ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume , Article ID , pages.//
Clinical Study
A Single Consumption of High Amounts of the Brazil Nuts
Improves Lipid Profile of Healthy Volunteers
Elisângela Colpo,1,2 Carlos Dalton de Avila Vilanova,1Luiz Gustavo Brenner Reetz,3
Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte,1,4 Iria Luiza Gomes Farias,3Edson Irineu Muller,1
Aline Lima Hermes Muller,1Erico Marlon Moraes Flores,1
Roger Wagner,5and João Batista Teixeira da Rocha1
1Department of Chemistry, Natural and Exact Sciences Centers, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM),
2Department of Nutrition, Center Franciscan University (UNIFRA), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
3Clinical Laboratory Analysis, University Hospital, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
4Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
5Department of Technology and Food and Science, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
Correspondence should be addressed to Jo˜
ao Batista Teixeira da Rocha;
Received  April ; Revised  May ; Accepted  May 
Academic Editor: Cindy Davis
Copyright ©  Elisˆ
angela Colpo et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
Background. is study investigates the eects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid prole in healthy volunteers. Methods.Ten
healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested  times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion
of dierent serving sizes of the Brazil nut: , , , or g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at
, , , , , and  hours and  and  days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein,
alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A signicant increase of the plasma selenium
levels was observed at  hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was signicantly lower, whereas HDL-c was
signicantly higher  hours aer the ingestion of  or  g of nuts. e biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were
not modied by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. is study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely
improve the serum lipid prole of healthy volunteers.
1. Background
Selenium is an essential nutrient for human health [], and its
biological functions are mediated by the expression of about
 selenoproteins which have selenocysteine at their active
centers []. Some selenoproteins, for example, glutathione
peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), are im-
portant antioxidant enzymes [,]. However, high acute
selenium ingestion can be toxic to mammals, and epidemio-
logical observations have suggested that dietary overexposure
to selenium increases the prevalence of chronic degenerative
diseases such as type  diabetes, a myotrophic lateral sclerosis,
and neoplasias [,,].
Selenoproteins can promote cardiovascular benets pos-
sibly via their antioxidant properties. Some isoforms of GPx
are known for being able to prevent the oxidative modi-
cation of lipids (including those found in lipoproteins),
inhibit platelet aggregation, and modulate inammation by
reducing the peroxide tonus [,,]. Additionally, some
animals as well as epidemiological studies in humans have
identied a putative protective role of some GPx isoforms
against cardiovascular damage [,,]. However, some large
randomized trials investigating the eects of the adminis-
tration of selenium containing supplements have failed to
show a signicant protective eect on cardiovascular disease
and mortality []. On the other hand, a meta-analysis
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
T : Anthropometric and biochemical variables baselines of subjects.
Characteristic Men (𝑛=6)Women(𝑛=4) Reference
Weight (Kg) ±. . ±.
BMI (Kg/m) . ±. . ±. .–.
Plasma selenium (𝜇gL).±. . ±.  ±.–±
Leucocytes (/mm).±. . ±. .–
Hematocrit (%) . ±. . ±. §: –
Hemoglobin (g/dL) . ±. . ±§: .–.
|: .–.
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) . ±.    .  ±.    –  
Albumin (g/dL) . ±. . ±. .–.
Total protein (g/dL) . ±. . ±. –
Cholesterol total (mg/dL)  ±.  ±. <
HDL-c (mg/dL) . ±. . ±. 
LDL-c (mg/dL) . ±. . ±. <
Triglycerides (mg/dL) . ±. . ± <
Results are expressed as mean ±S.D. §: masculine; |: females.
of  observational studies showed a signicant inverse
association between selenium status with the risk of coronary
heart disease (CHD), particularly within populations with
low selenium intake or status []. A positive association
between plasma selenium levels with lower atherogenic index
(a reliable indicator of predisposition to heart diseases [])
has been suggested in nutritional surveys among Japanese
[], Indians [], and Koreans [].
depending on several factors such as the soil in which they
and the usage of Se-containing fertilizers []. Selenium
concentration in Brazil nut varies between and  𝜇g/g
humans [].Brazilnutisalsoagoodsourceofother
nutrients, including unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, ber,
magnesium, phosphorus, thiamin, niacin, vitamin E, vitamin
oily endosperm contains about % monounsaturated fatty
acids (MUFA) [].
As pointed out above, Se consumption and selenoen-
zymes (particularly GPx) have been associated with cardio-
vascular protection in rodents and humans [,,,].
Brazil nut has a high content of selenium and could, therefore,
have cardioprotective eects. In addition, dierent types of
nuts such as peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and macadamia nuts,
among others, have been shown to modulate the lipid prole
in both unhealthy as well as healthy subjects []. is
benecial eect has been attributed to the high levels of
MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in nuts
Fatty acids from nuts are important contributors to the
benecial health eects which protect from the development
of CHD []. Willett et al. [] reported that high MUFA
diets are associated with a reduced cardiovascular disease-
associated mortality. Recently, a few studies have indicated
a benecial eect of long-term Brazil nut intake on serum
cholesterol among obese and nonobese subjects [,,].
However, the acute eects of the ingestion of Brazil nut on
the atherogenic index of healthy subjects have not yet been
evaluated. In this study, we investigate the eects of moderate
to high amount Brazil nut ingestion on lipid prole, hepatic
and kidney biochemical parameters in healthy volunteers
to determine either benecial or potentially toxic eect of
2. Methods
2.1. Study Subjects. Fieen healthy subjects ( men and 
women) were initially recruited at the Universidade Fed-
eral de Santa Maria, Brazil. Study candidates (– years
old) were evaluated based on their self-reported medical
history and laboratory tests. Early in the study, two male
and one female subjects were excluded due to high acute
alcohol intake. Two female subjects were diagnosed with
hypothyroidism and were, therefore, excluded. Body weight
was measured to the nearest . kg using a digital scale,
and height was measured to the nearest . cm using a
wall-mounted stadiometer. e body mass index (BMI)
(kilograms per square meter) was calculated, and the subjects
were classied according to the World Health Organization
guidelines []. e demographics and baseline test results of
the  selected participants ( men and  women) are shown
in Table . is study has been reviewed and approved by the
Universidade Federal de Santa Marias Internal Review Board
(no. ...-), and informed consent was obtained
from all participants.
2.2. Experimental Design. Each subject was tested  times
following a randomized crossover regarding the administra-
tion of the dierent amounts of Brazil nut: , , , and  g.
Two L a t in squar es of  × for the  treatments were used to
randomize participants into  orders of treatment. Prior to
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
each treatment, the volunteers underwent a -day washout
2.3. Brazil Nut Diet. e volunteers were given instructions
by a nutritionist to exclude Se-rich foods from their diets
(eggs, egg yolks, garlic, Brazil nut, whole wheat cereal, viscera,
etc.) throughout the blood sampling period.
e volunteers were given a balanced diet with daily
energy requirement of  kcal/kg/day, a diet normocaloric.
We applied -hour dietary recall ( hDR) and food fre-
quency questionnaires (FFQ) aer the last blood sampling to
verify the types of foods consumed during the study period.
According to the United States Department of Agriculture—
USDA, Brazil nut contains (per  g) . g of protein, . g
of carbohydrates, . g of total fat (. g SFA, . g MUFA,
and  g PUFA), and . g of dietary ber, for a total of , kJ
2.4. Se Determination in Brazil Nut. Samples with mass up to
 was weighed, transferred to quartz vessels together with
 mL of concentrated nitric acid. e vessels were heated in a
microwave oven with maximum temperature and pressure of
2.5. Lipid Determination in Brazil Nut. e extraction of
Brazil nut was performed according to the method described
by Bligh and Dyer [], grinding a known amount of Brazil
nuts in the presence of a methanol/chloroform ( :  v/v) mix-
ture at  mL/g of fresh weight. e fatty acid methyl esters
were analyzed by a gas chromatograph using a procedure
described by Christie []. e results were expressed as
relative percent of total fatty acids according to Visentainer
2.6. Blood Samples Collection. Blood samples were collected
by venous puncture prior to and at , , , , , and 
hours and  and  days aer the ingestion of nuts. Except
for the - and -hour time points, all volunteers were at
a -hour fasting period for the collection of blood. Blood
samples were collected by venous puncture into Vacutainer
(BD Diagnostics, Plymouth, UK) tubes with no anticoagulant
and EDTA anticoagulant. Blood samples stored in ice were
routinely centrifuged within h aer collection at  ×g
to assess fasting glucose, total cholesterol (TC), high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, aspartate and
alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT, resp.), albumin,
total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, cre-
atinine, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Aliquots of plasma
samples were then stored at Cforuptoweeksbefore
the analyses.
2.7. Blood Tests. Hemoglobin levels and hematocrit were
determined in a Cobas Micros system (Hematology Analyzer,
Roche Diagnostics). Fasting glucose, TC, HDL-c, triglyc-
erides, AST, ALT, albumin, total protein, alkaline phos-
phatase, gamma-GT, urea, creatinine, and CRP measure-
ments were performed using Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics
reagents on a fully automated analyzer (Vitros  dry chem-
istry system, Johnson & Johnson, Rochester, NY, USA). Low-
density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) was calculated using
2.8. Atherogenic Index (AI) Determination. e atherogenic
index was calculated as the ratio between total cholesterol
and HDL-c or as the ratio between LDL-c and HDL-c
concentrations according to Kinosian et al. []andLemieux
et al. [].
2.9. Se Concentration in Plasma. e plasma Se concentra-
tion was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry
with graphite furnace atomizer (GFAAS) and Zeeman Eect
background correction. Samples were diluted with Triton
X-. Palladium chemical modier, wavelength . nm,
pyrolysis temperature C, and atomization temperature
2.10. Statistical Analysis. Data are expressed as mean ±Stan-
dard Deviation (SD). e statistical analysis was performed
using analysis of variance with measure repeated (ANOVA)
and nonparametric tests (Wilcoxon). Descriptive statistics
was performed for all baseline characteristics. Dierences
were considered signicant when 𝑃 < 0.05.
3. Results
e volunteers included in the study were . ±. years old
(range – years old). Demographic, anthropometric, and
laboratory characteristics are listed in Table .
e average Se concentration in Brazil nut was .
±. 𝜇g/g. erefore, the net Se intake was about  𝜇g,
 𝜇g, and 𝜇g for the groups ingesting , , and  g of
nuts, respectively. e estimated fat intake from nuts is shown
in Table .
e biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function
in he a l thy v ol u nt e ers, su c h a s AS T, A LT, a l k alin e p h o sp ha t as e,
Gama GT, urea, and creatinine, were not modied by inges-
tion of nuts, indicating an absence of hepatic and renal
toxicity of high amounts of Brazil nuts intake. PCR was also
evaluated, and there was no change in its levels aer ingestion
of Brazil nuts (data not shown).
Plasma selenium levels were signicantly increased in all
groups  hours aer the ingestion of Brazil nut. Moreover, at
the highest dose ( g) the Se increase was evident starting
at as early as  h and remained above baseline levels for up to
 h (Figure ). At  hours, the plasma Se levels did not dier
from its baseline concentration (Figure ).
Serum LDL-c levels were signicantly lower starting at 
hours aer the ingestion of nuts within the groups receiving
 or  g and reached a steady level at  hours (Figure ).
Subjects that consumed higher amounts of Brazil nut exhib-
ited an increase in HDL-c starting at  hours aer the intake
which reached a stable level at  days (Figure ,𝑃 < 0.05).
Interestingly, the ingestion of  g of Brazil nut deter-
mined a more pronounced decrease in LDL-c levels as well
as a higher increase in HDL-c than did  g. ese results
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
T : Fatty acids composition of the Brazil nut.
Fatty acids g/ g SD
C: . .
C: . .
C: . .
C: . .
C: . .
Total . .
C: . .
C:n cis . .
C: . .
Total . .
C:n cis . .
C:n . .
C:n . .
Total . .
MUFA: monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids;
SFA: saturated fatty acids.
0g Brazil nut
5g Brazil nut
20 g Brazil nut
50 g Brazil nut
Plasma selenium
Basal 1h3h6h9h24 h48 h5days 30 days
Plasma (𝜇g/L)
F : Plasma levels of selenium in healthy volunteers aer
consumption of the Brazil nut. Measures repeated—ANOVA and
Wilcoxon tests.
suggest that eating an average of  nuts might be enough to
improve the levels of LDL-c and HDL-c for up to  days.
Accordingly, the AI (TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c ratio)
was decreased in subjects that consumed  and  g of Brazil
nut (𝑃 < 0.05, data not shown). Serum triglycerides and total
cholesterol did not signicantly vary (𝑃 > 0.05)withinthe
study time frame (data not shown).
Even though the measured plasma Se concentrations did
not signicantly vary following the ingestion of , , or  g
of nuts, changes in LDL-c and HDL-c were only observed
with the ingestion of  or  g which persisted for up to 
days. ese results raise the question of whether the benecial
eects of Brazil nut on the atherogenic index may be due
to factors other than selenium (MUFA and PUFA perhaps),
0g Brazil nut
5g Brazil nut
20 g Brazil nut
50 g Brazil nut
Basal 1h3h6h9h24 h48 h5days 30 days
tion of the Brazil nut. Measure repeated—ANOVA and Wilcoxon
0g Brazil nut
5g Brazil nut
20 g Brazil nut
50 g Brazil nut
Basal 1h3h6h9h24 h48 h5days 30 days
tion of the Brazil nut. Measure repeated—ANOVA and Wilcoxon
highlighting the importance of studying the separate and
combined eect of selenium and fatty acids on atherogenic
4. Discussion
Regular nut intake has been associated with many health
benets in adults [,,].eresultsofthisstudysupport
the notion that the consumption of a single serving of nuts
can acutely benecially modify serum lipids.
Contrasting with diets rich in SFA, MUFA- and PUFA-
rich foods are potentially benecial for health []. Nuts are
generally low in saturated fatty acids and high in unsatu-
rated fatty acids []. Unsaturated fatty acids (both mono-
and polyunsaturated) have been shown to reduce serum
TC zand LDL-c. Brazil nut is a good source of unsaturated fat
(% MUFA). However, despite knowing that the Brazil
nut has high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids when
compared with other nuts such as macadamias, almonds,
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
walnuts, pecans, pistachios, and peanuts, the Brazil nut has
a relatively higher content of SFAs.
erefore, the increase in HDL-c observed in this present
study may be attributed to the higher MUFA and SFA content
in Brazil nut []. According to Riccardi et al. [], SFA
and MUFA increase HDL-c, whereas high intakes of PUFA
decrease HDL-c. Unsaturated fatty acids have been shown to
increaseHDL-clessthanSFAsdo[]. Furthermore, while
the unsaturated fatty acid prole of nuts (high MUFA and
PUFA) is thought to mediate the majority of the benecial
eects of nuts on serum lipids, other components such as ber
and selenium might contribute to these eects [,,,].
Many studies have shown that chronic intake of varying
trations of Se and improve lipid prole [,,].
A meta-analysis by Flores-Mateo et al. []basedonsev-
eral observational studies pointed to an inverse correlation
between plasma selenium concentrations and coronary heart
disease incidence. But the validity of such correlations needs
further conrmation. Stranges et al. []concludedthat
an increase in plasma selenium in adult population was
associated with increased total and non-HDL cholesterol
levels but not with HDL-c. Moreover, evidence showing that
low selenium status is a cardiovascular risk factor must still
be considered provisional.
In conclusion, the results obtained here suggest that the
consumption of a single serving of Brazil nut is sucient to
improve the lipid prole of healthy volunteers (lowered LDL-
c and raised HDL-c), without producing hepatic and renal
toxicity of high amounts of Brazil nuts intake. However, fur-
ther investigation is needed to validate the benecial eects
of Brazil nut because here we have used a small number
of subjects. In addition, it is also important to evaluate the
isolated and combined eects of selenium and/or unsaturated
fatty acids found in Brazil nuts on atherogenic parameters
in order to better understand their mechanistic role in
modulating cardiac indexes in healthy and dyslipidemic
subjects. In addition, the evaluation of the eects of chronic
consumption of Brazil nuts and the inclusion of dyslipidemic
patients are paths to be followed.
GPx: Glutathione peroxidase
TrxR: ioredoxin reductase
CHD: Coronary heart disease
MUFA: Monounsaturated fatty acids
PUFA: Polyunsaturated fatty acids
SFA: Saturated fatty acids
BMI: Body mass index
 hDR: -hour dietary recall ( hDR)
FFQ: Food frequency questionnaires
TC: Total cholesterol
HDL-c: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
LDL-c: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
AI: Atherogenic index
AST: Aspartate aminotransferases
ALT: Alanine aminotransferases
CRP: C-reactive protein.
Conflict of Interests
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that
Authors’ Contribution
ao Batista Teixeira da Rocha designed the research, ana-
lyzed and interpreted data and wrote the paper; Elisˆ
Colpo, Carlos Dalton de Avila Vilanova, Luiz Gustavo Bren-
ner Reetz, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Iria Luiza
Gomes Farias, Edson Irineu Muller, Aline Lima Hermes
Muller, Erico Marlon Moraes Flores, and Roger Wagner
conducted the research, compiled and interpreted the data,
is work was nanced by grants received from the Na-
tional Counsel of Technological and Scientic Development
[] M. P. Rayman, H. G. Infante, and M. Sargent, “Food-chain
selenium and human health: spotlight on speciation,British
Journal of Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] G.V.Kryukov,S.Castellano,S.V.Novoselovetal.,“Character-
ization of mammalian selenoproteomes,Science,vol.,no.
, pp. –, .
[] C. W. Nogueira and J. B. T. Rocha, “Toxicology and phar-
macology of selenium: emphasis on synthetic organoselenium
compounds,Archives of Toxicology,vol.,no.,pp.,
D. L. Hateld, “Mouse models targeting selenocysteine tRNA
expression for elucidating the role of selenoproteins in health
and development,” Molecules,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] R. F. Burk and K. E. Hill, “Regulation of selenoproteins,”Annual
Review of Nutrition,vol.,pp.,.
metabolism and function: evidence for more than one function
for selenoprotein P,Journal of Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.
S–S, .
[] M. P. Rayman, “Selenium and human health,e Lancet,vol.
[] M. Vinceti, T. Maraldi, M. Bergomi, and C. Malagoli, “Risk of
chronic low-dose selenium overexposure in humans: insights
from epidemiology and biochemistry,Reviews on Environmen-
tal Health,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] M. Vinceti, F. Bonvicini, K. J. Rothman, L. Vescovi, and F.
Wang, “e relation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and
inorganic selenium in drinking water: a population-based case-
control study,Environmental Health,vol.,no.,pp.,
[] H. Tapiero, D. M. Townsend, and K. D. Tew, “e antioxidant
role of selenium and seleno-compounds,Biomedicine and
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
[] A. F. D. Bem, M. Farina, R. D. L. Portella et al., “Diphenyl
diselenide, a simple glutathione peroxidase mimetic, inhibits
human LDL oxidation in vitro,” Atherosclerosis,vol.,no.,
pp. –, .
[] S. Blankenberg, H. J. Rupprecht, C. Bickel et al., “Glutathione
peroxidase  activity and cardiovascular events in patients with
coronary artery disease,e New England Journal of Medicine,
[] M. Torzewski, V. Ochsenhirt, A. L. Kleschyov et al., “De-
ciency of glutathione peroxidase- accelerates the progressionof
atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-decient mice,Arterioscle-
rosis, rombosis, and Vascular Biology,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
[] G. Flores-Mateo, A. Navas-Acien, R. Pastor-Barriuso, and E.
Guallar, “Seleniumand coronary heart dis ease: a meta-analysis,
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
[] S. Stranges, J. R. Marshall, M. Trevisan et al., “Eects of
selenium supplementation on cardiovascular disease incidence
and mortality: secondary analyses in a randomized clinical
trial,American Journal of Epidemiology,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
[] S. M. Lippman, E. A. Klein, P. J. Goodman et al., “Eect of
selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other
cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial
vol. , no. , pp. –, .
[] J.-P. Despr´
es, I. Lemieux, G.-R. Dagenais, B. Cantin, and B.
Lamarche, “HDL-cholesterol as a marker of coronary heart
ebec cardiovascular study,Atherosclerosis,
vol. , no. , pp. –, .
[] Y. Miyazaki, H. Koyama, M. Nojiri, and S. Suzuki, “Relationship
of dietary intake of sh and non-sh selenium to serum lipids
in Japanese rural coastal community,” Journal of Trace Elements
in Medicine and Biology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] K. Hughes and C.-N. Ong, “Vitamins, selenium, iron, and
coronary heart disease risk in Indians, Malays, and Chinese in
Singapore,Journal of Epidemiolog y and Community Health,vol.
[] O. Lee, J. Moon, and Y. Chung, “ e relationship between serum
selenium levels and lipid proles in adult women,Journal of
[] A. P. Vonderheide, K. Wrobel, S. S. Kannamkumarath et
al., “Characterization of selenium species in Brazil nuts by
HPLC-ICP-MS and ES-MS,Journal of Agricultural and Food
Chemistry, vol. , no. , pp. –, .
[] E.Dumont,L.dePauw,F.Vanhaecke,andR.Cornelis,“Spe-
ciation of Se in Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut): a hard nut to
crack?” Food Chemistry,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] J. C. Chang, W. B. Gutemann, C. M. Reid, and D. J. Lisk,
“Selenium content of brazil nuts from two geographic locations
in Brazil,Chemosphere,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] S. S. Kannamkumarath, K. Wrobel, K. Wrobel, A. Vonderheide,
and J. A. Caruso, “HPLC-ICP-MS determination of selenium
distribution and speciation in dierent types of nut,Analytical
and Bioanalytical Chemistry,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] E. Bod´
o, Z. Stef´
anka, I. Ipolyi, C. S¨
P. Fodor, “Preparation, homogeneity and stability studies of a
candidate LRM for Se speciation,Analytical and Bioanalytical
[] J. Yang, “Brazil nuts and associated health benets: a review,
LWT—Food Science and Technology,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
[] M.A.Forgione,A.Cap,R.Liaoetal.,“Heterozygouscellular
glutathione peroxidase deciency in the mouse: abnormalities
in vascular and cardiac function and structure,Circulation,vol.
, no. , pp. –, .
[] J. H. Kelly Jr. and J. Sabat´
e, “Nuts and coronary heart disease: an
epidemiological perspective,e British Journal of Nutrition,
vol. , pp. S–S, .
[] F. McKiernan, P. Lokko, A. Kuevi et al., “Eects of peanut
processing on body weight and fasting plasma lipids,British
Journal of Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] M. Bes-Rastrollo, N. M. Wedick, M. A. Martinez-Gonzalez,
consumption, long-term weight change, and obesity risk in
women,American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,vol.,no.,
pp. –, .
[] J. Sabat´
D. Lindsted, “Eects of walnuts on serum lipid levels and blood
pressure in normal men,e New England Journal of Medicine,
vol. , no. , pp. –, .
consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women:
prospective cohort study,British Medical Journal,vol.,no.
, pp. –, .
[] J. Sabat´
coronary heart disease,Current Opinion in Lipidology,vol.,
no. , pp. –, .
Skea, “Cholesterol lowering eects of nuts compared with a
Canola oil enriched cereal of similar fat composition,Nutrition,
Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
[] J. Sabat´
e, K. Oda, and E. Ros, “Nut consumption and blood lipid
levels: a pooled analysis of  intervention trials,” Archives of
Internal Medicine,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] C.Cominetti,M.C.deBortoli,A.B.GarridoJr.,andS.M.
Cozzolino, “Brazilian nut consumption improves selenium sta-
tus and glutathione peroxidase activity and reduces atherogenic
risk in obese women,Nutrition Research,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
Cozzolino, and R. C. Maranh˜
ao, “Brazil nut ingestion increased
plasma selenium but had minimal eects on lipids, apolipopro-
teins, and high-density lipoprotein function in human subjects,
Nutrition Research,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] E. Ros and J. Mataix, “Fatty acid composition of nuts—
implications for cardiovascular health,e British Journal of
[] W. C. Willett, F. Sacks, A. Trichopoulou et al., “Mediterranean
diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating,American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.SS,
[] P. A. Maranh˜
ao, L. G. Kraemer-Aguiar, C. L. de Oliveira et
al., “Brazil nuts intake improves lipid prole, oxidative stress
and microvascular function in obese adolescents: a randomized
controlled trial,Nutrition and Metabolism,vol.,pp.,
[] WHO, Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic:
Report of a WHO Consultation, WHO Technical Report Series,
no. , WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, .
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
[] USDA National nutrient database for standard reference, ,
[] E. G. Bligh and W. J. Dyer, “A rapid method of total lipid
extraction and purication,Canadian Journal of Biochemistry
and Physiology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] W. W. Christie, “A simple procedure for rapid transmethylation
of glycerolipids and cholesteryl esters,Journal of Lipid Research,
[] J. V. Visentainer, “Aspectos anal´
ıticos da resposta do detector de
ao em chama para ´
esteres de ´
acidos graxos em biodiesel
e alimentos,Qu´
ımica Nova,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] W. T. Friedewald, R. I. Levy, and D. S. Fredrickson, “Estimation
of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in
plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge,Clinical
[] B. Kinosian, H. Glick, and G. Garland, “Cholesterol and
coronary heart disease: predicting risk by levels and ratios,
Annals of Internal Medicine,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] I. Lemieux, B. Lamarche, C. Couillard et al., “Total choles-
terol/HDL cholesterol ratio vs LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol
ratio as indices of ischemic heart disease risk in men,Archives
of Internal Medicine,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] C. Ip and D. J. Lisk, “Bioactivity of selenium from Brazil nut for
cancer prevention and selenoenzyme maintenance,Nutrition
and Cancer,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] C. D. omson, A. Chisholm, S. K. McLachlan, and J. M.
Campbell, “Brazil nuts: an eective way to improve selenium
status,American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.
–, .
[] US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service,
Nutrient Database for Standard Reference—Release , .
[] J. Mukuddem-Petersen, W. Oosihuizen, and J. C. Jerling, “A
systematic review of the eects of nuts on lipid proles in
humans,” Journal of Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.,
[] G.Riccardi,A.A.Rivellese,andC.M.Williams,“ecardio-
vascular system,” in Nutrition and Metabolism,M.J.Gibney,I.
A. Macdonald, and H. M. Roche, Eds., pp. –, Blackwell
Science, Oxford, UK, .
[] R.P.Mensink,P.L.Zock,A.D.M.Kester,andM.B.Katan,
“Eects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio
apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of  controlled trials,Amer-
ican Journal of Clinical Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.,
[] A. E. Griel and P. M. Kris-Etherton, “Tree nuts and the lipid
prole: a review of clinical studies,e British Journal of
[] C.E.ONeil,D.R.Keast,V.L.Fulgoni,andT.A.Nicklas,“Tree
nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in
ination Survey (NHANES) –,Asia Pacic Journal of
Clinical Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] M. B. Stockler-Pinto, J. Lobo, C. Moraes et al., “Eect of
Brazil nut supplementation on plasma levels of selenium in
hemodialysis patients:  months of follow-up,Journal of Renal
[] C. M. Alper and R. D. Mattes, “Peanut consumption improves
indices of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy adults,Journal
of the American College of Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.,
[] M. J. Sheridan, J. N. Cooper, M. Erario, and C. E. Cheifetz,
“Pistachio nut consumption and serum lipid levels,” Journal of
the American College of Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.,
[] S. Stranges, M. Laclaustra, C. Ji et al., “Higher selenium status
is associated with adverse blood lipid prole in British adults,
Journal of Nutrition,vol.,no.,pp.,.
... Se is an essential trace element and cofactor of antioxidant enzymes and is incorporated into the active sites of approximately 20 selenoproteins, including glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) (Colpo & Vilanova, 2013). Regarding Se absorption and metabolism, the retention of organic forms (mainly SeMet and SeCys) is higher than that of inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, selenate) in animals and humans, but all dietary forms are highly bioavailable (Fairweather-Tait, Collings, & Hurst, 2010). ...
... However, in non-deficient subjects, changes in plasma Se depend on the form of Se ingested (organic or inorganic). Inorganic forms increase plasma Se by<20%, whereas SeMet substantially increases plasma Se levels, even in subjects with a high Se status (Combs, 2015)). Plasma Se comprises GPX-1, GPX-3, and SelP, the most common biomarkers analyzed in humans. ...
... Plasma Se comprises GPX-1, GPX-3, and SelP, the most common biomarkers analyzed in humans. GPX-3 represents 10% -30% of plasma Se, SelP1 represents 20-70%, and GPX-1 is commonly assessed in erythrocytes (Combs, 2015)). Interestingly, maximal GPX-3 expression is Alcântara et al. ...
Selenium is an essential element in mammals. We review how its bioavailability in soil and the ability of plants to accumulate Se in foods depends on the soil Se profile (including levels and formats), besides to describe how the various selenoproteins have important biochemical functions in the body and directly impact human health. Owing to its favorable characteristics, the scientific community has investigated selenomethionine in most nut matrices. Among nuts, Brazil nuts have been highlighted as one of the richest sources of bioavailable Se. We summarize the most commonly used analytical methods for Se species and total Se determination in nuts. We also discuss the chemical forms of Se metabolized by mammals, human biochemistry and health outcomes from daily dietary intake of Se from Brazil nuts. These findings may facilitate the understanding of the importance of adequate dietary Se intake and enable researchers to define methods to determine Se species. Keywords: Brazil nuts; extraction methods; liquid chromatography; Se deficiency; selenomethionine; selenoproteins
... Moreover, BN supplementation can cause modulation of the lipid profile; previous studies have shown its potential in reducing cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), and oxidized LDL levels and increasing HDL-c levels (Carvalho et al., 2015;Colpo et al., 2013). Studies have revealed that selenium deficiency is linked with an increased risk of osteoporosis due to reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) and deterioration of bone microarchitectonics (NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention & Therapy, 2001;Wang et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2014). ...
... BAT is linked to thermogenesis and abundant in small rodents; it has potential applications in studies on metabolic disorders, particularly those associated with obesity (Nadal-Casellas et al., 2011; Peng et al., 2020). Despite its importance, the impact of nutritional strategies on alleviation of oxidative damage in BAT, particularly lipid peroxidation, is poorly explored.According toColpo et al. (2013), intake of only one BN may confer health benefits, such as improved lipid profile, in healthy people without causing hepatic and renal toxicity. This study showed that HDL-c levels were increased in the supplemented groups, which might be due to high content (approximately 75%) of unsaturated fatty acids in BN because polyunsaturated fatty acids can decrease Apo B levels, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids can increase Apo A1 levels, a protein involved in lipid metabolism(Silva Figueiredo et al., 2017). ...
Full-text available
Oxidative stress, adipose tissue, and bone compartments can be disturbed in chronic diseases. Non‐pharmacological strategies, such as Brazil nuts (BNs), can improve these parameters. This study evaluated the effects of BN supplementation at different concentrations on body composition, lipid profile, and peroxidation in healthy rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (CT), Brazil nut 5% (BN5), and Brazil nut 10% (BN10) groups. Body composition, brown adipose tissue (BAT), plasma lipid peroxidation, and lipid profile were evaluated in the three groups. The BN5 group showed an improvement in all bone parameters compared with that of the CT group (p < .0001). The BN5 and BN10 groups showed reduced plasma lipid peroxidation compared with that of the CT group (p = .0009), whereas the BN10 group presented lower BAT lipid peroxidation than that of the other groups (p = .01). High‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol (HDL‐c) levels were higher in the BN5 group than in the CT group (p = .01). Conclusively, the use of BNs in a controlled manner promoted improvement in bone parameters, HDL‐c levels, and lipid peroxidation in healthy rats. Practical applications Nuts has been included in the diet because of their versatility, acceptance, and easy access. Among them, Brazil nut (BN) is considered one of the major known food sources of selenium as well as a source of fibers, unsaturated fatty acids, and phenolic compounds. Studies have shown that BN supplementation is effective in reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and selenium deficiency when used as a non‐pharmacological strategy in experimental models of chronic diseases and in clinical trials. The present study showed that controlled administration of BN improved bone parameters, high‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol levels, and lipid peroxidation in healthy rats. Therefore, BN is a promising non‐pharmacological agent for the prevention of the onset of chronic non‐communicable diseases.
... O consumo de castanhas e amêndoas vem sendo associado a vários benefícios para a saúde, inclusive reduzindo o risco de doença cardiovascular (LI et al., 2009), devido seus altos níveis de antioxidantes, ácidos graxos essenciais, vitaminas, aminoácidos, minerais e compostos bioativos (LI et al. 2009;COLPO et al., 2013). ...
Full-text available
Nozes, castanhas e amêndoas apresentam composição nutricional rica em proteínas e lipídios, além de componentes bioativos com potencial antioxidante, podendo auxiliar na prevenção de doenças crônicas como as cardiovasculares. No Brasil, as amêndoas de baru e castanhas-do-Brasil vem do agroextrativismo sustentável e são fontes de renda para as comunidades locais dos biomas onde elas são nativas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho apresentar a produção de pasta vegetal cremosa à base de amêndoa de baru, castanha-do-Brasil e cacau em pó, visando agregar valor aos coprodutos e a conveniência de um alimento pronto para consumo, nutritivo e saudável. A produção da pasta cremosa consiste na trituração da amêndoa de baru e castanha-do-Brasil, de forma a obter uma pasta homogênea, seguida da adição de mel, lecitina de girassol e cacau em pó. Prossegue-se a homogeneização até obter uma mistura cremosa e estável, com aparência semelhante ao doce de leite cremoso. Em seguida, a mistura é envasada em recipientes de vidro âmbar ou de polietileno escuro. A pasta vegetal cremosa pode ser armazenada sob refrigeração por no máximo 30 dias para garantia da qualidade microbiológica, por não conter conservantes adicionados. Apresentou-se a tabela de Informações nutricionais da pasta cremosa e as informações de rotulagem exigidas pela legislação brasileira. Dessa forma, espera-se que este trabalho possa ser utilizado como forma de transferência de tecnologia para fundamentar os cuidados para a produção e comercialização de pastas cremosas à base de amêndoas, castanhas e sementes oleaginosas por empreendedores que desejam fornecer alimentos nutritivos, para consumidores que buscam saudabilidade e bem-estar.
... For example, increasing nut and peanut butter consumption may help to lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Interestingly, even a single intake of large portion of 50 g of Brazil nuts may help to decrease the infl ammatory markers long-term in apparently healthy adults with a mean age of 25 years[59], while eating portion of nuts fi ve or more times per week compared with none, may reduce relative risk of developing diabetes by 27% in women[60]. Brazil nuts, being a rich source of antioxidants, in particularly selenium and vitamin E can help to lower the risk of prostate cancer among the men from Puerto Rico, Canada and the USA[61]. ...
Plant foods are important component of human diet and they are excellent source health-promoting compounds, such as amino acids, dietary fibers, complex carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids, as well as minerals and vitamins which have been shown to increase vitality and subsequently reduce risk of chronic disease. Importantly, eatable plants despite relatively low caloric value are nutrient-dense foods, which are rich in various phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, that have been found to be beneficial for improving metabolic health, in particular lowering systemic inflammation, increasing antioxidant capability and promoting weight loss. To date, epidemiological evidence consistently demonstrated a beneficial impact of adopting plant-based dietary lifestyle characterized by increased intake of whole unprocessed foods, including fresh vegetables and fruits, whole grains, pulses and legumes as well as nuts and seeds, in expense of processed meats, refined carbohydrates and added sugar foods, have potential to reduce risk of high burden diseases, such type 2 diabetes, obesity or cardiovascular disease. Consequently, to assess the most applicable composition of plant-based diets for achieving metabolic improvements, nutritional value of consumed plants should be evaluated. Therefore, accounting for differences in phytochemical content of various fruits, vegetables, grains, pulses, nuts and seeds the main aim of this literature review is to assess the recent clinical evidence of their contribution to weight management, and reduction of risk factors implicated in development of chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or obesity.
... Regular (15 days to 12 weeks) consumption of BNs (1-11 units/day; 48 µg to 862.65 µg of Se) improved the antioxidant statuses (increased Se in plasma and erythrocytes, GPx, GPx3, SELENOP, and SELENOP mRNA expression), and lipid profiles (decreased TC and increased HDL-c cholesteryl reception) of healthy subjects and reduced their fasting glucose [16,17,21,28,30,32] (Figure 3). Similarly, acute consumption of 1-10 units/day of BNs (156 µg to 1560 µg of Se) associated with a normocaloric diet improved the antioxidant statuses (increased Se in plasma) and lipid profiles (increased HDL-c, decreased LDL-c, and atherogenic indices) in 24 postprandial hours up to 30 days after a single day of consumption [39,40]. Considering that the recommended plasma Se range is between 60-100 µL, only one study with healthy subjects observed that the participants were Sedeficient at baseline ( Figure 4A). ...
Full-text available
The Brazil nut (BN) is a promising food due to its numerous health benefits, but it is still necessary to systematically review the scientific evidence on these benefits. Thus, we examined the effects of regular BN consumption on health markers in humans according to the health state (with specific diseases or not) of the subjects. PubMed, Embase®, and Scielo databases were used to search for clinical trials. The PRISMA guideline was used to report the review, and the risk of bias for all studies was assessed. Twenty-four studies were included in the present review, of which fifteen were non-randomized. BNs were consumed in the context of a habitual free-living diet in all studies. Improvement in antioxidant status through increased levels of selenium and/or glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma, serum, whole blood, and/or erythrocytes was observed in all studies that evaluated antioxidant status, regardless of the health state of the sample. In addition, healthy subjects improved lipid markers and fasting glucose. Subjects with obesity had improvement in markers of lipid metabolism. Subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or dyslipidemia improved oxidative stress or DNA damage. Subjects undergoing hemodialysis benefited greatly from BN consumption, as they improved lipid profile markers, oxidative stress, inflammation, and thyroid function. Older adults with mild cognitive impairment improved verbal fluency and constructional praxis, and controversial results regarding the change in a marker of lipid peroxidation were observed in subjects with coronary artery disease. In conclusion, the benefits of BN consumption were found in different pathways of action and study populations.
... contienen muchos ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (USDA, 2019) que ayudan mejorar la salud cardiovascular (Forouhi et al., 2018). El consumo de almendras mejora los niveles de colesterol en la sangre y mejora el funcionamiento vascular (Colpo et al., 2013). ...
Full-text available
Desde que CIPCA NA empezó sus actividades en la Amazonía boliviana, la producción de especies frutales (incluyendo el cacao) en sistemas agroforestales y el aprovechamiento de productos forestales no maderables, además de su transformación y comercialización a través de Organizaciones Económica Campesinas (OECA) fueron aspectos claves de su Propuesta Económica Productiva. Después de más de dos décadas de promoción e incidencia en la Amazonía boliviana, actualmente una creciente cantidad de productores campesinos e indígenas apostaron a estas actividades económicas, mientras que propuestas con este enfoque no solamente fueron adoptados por las asociaciones productivas como tal, pero también ganaron su espacio en las organizaciones matrices, incluyendo el BOCINAB como plataforma regional del sector campesino e indígena de la Amazonía boliviana. Gracias a estos antecedentes se generó todo un marco legal y política a favor de esta propuesta de producción. Luego de los grandes cambios sociales, la redistribución de tierra y la aprobación de una nueva constitución política en la primera década del siglo XXI, en los últimos años se produjeron cambios adicionales a favor de una propuesta de desarrollo económico basado en el aprovechamiento democrático y sostenible de los frutos amazónicos. A nivel nacional el “Complejo de Frutas Amazónicas” fue incluido como una de los pilares productivos identificadas en el Plan de Desarrollo Económico y Social 2016-2020, que fue la base de diversos programas y proyectos productivos que buscan consolidar una economía plural con fuerte participación campesina-indígena basada en el aprovechamiento de frutas amazónicas como el cacao, el asaí, el majo y el copuazú. Por su lado, los gobiernos subnacionales mostraron similares tendencias. Por ejemplo, en el Departamento del Beni en 2019 se aprobó una Ley Departamental del Cacao Nativo Amazónico (Ley Departamental Beni Nº 88, 14/03/2019) y el mismo año el municipio de Riberalta aprobó la Ley Declaratoria de Frutas Amazónicas como Productos Estratégicos del Municipio de Riberalta (Ley Municipal Amazónica Nº 113, 04/04/2019), El presente documento fue elaborado en el marco del proyecto "Consolidación de estrategias de adaptación y atenuación del cambio climático en los sistemas de producción familiar en Bolivia y en la región Andino-Amazónico del continente” financiado por AFD, FFEM y Secours Catholique, con el objetivo de Sistematizar el proceso participativo de construcción del Complejo de Frutos Amazónicos para lograr una alimentación saludable y nutritiva en las familias del área rural del Municipio de Riberalta, adoptando una estrategia de replicabilidad, se presenta un análisis histórico de estos procesos de construcción, mostrando tanto aspectos relacionados a las propuestas e iniciativas desde las comunidades y organizaciones campesinas de Riberalta y áreas aledañas, como también aportes técnicos y científicos desde diversas instancias públicas y privadas y en especial desde CIPCA, y finalmente también los avances en cuanto a la construcción de normas y políticas públicas favorables para esta modalidad de producción. Desde 2018 esa co-construcción de una nueva propuesta de desarrollo, adquiere un componente adicional en forma de una serie de acciones que buscan aprovechar los grandes beneficios alimenticios y nutricionales de las frutas amazónicas para ayudar reducir los problemas de salud en la población de Riberalta. Asimismo, este documento también describe los aportes de CIPCA para la conformación del Consejo Municipal de Alimentación y Nutrición de Riberalta y un estudio nutricional que facilitaron la incorporación de estos aspectos en las propuestas regionales. El documento termina con la presentación de un caso de estudio: a través de una breve evaluación de las decisiones tomadas por Sandra Justiniano en relación a los procesos de desarrollo de su familia, la comunidad Buen Retiro y una asociación productiva en torno al asaí y majo. Se evalúa, también, cómo fueron los aportes de CIPCA a los procesos históricos anteriormente descritos y cómo vienen favoreciendo la replicación de esta nueva propuesta alternativa de desarrollo amazónico en torno a los frutos amazónicos.
... Ik denk dat de redelijke standaardpositie zou moeten zijn om het gewoon te doen proberen in het geval dat de interventie goedkoop, gemakkelijk, onschadelijk en gezond is totdat het tegendeel is bewezen. In deze studie concludeerden ze dat een enkele portie voldoende is zonder lever-en niertoxiciteit te veroorzaken welke toxiciteit ze mogelijk benoemde om te verwijzen naar het relatief hoge seleniumgehalte in paranoten, zo hoog dat het eten van 4 (vier) paranoten per dag ons zelfs kan opstoten tegen of over de aanvaardbare dagelijkse limiet voor selenium, maar daar hoeven we Brazil nut bertholletia excelsa continue meta-analyse 6 / 11 ons geen zorgen over te maken als we slechts één keer per maand 4 (vier) van deze noten eten [1]. ...
Full-text available
Author: Rody Citation: Mens RW. 18 December 2021. Brazil nut bertholletia excelsa continual meta-analysis; ; Summary: The Brazil nut bertholletia excelsa could possibly help as nutrition for the cardiovascular system, as nutrition for the immune system, and as nutrition for the treatment of cancer. The relatively high amount of unsaturated fats and relatively high amount of selenium compound containing brazil chestnut fruit seeds found in the coconut-like nut containing capsule from the bertholletia excelsa tree plant (also called castañas de Brasil, paranoten, nuez de Brasil, castanha-do-pará, nigger toes, and chestnuts from Pará) categorizable in the lecythidaceae plant family is possibly usable for >It is possibly usable as nutrition for the cardiovascular system since in a study titled "A single consumption of high amounts of Brazil nuts improves the cholesterol levels of healthy volunteers" the researchers gave 10 men and women a single meal containing zero, one, four, or 8 Brazil nuts, and found that the ingestion of just that single serving almost immediately improved cholesterol levels. The LDL so-called "bad" cholesterol levels in the blood were significantly lower starting just 9 (nine) [hours] after the ingestion of the nuts and by no insignificant amount as they made the LDL cholesterol levels significantly drop with nearly 20 points within a day. As compared to currently available drugs, even currently available LDL cholesterol lowering drugs do not work that fast as it takes statins like about 4 (four) days to have a significant effect. They also went back and measured their cholesterol 5 (five) days later, and then 30 days later and they were not eating Brazil nuts this whole time as they had just that earlier mentioned single serving of Brazil nuts a month before and the researchers measured that their LDL cholesterol levels were still down 30 days later concluding that the LDL cholesterol levels went down and stayed down after eating just 4 (four) of these nuts. This all the while the study was not funded by the Brazil nut industry. Interestingly, (4) four nuts seemed to work faster than 8 (eight) nuts to lower bad cholesterol and boost good cholesterol which results suggest that eating just 4 (four) nuts might
Purpose Brazil nuts ( Bertholletia excelsa) are consumed world-wide and have become a new trend in weight loss supplementation. We present a unique case of severe hypertriglyceridemia-associated acute pancreatitis following daily usage of a Brazil nut supplement product. Summary A Hispanic female presented with severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis several months after starting a Brazil nut weight loss supplement in the setting of poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Her initial triglyceride level was undetectably high >10,000 mg/dL but improved rapidly following euglycemic insulin infusion and supplement cessation. The patient was managed with supportive care, started on oral fibrate therapy after abdominal symptoms improved, and was discharged to home in stable condition. Conclusion It is essential for pharmacists to maintain a high index of suspicion for patients taking complementary and alternative medications and supplements who present with acutely altered laboratory parameters or onset of acute disease. In this instance, a patient was found to have profound hypertriglyceridemia with onset of acute pancreatitis following usage of a Brazil nut weight loss supplement.
Full-text available
IntroductionFactors involved in a healthy vascular systemPathogenesis of cardiovascular diseaseRisk factors for cardiovascular diseaseDietary components and their effect on plasma lipidsDiet and blood pressureEffects of dietary factors on coagulation and fibrinolysisHomocysteineDiet and antioxidant functionInsulin sensitivityPerspectives on the futureFurther reading
Lipid decomposition studies in frozen fish have led to the development of a simple and rapid method for the extraction and purification of lipids from biological materials. The entire procedure can be carried out in approximately 10 minutes; it is efficient, reproducible, and free from deleterious manipulations. The wet tissue is homogenized with a mixture of chloroform and methanol in such proportions that a miscible system is formed with the water in the tissue. Dilution with chloroform and water separates the homogenate into two layers, the chloroform layer containing all the lipids and the methanolic layer containing all the non-lipids. A purified lipid extract is obtained merely by isolating the chloroform layer. The method has been applied to fish muscle and may easily be adapted to use with other tissues.
Background— Oxidant stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis and other vascular disorders accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. Glutathione peroxidases (GPx) play an important role in the cellular defense against oxidant stress by utilizing glutathione (GSH) to reduce lipid hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide to their corresponding alcohols. Cellular GPx (GPx-1) is the principal intracellular isoform of GPx. We hypothesized that GPx-1 deficiency per se induces endothelial dysfunction and structural vascular abnormalities through increased oxidant stress. Methods and Results— A murine model of heterozygous deficiency of GPx-1 (GPx+/−) was investigated to examine this hypothesis. Mesenteric arterioles in GPx-1+/− mice demonstrated vasoconstriction to acetylcholine compared with vasodilation in wild-type mice (maximal change in vessel diameter, −13.0±2.8% versus 13.2±2.8%, P<0.0001). We also noted an increase in the plasma and aortic levels of the isoprostane iPF2α-III, a marker of oxidant stress, in GPx-1+/− mice compared with wild-type mice (170.4±23 pg/mL plasma versus 98.7±7.1 pg/mL plasma, P<0.03; 11.7±0.87 pg/mg aortic tissue versus 8.2±0.55 pg/mg aortic tissue, P<0.01). Histological sections from the coronary vasculature of GPx-1+/− mice show increased perivascular matrix deposition, an increase in the number of adventitial fibroblasts, and intimal thickening. These structural abnormalities in the myocardial vasculature were accompanied by diastolic dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusions— These findings demonstrate that heterozygous deficiency of GPx-1 leads to endothelial dysfunction, possibly associated with increased oxidant stress, and to significant structural vascular and cardiac abnormalities. These data illustrate the importance of this key antioxidant enzyme in functional and structural responses of the mammalian cardiovascular system.