Bulk atmospheric deposition of hydrocarbons to lower Chesapeake Bay

ArticleinAtmospheric Environment (1967) 17(11):2311-2320 · December 1983with 11 Reads
Abstract
Anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons (HC) were continuously deposited from the atmosphere at stations in SE Virginia. The bulk deposition rate for total unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and n-alkane HC was constant at all stations during the sampling period (> 1 year). The deposition rates at the three non-urban stations was similar and averaged 69, 27 and 18 μg m−2 d−1 for total, UCM and n-alkane HC, respectively. The urban station had a higher deposition rate for total (203 μg m−2 d−1) and UCM (90 μg m−2 d−1) HC than the non-urban stations, but a similar deposition rate for n-alkanes (22 μg m−2d−1). These results indicate a regionally similar deposition rate for biogenic (n-alkanes) and anthropogenic (UCM) HC, with a major localized input of anthropogenic HC at the urban station. Long range atmospheric transport followed by dry deposition appear to be the major processes responsible for these similar deposition rates over this geographical area.
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    Long-range transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has been demonstrated for air samples, collected on glass fibre filters at Birkenes in southern Norway and Rörvik in western Sweden and analyzed by glass capillary gas chromatography. The results have been related to trajectories calculated from meteorological data. PAH occurs mainly in air masses having passed Great Britain or the European continent. High concentrations of PAH are found in winter episodes, coinciding with high concentrations of so42−.The relative distribution of the PAH components indicates that the sources are characterized by high formation temperature, high carbon content in the source material and long equilibration time.
  • Article
    Westerly winds arriving at the Australian Clean Air Baseline Station Cape Grim at the North Western tip of Tasmania have exceedingly long trajectories over the Indian Ocean. In these air masses we found the n-alkanes C9-C28 to be always present in the gas phase and also in the aerosols. In aerosols we also measured total organic matter and its general composition. All these concentrations agree fairly well with our earlier data in marine air over the North Atlantic Ocean. Calculations of the life time of the gas phase n-alkanes due to reaction with OH radicals lead to the conclusion that these n-alkanes must be of oceanic origin in Indian Ocean air and — to a large extent — also in the North Atlantic air. The same conclusion is reached for the organic component in aerosols. Water Analyses show that the n-alkanes C9-C28 seem to be normal constituents of the oceans.
  • Article
    A portion of the organic compounds in subaqueous sediments originates from airborne materials transported from distant sources. We have analyzed by GC and GC-MS the organic compounds extractable with dichloromethane in rain and snow samples collected over an 8-month period in southern Indiana. Straightchain fatty acids and hydrocarbons from biological sources dominate the compositions and these show only minor seasonal changes. Concentrations of organic compounds appear to be inversely related to volume of precipitation. Much of this organic material appears to have been transported from afar, although local inputs are evident. Estimated flux rates to sediments are small compared to organic matter accumulation rates in Lake Michigan.
  • Article
    Simultaneous measurements of gas phase and paniculate concentrations of C9–C28n-alkanes in clean air at the west coast of Ireland are reported. All n-alkanes were regularly present with gas phase concentrations between about 10 and 20 × 10−9 g m−3 STP, showing no systematic decrease above C13. Continental air showed higher concentrations. The fraction of alkanes attached to aerosol particles increases from less than 1% at low C-numbers to several per cent at high C-numbers. The carbon preference index is generally close to 1.0; seawater samples from that area exhibit similar distributions of n-alkanes as the gas phase.
  • Article
    Some organic components of rain have been determined in samples collected on an event basis above and below the canopy of a deciduous forest. Plasticizers and chlorohydrocarbons that were identified were attributed to sources external to the vegetation. Organic acids and high molecular weight waxy components identified were attributed to the foliage itself. Approximately equal amounts of material were ascribed to each of these sources. Low molecular weight organic acids were not found generally. Event sampling is advocated as the best approach to use for identifying sources of organic components in rain reaching the forest floor.
  • Article
    The occurrence, isolation, and characterization of terrigenous lipids in aeolian dusts from the eastern Atlantic are discussed. It is pointed out that such lipids have also been found in aeolian dust from other oceanic areas. A description is presented of the collection and extraction of samples. The dust samples were extracted with two aliquots of toluene and methanol (3:1) for lipid analysis. The extracts were concentrated on a rotary evaporator. General aeolian dust collection data and sample descriptions are presented in a table. The origin of the samples is discussed.
  • Article
    THE presence in Norway of long-range transported air pollutants from the European continent and England is well established. In particular, SO2 and other inorganic compounds in precipitation have been studied1. Less attention has been paid to the organic constituents of the long-range transported pollutants. Several organic components have been identified in precipitation in Norway2, including alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phtalic acid esters, fatty acid esters, fatty acids, and dicarboxylic acids. In addition some chemicals typically connected to industry and industrial products are present. Long-range transfer of PAH compounds, in particular, is of environmental interest since a number of such compounds cause cancer in animals and they are also suspected to be human carcinogens3. We report here preliminary results on the PAH-content of long-range transported and stationary air masses.
  • Article
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during the combustion of three common fuels (coal, wood and kerosene) were separated and identified by capillary-column gas chromatographic mass spectrometry and were compared to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from Indianapolis, a high coal consuming area, and Boston, a low coal consuming area. High resolution mass spectral data were utilized in the construction of alkyl homolog plots for the comparison of alkyl distribution within each sample.
  • Article
    The chlamydospores of Ustilago maydis, U. nuda, and Sphacelotheca reiliana were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for their hydrocarbon contents. For the first time we observed that they contain paraffinic hydrocarbons; the average contents were 42, 58, and 146 parts per million, respectively. n-Alkanes having odd numbers of carbon atoms predom-inate, with carbon-chain lengths ranging from C14 to C37. The major alkanes are n-C27 in U. maydis, n-C27 and n-C35 in U. nuda, and n-C29 in S. reiliana. Each type of spore carried a distinctly characteristic population of hydrocarbons.