Improved Blue, Green, and Red Fluorescent Protein Tagging Vectors for S. cerevisiae

UCSF Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 07/2013; 8(7):e67902. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067902
Source: PubMed


Fluorescent protein fusions are a powerful tool to monitor the localization and trafficking of proteins. Such studies are particularly easy to carry out in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae due to the ease with which tags can be introduced into the genome by homologous recombination. However, the available yeast tagging plasmids have not kept pace with the development of new and improved fluorescent proteins. Here, we have constructed yeast optimized versions of 19 different fluorescent proteins and tested them for use as fusion tags in yeast. These include two blue, seven green, and seven red fluorescent proteins, which we have assessed for brightness, photostability and perturbation of tagged proteins. We find that EGFP remains the best performing green fluorescent protein, that TagRFP-T and mRuby2 outperform mCherry as red fluorescent proteins, and that mTagBFP2 can be used as a blue fluorescent protein tag. Together, the new tagging vectors we have constructed provide improved blue and red fluorescent proteins for yeast tagging and three color imaging.

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    • "For pFA6a– link–Ivy–SpHis5, pFA6a–link–yoClover–SpHis5 (Lee et al., 2013) was mutagenized using primers OCS7 and OCS8 to introduce the mutations F64L, G65C and S72A; this resulted in the intermediate pFA6a–link–yoClover(III)–SpHis5, which was then mutagenized with primers OCS9 and OCS10 to add the I167T mutation, which produced pFA6a–link–Ivy–SpHis5. To create pFA6a–link– Envy–SpHis5, pFA6a–link–yoSuperfolderGFP– SpHis5 (Lee et al., 2013) was mutagenized, using primers OCS3 and OCS4, to add the mutations T65C and S72A, creating the intermediate, pFA6a– link–yoSuperfolderGFP(II)–SpHis5, which was then mutagenized, using primers OCS5 and OCS6, to add the mutation I167T, to create pFA6a–link– Envy–SpHis5. "
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    ABSTRACT: Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) has become an invaluable tool in biological research. Many GFP variants have been created that differ in brightness, photostability, and folding robustness. We have created two hybrid GFP variants, Envy and Ivy, which we placed in a vector for the C-terminal tagging of yeast proteins by PCR-mediated recombination. The Envy GFP variant combines mutations found in the robustly folding SuperfolderGFP and GFPγ, while the Ivy GFP variant is a hybrid of GFPγ and the yellow-green GFP variant, Clover. We compared Envy and Ivy to EGFP, SuperfolderGFP, and GFPγ, and found that Envy is brighter than the other GFP variants at both 30°C and 37°C, while Ivy is the most photostable. Envy and Ivy are recognized by a commonly used anti-GFP antibody, and both variants can be immunoprecipitated using the GFP TRAP Camelidae antibody nanotrap technology. Because Envy is brighter than the other GFP variants and is as photostable as GFPγ, we suggest that Envy should be the preferred GFP variant, while Ivy may be used in cases where photostability is of utmost importance. The GenBank accession number for Envy is KM891731, Ivy is KM891732, and the yeast optimized GFPγ described in this paper is KM891733. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal model eukaryotic system for the systematic analysis of gene function due to the ease and precision with which its genome can be manipulated. The ability of budding yeast to undergo efficient homologous recombination with short stretches of sequence homology has led to an explosion of PCR-based methods to delete and mutate yeast genes and to create fusions to epitope tags and fluorescent proteins. Here, we describe commonly used methods to generate gene deletions, to integrate mutated versions of a gene into the yeast genome, and to construct N- and C-terminal gene fusions. Using a high-efficiency yeast transformation protocol, DNA fragments with as little as 40 bp of homology can accurately target integration into a particular region of the yeast genome.
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    ABSTRACT: In budding yeast, meiotic commitment is the irreversible continuation of the developmental path of meiosis. After reaching meiotic commitment, cells finish meiosis and gametogenesis, even in the absence of the meiosis-inducing signal. In contrast, if the meiosis-inducing signal is removed and the mitosis-inducing signal is provided prior to reaching meiotic commitment, cells exit meiosis and return to mitosis. Previous work has shown that cells commit to meiosis after prophase I but before entering the meiotic divisions. Since the Ndt80 transcription factor induces expression of middle meiosis genes necessary for the meiotic divisions, we examined the role of the NDT80 transcriptional network in meiotic commitment. Using a microfluidic approach to analyze single cells, we found that cells commit to meiosis in prometaphase I, after the induction of the Ndt80-dependent genes. Our results showed that high-level expression of NDT80 is important for the timing and irreversibility of meiotic commitment. A modest reduction in NDT80 levels delayed meiotic commitment based on meiotic stages, although the timing of each meiotic stage was similar to that of wildtype cells. A further reduction of NDT80 resulted in the surprising finding of inappropriately uncommitted cells: withdrawal of the meiosis-inducing signal and addition of the mitosis-inducing signal to cells at stages beyond metaphase I caused return to mitosis, leading to multi-nucleate cells. Since Ndt80 enhances its own transcription through positive feedback, we tested whether positive feedback ensured the irreversibility of meiotic commitment. Ablating positive feedback in NDT80 expression resulted in a complete loss of meiotic commitment. These findings suggest that irreversibility of meiotic commitment is a consequence of the NDT80 transcriptional positive feedback loop, which provides the high-level of Ndt80 required for the developmental switch of meiotic commitment. These results also illustrate the importance of irreversible meiotic commitment for maintaining genome integrity by preventing formation of multi-nucleate cells.
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