When Should Commence Dialysis: Focusing on the Predialysis Condition

SCDO Nephrology and Dialysis, C.T.O./Maria Adelaide Hospital, Turin, Italy.
Nephro-urology monthly 03/2013; 5(2):723-7. DOI: 10.5812/numonthly.5435
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as defined by the NFK-KDOQI (the national kidney foundation kidney disease outcomes quality initiative) guidelines, is a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or the presence of microalbuminuria. CKD is increasing worldwide, leading to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There is general agreement on the importance of an early referral to a nephrologist and predialysis educational programs. Establishing the protocol for an early approach may assist in preventing the progression, and the most common complications of renal disease.
Predialysis education helps patients in order to choose a renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, transplantation) and improve their quality of life. Furthermore, adequate predialysis care allows the nephrologist to promptly prepare for vascular or peritoneal treatment. Regrettably, patients are often referred to the nephrologist when renal failure is already fall in the advanced stage. This is caused primarily by non-nephrologists failing to identify patients at risk for imminent renal failure. Furthermore, they may be defining the patient’s degree of renal failure according to the KDOQI classification. To further complicate matters, the serum creatinine alone does not provide an adequate estimate of renal function; however, both the MDRD (the modification of diet in renal disease) equation and the Cockcroft-Gault formula permit the more reliable and accurate estimation of the all-important glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Using the MDRD equation, the KDOQI guidelines recommend referral when GFR is less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Late nephrology referral is an independent risk factor for early death while on dialysis; it is also associated with a more frequent use of temporary catheters, particularly in the elderly individuals. This subject underlines the importance of a multidisciplinary predialysis approach that may bring additional benefits – beyond referral to a nephrologist – including a reduced hospitalization period and a lower mortality rate.
The KDOQI guidelines recommend evaluating the benefits and risks of starting renal replacement therapy when patients reach stage 5 (estimated GFR less than 15 mL/min/1.73 m2), although the ideal period for initiation of the replacement therapy remained a source of debate.

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    ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis patients have lower quality of life and one of the ways to improve their quality of life is providing self-care education to them using some models including self-care model. This study aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of using self-care model on health and quality of life outcomes in hemodialysis patients. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in 2012 on the patients who were referred to a military hospital in Tehran, Iran to be treated with hemodialysis. All 32 patients referred to this hospital in 2012 were selected and studied. Required data were collected using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) standard questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire. The educational intervention was implemented using self-care model. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 18.0 and some statistical tests including paired samples t-test, Wilcoxon and McNemar tests. The results showed that the mean and standard deviation (SD) of patients' parameters including weight and blood pressure improved significantly after the educational intervention compared to before the intervention (P < 0.001). Also, all dimensions of the quality of life of hemodialysis patients, including physical function, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social function, mental health, and role emotional improved compared to those before the intervention (P < 0.001). Implementing the self-care model increased the quality of life of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, the use of this model in hemodialysis patients is recommended.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · International Journal of Health Promotion and Education