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Chemical composition and anti-proliferative properties of flowers of Clitoria Ternatea



Aqueous and methanol extracts of the flowers of Clitoria ternatea (CT), a popularly plant consumed for blue colour in Nasi Kerabu was selected to explore its cytotoxic effect on six types of normal and cancer-origin cell lines. These included the hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), non-hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231), human ovary cancer cell line (Caov-3), human cervical cancer cell line (Hela), human liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and human foreskin fibroblast cell line (Hs27). The anti-proliferation activities of the extracts were examined by employing colorimetric MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay through time periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Preliminary results showed that the water extracted of CT had significant effects (p < 0.05) against MCF-7 with an IC 50 value of 175.35 μg/ml. Furthermore, the aqueous and methanolic extracts were investigated by Gas Chromatogram-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS chromatogram analysis of the water extracted had shown five peaks that represented components in the water extract namely mome inositol (38.7%) and pentanal (14.3%). Fifteen chemical constituents were identified in the methanol extract and the major chemical constituents were mome inositol (33.6%), cyclohexen, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylideme)-(7.1%), acetic acid, cyano-(6.5%) and hirsutene (5.7%). Heavy metals tested were at very low levels. The analysis conducted on the flowers provides a strong basis for emphasizing the medicinal and nutritional value of CT.
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*Corresponding author.
International Food Research Journal 20(3): 1229-1234 (2013)
Journal homepage:
Neda, G. D.,
Rabeta, M. S. and
Ong, M. T.
Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology,
Institute for Research in
Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Chemical composition and anti-proliferative properties of
owers of Clitoria Ternatea
Aqueous and methanol extracts of the owers of Clitoria ternatea (CT), a popularly
plant consumed for blue colour in Nasi Kerabu was selected to explore its cytotoxic
effect on six types of normal and cancer-origin cell lines. These included the hormone-
dependent breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), non-hormone-dependent breast cancer cell
line (MDA-MB-231), human ovary cancer cell line (Caov-3), human cervical cancer
cell line (Hela), human liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and human foreskin broblast
cell line (Hs27). The anti-proliferation activities of the extracts were examined by
employing colorimetric MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5 diphenyltetrazolium
bromide) assay through time periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Preliminary results
showed that the water extracted of CT had signicant effects (p < 0.05) against MCF-7
with an IC
value of 175.35 μg/ml. Furthermore, the aqueous and methanolic extracts
were investigated by Gas Chromatogram-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS
chromatogram analysis of the water extracted had shown ve peaks that represented
components in the water extract namely mome inositol (38.7%) and pentanal (14.3%).
Fifteen chemical constituents were identied in the methanol extract and the major
chemical constituents were mome inositol (33.6%), cyclohexen, 1-methyl-4-(1-
methylethylideme)- (7.1%), acetic acid, cyano- (6.5%) and hirsutene (5.7%). Heavy
metals tested were at very low levels. The analysis conducted on the owers provides
a strong basis for emphasizing the medicinal and nutritional value of CT.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has
declared that total mortality due to cancer will increase
to 12 million in 2030 whereas this number was only
7.6 million in 2005 (Farooqui et al., 2011). In year
2006, National Cancer Registry had reported about
21,773 cancer cases were diagnosed in Peninsular
Malaysia (Zainal et al., 2006). Recently, cancer
chemoprevention has developed as a major attention
for researchers (Kim et al., 2010).
Treatment used against cancer such as
chemotherapy, radiation, hormone therapy and
immunotherapy can kill both cancer and normal cells
(Cooper, 1993). Hence the potential usage of natural
products as anticancer treatment has been explored
intensively by the scientists (Wan-Nor Izzah et al.,
CT is originally related to the Leguminosae
(Fabaceae) family (Morris, 2009). The vines of this
plant are climbing, herbaceous, tall and slender with
ve leaets, while the ower colour ranges from
white to blue with a white or yellowish center (Jain et
al., 2003). It is known as buttery pea and commonly
known as Bunga telang in Malaysia. Flowers of
CT are consumed to make Nasi Kerabu blue in
colour, which is a famous local dish in Malaysia.
All parts of CT are useful for medical treatments
and have been used in folk medicines and for curing
different diseases (Mukherjee et al., 2008). The
primary objectives of this study were to determine
the chemical composition of the CT’s owers and
examine the effect of its aqueous and methanolic
extracts on normal and cancer cell lines.
Materials and Method
Flowers of CT, harvested in October 2010
Proximate analysis
mineral and heavy metal
MTT assay
cancer cell line
Gas Chromatogram-Mass
Article history
Received: 4 October 2012
Received in revised form:
7 January 2013
Accepted: 11 January 2013
Neda et al./IFRJ 20(3):1229-1234
were obtained from Kampung Seronok, Bayan
Lepas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Hs27 (ATCC
CRL-1634™, human foreskin broblast cell line),
HTB-22™, hormone-dependent
breast cancer cell line), MDA-MB-231 (ATCC
HTB-26™, non-hormone-dependent breast cancer
cell line) Caov-3(ATCC
HTB-75™, human ovary
cancer cell line), Hela (ATCC
CCL-2TM, human
cervical cancer cell line) and HepG2(ATCC
8065™, human liver cancer cell line) were purchased
from the American Type Culture Collection (ATTC),
USA. Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) tablets were
obtained from AMRESCO INC, Cleveland, Ohio,
USA. The media used was Dulbecco’s Modied
Eagle Medium (DMEM with low glucose and high
glucose) and Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS), penicillin–
streptomycin and trypsin were obtained from Gibco
InvitrogenTM, USA. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-
2-yl) 2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) labelling
reagent was obtained from Molecular Probes
InvitrogenTM, Oregon, USA.
Sample preparation
Flowers of CT were separated from the stem and
sun dried at room temperature (20
C ± 5
C) for 4
days. Plant powders were kept in an airtight polyester
container at -20°C before use.
Proximate analysis
Proximate Analysis was determined by using the
method stipulated by Ofcial Agricultural Chemists
(AOAC) International (1990). The six analyses are
including moisture, ash, fat, protein content, ber and
carbohydrate as well.
Determination of mineral and heavy metals content
by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission
Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES)
The mineral and heavy metal content determined
in the owers of CT included calcium (Ca), zinc
(Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), manganese (Mn),
copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb),
boron (B), calcium (Ca), cobalt (Co), potassium (K),
magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), arsenic (As) and
cadmium (Cd) as well. This analysis was performed
by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical
Emission Spectrophotometry (ICP-OES) (OPTIMA
7000DV, Perkin Elmer, USA).
Digestion and sample preparation
Powder dry samples were weighted 1 gram (n =
3) in microwave digester tubes and digested in (10:1)
mixture of nitric acid 65% (HNO
) and perchloric acid
). Samples were made to undergo digestion
in mineral digester for 60 minutes. After digestion,
a few drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid
(HCl) were added. The solution was heated gently
and then ltrated. Subsequently, the entire ltrate
were transferred into a 100 mL volumetric ask and
marked up with de-ionized water. The dilute ltrate
solutions was transferred into medicine bottles and
then injected into the ICP-OES.
Extraction of sample for anti-proliferative properties
Hot water was used for the aqueous extracts
and methanol was used for the organic extracts.
Extraction was done by soaking the CT owers in
boiling distilled water in the proportion of 1:20 (w/v)
for 4 hours. The resulting crude extracts were ltered
and lyophilized (Huang et al., 2003).
The methanol extract was obtained by maceration
of the powdered owers in 95% methanol for 24
hours. The methanol fraction was collected and the
residual solvent eliminated by reduced pressure
at 40
C by using a rotary evaporator. The residue
obtained was dried in a desiccator until it reached a
constant weight (Wicaksono et al., 2009). The extract
produced was used to screen the antiproliferative
properties and stored at -20
C until use. The extract
was diluted in PBS and then sterilized before assays.
Final serial dilution was contained in DMEM with
20% FBS.
Cell culture
MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, Caov3, Hela and
HepG2 were grown in DMEM with low glucose,
and the Hs27 was grown in DMEM supplemented
with additional 4.5 g/L of glucose that was used as
a comparison. The cells were cultured in the growth
medium (supplemented with 10% FBS and 1%
penicillin-streptomycin) and incubated overnight at
C with 5% CO
using 25 cm
tissue culture asks
(McAteer and Douglas, 1979).
Cell subculture
The cells were grown to 70-80% conuency by the
method of Freshney (1994). Firstly, the old medium
was removed, and subsequently the cells were rinsed
with PBS twice to wash the cells. The subconuent
monolayer was trypsinized and incubated at 37
and 5% CO
for 5 minutes. About 1-2 ml of medium
was added into the ask and the cells were collected
in growth medium containing serum. The cells were
then re-suspended in growth medium, and counted.
The total number of viable cells was counted by a
haemocytometer to prepare the cell suspension. Sixty
microlitres of suspension containing 3 x 10
cells/ ml
was added to each well of a 96-well microtiter plate.
The plate was then incubated overnight at 37
C with
5% CO
Neda et al./IFRJ 20(3):1229-1234
Measurement of the growth inhibitory effect
Each of the cancer cell lines was grown in a 96-
well microtiter plate (Nunc, Denmark) in a volume
of 60 μL culture medium per well. The normal and
cancer cells were then treated with 60 μL extracted of
CT owers, which contained a serial dilution at doses
of 0.78, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg/
mL and the temperature was maintained at 37
C with
for 24–72 hours. The cells in the rst row of the
96-well microtiter plate were feed with fresh growth
medium for control. After the incubation period, 24
μL of MTT - formazan labelling reagent was added
to each well. The microtiter plate was then incubated
again for 4 hours at 37
C with 5% CO
. At the end of
the drug period, the medium and MTT were removed
from all of the wells. Subsequently, the remaining
MTT- formazan crystals were solubilised with 100
μL of acidied-isopropanol. One hundred microlitre
distilled water was added into each well for further
colour development. The absorbance of viable cells
was measured using a spectrophotometric plate reader
(Multiskan spectrum, Thermo Electron Co., Waltham,
Massachusetts, USA) at 570 nm immediately, due to
unstable product. To calculate the IC
, the processes
giving below were followed.
Cell viability (%) = OD of drug- tested sample - OD of Blank x100
OD of Control – OD of Blank
Dose response curve were constructed using
probit analysis (Finney, 1962) on a nney computer
program Bio Stat
2009 (AnalystSoft Inc.,
Vancouver, Canada) to obtain IC
Gas Chromatogram- Mass Spectrometry analysis
GC-MS analyses were conducted to analyze
volatile compounds by using a GC system coupled
to a mass selective detector. The column was VB-1
(30 m x 320 µm). The temperature programming for
the operating condition was: initial oven temperature,
C for 0 min increased up to 260
C at a rate of 10
min and held for 9 min; Injector temperature, 260
split ratio, 100:1; carrier gas, helium, solvent delay
for 1.70 min; transfer temperature, 260
C; ion source
temperature, 260
C and mass range 28 to 400 Da.
Statistical analysis
Results for percentage cell viability were reported
as means ± standard error of triplicate measurements.
Signicant differences for multiple comparisons
were determined by one-way analysis of variance
(ANOVA) followed by Duncan test with α = 0.05
using the SPSS statistical package (ver.19.0).
Results and Discussion
Results of the proximate analysis, mineral and
heavy metal content of the CT owers are presented
in Tables 1. In proximate analysis, the parameters
determined were moisture content, ash, crude fat,
crude protein and crude ber as well. The owers of
CT contained appreciable amount of crude ber (2.1
± 0.2) and fat (2.5 ± 0.1). A dietary pattern containing
low-fat and high-ber products has been associated
with reduced risks of breast cancer (Kushi et al.,
2012; Rabeta et al., 2009). Results also indicate
that the owers of CT are rich in calcium (3.09
mg/g) and magnesium (2.23 mg/g). The potassium,
zinc, sodium and iron concentrations of the owers
on this plant were clearly high (1.25, 0.59, 0.14
and 0.14 mg/g), respectively (p < 0.05) than most
of the other parameters analyzed (< 0.01 mg/g). In
addition, minerals such as calcium and magnessium
are necessary for growth, skeletal development and
other vital processes within the body. Iron is useful
for the prevention of anemia and other related
diseases (Oluyemi et al., 2006) while zinc plays a
role in protein synthesis, normal body development
and recovery from illness (Muhammad et al., 2011).
Deciency of these nutrients and minerals can be
detrimental to human health. The heavy metals
tested were at very low levels thus making the plants
relatively safe for consumption.
Figure 1 shows the percentage inhibition exerted
by the water extracted on normal cell line (Hs27)
and various human cancer-origin cell lines such as,
MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, Caov-3, Hela, and HepG2.
Based on The inhibition of cancer-origin cell lines
increased steadily with increasing concentrations
of the water extract and time duration. Growth
Heavy metal
2.2306±0.13 4
< 0.0001
0.0249±0.00 3
< 0.0001
0.1413±0.00 3
Crude Fibre
< 0.0001
0.5980±0.00 6
Table 1. Proximate analysis, mineral and heavy metal content of owers of CT
Data are mean values ± standard deviation (SD) of triplicate results; for proximate analysis, dry basis and are expressed in percentage (%) and results for
mineral and heavy metal (mg/g).
Neda et al./IFRJ 20(3):1229-1234
inhibition of the cancer origin cell line was most
signicant (p < 0.05) at 72 hours. The water extract
had no effect on normal (non cancer-origin) cell
growth. After treatment with the water extracted,
the inhibition showed more anti proliferations for
MCF7, Caov3, HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 with IC
values of 175.3 µg/mL, 224.5 µg/mL, 236.3 µg/mL,
and 304.7 µg/mL at 72 hours, respectively but the
growth of Hela wasn’t effected with the water extract
(Table 2). Figure 2 emphasizes the growth inhibitory
effect of the methanol extract on MCF-7 cell lines
= 536.01 µg /mL), and MDA-MB-231 cell lines
= 561.3 µg/mL) at the 72 hours mark (p < 0.05).
In contrast, the methanol extracted had no effect
on the growth of Caov-3, Hela and HepG2 (Table
2). The water extracted of CT was found to have a
stronger antiproliferative effect in comparison with
the methanolic extract (p < 0.05). This may be due
to the presence of more active compounds into the
water extract.
Several studies have shown that the cytotoxicity
and anticancer properties of natural plant are mainly
due to the presence of avonoids. Phenolic compounds,
including avonoids are especially promising
candidates for cancer prevention. This could have
contributed to the susceptibility of the cells to be
aqueous extract of CT owers. Furthermore, Rajan et
al., (2011) reported similar result that showed extracts
of petroleum ether from CT had cytotoxic activity
against HepG2 cell line. Shyam Kumar and Bhat
(2011) also added that petroleum ether extracted and
ethanolic extract of CT owers had cytotoxic activity
against the Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) cell
Figure 1. Inhibition of water extract of owers from CT
on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, Caov3, Hela, HepG2 and
Hs27 respectively. A) Treated in 24 hours. B) Treated in
48 hours. C) Treated in 72 hours. Values are expressed as
mean ± standard error (SE) of triplicate measurements. (a,
b, c) Same letters in each concentration are not statistically
signicant from each other at p < 0.05
Table 2. The IC
of water and methanol extract from
owers of CT on cancer cell lines
Cell lines
24 hr
48 hr
72 hr
HepG 2
Using Probit analysis on a nney computer program Bio Stat
Probit analysis is a type of regression used to analyze binomial response variables.
Figure 2. Inhibition of methanol extract of owers from
CT on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, Caov3, Hela, HepG2 and
Hs27 respectively. A) Treated in 24 hours. B) Treated in
48 hours. C) Treated in 72 hours. Values are expressed as
mean ± standard error (SE) of triplicate measurements. (a,
b, c) Same letters in each concentration are not statistically
signicant from each other at p < 0.05
Neda et al./IFRJ 20(3):1229-1234
line. Based on the growth inhibitory properties of the
extracts observed, GC-MS analysis were obtained.
The components presented in the water extract
from owers of CT were mome inositol (38.7%)
and pentanal (14.3%) (Table 3). The GC-MS
chromatogram of the methanol extracte (Table 4)
showed 15 peaks indicating the presence of three
phytochemical constituents. The components
presented in the methanol extract from owers of CT
were mome inositol (33.6%), cyclohexen, 1-methyl-
4-(1-methylethylideme)- (7.1%), acetic acid, cyano-
(6.5%) and hirsutene (5.7%). Furthermore, Studies
from in vitro experiments, animal studies, and limited
clinical experiences, claim that inositol may be used
effectively against some types of cancer, particularly
when used in combination with phytic acid (Vucenik
and Shamsuddin, 2003). These compounds may
be responsible for the anti-cancer activity observed
during in this study. However, further in vivo study is
needed to conrm our ndings and evaluating actual
anti-proliferative properties in the CT owers.
Conclusively, better inhibitions of cancer cell
lines were observed in the water extract (IC
of 175.3
μg/ml for MCF7). Knowing the exact compounds
responsible for the plant’s anticancer properties will
Table 3. Potocomponents identied in the water extract CT owers by GC-MS
Table 4 . Potocomponents identied in the methanol extract from owers of CT by GC-MS
Neda et al./IFRJ 20(3):1229-1234
help in formulating anticancer agents. In addition, it
results from the proximate and mineral constituent
analysis at the plant has provided pertinent information
for food formulations.
We would like to acknowledge the excellent
technical guidance and support Ms. Lam Kit
Lay from Institute for Research in Molecular
Medicine (INFORMM). The authors are thankful
to Universiti Sains Malaysia Short Term Grant
304/PTEKIND/6310065 and School of Industrial
Technology, USM.
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... Parts of the plant are widely used for disease prevention, health promotion, and because they are believed to promote memory and intelligence in the Indian system of medicine, particularly in Ayuverda [16]. Differently in Malaysia, the flowers are consumed to make Nasi Kerabu blue in color, which is a famous local dish [19]. Some sweets, namely kuehs in Malaysia, are colored blue for specific religious occasions. ...
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Due to the beneficial health effects of polyphenolics and their limited stability during inadequate processing conditions, there is an increasing interest in their microencapsulation in order to improve the stability. As previous publications do not include a substantive review focusing on these topics, in the present work, we focused on recent reports on the topic of Clitoria ternatea flower bioactive components and the conditions under which they are microencapsulated for subsequent use in food and nutraceuticals. Our findings highlighted the importance of optimizing the variables of the microencapsulation process for optimal application.
... Menurut Pires et al. (2018) studi tentang penerapan ekstrak tanaman yang kaya akan antosianin sebagai pewarna makanan alami, telah mengalami peningkatan dalam kurun waktu terakhir terkait dengan kepedulian konsumen terhadap kesehatan. Pemakaian aditif seperti pengawet, penyedap buatan, dan pewarna buatan dapat menyebabkan reaksi alergi konsumen, dan senyawa kimia dapat menumpuk di dalamnya tubuh (Goff, D.H., Hartel, 2013) Menurut Neda, senyawa-senyawa yang terkandung dalam bunga telang (Clitoria ternatea L.) berupa kalsium (3.09 mg/g), magnesium (2.23 mg/g), kalium (1.25 mg/g), zinc (0.59 mg/g), sodium (0.14 mg/g) dan zat besi (0.14 mg/g), tanin, flobatanin, karbohidrat, saponin, triterpenoid, polifenol, flavanol glikosida, protein, alkaloid, antrakuinon, antosianin, stigmasit 4-ena-3,6 dion, minyak volatil dan steroid (Neda et al., 2013). Pigmen antosianin dan juga flavonoid dapat memberikan banyak manfaat dibidang kesehatan sebagai antioksidan, antikanker, maupun anti inflamasi. ...
... Although it is found in the study region 58 , its recorded medicinal use comes from Asia where it is used to treat sexually transmitted diseases and as an anti-anxiety medication. 59 Lupeol is a pentacyclic triterpenoid occurring in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, and is a common constituent of balsams, resins and waxes. 60 Lupeol also occurs in several medicinal plants and is known for its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. ...
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The chance discovery of a 500-year-old cattle-horn container in a painted rock shelter on the farm La vie D’Antan in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa sheds new light on the antiquity of traditional medicines in the region. We report the micro-residue and GC-MS results of the solidified substance found inside the horn container. Several plant-based medicinal compounds were tentatively identified, of which mono-methyl inositol and lupeol are the most prevalent. Based on pharmacobotanical studies, we suggest the most probable ailments the medicine would have been used to treat and propose the most likely plants from which the ingredients were sourced. Apart from the rock art, whose contemporaneity has not been established, there is no associated archaeology from which to draw specific cultural associations. Although people clearly have been aware of the medicinal properties of plants for at least the last 200 000 years, this is, to our knowledge, the oldest evidence from southern Africa of a bespoke container that has been used to store multiple combined ingredients of medicinal application. The age of the contents of the horn container, however, could not be independently established, leaving open the possibility that the medicinal container and its contents may not be contemporaneous. Significance: • We present the oldest medicine container yet found in southern Africa combining two or more plant ingredients. • The findings add to our knowledge of traditional Khoisan medicines and the antiquity of this traditional knowledge system.
... The composition of fresh clitoria ternatea consists of 92% water, 0.05% anthocyanins and 98.72% antioxidant activity, (Handito et al., 2022), other active compounds, namely flavonoids, flavonoid glycolsides, kaempferol glycosides, quercetin glycosides, and myricetin glycosides (Purwaniati et al., 2020), water, fat, crude fiber, protein, carbohydrates, and calcium (Neda, Rabeta and Ong, 2013). This anthocyanin substance is believed to help the production of magnesium oxide nanoparticles which are increasingly used in biomedical applications (John Sushma et al., 2016;Oguis et al., 2019). ...
... The experiment was carried out at the has high proximate and mineral constituent profiles that are pertinent in feed formulations (Neda et al., 2013) ...
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Article can be accessed at © Inadequate supply of quality feed remains one of the major challenges facing ruminant production in the tropics. Critical evaluation of the available forages will perhaps help in ameliorating this challenge. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the nutrients and microbial evaluation of varied mixtures of Clitoria ternatea and Panicum maximum. Five treatments: 100% Panicum maximum (100% Pm), 70% Clitoria ternatea + 30% Panicum maximum (70% Ct + 30% Pm), 50% Clitoria ternatea + 50% Panicum maximum (50% Ct + 50% Pm), 30% Clitoria ternatea + 70% Panicum maximum (30% Ct + 70% Pm) and 100% Clitoria ternatea (100% Ct), each replicated thrice were formulated using completely randomized design. Dry matter (DM), Crude protein (CP), Crude fibre (CF), tannin, oxalates, microbial and Ca were determined and subjected to ANOVA at 5% probability. The highest CP (18.87%) and DM (53.90%) were recorded for 100% Ct while the lowest CF content obtained was similar for 100% Ct and 50% Ct + 50% Pm at 14.35 and 16.04%, respectively. Tannin, oxalate and Ca were not affected (P>0.05). Bacterial count was similar up to 50% inclusion of 5 C. ternatea while the least concentrations (2.67 x 10 CFU/g) was observed in 100% Pm. Therefore, mixture at 50% Ct + 50% Pm lowered fiber fraction and anti-nutritional contents and thus has tendency of enhancing feed intake, digestibility and nutrient utilization for better ruminant production. Abstract
... Mome inositol, a polysaccharide, is antiproliferative in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HepG2 and Hs27 cell lines (Mathi et al., 2015). Additionally, Neda et al. (2013) reported the anticancer activity of mome inositol present in Clitoria ternatea flowers. Furthermore, the anticancer effect of campesterol, an ergostane steroid, has been frequently reported in recent years. ...
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Objective: Plants are valuable sources of new pharmaceuticals. Secondary metabolites of the genus Erythrophleum exhibit cytotoxicity and may have therapeutic value. The cytotoxic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Erythrophleum succirubrum Gagnep. against a human cholangiocarcinoma cell line was assessed. Methods: Crude extract of E. succirubrum was prepared by ethanol extraction. The ethanolic leaf extract of E. succirubrum was evaluated for cytotoxicity against the human cholangiocarcinoma cell line KKU-M213 using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. The chemical composition of E. succirubrum leaf extract was analyzed using GC/MS. Result: The ethanolic leaf extract of E. succirubrum reduced the viability of KKU-M213 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It showed high cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 65.22 ± 1.18 µg/mL and 1.19 ± 1.38 µg/mL at exposure times of 24 and 96 h, respectively. GC/MS analysis of the ethanolic leaf extract of E. succirubrum identified 22 components. The main constituents identified were Cyclohexanone, 2-[2-nitro-1-(2-naphthyl)ethyl]-(14.79%) followed by allomycin (14.65%), mome inositol (14.30%), campesterol (11.80%) and ethyl linolenate (10.83%), respectively. Conclusion: Five major groups of compounds were found, with lipids dominating, followed by carbohydrates, benzenoids, phenylpropanoids, polyketides and organoheterocyclic compounds. Many of the bioactive components discovered in the ethanolic leaf extract of E. succirubrum might be responsible for its cytotoxic properties.
Conference Paper
Kombucha tea is a traditional fermented beverage product of tea and sugar solution using kombucha starter culture (Acetobacter xylinum and some types of yeast) that has some health effects, among others, as an antioxidant, antibacterial, endurance improvement, and others. This study aimed to determine the impact of time fermentation on the chemical properties (capacity of antioxidants, sugar content, alcohol content, and pH value), the physical properties (colour), and the organoleptic properties of butterfly pea kombucha tea. This research used explorative and descriptive methods. The treatment was fermentation time: 0-day, 3 days, 6 days and 9 days against chemical, physical, and organoleptic properties of the butterfly pea kombucha. The research design used the Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two repetitions for each treatment. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with a further DMRT test. This study showed that the duration of fermentation affects the antioxidant capacity, sugar content, pH and alcohol content, the colour's physical properties, and the organoleptic properties of butterfly pea kombucha. The results showed that 9 days of the time fermentation had the highest value of colour brightness (L) 20.3875, reddish (a+) 20.195, antioxidant of 42.77600 ppm, alcohol content 0.735% and had a taste organoleptic value of 3.98, and the colour hedonic score of 4.16. Meanwhile, 0-day fermentation had the highest value of a blue colour level (b-) of 2.76, the sugar content of 14.600 %, and had highest aroma organoleptic value of 3.9. A fermentation time of 9 days was not recommended for production.
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Clitoria ternatea is a native plant with medicinal and nutritive significance in Asia. The goal of this work was to examine the antiproliferative role of Clitoria ternatea against colorectal (HCT116), breast (MCF-7), and thyroid (TT) cancer cell lines at cellular and molecular levels. A phytochemical analysis, the cytotoxic effect, an apoptotic induction cell cycle analysis, and the expression level of GAX, DIABLO, and NAIP1 genes were assessed. The plant extract exhibited a clear cytotoxic action against the utilized cancer cell lines via a low IC50, foremost by means of cell cycle arrest at the pre-G0, G1, and S phases associated with an apoptotic induction. An apparent raise in the mRNA levels of GAX and DIABLO and a concomitant decrease in the NAIP1 mRNA level were observed in the used cancer cells treated with the IC50 of the plant extract. This study concluded that an ethanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that it could possibly be utilized as a new source of an apoptosis-inducing anticancer agent for colon, breast, and medullary thyroid cancer cell line treatments with further detailed studies.
This study examined the chemical compounds and bioactivity of the aqueous extract of Clitoria ternatea blue petals and investigated its beneficial effects in vivo on a mouse model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The extract mainly contained flavonoids, and nine compounds were tentatively identified. Male C57BL/6J mice were either fed a standard diet (SD) or a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD) for 16 weeks, and HFFD-fed animals were treated with 0.25%, 0.5%, and 2% (w/w) of the aqueous extract in drinking water. The aqueous extract ameliorated oxidative stress and inflammation mediators. Furthermore, the aqueous extract reduced plasma leptin, free fatty acid, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and hepatic malondialdehyde content. The aqueous extract significantly reduced total cholesterol and ameliorated insulin resistance. The results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of C. ternatea blue petals contains bioactive anthocyanins that exert substantial hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects by promoting reverse cholesterol transport in HFFD-fed mice.
This research was aimed to determine the effect of addition of blue butterfly pea extract on the characteristics of marshmallow and to determine the concentration of blue butterfly pea extract that produced the best characteristics of marshmallow. This research used completely randomized design with concentration of blue butterfly pea extract as treatments, which consisted of five levels: 0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, and 1.2%. The observed parameters include the physical, chemical, and sensory properties. The result showed that the five concentrations of blue butterfly pea extract had a significant effect on texture, color intensity, water content, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, color (scoring and hedonic), flavor, texture, aroma, overall acceptance (hedonic) of the product. Selected product was marshmallow with the addition of 1.2% blue butterfly pea extract. The product has texture parameters of 1.28 N, color intensity L 16.71, a* 11.68, b* 7.62, 1.36% water, 1.48 mg/100 g anthocyanin, 43.50% antioxidant activity, blue color and liked, aroma, taste and overall acceptance were liked.
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CLAUSINE B, A CARBAZOLE ALKALOID ISOLATED FROM THE STEM BARK OF CLAUSENA EXCAVATA, WAS INVESTIGATED FOR ITS ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITIES AGAINST FIVE HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES: HepG2 (hepatic cancer), MCF-7 (hormone-dependent breast cancer), MDA-MB-231 (non-hormone-dependent breast cancer), HeLa (cervical cancer), and CAOV3 (ovarian cancer). Chang liver (normal cells) was used as a control. The effect of clausine-B was measured using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Clausine-B was found to be active (IC(50)<30 μg/mL) against four of the cancer cell lines tested. The IC(50) values for these four lines were: 21.50 μg/mL (MDA-MB-231), 22.90 g/ml (HeLa), 27.00 μg/mL (CAOV3) and 28.94 μg/mL (HepG2). Clausine-B inhibited the MCF-7 cancer cell line at 52.90 μg/mL, and no IC(50) value was obtained against Chang liver. It is possible that the phenolic group in clausine-B responsible for the antiproliferative activities found in this study.
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The Pulp of Gardenia aqualla fruit was analyzed for nutritional and anti-nutritional composition. The results obtained were moisture content (80.33%), ash (5.00%), crude lipid (1.70%), crude protein (3.85%), crude fibre (trace), available carbohydrate (89.45%) and the energy value (388.50 kcal/100 g). Elemental analyses shows that Sodium is the most abundant element (203.33 mg/100 g) while manganese is the least (0.2 mg/100 g), Lead was also detected (0.37 mg/100 g). The anti-nutritional parameters analyzed include; Phytate (26.57 mg/100 g), Soluble Oxalate (1.70 mg/100 g), Saponin (1.50 mg/100 g), Nitrate (0.38 mg/100 g) while Hydrocyanic acid content are (1.14 mg/100 g). The antinutrients to nutrients ratio indicate the bioavailability of some important minerals except in the case of [Phytate][Fe] and [Phytate][Ca] in the pulp which are found to reach the critical levels and therefore are expected to hinder Iron and Calcium bioavailability in the pulp.
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Cancer patients' knowledge about cancer and experiences with its treatment play an important role in long-term adherence in their disease management. This study aimed to explore cancer patients' knowledge about cancer, their perceptions of conventional therapies and the factors that contribute to medication adherence in the Malaysian population. A qualitative research approach was adopted to gain a better understanding of the current perceptions and knowledge held by cancer patients. Twenty patients were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. A saturation point was reached after the 18th interview, and no new information emerged with the subsequent 2 interviews. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by means of a standard content analysis framework. The majority of patients related the cause of their cancer to be God's will. Participants perceived conventional therapies as effective due to their scientific methods of preparations. A fear of side effects was main reasons given for delay in seeking treatment; however, perceptions were reported to change after receiving treatment when effective management to reduce the risk of side effects had been experienced. This study provides basic information about cancer patients' perceptions towards cancer and its treatment. These findings can help in the design of educational programs to enhance awareness and acceptances of cancer screening. Priorities for future research should focus on patients who refused the conventional therapies at any stage.
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Purpose: To investigate the anti-cancer properties of the methanol extract of Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav. leaves and its mode of action in human breast cancer (T47D) cells. Methods: The anti-cancer property and mechanism of action of the extract were evaluated by its effect on cell viability, nuclear morphology, cell cycle progression and the expression of phosphorylated p44/p42 as a marker for cell proliferation. Results: The results showed that there was a reduction of cell viability by the extract in a concentration-dependent manner and no alteration of nuclear morphology was observed. There were negligible changes in Sub-G1 phase formation after extract treatment. Expression of phosphorylated p44/42 was decreased by the extract only. Inclusion of the extract in the incubation medium decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of p44/p42 indicating that the anti-proliferative effect of the extract was via p44/p42 pathway. Conclusion: All together, the data indicate that P. crocatum methanol extract inhibits the growth of human breast cancer (T47D) cells via inhibition of p44/p42 phosphorylation.
The Sodium, Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper and Zinc contents of twentyone commonly consumed Nigerian food samples, classified as cereals, legumes, root & tuber and fruits & vegetables were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry methods. The mineral content of the food samples varied widely from one food sample to another even within a similar class of food materials. For example, Calcium contents in cereals ranges between trace amount in maize to 7.51μg/g in millet whereas, the Ca content of legumes ranges from 7.10μg/g in groundnut to 84.51μg/g in soya beans. Cereals and legumes are seen to be better sources of mineral elements than foods in the category of root, tuber, fruit and vegetables.
This study is to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effect of petroleum ether and ethanolic flower extracts of Clitoria ternatea Linn by using trypan blue dye exclusion method. Both extracts exhibit significant cell cytotoxic activity. Phytochemical screening of petroleum ether extract reveals the presence of steroids, triterpinoids, tannins, saponins, while in ethanolic extract shows the presence of flavanoids.
Butterfly pea, Clitoria ternatea is used in Africa as a companion crop and in the United States as an ornamental. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates 28 butterfly pea accessions. Butterfly pea accessions were transplanted from about 30-day-old seedlings to the field in Griffin, GA around 01 June 1999, 2003, 2006–2007 or directly sown in 2001. At 50% maturity, 19 accessions were characterized for morphology, phenology, and evaluated for regeneration. High quality plants regenerated from all accessions produced 6 to more than 3,400 total seeds. Butterfly pea can be successfully grown and regenerated in Griffin, GA. Coefficients of variation and principal component analysis revealed considerable variability among accessions for morphological and reproductive traits. Butterfly pea has potential to be used as a nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, or food. The flavonoid quercetin has been shown to reduce upper respiratory infections in humans while delphinidin and malvidin identified in butterfly pea flowers may inhibit various forms of cancer.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and, ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These Guidelines, published approximately every 5 years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and they reflect the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS Guidelines focus on recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or creates barriers to healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents recommendations for community action to accompany the 4 recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. These recommendations for community action recognize that a supportive social and physical environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. The ACS Guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes, as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.
Two new coumarins, 1 and 2, along with four known coumarins (3-6) have been isolated from Corydalis heterocarpa. On the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods, compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated as (2'S,7'S)-O-2-methylbutanoyl-columbianetin and (2'S)-columbianetin-3'-sulfate, respectively. The anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cells of compounds 1-6 isolated from C. heterocarpa was evaluated using a MTT assay and by mRNA expression of several factors related to apoptosis. Among them, compound 2 exerted the more potent anti-proliferative activity compared with the other compounds treated. The potent inhibitory effect of compound 2 was produced by induction of apoptosis through activating Bax, p53 and p21 expressions.