven-Cobb broiler chickens. A total of 360 broiler chicks were divided into four groups and each group comprised 90 chicks. Chickens kept in group I was fed with a broiler basal diet and it served as the control group. While chickens kept in groups II, III and IV were fed with nano-Se (0.3 mg/kg diet), nano-curcumin (200 mg/kg diet) and combination (0.15 + 100 mg/kg diet) of both, respectively. Immune status of the birds was determined by measuring serum antibody titre against Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and lipid profile also estimated on days 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd. S ignificantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Ab titre against IBD and relative weights of spleen and thymus were recorded in Group II, III and IV compared to the control group. Significantly (p < 0.05) lower serum cholesterol levels were observed in Group III and IV compared to Group I. Significant (p < 0.05) improvement in body weight and feed conversion ratio were recorded in Group II and IV compared to Group I on sixth week. It is concluded that supplementation of Nano-Selenium at 0.15 mg/kg diet and nano-curcumin at 100 mg/kg diet in broiler chicken feed improves the production performance and exerts a hypo-lipidemic effect.
Chapter
Indian subcontinent, unique for its Unity in Diversity, is made up of 28 provinces and 8 union territories and is known to have amazing diversity of approximately 1402 million people with a wide variety of races and ethnicity staying together harmonically since the ancient time. It is not surprising that India with 15 major languages and about 100 dialects would have a wide variety of cuisines, with each province having its own cooking tradition and taste. Indian ways of food preparation are not the cuisine of a single nationality, but a collective combination of different cuisines from a number of countries with cultural identities that have been heavily influenced by religious and regional particularities. Above the region-specific nature of Indian cuisine, there exists certain common features among the diverse culinary practices. India’s history, rulers, trade partners, and moreover, the religious and cultural traditions have great influence on its cuisines. From the ancient ages, Indian Ayurveda (the medicinal practices for the well-being of humanity) is considered as a method of science of life in a holistic way. Ayurvedic Science signifies the importance of natural medicines using herbals that also includes spices. Spices and herbs are found not only to attribute flavour to bland meals, but also influence human metabolic processes and defence mechanisms. Spices have a diverse array of natural phytochemicals that have complementary and overlapping actions that include antioxidant effects, modulation of detoxifying enzymes, stimulation of immune system, reduction of inflammation, modulation of steroid metabolism, and antibacterial as well as antiviral effects. In this review, efforts have been made to take a cursory glance on the traditional Indian spices and herbs being used since the prehistoric times in the preparation of foods. The medicinal, nutritional, and especially immunostimulant properties of different spices and herbs have been reviewed. The great biodiversity observed in India by virtue of its enormous variety of flora and fauna owe to its wide range of climatic conditions and topographical characteristics. While in the colder northern states, dishes are prepared commonly with the warming aromatic spices, and in contrast, to combat the hot climate in the southern Indian states, the foods prepared are generally lighter to make them easy for the digestive system. Natural anti-inflammatory compounds are abundant in different Indian spices that not only add flavour, but also impart different immuno-boosting effects. Anti-inflammatory compounds are plentifully present in Indian spices and herbs, and their additive or synergistic actions protect the human body against a variety of threats. Some of the important bioactive compounds possessing nutritional/immunostimulant values include piperine from black pepper, curcumin from turmeric, allyl sulphides from garlic, eugenol from cloves, capsaicin from red pepper, etc. Moreover, natural polyphenols found in some common herbs used in different Indian cuisines, i.e. coriander, bay, mint, curry leaves, etc., have been found with immunostimulant properties in combating a multitude of disorders.KeywordsIndian cuisineSpicesHerbsFermented foodBioactiveImmunostimulant propertiesAnti-inflammatory
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This experiment was conducted in the poultry field of the Department of Animal Production College of Agriculture Al-Qasim Green University for " the period 1/10 /2021 to 4/11/2021 The study aimed to add different levels of Chenopodium quinoa seed " powder to the diet and vitamin C to the drinking water to know the best levels of quinoa seed powder to the diet that can be used in poultry diets. In the experiment 225 unsexed broiler chicks Ross 308 were used distributed randomly to 15 cages with 5 experimental treatments for " each treatment " of " 45 birds and each treatment included three replicates for each replicate of 15 birds.The experimental treatments were as follows The first treatment " the " control treatment " basic diet free of any addition whether in feed or drinking water. The second treatment add 12 g of quinoa seeds/kg of feed the third treatment add 14 g of quinoa seeds/kg of feed the fourth treatment add 16 g of quinoa seeds/kg of feed the fifth treatment add 300 " mg of vitamin C/L of drinking water. The most important results " of the " study can be summarized which is a significantly improvement (" P≤0.09 ") for the third fourth and fifth " treatments in " the " average live body weight " in the fifth week and the total weight " gain " compared " to " the first treatment. As for feed consumption " there were no significant differences between all treatments while the third fourth and fifth treatments recorded the best cumulative food conversion ratio with a significant difference (P≤0.09) compared to the first treatment " and no deaths were recorded among birds during the experiment period
Article
Background and Design: Melasma is a common hypermelanotic condition, mostly observed in women, which affects their psychological, emotional, and social well-being as well as their quality of life. Although melasma is relatively resistant to treatment, various therapeutic options have been attempted until date. Recently, microneedling and microinjection tranexamic acid were performed. To compare the therapeutic effectiveness of triple combination therapy with tranexamic acid injection and assess the impact of response on melasma by comparing the pre- and post-treatment Melasma Area Severity Index (MASI) and Dermatology Quality of Life Index (DLQI) scores. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 melasma patients were selected and assigned to two groups of 35 patients each based on the interventional randomized control study. One group was treated with a topical triple combination therapy-hydroquinone (2%), mometasone (0.1%), and tretinoin (0.025%), and the other group with injectable tranexamic acid. The MASI scores and DLQI were assessed for both the groups of patients at the baseline and then 6 weeks later along with serial photographs. Results: Significant reduction in MASI and DLQI scores were noted in the intralesional tranexamic acid group of patients (p=0.032). The mean change in MASI with tranexamic acid was 1.22 and with DLQI was 2.03. Conclusion: Injectable tranexamic acid is a promising treatment option for melasma. Further studies are however warranted with a larger sample size and for a longer duration to determine its long-term benefits. Treatment of melasma is beneficial for the patient both physically and emotionally.
Chapter
Based on the usefulness and importance among the spices, black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is commonly referred to as “The King of Spices”. It is valued for its flavor, aroma, nutritional, and medicinal uses. The value of pepper is owed to its pungency and flavor, which is attributed to the presence of a naturally occurring alkaloid known as piperine. The amount of piperine varies in plants belonging to the Piperaceae family; it constitutes 2% to 7.4% of both black pepper and white pepper. It has been confirmed from the scientific studies that piperine has many bioactive effects, such as antimicrobial action, as well as many physiological effects that can contribute to general human health, including immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antitumor, and many other activities. Clinical studies demonstrated remarkable antioxidant, antitumor, and drug availability-enhancing characteristics of this compound, together with immunomodulatory potential. All these properties showed the therapeutic potentials of piperine and the need to incorporate this compound into general health-enhancing medical formulations, as well as into those that would be used as adjunctive therapy in order to enhance the bioavailability of various therapeutic drugs. The present chapter accounts for an overview of the therapeutic properties of piperine, the bioactive constituent of pepper. It also focuses on methods used to extract piperine from pepper along with recent approaches for the enhancement of the bioavailability of piperine.
Article
Objective: A feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of dietary inclusion of silymarin seed extract on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, excreta microbiota, excreta gas emission, blood profiles, and meat quality in broilers. Methods: A total of 1088 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks (mixed-sex) with an initial body weight of 42.34 ± 0.82g, were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 17 replicates of 16 chicks per cage and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06% of silymarin. Results: The inclusion of silymarin supplementation linearly increased the body weight of broilers during days 7 to 21 and 1 to 35 days. On day 35, broilers fed a diet containing graded levels of silymarin supplementation linearly increased the nutrient digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, and nitrogen and cecal Lactobacillus counts (P = 0.038). While silymarin supplement linearly reduced the methyl mercaptans (P=0.039) and acetic acid (P=0.007) emission in broilers. No significant effects were observed on the blood profile. Relative weights of organs such as breast muscle, bursa of fabricius were increased (linear effect, P< 0.05), water holding capacity was enhanced by increasing the silymarin level from 0 to 0.06%. A linear reduction(P>0.05) in drip loss from meat samples during days 1, 3, 5, and 7 by the addition of graded level of silymarin to the diet. Conclusion: An increasing level of silymarin supplementation to the diet of broiler would be beneficial to enhance growth performance, nutrient digestibility, excreta microflora, blood profile, and meat quality traits.
Book
The Chemistry inside Spices & Herbs: Research and Development brings comprehensive information about the chemistry of spices and herbs with a focus on recent research in this field. The book is an extensive 2-part collection of 20 chapters contributed by experts in phytochemistry with the aim to give the reader deep knowledge about phytochemical constituents in herbal plants and their benefits. The contents include reviews on the biochemistry and biotechnology of spices and herbs, herbal medicines, biologically active compounds and their role in therapeutics among other topics. Chapters which highlight natural drugs and their role in different diseases and special plants of clinical significance are also included. Part II continues from the previous part with chapters on the treatment of skin diseases and oral problems. This part focuses on clinically important herbs such as turmeric, fenugreek, ashwagandha (Indian winter cherry), basil, Terminalia chebula (black myrobalan). In terms of phytochemicals, this part presents chapters that cover resveratrol, piperine and circumin. Audience: This book is an ideal resource for scholars (in life sciences, phytomedicine and natural product chemistry) and general readers who want to understand the importance of herbs, spices and traditional medicine in pharmaceutical and clinical research.
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This study was conducted at the poultry research station to the office of Agricultural Research / Ministry of Agriculture / during the period 4/1/2016 to 5/5/2016 and 336 one-day-old Ross308 chicks were used, and fed on diets provided with dried dill (Anethum gravelens) at levels 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% for treatments D2, D3 and D4, respectively, and they were compared with the control treatment D1. Each treatment included three replicates in each replicate contain 28 birds, in order to study the effect of adding different levels of dried dill plant on the productive performance and some characteristics of the carcass for broilers. The results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the average body weight at 5 weeks of age for the treatments (D2 and D3) compared to the control treatment D1. The study showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the rate of weight gain for birds of the treatment in which different percentages of dried dill powder were used compared to the control treatment for the periods (3-5), (0-5) weeks and also feed consumption ratio increased significantly (p<0.05) for treatments D1, D2 and D3 for periods (3-5) and (0-5) compared to treatment D4. These results were reflected on feed conversion ratio, which showed am obvious improvement in the treatments in which dried dill powder was used for all percentages, but the improvement was obvious in the D4 treatment that did not Significantly differ for each of the treatments D2 and D3 compared to the control treatment (D1) during the breeding period .The results had indicated a significant increase (P<0.05) in the percentage of the Brest cut of the birds of treatments D1, D2 and D4 compared to treatment D3, also the study showed a significant increase in liver's weight percentage for birds of D2 treatment compared to other treatments. We conclude from this study the possibility of adding dried dill plant powder to the diet at levels of 0.4 and 0.6% to obtain a positive improvement in the productive performance of meat broilers.
Article
Capsaicinoids, volatile compounds, and fatty acids were analyzed in red pepper seeds to determine any changes at different roasting temperatures. The contents of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin decreased as roasting temperatures increased. 3-Ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, 2-methoxy-3-(2-methylpropyl)pyrazine, 1-methylpyrrole, hexanedial, benzeneacetaldehyde, 2-acetylfuran, and butane-2,3-diol were newly detected in red pepper seeds roasted at 100 °C. Concentrations of pyrazines, pyrroles, oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds, carbonyls, and alcohols increased rapidly in red pepper seeds as the roasting temperature increased. Such compounds could contribute roasted, grilled, and sweet odor notes to roasted red pepper seeds. Linoleic acid was the predominant fatty acid in all red pepper seeds. There were no significant differences in polyunsaturated fatty acids in red pepper seeds as roasting temperature increased. In conclusion, roasting red pepper seeds could be used in thermally processed foods because during roasting their pungency is reduced, desirable savory odors are enhanced, and the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids remain unchanged.
Chapter
The term “spices” has been derived from the word “species,” which was connected to the group of exotic foods in medieval times. Spices and herbs have a long history of culinary use, medicinal properties, and as additives and thus have a distinct place in Ayurveda. Exhibiting the merits of spices by scientific methods still remains a challenge. This review investigates the anti-diabetic properties in preventing and managing diabetics and associated complications with commonly used spices. The bioactive compounds in these spices are additionally discussed. The major aim and object of the present work is to investigate the customary therapeutic usage of basic Indian spices and to corelate their observed pharmacological activities with the presence of explicit bioactive compounds present for the treatment or counteractive action of diabetes. This includes the basic underlying mechanism of their blood glucose lowering property including exploratory experimental evidence from proposed animal and human trials.
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Chili pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) is one of the most important crops worldwide. Its fruits contain metabolites produced over the maturation process like capsaicinoids and carotenoids. This metabolic process produces internal changes in flavor, color, texture, and aroma in fruits to make them more attractive for seed dispersal organisms. The chiltepin ( C . annuum L. var . glabriusculum ) is a wild variety of the C . annuum L. species that is considered a source of genetic resources that could be used to improve the current chili crops. In this study, we performed a transcriptomic analysis on two fruit maturation stages: immature stage (green fruit) and mature stage (red fruit) of a wild and a cultivated pepper variety. We found 19,811 genes expressed, and 1,008 genes differentially expressed (DEGs) in at least one of the five contrast used; 730 DEGs were found only in one contrast, and most DEGs in all contrasts were downregulated. GO enrichment analysis showed that the majority of DEGs are related to stress responses. KEGG enrichment analysis detected differences in expression patterns in metabolic pathways related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, secondary metabolites, plant hormone signal transduction, carotenoid biosynthesis and sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis. We selected 105 tomato fruit ripening-related genes, and found 53 pepper homologs differentially expressed related to shape, size, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. According to the transcriptome analysis, the two peppers showed very similar gene expression patterns; differences in expression patterns of genes related to shape, size, ethylene and secondary metabolites biosynthesis suggest that changes produced by domestication of chilli pepper could be very specific to the expression of genes related to traits desired in commercial fruits.
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Ferula is considered as the third largest genus of the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) which consists of 180-185 species. Asafoetida is defined as the oleo-resin gum extracted from the stem and rhizome of the Ferula asafetida plant. It is commonly called Hing or Devil's dung. It is a native species of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. In Ayurveda, it is described as an analgesic agent and is mentioned in Charak Samhita. It carries a strong, tenacious and sulfurous odor. It is also used as a spice or as a condiment in various cookeries as a flavor like in curries, fresh vegetables, meat, pickles and pulses. Asafetida is distinguished as asafetida hing (hing) and asafetida (hingra). Traditionally, the plant is used to treat diseases like whooping cough, asthma, bronchitis, epilepsy, ulcer, stomachache, flatulence, bronchitis, antispasmodic, intestinal parasites, influenza and weak digestion. The main active constituents present in the Ferula asafetida plant are resins, gums and essential oils. From the reported studies it was found that the plant possesses various therapeutic and pharmacological properties like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antispasmodic, hypertensive, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and antiviral properties. In this review article, attempts have been made to describe the overall plant based on its modern and traditional view.
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This study assessed the effects of different levels of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) meal (MTM) on egg quality traits, oxidative stability, blood biochemical parameters and liver health indices in laying hens receiving diets supplemented with lipid from different sources. For this purpose, Leghorn laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) were randomly assigned to 12 experimental treatments with eight replicates of five birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of four dietary fat sources (fish oil, sunflower oil, poultry oil and fat powder, each with different fatty acid profiles) and three levels of MTM (0.0, 15 and 30 g/kg) offered through 10 days of adaptation and 70 days of main recording. Results showed that dietary inclusion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including fish or sunflower oils, reduced serum cholesterol content but increased blood malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (p < 0.05). While fish oil improved the yolk colour index and Haugh unit (p < 0.05), it decreased yolk cholesterol concentration (p < 0.01). The highest hepatic glycogen content and tissue integrity as well as the lowest liver lipid percentage and MDA content were observed in birds fed diets supplemented with poultry oil. On the other hand, feeding 30 g/kg of MTM reduced not only hepatic lipid percentage but also aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities (p < 0.01), while it improved eggshell strength and thickness (p < 0.05). Supplementation of fat powder enhanced hepatic C16:0 content, while addition of poultry, sunflower or fish oil increased C18:1, C18:2 or C20:5 concentrations respectively (p < 0.01); nonetheless, feeding the highest level of MTM reduced hepatic ΣSFA but increased Σn-3 fatty acids (p < 0.01). The interaction effects indicated that fish or sunflower oil supplementation increased the MTM level required to reduce not only serum or egg cholesterol concentrations (p < 0.05) but also blood or hepatic MDA content (p < 0.01). It was concluded that fish oil and MTM (30 g/kg) supplements might improve internal egg quality traits and eggshell quality respectively. The hepatic fatty acid profile was also found strongly correlated with dietary fatty acids. Finally, the best hepatic health indices and the highest oxidative stability were achieved when the birds were fed diets supplemented with poultry oil and 30 g/kg of MTM.
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The health benefits of nanoparticles in preservation of sensitive compounds such as essential oil (EO) to overcome its application difficulties, e.g., instability, low water solubility, and oral bioavailability. In this study, CEO-loaded nanophytosomes (NP) were prepared using a thin layer hydration technique in different ratios of CEO to phosphatidylcholine (PC). Colloidal properties of NP such as particle size, ζ-potential, polydispersity index (PDI), encapsulation efficiency (EE), CEO-PC ionic interactions, antioxidant activity, turbidity, stability and release behavior were investigated. CEO-NP showed good characteristics, i.e., d<100 nm particle sizes, low size distribution (PDI<0.3), EE>90% and relatively uniform size (unchanged size and turbidity during one month of storage). The ζ-potential changed from +9 mV in the blank (B) NP to -19 mV in encapsulated EO. EO-encapsulated in NP showed a relative constant release pattern. About 88% of free CEO remained stable in simulated gastric fluid at pH 2 while 95% was eliminated during 2.5 h in simulated intestinal fluid at pH 7. However, NP improved the stability of CEO 6.7 times in SIF. This study indicated that the release of bioactive compounds from NP can be efficiently reduced using encapsulation into NP, and offered CEO-loaded NP as an efficient candidate for food and beverage fortification to produce functional foods.
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Used 144 chickens laying Lohman brown strain 43 week old, were randomly divided evenly over 4 treatments by 3 replicates / treatment and put 12 hen / replicate. Use in nutrition for the duration of the experiment which amount to (56) days on the diet chicken egg unified T0 (free diet compared added), T1 (add a 1% seed powder black bean) T2 (add a 0.5% seed powder black bean and 0.5% powder anise seeds) T3 (add a 1% powder anise seeds) on two periods , first period continued 43- 46 a week and second period 47-50 a week, and at the end of each period took two eggs from each replicate , 6 eggs / treatment to evaluate the qualitative characteristics of eggs. Results showed at the end of the experment period which amounted to 43-50 a week. No significant differences between treatments in rate of shell weight, while received significant decrease (P <0.05) in thickness of the shell with the treatment T1 compared to other treatments in the experiment, while the results showed presence of superiority Moral (P <0.05) in general rates of weight and thickness shell in treatments during the first period of experiment compared to the second period , also, significant decrease (P <0.05) in proportion of shell weight and the percentage of the weight of the yolk / egg weight in birds in treatment T1 compared treatment comparison T0. A significant increase (P <0.05) in proportion of albumin weight / egg weight in treatment T1 compared to the treatment comparison T0. No significant differences between the treatments in the proportion of shell weight, yolk weight ratio and the proportion of albumin weight / egg weight between the first and the second period. At the end of the experment period the amount 43-50 a week, no significant differences between the treatments in the character yolk high, yolk weight. While albumin high decreased significantly( P <0.05) with treatments T1, T2, compared to the treatment comparison T0, while albumin diamerer record superior moral (P <0.05) with treatment T1 compard to treatment comparison T0 , while albumin weight supremacy morally (P <0.05) in treatment T1compard to treatment comparison T0, while yolk guide moral superiority (P <0.05) with the treatments T1, T2, T3 on comparison T0. Yolk diamerer decreased significantly (P <0.05) in treatments T1, T2, T3, compared to treatment comparison T0. Rates have surpassed all treatments during the first period in yolk high, albumin high, yolk guide compared to the second period.We conclude from this study that the addition of black bean powder or anise powder have a positive impact in improving the quality of some of the qualities of chicken eggs Lohman brown.
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Termites are both pests and non-conventional food resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many are reluctant to eat them, and the reasons for this rejection are poorly known. This study examined level of knowledge, and acceptance by members of the 10 main ethnic groups of southern Cameroon. Most respondents (86 percent) were aware of termites as food with sixteen vernacular names in the study areas. Acceptance among ethnic groups for consumption varied between 96 percent and 8 percent of people in a group. Barriers included being raised to not eat termites, not having many opportunities to eat termites, and dislike of the taste.
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A large number of people suffer from gall stone worldwide and this problem is now being increased significantly due to the malnutrition, changes in living style, lack of exercise and conditions i.e. industrialization. Medicinal plants are used for centuries due to their cultural acceptability, efficacy, safety and fewer side effects as compared to modern synthetic medicines. The aim of this review is to gather the information of the plants utilized in various parts and societies of the world against gallstones. The information provided is not only useful for common people but also for the scientific community for further phytochemical, toxicological and pharmacological studies which may lead to the discovery of new, more effective and safer medicines for gallstones.
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‬ This study was carried on 16 local rabbit bucks, 4-5 weeks old and Weight 412.56±13.6 gm., in Diyala University/ college of agriculture /Animal field during the period from 15/1/2014 to 30/2/2014. Animals were randomly assigned into 4 main groups (4animals/ group), each main group was divided into one sub group (1 animal/cages), the animal were fed libituim on rations contain same crude protein (14.95%) and metabolizable energy (2514 Kcal/kg. feed) but different in percentage of Roselle flower aqueous flower for 6 weeks. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed efficiency were recoded weekly, At the end of fattening period Three rabbits on each group were slaughtered and some carcass traits as hot and cold carcass, and dressing percentages were studied. The results indicated that percentage of has aqueous extract of Roselle flowers was mixed at the rate 5, 10 and 15% with water respectively while treatment one as control. A significantly (p≤0.05) effect almost all production trails, increase weekly total gain, total feed consumption, weekly live body weights, feed conversion, while no significant effect (p≤0.05) were found on weekly food intake with a tendency to increase body weight and a significant improvement in feed efficiency, while significant effect were found on some carcass traits as hot and cold carcass and dressing percentages different percentage of Aqueous extract of Roselle flowers.
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Background and objective: The use of aromatic and herbal plants as a feed additive became a new trend in feeding dairy cows to enhance animal productivity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding some herbal and aromatic plants (Melissa, Fennel and Caraway) at 0.7% of total DM of rations. Materials and methods: Three herbal plants were evaluated in this study (melissa, fennel and caraway) by using thirteen Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were in 3rd and 5th lactation seasons were used as one experimental group by swing over design in lactation experiment (control then T1 then T2 then T3 then control). Nutrients digestibility, milk production, milk composition and blood constituents were determined. Results: Data indicated that nutrients digestibility and nutritive value were improved with herbal plants addition, especially with caraway treatment which recorded significantly (p>0.05) the highest values. In the same trend, Actual milk yield, 4% FCM and fat content were significantly (p>0.05) increased when cows fed rations supplemented with fennel and caraway. The addition of melissa decreased the concentration of Total Saturated Fatty Acids (TSFA) in the milk. Normal ranges for blood parameters with no negative impact on animal health were observed with experimental rations. Conclusion: It could be concluded that caraway addition at 0.7% of the total dry matter of dairy rations, has a great potential to improve animal productivity and enhance the quality of milk fatty acids profile.
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The influence of mint leaf and garlic oil, the two common ingredients of several digestive stimulant drugs, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion and composition in experimental rats. The test materials were administered orally at two doses which were either pharmacological dose or 5 times of this. The results indicated that mint leaf had significant stimulatory influence on lipase activity of pancreas and intestinal mucosa, while garlic oil stimulated the enzyme activity only in intestinal mucosa. Mint also stimulated intestinal amylase activity. Garlic oil exhibited a reduction in pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities. However, these test materials did not have any marked influence on bile secretion and composition.
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The spices fenugreek, garlic, ginger, onion, red pepper, and turmeric are effective as hypocholesterolemics under conditions of experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, fenugreek is effective in human diabetics, whereas garlic and onion are effective in humans with induced lipemia. Capsaicin and curcumin, the active principles of red pepper and turmeric, respectively, are also documented to be efficacious even at doses comparable to calculated human intake. Capsaicin, curcumin, fenugreek, ginger, and onion are understood to cause an enhanced biliary secretion of bile acids also. Considerable human experimentation has been done with garlic and onion, but similar evaluation of the four other spices needs to be done. Limited information is also available on the hypolipidemic influence of spice combinations. Among these six spices, beneficial effects on lipid metabolism would probably be in the order: garlic > onion > red pepper/capsaicin > turmeric/curcumin > fenugreek > ginger. The mechanisms underlying the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic influence of these spices have also been fairly well understood.
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Considerable amounts of β-carotene were lost during the two domestic methods of cooking commonly used, namely, pressure cooking and open pan boiling, the loss ranging from 27 to 71% during pressure cooking and 16–67% during boiling for the four vegetables examined in this study. Pressure cooking of green leafy vegetables resulted in a greater retention of this provitamin. In the presence of red gram dhal, which is a common ingredient in the diet, there was an underestimation of β-carotene due to poor extractability. Inclusion of acidulants—tamarind and citric acid-along with these vegetables brought about some changes in the level of retention of β-carotene. The antioxidant spice turmeric generally improved the retention of β-carotene in all four vegetables studied. Onion also had a similar effect. The combinations of acidulants and antioxidant spices also improved the retention of β-carotene during cooking. This effect seemed to be additive in the case of processing of amaranth by boiling.
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The effect of feeding curcumin, capsaicin, ginger, mustard, black pepper and cumin on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism was studied in rats. The activity of hepatic cholesterol-7 alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid biosynthesis, was significantly elevated in curcumin (turmeric), capsaicin (red pepper), ginger and mustard treated animals. The enzyme activity was comparable to controls in black pepper and cumin fed rats. Serum and liver microsomal cholesterol contents were significantly higher in the curcumin and capsaicin treated animals. Thus, this study has suggested that the spices--turmeric, red pepper, ginger and mustard can stimulate the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, an important pathway of elimination of cholesterol from the body. However, simultaneous stimulation of cholesterol synthesis by the spice principles--curcumin and capsaicin suggests that there may not be any significant contribution of stimulation of bile acid biosynthesis to the hypocholesterolemic action of these spices, and the latter action may solely be due to interference with exogenous cholesterol absorption.
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The effect of a few common spices--cumin (Cuminum cyminum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica)--added to normal and hypercholesterolemia inducing diet on serum and liver cholesterol levels in rats was studied. These spices did not show any cholesterol lowering effect when included in the diet at about 5-fold the normal human intake level.
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The status of hepatic mixed function oxygenase system (MFOS) was investigated in rats fed spice principles: capsaicin, piperine and curcumin, as well as spices: cumin, ginger, fenugreek, cinnamon, asafoetida, mustard and tamarind at two dietary levels each. Liver microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent aryl hydroxylase was generally stimulated by these spice principles and spices. Cumin, ginger and fenugreek also stimulated the levels of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 and cumin and tamarind stimulated N-demethylase activity. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and glucuronyl transferase activities, however, remained unaffected by the spices tested.
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Cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), a commonly consumed spice was examined for a possible anti-diabetic influence in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. When consumed as a single oral dose (1g/kg body weight), cumin did not exert any beneficial hypoglycaemic effect. Additionally, bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) which is widely claimed to be antidiabetic was also examined for its hypoglycaemic potency. Consumption of fresh juice of bitter gourd as a single oral dose (equivalent to 6.5 g fresh fruit/kg body weight), did not exert any beneficial hypoglycaemic influence in experimental rats.
Article
A few spices, which are commonly employed to improve digestion in traditional systems of medicine were examined for their possible influence on digestive enzymes of pancreas and small intestine in experimental rats. In one set of animals, the spices-ajowan, fennel, coriander, onion, garlic and mint were given through the diet for 8 weeks. In another experiment, the same spices were administered orally as an appropriate single dose to animals. Pancreatic trypsin was significantly stimulated by all the dietary spices examined except mint, while chymotrypsin was stimulated by coriander and onion. These two spices also had a significant stimulating influence on intestinal disaccharidases and alkaline phosphatase. Most of the spices tested in this study showed significant enhancing effect on intestinal enzymes, particularly lipase and amylase, when given as a single oral dose, while similar beneficial effects were not observed on pancreatic enzymes. Among the spices examined, onion produced a pronounced stimu lation of a majority of digestive enzymes of pancreas and small intestine. The positive influences on the pancreatic and intestinal digestive enzymes exerted by spices could contribute to their well recognised digestive stimulant action.
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The spice active principles, capsaicin, eugenol curcumin and 'ferulic acid' a common plant constituent were found to counter many of the metabolic changes caused by a high sucrose diet fed to rats. The compounds tested at high and low levels were mostly found to lower or tend to lower liver weight, liver triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, serum total, VLDL+LDL and HDL triglycerides, VLDL+LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids and also elevate serum total and HDL cholesterol.
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In an animal experiment, the influence of several spices included in the diet, on food transit time was examined. Groups of adult female Wistar rats were maintained for 6 weeks on diets containing (g%): Curcumin (0.5), Capsaicin (0.015), Piperine (0.02), Ginger (0.05), Cumin (1.25), Fenugreek (2.0), Mustard (0.25), Asafoetida (0.25), Ajowan (0.2), Fennel (0.5), Coriander (2.0), Mint (1.0), Garlic (0.5), and Onion (2.0). On the last day, food transit time was monitored by including ferric oxide (0.5%) in the diet as an un-absorbable marker. Time of excretion of colored faeces was noted following time of consumption of the diet with the marker. In general, all the test spices except fenugreek and mustard produced a significant shortening of the food transit time. This influence was more prominent in the case of spices - ginger, ajowan, cumin, piperine coriander and capsaicin.
Article
Spices - cumin, coriander, ajowan, fennel, mint, and garlic, were examined for their influence on bile secretion rate and bile acid content of bile in experimental rats both as a result of continued dietary intake and single oral dose of the test spice. Groups of animals were maintained for 8 weeks on the following spice diets : Cumin (1.25 %), Coriander (2.0 %), Ajowan (0.2 %), Fennel (0.5 %), Mint (1.0 %), and Garlic (0.5%). In a separate set of rats, these test spices were also administered as a single intragastric dose (mg/kg body wt : Cumin, 600; Coriander, 400; Ajowan, 80; Fennel, 200; Mint, 400; and Garlic oil, 0.02. Bile flow rate was significantly enhanced by dietary cumin, ajowan, and garlic. Ajowan had this beneficial effect even with a single oral dose. The biliary solids were higher in the case of dietary cumin, coriander, ajowan, fennel and mint. A pronouncedly higher rate of secretion of bile acids was caused by all the test spices except garlic, compared to control, both in dietary treatment as well as in single oral dosage of the spice. Higher rate of bile acids secretion would probably contribute to the digestive stimulant action of the test spices.
Article
Lipid peroxidation induced by ascorbic acid and ferrous sulphate in erythrocyte membrane was effectively inhibited by curcumin and capsaicin, active principles in turmeric (Curcuma longa) and red pepper (Capsaicin annuum) with are commonly used spices in the Indian diet. The concentration of curcumin required to quench the peroxidation to about 80% was only 4 μM. Whereas, chemical antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) at 40 μM resulted only in 53% and 59% inhibition. Further, fresh onion (Allium cepa) and radish (Raphanus sativus) extract also inhibited the erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation effectively in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that dietary components could offer effective defence mechanism against free radical induced lipid peroxidation which in turn may lead to cellular damage and eventually even to promotion of transformation.
Article
The prophylactic and therapeutic effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antiinflammatory spice principles—curcumin and capsaicin on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats were studied. Rats fed codliver oil (1 mL/day/rat or 8 wt % in the diet) rich in n-3 fatty acids were found to have a decreased incidence of adjuvant induced arthritis as compared with those observed in coconut oil- or groundnut oil-fed animals. The inflammation in animals which developed adjuvant arthritis in codliver oil-fed animals was also significantly lower than that observed in the other two groups. Additional feeding of spice principles—capsaicin (from red pepper) (5 mg/kg bw/day) or curcumin (from turmeric) (30 mg/kg bw/day) along with dietary lipids delayed the onset of the disease and also lowered the extent of inflammation in arthritis arrested further progression of the disease. Curcumin and capsaicin feeding to arthritic rats also lowered paw inflammation. This beneficial effect of spice principles was observed irrespective of the nature of the dietary lipids fed to the rats. These studies indicated that the dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, capsaicin, and curcumin can decrease the incidence, delay the onset and reduce the extent of inflammation of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.
Article
Cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), a commonly consumed spice was examined for a possible anti-diabetic influence in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. An eight week dietary regimen containing cumin powder (1.25%) was found to be remarkably beneficial, as indicated by reduction in hyperglycaemia and glucosuria. This was also accompanied by improvement in body weights of diabetic animals on the cumin diet. Dietary cumin also countered other metabolic alterations as revealed by lowered blood urea level and reduced excretions of urea and creatinine by diabetic animals.
Article
Black pepper, its oleoresin or its active principle piperine fed to rats at doses 5 to 20 times normal human intake did not cause any adverse effect on: (1) growth, food efficiency ratio and organ weights; (2) RBC, WBC and differential counts; (3) the levels of blood constituents like hemoglobin, total serum proteins, albumin, globulin, sugar and cholesterol; (4) the levels of serum aminotransferases and phosphatases and (5) fat and nitrogen balance.
Article
The effect of seven dietary constituents, (i) cuminaldehyde, (2) eugenol, (3) ferulic acid, (4) linalool, (5) piperine, (6) vanillin and (7) zingerone on human and rat platelet aggregation has been studied. Cuminaldehyde and eugenol both at 2mM caused a significant stimulation of aggregation of washed platelets while zingerone exerted a similar but moderate effect at 4 mM. The other compounds were without any effect. Cuminaldehyde and eugenol showed essentially the same effect on both human and rat platelets. Their effect on platelet aggregation increased with concentration up to 2 mM, beyond which a decrease was observed. The effect was less pronounced in platelet rich plasma (PRP). This aggregatory effect of the two compounds was almost additive at low concentrations. Pre-treatment with aspirin or salicyclic acid (0.1 mM) inhibited the effect of the above compounds on platelet aggregation. Treatment with onion juice (20 μL/mL) as well as garlic juice (5 μ/mL) countered to a large extent the effect of the two compounds. These studies are of significance in hemostasis and thrombosis.
Article
Levels of various serum proteins were found to change in adjuvant induced arthritis. Increased levels of a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 72 kDa (Gp A72) were observed in the sera of arthritic rats. Gp A72 is an acidic glycoprotein with a pI of 5.1. Gp A72 also showed antitryptic activity. The appearance of Gp A72 in the serum preceded the onset of paw inflammation in arthritic rats and persisted in the chronic phase. Oral administration of the antiinflammatory spice principles-capsaicin (from red pepper) and curcumin (from turmeric) lowered the levels of Gp A72 by 88 and 73% respectively with concomitant lowering of paw inflammation in arthritic rats.
Article
Three compounds capsaicin, curcumin and ferulic acid showing hypolipidemic activity have been tested in adult Wistar rats fed high fat diets. Capsaicin (0.20 mg%) fed to female rats along with a 30% saturated fat diet lowered the rate of weight gain, liver and serum triglycerides. In male rats it lowered only the liver and serum total and very low density and low density lipoprotein triglycerides whether fed continuously for 13 or 8 weeks after interchanging the control and test diets from the 5th week onwards. Capsaicin fed to female rats in 30% mixed fat diet increased the rate of weight gain, lowered liver and serum triglycerides, lowered adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, elevated the hormone sensitive lipase and serum free fatty acids. Capsaicin in 30% saturated fat diet lowered both the enzyme activities to a much lesser extent. Curcumin and ferulic acid (both at 25 mg%) in 30% saturated fat diet tended to lower the rate of weight gain, liver total lipids and serum triglycerides. It is of significance that a common dietary compound ‘capsaicin’ in the range of human intake triggers lipid lowering action in rats fed high fat diets.
Article
The spice principles curcumin (from turmeric) and eugenol (from cloves) are good inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is known to be initiated by reactive oxygen species. The effect of curcumin and eugenol on the generation of reactive oxygen species in model systems were investigated. Both curcumin and eugenol inhibited superoxide anion generation in xanthine-xanthine oxidase system to an extent of 40% and 50% at concentrations of 75 M and 250 M respectively. Curcumin and eugenol also inhibited the generation of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) to an extent of 76% and 70% as measured by deoxyribose degradation. The.OH-radical formation measured by the hydroxylation of salicylate to 2,3-dihydroxy benzoate was inhibited to an extent of 66% and 46%, respectively, by curcumin and eugenol at 50 M and 250 M. These spice principles also prevented the oxidation of Fe2+ in Fentons reaction which generates.OH radicals.
Article
Inclusion of red pepper or its active principle ‘capsaicin’ in the diet led to a lowering of total lipids, particularly triglycerides in the liver. The total body fat was lowered in animals fed red pepper or capsaicin but not in animals fed paprika powder which had negligible capsaicin content. Hyperlipogensis and hypertriglyceridemia caused by fructose feeding were significantly were decreased in capsaicin-fed animals. Activities of the key lipogenic enzymes were reduced as reflected by decreased lipogenesis.
Article
Onion (Allium cepa) powder and capsaicin, the pungent principle of red pepper (Capsicum annum) were added in the amounts of 3 g% and 15 mg%, respectively, to the diet of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats for 8 weeks. The presence of renal lesions was assessed by the extent and quality of proteinuria and by the leaching of renal tubular enzymes into the urine. Renal integrity was assessed by measuring the activities in the kidney tissue of several key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and of polyol pathway, transaminases, and ATPases. Data on enzymuria and proteinuria, activities of kidney ATPases present in diabetic patients, suggested that dietary onion caused significant beneficial modulation of the progression of renal lesions in the diabetic rats. These findings were also corroborated by histologic examination of kidney sections. Dietary capsaicin did not have any favorable influence on renal pathology in diabetes. It is inferred that this beneficial ameliorating influence of dietary onion on diabetic nephropathy may be mediated through onion’s ability to lower blood cholesterol levels and to reduce lipid peroxidation.
Article
The efficacy of curcumin and capsaicin in reducing the incidence of cholesterol gallstone (CGS), induced experimentally by feeding a lithogenic diet was examined in weanling mice and hamsters. After feeding the lithogenic diet for the optimal duration of 10 weeks for mice and 6 weeks for hamsters, CGS were found in 100% of the animals. Feeding a diet containing 0.5% curcumin or capsaicin 5 mg/100g for 6 weeks to hamsters reduced the incidence of CGS to 44 or 22% respectively compared to the lithogenic group (100%). Biliary cholesterol concentrations and Cholesterol: Phospholipid (C:PL) ratios were markedly reduced by curcumin and capsaicin feeding. Further cholesterol saturation indices (CSI) of the curcumin and capsaicin groups were 0.54 and 0.35 respectively as compared to 1.56 for the lithogenic group.A dose response study in which mice were fed lithogenic diet supplemented with 1.5, 5, 15 mg capsaicin/100 g showed that 5 mg capsaicin containing diet was more effective than the other tow levels in reducing percent CGS, the biliary, serum and liver cholesterol, C:PL ratio, and CSI of bile. Hence curcumin and capsaicin appear to be potent antilithogenic agents.
Article
The efficacy of curcumin and capsaicin in causing regression of pre-established cholesterol gallstones (CGS) was investigated in male mice. After confirming the formation of CGS in 100% of the animals, they were fed a diet containing 0.5% curcumin or 5 mg% capsaicin for 5 or 10 weeks. Five weeks feeding of curcumin or capsaicin diet caused a regression of CGS in 45 and 64% of the animals respectively. Ten weeks feeding of these spice principles caused regression of CGS in 80% of the animals. The biliary cholesterol decreased and phospholipids and bile acids increased with increase in the duration of spice principle feeding. Feeding of a control diet to the animals bearing CGS neither caused regression of CGS nor influenced the biliary lipids significantly.
Article
Male rats, 70–75 g, were fed purified diets containing ten weight percent of peanut oil or codliver oil for 8 weeks. In a parallel set of experiments these diets were also supplemented with curcumin (1 g/100 g) or eugenol (0.05 g/100 g) or vitamin E (0.02 g/100 g). The liver microsomal phospholipids isolated from rats fed codliver oil were enriched with n-3 fatty acids. Dietary curcumin, eugenol or vitamin E dit not alter the fatty acid composition of liver microsomal phospholipids of rats fed peanut or codliver oil. The serum and liver lipid peroxidation were higher in rats fed codliver oil as compared to rats fed peanut oil. The dietary curcumin, eugenol or vitamin E significantly lowered lipid peroxidation in serum and liver of rats fed peanut oil or codliver oil. Dietary vitamin E, but not curcumin or eugenol, enhanced the hepatic stores of vitamin E. This study suggests that, in addition to vitamin E, curcumin and eugenol may be helpful in lowering lipid peroxidation in rats fed unsaturated lipids.
Article
Studies were done to monitor loss of active principles of the spices, curcumin, piperine and capsaicin, during domestic cooking, (i.e. boiling of spice mixes with food ingredients). Over 85% loss of curcumin occurred during 15 and 30 min of cooking either in the presence of absence of the souring agent—tamarind. The loss of piperine under similar conditions was 50–60% when black pepper was used as an ingredient of curry powder. The loss of piperine was less when only black pepper was used in the food preparation. Capsaicin losses were of the order of 0–30% during cooking under similar conditions.
Article
Male Wistar rats fed a diet containing 10 wt% coconut oil, 10 wt% groundnut oil, or 10 wt% codliver oil for 10 weeks showed significant differences in lipid peroxides, mixed function oxidases, and antioxidant enzymes in liver homogenates. Rats fed codliver oil diets contained 136% and 80% higher levels of lipid peroxides, 38% and 28% higher activities of NADPH cytochrome C reductase, 42% and 30% higher levels of cytochrome P450, and 41% and 30% higher levels of cytochrome b5 compared with those observed in rats fed the other two diets. However, superoxide dismutase activity was reduced by 38%, catalase by 47%, glutathione peroxidase by 22%, and glutathione transferase activity by 32% in rats fed codliver oil as compared with those fed coconut oil diets. Vitamin E levels were lowered by 72% in animals fed codliver oil diets as compared with those on coconut oil diets. Ascorbic acid and glutathione levels were not changed by dietary lipids. The dietary antioxidants, curcumin (1 wt%), eugenol (0.17 wt%), or vitamin E (200 mg/kg diet) significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) the activities of antioxidant enzymes; viz, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione transferase and lowered lipid peroxides in liver of animals fed coconut oil, groundnut oil, or codliver oil. Dietary vitamin E (200 mg/kg diet) enhanced hepatic stores of vitamin E while curcumin and eugenol had no appreciable influence on hepatic vitamin E levels. These antioxidants did not influence the levels of ascorbic acid and glutathione in liver homogenates. These studies indicate that dietary lipids and antioxidants modulate lipid peroxidation in rat liver by influencing antioxidant defense systems. (J. Nutr. Biochem. 5:181–188, 1994.)
Article
Studies were made to examine the loss of curcumin, capsaicin and piperine, the active principles of turmeric (Curcuma longa), red pepper (Capsicum annuum) and black pepper (Piper nigrum), respectively, as a result of subjecting the spices to domestic cooking processes. This involved heat treatment of each of these spices by: (i) boiling for 10 min, (ii) boiling for 20 min and (iii) pressure cooking for 10 min. Quantitation of the spice principles in the organic solvent extracts of the freeze-dried cooked spice samples was made with an appropriate HPLC method. Significant loss of spice active principles was observed when the spices were subjected to heat processing. Curcumin loss from heat processing of turmeric was 27–53%, with maximum loss in pressure cooking for 10 min. Curcumin loss from turmeric was similar even in the presence of red gram. In the presence of tamarind, the loss of Curcumin from turmeric was 12–30%. Capsaicin losses from red pepper ranged from 18% to 36%, with maximum loss observed in pressure cooking. Presence of either red gram or tamarind or both did not influence the loss of capsaicin. Piperine losses from black pepper ranged from 16% to 34%, with maximum loss observed in pressure cooking. The loss was somewhat lower in the presence of red gram. The results of this investigation indicated diminished availability of spice active principles from cooked foods when the food ingredients have been subjected to either boiling or pressure cooking for few minutes.
Article
When 10 percent dry mango ginger was fed in normal diets to adult female Wistar rats for 4 weeks, the liver, serum total and [VLDL+LDL] triglycerides were lowered. In animals which were rendered hypertriglyceridemic by feeding a sucrose-rich diet and subsequently fed the mango ginger diet, the liver or serum triglyceride only tended to be lower. In mango ginger fed animals, the increase in liver and blood lipids after Triton WR-1339 treatment were significantly lower than in control diet fed animals. This effect of mango ginger was also observed in animals fed the equivalent of 0.3% curcumin-free extract but not in those fed the 10% curcumin containing portion of mango ginger. In both these groups, the lipoprotein lipase activities were elevated as with mango ginger fed group. The hypotriglyceridemic activity of mango ginger appears to be mediated through influences on both liver synthesis and blood clearance.
Article
Experiments were carried on adult rats which were fed the following diets for 2 months: Control, Curcumin (0.5%), Capsaicin (15mg%), Ginger (50mg%), Black pepper (0.5%), Cumin (1.25%), Mustard (250mg%), Fenugreek (2%) and Onion (3%). Adrenal weights in the various experimental groups were comparable to controls. Adrenal cholesterol was found to be significantly lower in all the spice fed animals except mustard suggesting a higher rate of cholesterol turnover to corticosteroid hormones. Cholesterol depletion was accompanied by reduced ascorbic acid content in the adrenals of curcumin, capsaicin, fenugreek and onion fed rats. Urinary excretion of 17-oxo and 17-hydroxy steroids which are the metabolites of corticosteroids was significantly higher in these spice fed groups. These data are indicative of the stimulatory influence of dietary spices on adrenal steroidogenesis.
Article
The influence of vanillin (0.15 mg %) and capsaicin (0.3 mg %) on liver and blood lipids in growing female Wistar rats was determined, when fed along with a normal diet. Vanillin, like capsaicin, decreased the serum triglycerides and the triglycerides associated with lipoproteins viz., VLDL+LDL and HDL with a tendency to lower liver triglycerides as well. Cholesterol and phospholipids in liver and serum were unaffected. The accumulation of triglycerides in serum after Triton WR-1339 blocking was higher in animals fed a vanillin supplemented normal or hypertriglyceridemic diet than in the corresponding controls. The accumulation of triglycerides in serum with capsaicin supplementation with either diet was much higher than with vanillin supplementation.
Article
A study was carried out on the efficacy of curcumin in reducing the incidence of cholesterol gall-stones (CGS), induced by feeding a lithogenic diet in young male mice. Feeding a lithogenic diet supplemented with 0.5 per cent curcumin for 10 wk reduced the incidence of gall-stone formation to 26 per cent, as compared to 100 per cent incidence in the group fed with lithogenic diet alone. Biliary cholesterol concentration was also significantly reduced by curcumin feeding. The lithogenic index which was 1.09 in the cholesterol fed group was reduced to 0.43 in the 0.5 per cent curcumin supplemented group. Further, the cholesterol: phospholipid (C/PL) ratio of bile was also reduced significantly when 0.5 per cent curcumin supplemented diet was fed. A dose-response study with 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 per cent curcumin supplemented lithogenic diets showed that 0.5 per cent curcumin was more effective than a diet with 0.2 or 1 per cent curcumin.
Article
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are vulnerable to peroxidative attack. Protecting PUFA from peroxidation is essential to utilize their beneficial effects in health and in preventing disease. The antioxidants vitamin E, t-butylhydroxy toluene (BHT) and t-butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) inhibited ascorbate/Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. In addition, a number of spice principles, for example, curcumin (5-50 microM) from turmeric, eugenol (25-150 microM) from cloves and capsaicin (25-150 microM) from red chillies inhibited lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. Zingerone from ginger inhibited lipid peroxidation at high concentrations (greater than 150 microM) whereas linalool (coriander), piperine (black pepper) and cuminaldehyde (cumin) had only marginal inhibitory effects even at high concentrations (600 microM). The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by curcumin and eugenol was reversed by adding high concentrations of Fe2+.
Article
Twigs-dry leaves smoke condensate (TDS) was investigated for its DNA damaging activity in human peripheral lymphocytes, by using a sensitive method, fluorescence analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU). An aqueous turmeric component (Aq.T) was studied as a protective agent. TDS at one to 100 folds dilution induced 55% DNA damage at 20 min, while 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) at 10 ng/ml induced only 25% damage. Aq.T at 300 ng/microliter afforded 90% protection to DNA against TDS and 65% against TPA. The mechanism of Aq.T protection was investigated by using (i) inhibitors of arachidonate cascade, viz., indomethacin (28 microM), NDGA (10 microM), DBAP (36 microM), (ii) antioxidant enzymes viz., CAT (0.2 U/microliter), SOD (0.6 U/microliter), (iii) antioxidants--BHA, curcumin (40 microM), mixed gangliosides (20 nM) and protease inhibitor TLCK (100 microM). These compounds offered the following extents of protection to DNA against TDS: indomethacin--40%, NDGA--83%, DBAP--70%, SOD--38%, CAT--40%, BHA--38%, curcumin--60%, mixed gangliosides--88%, TLCK--85%. Against TPA as clastogenic agent, the extents of protection were: indomethacin--73%, NDGA--32%, DBAP--72%, SOD--60%, CAT, BHA-negligible, curcumin--23%, mixed gangliosides--60%, TLCK--59%. These results indicate that (i) TDS and TPA induce DNA damage possibly by different mechanisms, (ii) Aq.T is a more effective protectant against TDS whereas it is on par with other inhibitors against TPA.
Article
A synthetic analogue of capsaicin (0.2 mg%) fed to female Wistar rats along with a high fat diet for 11 weeks, lowered adipose tissue weight and also liver and serum triglycerides. The compound elevated total post heparin plasma lipase and skeletal muscle lipase activities. The increase in the latter indicates the possible mechanism by which capsaicin enhances serum triglyceride uptake by muscle tissue and in turn lowers triglyceride levels. A single dose of capsaicin even at a much higher level failed to lower serum triglycerides emphasizing the necessity of continuous ingestion of capsaicin for exerting its hypolipidemic effect.
Article
Rats fed capsaicin (0.15, 1.5 and 15 mg%) containing diets were able to counter by about 30 per cent of the hepatic lipid accumulation caused by a single dose administration of ethanol (6 g/kg body weight). The rate of triglyceride secretion in capsaicin fed animals from liver to plasma was also elevated as judged by Triton WR-1339 induced hypertriglyceridemia. The results suggest a possible mechanism by which capsaicin counters ethanol induced hepatic lipid accumulation in rats.