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Abstract

This study investigated the rhyme-as-reason effect on new artificially created advertising slogans. Rhymes and non-rhymes were in Experiment 1 and 2 compared in a between-subjects design and in Experiment 3 in a within-subjects design. The quality of the form and content of the slogans was always evaluated by separate groups. In Experiment 1, we found a strong preference for rhyming slogans as opposed to their non-rhyming counterparts. Rhymes were rated as more likeable, more original, easier to remember, more suitable for campaigns, more persuasive and more trustworthy. In Experiment 2, social advertising messages were evaluated favorably in both rhyming and non-rhyming versions. However, when participants directly compared rhymes and non-rhymes on the same scale (Experiment 3), the difference between commercial and social advertising disappeared and for all slogans rhymes were clearly preferred to non-rhymes in terms of both form and content. A detailed analysis revealed that the rhymes scoring high on formal aspects were also favored in the questionnaire investigating content aspects.

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... Moreover, Luna, Lerman, and Peracchio (2005) found that respondents in the rhyme condition detected more rhyming slogans than those in the no-rhyme condition. Filkuková and Klempe (2013) reported that rhyming slogans are easier to remember in both commercial and social advertising. Furthermore, Yalch (1991) showed that the use of an easy-flowing style of jingles in slogans can help participants remember the slogan. ...
... However, its rate of correct recall was low (12.1%). This finding deviates from previous findings asserting that rhyme can improve slogan recall (Filkuková & Klempe, 2013;Luna et al., 2005). This outcome seemingly suggests that the simplicity and length of the slogan could override rhyme in terms of importance for slogan recall. ...
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Effective tourism slogans promote destinations and allow marketing information to be accepted and remembered by consumers. This study examines the awareness effects of tourism slogans of ten prominent destinations in Asia. The influences of consumer characteristics on the awareness effects of the slogans were also investigated. Results revealed that the slogans of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan were the most effective in terms of destination recognition. The slogans of China, Taiwan and Singapore were the most effective in terms of slogan recall. Furthermore, age, education level, English capability and visitation to the marketing destinations were major factors affecting slogan awareness.
... Reber, Schwarz, & Winkielman, 2004;Reber, Winkielman, & Schwarz, 1998;Winkielmann & Cacioppo, 2001), more persuasive (e.g. Filkuková & Klempe, 2013), and more truthful (e.g. Hansen, Dechêne, & Wänke, 2008;McGlone & Tofighbakhsh, 2000;Reber & Schwarz, 1999; but see Scholl, Greifeneder, & Bless, 2014;Unkelbach, 2007; for boundary conditions), and they weigh them more heavily in their thinking (Shah & Oppenheimer, 2007). ...
... Based on studies showing that people find statements more persuasive (Filkuková & Klempe, 2013) and are more likely to believe them (e.g., Newman et al., 2014;Reber & Schwarz, 1999) if they can process them more fluently, we also predicted that they would agree more with 'more than' statements and that they would more often to judge them as true. ...
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Differences between groups, individuals, or objects can be framed in multiple ways. One can, for instance, say that men generally earn more than women or that women generally earn less than men. Showing that these logically equivalent expressions are not psychologically equivalent, we demonstrate a robust more-less asymmetry in the use of and responses to comparative statements. More specifically, we show that people use "more than" statements more often than "less than" statements (Study 1); like "more than" statements better (Studies 2 and 3), agree more with opinions expressed through "more than" statements (Studies 4 and 5), and are more likely to consider factual "more than" statements to be true (Study 6). Supporting a cognitive fluency explanation, a manipulation that makes people expect disfluency while processing "less than" statements reduces this otherwise robust more-less asymmetry (Study 7). By combining comparative framing effects with cognitive fluency, the present research brings together 2 research fields in social cognition, shedding new light on both. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
... Rhyme also influences perceptions of truthfulness. For example, aphorisms that rhyme (e.g., "woes unite foes") are judged to be more truthful than the semantically equivalent nonrhyming aphorism (e.g., "woes unite enemies"; McGlone & Tofighbakhsh, 2000), and rhyming slogans are liked better, easier to remember, and more persuasive, and are also considered more original and more trustworthy, than equivalent nonrhyming slogans (Filkukov a & Klempe, 2013). ...
Article
People—be they politicians, marketers, job candidates, product reviewers, bloggers, or romantic interests—often use linguistic devices to persuade others, and there is a sizeable literature that has documented the effects of numerous linguistic devices. However, understanding the implications of these effects is difficult without an organizing framework. To this end, we introduce a Language Complexity × Processing Mode Framework for classifying linguistic devices based on two continuous dimensions: language complexity, ranging from simple to complex, and processing mode, ranging from automatic to controlled. We then use the framework as a basis for reviewing and synthesizing extant research on the effects of the linguistic devices on persuasion, determining the conditions under which the effectiveness of the linguistic devices can be maximized, and reconciling inconsistencies in prior research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... For example, in one classic study, rhyming aphorisms (e.g., "woes unite foes") were rated as more truthful than equivalent but non-rhyming aphorisms ("woes unite enemies;" McGlone & Tofighbakhsh, 2000). Subsequent research demonstrated the effect in consumer contexts: Rhyming product slogans were better remembered, liked better, were more persuasive, and were considered more trustworthy compared to similar but non-rhyming slogans (Filkukova & Klempe, 2013). ...
... We would not want to make any claims about truth per se, but it is increasingly clear that Keats had it right for judgements of truth. Today, there is little room to doubt the relation between aesthetics and perceptions of truth, a phenomenon perhaps best known in the phrase "the rhyme as reason effect" (Filkuková & Klempe, 2013). Since this effect is not confined to rhyme, "the Keats heuristic" (McGlone and Tofighbakhsh 1999) is a better descriptor, honouring the poet who formulated this very concise (and aesthetically appealing and seemingly accurate) encapsulation of the heuristic. ...
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The Keats heuristic suggests that people find aesthetically pleasing expressions more accurate than mundane expressions. We test this notion with chiastic statements. Chiasmus is a stylistic phenomenon in which at least two linguistic constituents are repeated in reverse order, following an A-B-B-A pattern. Our study focuses on the specific form of chiasmus known as antimetabole, in which the reverse-repeated constituents are words (e.g., “all for one and one for all”). In 3 out of 4 experiments (N = 797), we find evidence that people judge antimetabolic statements (e.g., “Success is getting what you want. Happiness is wanting what you get.”) as more accurate than semantically equivalent non-antimetabolic statements (e.g., “Success is getting what you wish. Happiness is wanting what you receive.”). Furthermore, we evaluate fluency as a potential mechanism explaining the observed accuracy benefit afforded to antimetabolic statements, finding that the increased speed (i.e., fluency) with which antimetabolic statements were processed was misattributed by participants as evidence of greater accuracy. Overall, the current work demonstrates that stylistic factors bias assessments of truth, with information communicated using aesthetically pleasing stylistic devices (e.g., antimetabole) being perceived as more truthful.
... Similar results emerged in a series of experiments by Filkuková and Klempe (2013), who examined the effect of rhyme on the perceived fluency of advertisements. The authors created nine pairs of advertising slogans for a variety of (not widely known or used) products; each pair of slogans had a rhyming and a non-rhyming version. ...
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While the Saussurean notion of the arbitrary sign has been a constant in linguistic theorizing, the past few decades have seen a substantial increase in linguistic research that downplays arbitrariness and highlights motivation as an organizing principle in language. Form does carry meaning for language users, and speakers in everyday acts of communication routinely show an interest in and enthusiasm for linguistic form. The paper outlines the extent and role that form-to-form motivational processes, in particular rhyme and alliteration, play in English multi-word expressions such as binomials, idioms, proverbs and slogans, and suggests that such devices serve a variety of purposes: reinforcing the meaning by virtue of repetition, enhancing the acceptability of novel constructions and creating an impression of enhanced truthfulness. At the same time, using alliteration and rhyme in multi-word units is simply enjoyable - the roots of which go all the way back to oral culture.
... McGlone and Tofighbakhsh (1999) investigated aphorisms and call this the "Keats' heuristic": "the aesthetic qualities of a message are equated with its truth" (McGlone and Tofighbakhsh 1999: 240). The phenomenon is not limited to aphorisms: "The rhyme-as-reason effect occurs not only in evaluation of existing aphorisms, but applies also to perception and evaluation of advertising slogans" (Filkuková and Klempe, 2013). ...
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This article reviews some of the universal features of humorous wordplay which include the phonological mechanisms used to manipulate strings, the semantic oppositeness found in incongruity, the pseudo-logical Cratylistic resolution of the incongruity, and the relative distribution of types of wordplay involving different types of ambiguity and alliteration.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate and analyze company slogans which play an important role in corporate identity and corporate communications. Design/methodology/approach – By discussing relevant literature, morphological issues (word formation in sentences), and content analysis, the study investigates 329 companies and their slogans that operate in global and domestic markets. Findings – The study finds that within the areas of corporate identity and corporate communications, company slogans tend to be diverse with distinct forms and morphological features. The work reveals that slogans go through evolutionary changes because of diverse markets and firms’ corporate communications and corporate identities. The study also compares and contrasts slogans from 2007 to 2013 which were used by the firms on their web sites. Practical implications – Interestingly, over half of the companies did not keep their slogans in 2012/2013. Many firms have stopped using slogans on their corporate web sites and systematically capitalize on brands and corporate identities when dealing with the areas of corporate communications. This supports the notion that slogans help corporate identity and corporate communications. Originality/value – The paper’s original value added is in the areas of corporate communications, slogans, and corporate identity.
Patent
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Theories and their applications play important roles in any field of study. The field of communications is not an exception. Prominent communications academician and theorist Em Griffin mentions that theories are, in fact, ‘the maps of reality’ (2006, p. 3). Another world renowned communications researcher and theorist Stephen Littlejohn also mentions about the important links between the theories and practices of communications industry in his famous book ‘Theories of Human Communication’, which is well regarded among the relevant professionals and academicians. The communications theories developed and presented by such renowned scholars are applied to professional practices that include, but not limited to, Public Relations, Journalism, Television & Radio Production and Advertising (Monash University 2013). In reality, the communications theories are very much varied to deal with different components of communications practices as message, media, audience and the new-age interactive web applications that are operating in the ‘digital environment’ to transmit message (Ng 2012, p.1066). On the other hand, as already mentioned, the professional fields of communications practices are also very much diversified. In this essay, for a meaningful analysis of how theories are put into practice, the focus is exclusively on the advertising industry. The chosen theories for analysis are the Semiotic Theories of Message that are sub-divided into symbols, language and non-verbal behaviour (Littlejohn & Foss 2005, p. 100). To analyse the audio-visual dimensions of television commercials, the theory of Nonverbal Signs is also discussed. In that line, this essay attempts to explore the extent to which the message theories of communications illuminate the professional practice of advertising. Some relevant specific examples of advertising materials are used for the analytical purposes which are sourced from my real life professional advertising experiences. So, from that perspective, I am in a position to explain first-hand how the theories of message were put into practice in these advertising materials and what business results they fetched in the market.
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It seems like just yesterday when traditional media was the only means to reach the audience at large. And now, today, digital platforms are opening new avenues of human interaction every single day, in ever new ways. Things are changing indeed! Researchers in the fields of Communications & Media Studies are still busy tracking the transitional phase of Old Media to New Media. This shift is, in fact, shifting the whole world - the emerging trends of digital media along with social networks are redefining the way we communicate with each other. These are impacting not only the sole field of media but also many other fields of study including but not limited to economics, sociology, psychology, business/commerce and various aspects of cultural studies. Shedding some lights on these trends is important that is why. That’s the aim of this publication. Also, there are now newer ways of amalgamating the traditional and the new practices – that is why the concepts of Media Convergence and Remediation are so much useful along with the theories of McLuhan, Rheingold and other scholars. Altogether, it is important not only to keep track of these changes, but also to communicate the changes to the related professionals, researchers and to the general readers. This compilation of academic essays and case studies is expected to serve as a platform to start an interaction among like-minded researchers and industry professionals on how to best tackle the emerging trends of communications & media practices. Marketing and advertising professionals also will be benefited from these emerging concepts for effective consumer communication practices. Some industry association has already started in that regard through this publication with selected fashion brands to facilitate contemporary fashion communication initiatives. It is expected that academicians, researchers and industry professionals will utilise the insights of this publication for constructive research so that this initiative can be transformed into a platform for a scholarly journal worldwide. - K Tarek February 2015, London, United Kingdom
Chapter
The musicality of poetry and the poetics of music appeal to the boundaries of language to describe affective phenomena, as well as the interdependence between linguistic and musical systems in the mind. This chapter explores the implications of these interdependences, through the case study of the Norwegian composer Martin Myhre Olsen. The methodology combines poetic representations from an in-depth interview with the musician with the analysis of the musical scores he wrote to Emily Dickinson’s poems “Lost” and “Hope”. Both his biography and his compositions give account of notions such as tension and polyphony, key terms in contemporary cultural psychology, which are explored further from a theoretical perspective as well, in order to contribute to the understanding of feelings and emotions.
Chapter
The question pursued in this chapter is if sound itself has impact on meaning. It is built on a study from 2013 about the impact of rhymes. The assumption was that rhyme itself does not convey any significant information. This was falsified. The participants considered different slogans, with and without rhymes. The study demonstrated that rhymes strengthened the slogans’ flow, easiness to remember and the feeling, but rhymes made them also more truthful and more likely to follow. Based on this, the way The Coca-Cola Company has made us associate a soft-drink with joy, partying and fun underline the same type of irrationality. This is explained by synesthesia as providing the synthesizing mental process, whereas the conventionally given rule-systems provide analytical distinctions.
Chapter
Behavior Patterns sind standardisierte Verhaltensmuster, die der Mehrheit unserer Entscheidungen zugrunde liegen. Sie können in den Bereich der „persuasive communication“ eingeordnet werden, zählen also zu den kommunikativen Überzeugungsinstrumenten. Ihr Einsatz im E-Commerce bringt einerseits Verbesserungen der User Experience mit sich, steigert aber auch und insbesondere die Conversion-Rate (sowie andere relevante Erfolgsindikatoren). Voraussetzungen auf Unternehmensseite sind ein markt- und wettbewerbsfähiges Produkt sowie eine funktionierende technische Infrastruktur. Ist dies gegeben, können Behavior Patterns für die Neukonzeption oder die Optimierung von Digital-Projekten eingesetzt werden. Ihre Wirkung darf zugleich nicht überschätzt werden, den „Kauf-Knopf“ im Gehirn als E-Commerce-Mythos stellen sie sicherlich nicht dar. Die grundsätzliche Wirksamkeit ist zwar weitgehend universell, die Wirkungsstärke ist es aber nicht. Daraus folgt: Je besser ein Unternehmen seine Nutzer kennt und klassifizieren kann, desto passgenauer kann die Auswahl der Behavior Patterns sein. In diesem Zusammenhang bietet die Echtzeit-Dynamisierung bzw. Personalisierung der Website entlang der identifizierten Nutzergruppen weiteres Conversion-Potenzial. Zur Identifikation passender Patterns liefert das Buch mehrere Frameworks. Zudem empfiehlt sich in vielen Fällen der Einsatz sich gegenseitig verstärkender Patterns im Verbund.
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The purpose of this study was to answer public concerns about the impact of pornographic content accessed via the internet on high school students. This study describes how children can access, the reasons for accessing it and the consequences of access. The method used is descriptive quantitative by exploring pornographic behavior. The data collection technique was carried out by distributing questionnaires and deepening them by interviewing several students. Data collection involved 718 high school students as respondents from four cities namely Bandung, Pekanbaru, Denpasar, and Yogyakarta. The results showed that students who had been exposed to pornography reached 96.1 percent and most of them looked through cellphones. The result of frequent viewing of pornographic content is feeling anxious, fantasizing frequently, decreased learning achievement, viewing addiction, porn addiction, aggressive or angry, dirty talk, wanting to have sex, and some even having free sex. students can be exposed to pornography from the age of 10, which they mostly see when they are in their own homes. This condition is due to the lack of parental supervision of internet use. They are physically close to parents, but the internet can browse indefinitely and separate communication between children and parents.
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We are fascinated by what words sound like. This fascination also drives us to search for meaning in sound – thereby contradicting the principle of the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign. Phonesthemes, onomatopoeia or rhyming compounds all share the property of carrying meaning by virtue of what they sound like, simply because language users establish an association between form and meaning. By drawing on a wide array of examples, ranging from conventionalized words and expressions to brand names and slogans, this book offers a comprehensive account of the role that sound symbolism and rhyme/alliteration plays in English, and by doing so, advocates a more relaxed view of the category ‘“morpheme’” that is able to incorporate less regular word-formation processes. https://www.cambridge.org/hu/academic/subjects/languages-linguistics/phonetics-and-phonology/rhyme-over-reason-phonological-motivation-english?format=HB
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Current slogan design guidelines mainly focus on the unilateral effectiveness of the design characteristics (i.e., recall or persuasiveness). The underlying academic conjecture is that the recall and persuasiveness of slogans are driven by the same design characteristics. This study empirically tests the validity of this conjecture. We use slogans of China's seaside destinations and investigate the influences of eight design characteristics on the combined effects of recall and persuasiveness. The moderation of destination familiarity reveals that the driving characteristics of recall and persuasiveness converge to a certain extent in familiar destinations' slogans; but diverge substantially in unfamiliar destinations' slogans. The contributions of this study are twofold. From a theoretical perspective, verifying the conditional effects of important design characteristics prevents the separation of recall and persuasiveness in destination slogan research. From a managerial perspective, different methods of slogan design can be developed for familiar and unfamiliar destinations.
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Die wissenschaftliche Forschung hat disziplinenübergreifend (v. a. Psychologie, Neurowissenschaften, Wirtschaftswissenschaften) mittlerweile eine beachtliche Anzahl von Behavior Patterns identifiziert und validiert. Die wirksamsten und für den E-Commerce-Einsatz am besten geeigneten fasst diese Library zusammen. Sie ist entlang des E-Commerce-Prozesses strukturiert: Die Awareness-Phase findet vor der Kaufentscheidung statt und beinhaltet Patterns, die dazu beitragen, dass Kunden einen Bedarf erkennen, auf einen Anbieter oder ein Produkt aufmerksam werden, die Relevanz erfassen und sich an den Anbieter erinnern. Darauf folgt die Decision-Making-Phase. Sie listet Patterns, die Vertrauen aufbauen, bei der Produkt- und Preisevaluierung unterstützen, eine Entscheidung aktiv oder passiv auslösen sowie dazu beitragen, dass Kunden auf dem Weg zum Abschluss nicht abbrechen und idealerweise weitere Mitnahmekäufe tätigen. Die Retention-Phase setzt nach dem Kauf ein und beschreibt Patterns, die die Zufriedenheit und Loyalität von Kunden fördern. Sie ist Ausdruck der langfristigen Orientierung, die Conversion-Optimierungsprojekte mit Behavior Patterns immer haben sollten.
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The authors propose that consumer choices are often systematically influenced by preference fluency (i.e., the subjective feeling that forming a preference for a specific option is easy or difficult). Four studies manipulate the fluency of preference formation by presenting descriptions in an easy- or difficult-to- read font (Study 1) or by asking participants to think of few versus many reasons for their choice (Studies 2-4). As the authors predict, subjective experiences of difficulty increase choice deferral (Studies 1 and 2) and the selection of a compromise option (Studies 3 and 4), unless consumers are induced to attribute the experience to an unrelated cause. Unlike studies of decision conflict, these effects are obtained without changing the attributes of the alternatives, the composition of the choice sets, or the reference points. The authors discuss the,theoretical and practical implications of the results.
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Reports on 5 experiments with 96 undergraduates, comparing memory for words that were generated by the Ss themselves with the same words when they were simply presented to be read. In all cases, performance in the Generate condition was superior to that in the Read condition. This held for measures of cued and uncued recognition, free and cued recall, and confidence ratings. The phenomenon persisted across variations in encoding rules, timed or self-paced presentation, presence or absence of test information, and between- or within-Ss designs. The effect was specific to the response items under recognition testing but not under cued recall. A number of potential explanatory principles are considered and their difficulties enumerated. It is concluded that the generation effect is real and that it poses an interesting interpretative problem. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We propose that aesthetic pleasure is a function of the perceiver's processing dynamics: The more fluently perceivers can process an object, the more positive their aesthetic response. We review variables known to influence aesthetic judgments, such as figural goodness, figure-ground contrast, stimulus repetition, symmetry, and prototypicality, and trace their effects to changes in processing fluency. Other variables that influence processing fluency, like visual or semantic priming, similarly increase judgments of aesthetic pleasure. Our proposal provides an integrative framework for the study of aesthetic pleasure and sheds light on the interplay between early preferences versus cultural influences on taste, preferences for both prototypical and abstracted forms, and the relation between beauty and truth. In contrast to theories that trace aesthetic pleasure to objective stimulus features per se, we propose that beauty is grounded in the processing experiences of the perceiver, which are in part a function of stimulus properties.
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Humans appear to reason using two processing styles: System 1 processes that are quick, intuitive, and effortless and System 2 processes that are slow, analytical, and deliberate that occasionally correct the output of System 1. Four experiments suggest that System 2 processes are activated by metacognitive experiences of difficulty or disfluency during the process of reasoning. Incidental experiences of difficulty or disfluency--receiving information in a degraded font (Experiments 1 and 4), in difficult-to-read lettering (Experiment 2), or while furrowing one's brow (Experiment 3)--reduced the impact of heuristics and defaults in judgment (Experiments 1 and 3), reduced reliance on peripheral cues in persuasion (Experiment 2), and improved syllogistic reasoning (Experiment 4). Metacognitive experiences of difficulty or disfluency appear to serve as an alarm that activates analytic forms of reasoning that assess and sometimes correct the output of more intuitive forms of reasoning.
Five experiments are reported comparing memory for words that were generated by the subjects themselves with the same words when they were simply presented to be read. In all cases, performance in the generate condition was superior to that in the read condition. This held for measures of cued and uncued recognition, free and cued recall, and confidence ratings. The phenomenon persisted across variations in encoding rules, timed or selfpaced presentation, presence or absence of test information, and between- or within-subjects designs. The effect was specific to the response items under recognition testing but not under cued recall. A number of potential explanatory principles are considered, and their difficulties enumerated. It is concluded that the generation effect is real and that it poses an interesting interpretative problem. This is an empirically oriented article whose purpose is to report a set of simple experiments that establish the existence of a robust and interesting phenomenon of memory. This phenomenon, called the generation effect, is robust in that it manifests itself across a variety of testing procedures, encoding rules, and other situational changes. It is interesting in that it does not seem to be easily or satisfactoril y accommodated by any of the currently familiar explanatory notions. We expect that once the phenomenon is described in its initial form, it will be the subject of wider experimental analysis and will eventually become better understood. In contrast to the usual objective reasons for embarking upon a line of research, the present work was neither initiated by any extant theoretical issue nor inspired by any previously published findings. It was carried out with the sole purpose of arriving at a
Chapter
This chapter review research on whether ease of perceptual processing serves as a basis for familiarity in recognition memory and on criticisms of the role of perceptual fluency in recognition. It assess the generality of the notion of a fluency heuristic by exploring whether there are other enhancements of processing due to repetition that are both specific and substantial enough to serve as the basis for a fluency heuristic, namely conceptual fluency and retrieval fluency. If memory is indeed an attribution regarding effects of past experience on current experience, then the relative diagnosticity of those cues as indicators of past experience is critical for memory accuracy. This chapter discusses the relation between the basis for memory judgments and memory monitoring. There is ambiguity in the source of variations in current processing, such that effects of past experience can be misattributed to current conditions, affecting judgments of everything from perceptual judgments of brightness and duration to judgments of the complexity of a text.
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Feelings of familiarity are not direct products of memory. Although prior experience of a stimulus can produce a feeling of familiarity, that feeling can also be aroused in the absence of prior experience if perceptual processing of the stimulus is fluent (e.g., Whittlesea, Jacoby, & Girard, 1990). This suggests that feelings of familiarity arise through an unconscious inference about the source of processing fluency. The present experiments extend that conclusion. First, they show that a wide variety of feelings about the past are controlled by a fluency heuristic, including feelings about the meaning, pleasantness, duration, and recency of past events. Second, they demonstrate that the attribution process does not rely only on perceptual fluency, but can be influenced even more by the fluency of conceptual processing. Third, they show that although the fluency heuristic itself is simple, people's use of it is highly sophisticated and makes them robustly sensitive to the actual historical status of current events.
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The relationship between the feelings of pleasure and arousal elicited by an environment and ratings of source credibility and attitude change was explored in a three by two design. Three levels of pleasure and two levels of arousal were combined factorially. 7he results suggest that the emotion-eliciting qualities of the environment can be used to predict both source credibility and attitude change. The results are discussed in relation to other findings in attitude research.
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In the mere-repeated-exposure paradigm, an individual is repeatedly exposed to a particular stimulus object, and the researcher records the individual's emerging preference for that object. Vast literature on the mere-repeated-exposure effect shows it to be a robust phenomenon that cannot be explained by an appeal to recognition memory or perceptual fluency. The effect has been demonstrated across cultures, species, and diverse stimulus domains. It has been obtained even when the stimuli exposed are not accessible to the participants’ awareness, and even prenatally. The repeated-exposure paradigm can be regarded as a form of classical conditioning if we assume that the absence of aversive events constitutes the unconditioned stimulus. Empirical research shows that a benign experience of repetition can in and of itself enhance positive affect, and that such affect can become attached not only to stimuli that have been exposed but also to similar stimuli that have not been previously exposed, and to totally distinct stimuli as well. Implications for affect as a fundamental and independent process are discussed in the light of neuroanatomical evidence.
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When asked, "How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the Ark?" most people respond "Two" despite knowing that Noah rather than Moses was the biblical actor. Two experiments tested the role of processing fluency in the detection of such semantic distortions by presenting questions in an easy or difficult to read print font. As predicted, low processing fluency facilitated detection of the misleading nature of the question and reduced the proportion of erroneous answers. However, low processing fluency also reduced the proportion of correct answers in response to an undistorted question. In both cases, participants were less likely to rely on their spontaneous association when the font was difficult to read, resulting in improved performance on distorted and impaired performance on undistorted questions. We propose that fluency experiences influence processing style.
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According to a two-step account of the mere-exposure effect, repeated exposure leads to the subjective feeling of perceptual fluency, which in turn influences liking. If so, perceptual fluency manipulated by means other than repetition should influence liking. In three experiments, effects of perceptual fluency on affective judgments were examined. In Experiment 1, higher perceptual fluency was achieved by presenting a matching rather than nonmatching prime before showing a target picture. Participants judged targets as prettier if preceded by a matching rather than nonmatching prime. In Experi- ment 2, perceptual fluency was manipulated by figure-ground contrast. Stimuli were judged as more pretty, and less ugly, the higher the con- trast. In Experiment 3, perceptual fluency was manipulated by presen- tation duration. Stimuli shown for a longer duration were liked more, and disliked less. We conclude (a) that perceptual fluency increases liking and (b) that the experience of fluency is affectively positive, and hence attributed to positive but not to negative features, as reflected in a differential impact on positive and negative judgments. 0
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In a field setting, each of 68 physically attractive or unattractive male and female communicator Ss (undergraduates) delivered a persuasive message to 2 undergraduate target Ss of each sex. Results indicate that attractive (vs unattractive) communicators induced significantly greater persuasion on both a verbal and behavioral measure of target agreement. In addition, female targets indicated greater agreement than male targets. Data gathered from communicator Ss during an earlier laboratory session indicate that physically attractive and unattractive communicators differed with respect to several communication skills and other attributes relevant to communicator persuasiveness, including GPA, Scholastic Aptitude Test scores, and several measures of self-evaluation. These findings suggest that attractive individuals may be more persuasive than unattractive persons partly because they possess characteristics that dispose them to be more effective communicators. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Feelings of familiarity are not direct products of memory. Although prior experience of a stimulus can produce a feeling of familiarity, that feeling can also be aroused in the absence of prior experience if perceptual processing of the stimulus is fluent (e.g., B. W. Whittlesea et al, 1990). This suggests that feelings of familiarity arise through an unconscious inference about the source of processing fluency. The present experiments extend that conclusion. First, they show that a wide variety of feelings about the past are controlled by a fluency heuristic, including feelings about the meaning, pleasantness, duration, and recency of past events. Second, they demonstrate that the attribution process does not rely only on perceptual fluency, but can be influenced even more by the fluency of conceptual processing. Third, they show that although the fluency heuristic itself is simple, people's use of it is highly sophisticated and makes them robustly sensitive to the actual historical status of current events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three experiments compare the effects of familiar phrases (e.g., “don't put all your eggs in one basket”) to literal phrases conveying the same meaning (i.e., “don't risk everything on a single venture”) on attitude formation. It is argued that the meaning and value of familiar phrases are quickly and easily understood. It is further argued that such phrases tend to be most frequently used in limited-thinking situations and should be effective as peripheral persuasion cues when utilized in the context of a commercial message. All three experiments support this expectation of peripheral-cue effectiveness. Familiar, relative to literal, phrases resulted in more favorable attitudes under low (but not high) involvement conditions (Experiment 1), under conditions of message distraction (Experiment 2), and for persons with a low (but not high) need for cognition (Experiment 3). The results of all three experiments are discussed as being consistent with the predictions of the elaboration likelihood model.
Article
Human reasoning is accompanied by metacognitive experiences, most notably the ease or difficulty of recall and thought generation and the fluency with which new information can be processed. These experiences are informative in their own right. They can serve as a basis of judgment in addition to, or at the expense of, declarative information and can qualify the conclusions drawn from recalled content. What exactly people conclude from a given metacognitive experience depends on the naive theory of mental processes they bring to bear, rendering the outcomes highly variable. The obtained judgments cannot be predicted on the basis of accessible declarative information alone; we cannot understand human judgment without taking into account the interplay of declarative and experiential information.
Article
According to the processing fluency model, advertising exposures enhance the ease with which a brand can be recognized and processed. This increased perceptual fluency in turn leads to more favorable attitudes toward the brand. The present research extends the processing fluency model to examine the effect of conceptual fluency on attitudes. In three experiments, the authors show that when a target comes to mind more readily and becomes conceptually fluent, as when it is presented in a predictive context (e.g., a bottle of beer featured in an ad showing a man entering a bar), or when it is primed by a related construct (e.g., ketchup following an advertisement of mayonnaise), participants develop more favorable attitudes toward the target. Positive valence of fluent processing is thought to underlie these processing fluency effects. When conceptual fluency is associated with negative valence (e.g., hair conditioner primed by a kill-lice shampoo), less favorable attitudes are observed (exp. 4).
Article
Most texts on writing style encourage authors to avoid overly-complex words. However, a majority of undergraduates admit to deliberately increasing the complexity of their vocabulary so as to give the impression of intelligence. This paper explores the extent to which this strategy is effective. Experiments 1–3 manipulate complexity of texts and find a negative relationship between complexity and judged intelligence. This relationship held regardless of the quality of the original essay, and irrespective of the participants' prior expectations of essay quality. The negative impact of complexity was mediated by processing fluency. Experiment 4 directly manipulated fluency and found that texts in hard to read fonts are judged to come from less intelligent authors. Experiment 5 investigated discounting of fluency. When obvious causes for low fluency exist that are not relevant to the judgement at hand, people reduce their reliance on fluency as a cue; in fact, in an effort not to be influenced by the irrelevant source of fluency, they over-compensate and are biased in the opposite direction. Implications and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
When participants are repeatedly presented with an unfamiliar stimulus, this stimulus is rated as more likable (mere-exposure effect) or more valid (truth effect) as compared with a similar non-repeated stimulus. Both effects have been discussed as effects of fluency. Typical research designs on these effects involve a test phase in which ratings of both repeated and non-repeated stimuli are required. Based on research on moderators of fluency effects, we propose that the procedure of assessing the effects with mixed lists of repeated and non-repeated stimuli contributes strongly to the emergence of both effects. Two experiments found that the truth effect and the mere-exposure effect were strongly moderated by whether mixed lists or only repeated items were used at the test phase: whereas strong effects occurred in a context of repeated and non-repeated stimuli, the effects vanished with only repeated stimuli. Methodological and theoretical implications are discussed.
Article
Do people distinguish between the form and propositional content of a statement when evaluating its truthfulness? We asked people to judge the comprehensibility and ostensible accuracy of unfamiliar aphorisms presented in their original rhyming form (e.g., Woes unite foes) or a semantically equivalent non-rhyming form (Woes unite enemies). Although the different versions were perceived as equally comprehensible, the rhyming versions were perceived as more accurate. This ‘rhyme as reason’ effect suggests that in certain circumstances, people may base their judgments of a statement's truth value in part on its aesthetic qualities. Our results are consistent with models of persuasion which assume that people rely on heuristic cues to evaluate messages when they lack the evidence and/or motivation to scrutinize message content (e.g., Eagly and Chaiken, 1993).
Article
The present experiment tested the hypothesis that perceptual fluency affects truth judgments especially when the fluency has changed. Participants were asked to judge the truth of statements that were printed in different colors. Perceptual fluency was manipulated by color contrast. Change versus no change of fluency was manipulated by using preceding statements that had the same or a different contrast. As expected, highly fluent statements were judged as more probably true than statements with a low fluency but this effect occurred only when the high fluency meant a change from previous fluency. The role of discrepancies in subjective experiences in terms of their informativeness for social judgments is discussed.
Article
Previous research has shown that disfluency--the subjective experience of difficulty associated with cognitive operations - leads to deeper processing. Two studies explore the extent to which this deeper processing engendered by disfluency interventions can lead to improved memory performance. Study 1 found that information in hard-to-read fonts was better remembered than easier to read information in a controlled laboratory setting. Study 2 extended this finding to high school classrooms. The results suggest that superficial changes to learning materials could yield significant improvements in educational outcomes.
Article
Processing fluency, or the subjective experience of ease with which people process information, reliably influences people's judgments across a broad range of social dimensions. Experimenters have manipulated processing fluency using a vast array of techniques, which, despite their diversity, produce remarkably similar judgmental consequences. For example, people similarly judge stimuli that are semantically primed (conceptual fluency), visually clear (perceptual fluency), and phonologically simple (linguistic fluency) as more true than their less fluent counterparts. The authors offer the first comprehensive review of such mechanisms and their implications for judgment and decision making. Because every cognition falls along a continuum from effortless to demanding and generates a corresponding fluency experience, the authors argue that fluency is a ubiquitous metacognitive cue in reasoning and social judgment.
Article
Statements of the form "Osorno is in Chile" were presented in colors that made them easy or difficult to read against a white background and participants judged the truth of the statement. Moderately visible statements were judged as true at chance level, whereas highly visible statements were judged as true significantly above chance level. We conclude that perceptual fluency affects judgments of truth.
Article
We explored the role that poetic form can play in people's perceptions of the accuracy of aphorisms as descriptions of human behavior. Participants judged the ostensible accuracy of unfamiliar aphorisms presented in their textually surviving form or a semantically equivalent modified form. Extant rhyming aphorisms in their original form (e.g., "What sobriety conceals, alcohol reveals") were judged to be more accurate than modified versions that did not preserve rhyme ("What sobriety conceals, alcohol unmasks"). However, the perceived truth advantage of rhyming aphorisms over their modified forms was attenuated when people were cautioned to distinguish aphorisms' poetic qualities from their semantic content. Our results suggest that rhyme, like repetition, affords statements an enhancement in processing fluency that can be misattributed to heightened conviction about their truthfulness.
Article
This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that food, as an extraneous gratification accompanying exposure to a persuasive communication, will increase acceptance, even though the donor of the food is not the source of the communication and does not endorse it. 2 replicating experiments were carried out with 216 male college students. Both experiments used 3 groups of Ss, assigned on a random basis to the following conditions, which involved exposure to: (a) 4 persuasive communications while eating desirable food; (b) the same 4 communications with no food present; (c) no relevant communications (control condition). Both experiments provide confirmatory evidence, indicating that more opinion change tends to be elicited under conditions where the Ss are eating while reading the communications. The theoretical implications are discussed with respect to psychological processes involved in changing attitudes.
Article
Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. • heuristic reasoning • psychology • stock market
Article
Fluency--the ease with which people process information--is a central piece of information we take into account when we make judgments about the world. Prior research has shown that fluency affects judgments in a wide variety of domains, including frequency, familiarity, and confidence. In this paper, we present evidence that fluency also plays a role in categorization judgments. In Experiment 1, participants judged a variety of different exemplars to be worse category members if they were less fluent (because they were presented in a smaller typeface). In Experiment 2, we found that fluency also affected judgments of feature typicality. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that the effects of fluency can be reversed when a salient attribution for reduced fluency is available (i.e., the stimuli are hard to read because they were printed by a printer with low toner). In Experiment 4 we replicated these effects using a within-subject design, which ruled out the possibility that the effects were a statistical artifact caused by aggregation of data. We propose a possible mechanism for these effects: if an exemplar and its category are closely related, activation of one will cause priming of the other, leading to increased fluency. Over time, feelings of fluency come to be used as a valid cue that can become confused with more traditional sources of information about category membership.
Article
Fluency - the subjective experience of ease or difficulty associated with completing a mental task - has been shown to be an influential cue in a wide array of judgments. Recently researchers have begun to look at how fluency impacts judgment through more subtle and indirect routes. Fluency impacts whether information is represented in working memory and what aspects of that information are attended to. Additionally, fluency has an impact in strategy selection; depending on how fluent information is, people engage in qualitatively different cognitive operations. This suggests that the role of fluency is more nuanced than previously believed and that understanding fluency could be of critical importance to understanding cognition more generally.
Article
We propose that people weight fluent, or easy to process, information more heavily than disfluent information when making judgments. Cue fluency was manipulated independent of objective cue validity in three studies, the findings from which support our hypothesis. In Experiment 1, participants weighted a consumer review more heavily when it was written in a clear font than in a less clear font. In Experiment 2, participants placed more weight on information when it was in focus than when it was blurry. In Experiment 3, participants placed more weight on financial information from brokerage firms with easy to pronounce names than those with hard to pronounce names. These studies demonstrate that fluency affects cue weighting independent of objective cue validity.
Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing experi-ence? Personality and Social Psychology Review
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Reber, R., Schwarz, N. & Winkielman, P. (2004). Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing experi-ence? Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 364–382.
A Routledge literary sourcebook on the poems of John Keats
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The 100 greatest advertisements 1852-1958: Who wrote them and what they did
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