The allelopathic theory has garnered considerable attention in the field of agricultural production for its efficient plant protection, rapid crop yield increase, and scientific establishment of the crop rotation system. To study the effects of the main maize allelochemical DIMBOA (2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) on the growth and development of alfalfa under autotoxic coumarin stress, we treated alfalfa seedlings with DIMBOA under coumarin stress and non-stress conditions in this study. Results show that 0.0342 mM coumarin significantly inhibited alfalfa seed germination percentage(Gp), germination potential(GP), radicle length, germ length, seeding height, and simple viability index (SVI), with decreases of 37.29%, 59.91%, 7.60%, 30.90%, 13.27%, and 45.70%, respectively. An amount of 0.6 mM DIMBOA could promote alfalfa seed Gp, GP, radicle length, germ length, seeding height, dry fresh ratio, and SVI, with increases of 12.38%, 23.91%, 48.69%, 48.65%, 48.68%, 295.12%, and 67.17%, respectively. However, the addition of DIMBOA under conditions of coumarin stress could effectively alleviate coumarin effects on alfalfa seedlings. Coumarin + DIMBOA treatment for 24 h mainly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROSs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as soluble protein and soluble sugar, increasing some antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant content to alleviate the oxidative damage of alfalfa caused by coumarin stress. Administration of treatment for 72 h significantly promoted the morphological development of alfalfa seeding roots. Administration of treatment for 96 h significantly enhanced the photosynthetic capacity of alfalfa seedlings. The results of principal component analysis demonstrated that chlorophyll b(Chl b)and net photosynthetic rate(Pn) were the key indicators for coumarin + DIMBOA treatment to promote photosynthesis in alfalfa seedlings. Additionally, root length, mean root diameter, and root volume were the key indicators of root growth and development. Coumarin + DIMBOA treatment primarily increased catalase(CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and antioxidants(ASA) while reducing MDA and superoxide anion radical(O2•−). This study strongly suggested that DIMBOA can effectively improve the tolerance of alfalfa seedlings to coumarin stress through a combination of effects on root morphology, photosynthesis, and physiological indicators.