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Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers.
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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume , Article ID , pages.//
Clinical Study
A Single Consumption of High Amounts of the Brazil Nuts
Improves Lipid Profile of Healthy Volunteers
Elisângela Colpo,1,2 Carlos Dalton de Avila Vilanova,1Luiz Gustavo Brenner Reetz,3
Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte,1,4 Iria Luiza Gomes Farias,3Edson Irineu Muller,1
Aline Lima Hermes Muller,1Erico Marlon Moraes Flores,1
Roger Wagner,5and João Batista Teixeira da Rocha1
1Department of Chemistry, Natural and Exact Sciences Centers, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM),
2Department of Nutrition, Center Franciscan University (UNIFRA), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
3Clinical Laboratory Analysis, University Hospital, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
4Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
5Department of Technology and Food and Science, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
Correspondence should be addressed to Jo˜
ao Batista Teixeira da Rocha;
Received  April ; Revised  May ; Accepted  May 
Academic Editor: Cindy Davis
Copyright ©  Elisˆ
angela Colpo et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
Background. is study investigates the eects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid prole in healthy volunteers. Methods.Ten
healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested  times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion
of dierent serving sizes of the Brazil nut: , , , or g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at
, , , , , and  hours and  and  days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein,
alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A signicant increase of the plasma selenium
levels was observed at  hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was signicantly lower, whereas HDL-c was
signicantly higher  hours aer the ingestion of  or  g of nuts. e biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were
not modied by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. is study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely
improve the serum lipid prole of healthy volunteers.
1. Background
Selenium is an essential nutrient for human health [], and its
biological functions are mediated by the expression of about
 selenoproteins which have selenocysteine at their active
centers []. Some selenoproteins, for example, glutathione
peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), are im-
portant antioxidant enzymes [,]. However, high acute
selenium ingestion can be toxic to mammals, and epidemio-
logical observations have suggested that dietary overexposure
to selenium increases the prevalence of chronic degenerative
diseases such as type  diabetes, a myotrophic lateral sclerosis,
and neoplasias [,,].
Selenoproteins can promote cardiovascular benets pos-
sibly via their antioxidant properties. Some isoforms of GPx
are known for being able to prevent the oxidative modi-
cation of lipids (including those found in lipoproteins),
inhibit platelet aggregation, and modulate inammation by
reducing the peroxide tonus [,,]. Additionally, some
animals as well as epidemiological studies in humans have
identied a putative protective role of some GPx isoforms
against cardiovascular damage [,,]. However, some large
randomized trials investigating the eects of the adminis-
tration of selenium containing supplements have failed to
show a signicant protective eect on cardiovascular disease
and mortality []. On the other hand, a meta-analysis
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
T : Anthropometric and biochemical variables baselines of subjects.
Characteristic Men (𝑛=6)Women(𝑛=4) Reference
Weight (Kg) ±. . ±.
BMI (Kg/m) . ±. . ±. .–.
Plasma selenium (𝜇gL).±. . ±.  ±.–±
Leucocytes (/mm).±. . ±. .–
Hematocrit (%) . ±. . ±. §: –
Hemoglobin (g/dL) . ±. . ±§: .–.
|: .–.
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) . ±.    .  ±.    –  
Albumin (g/dL) . ±. . ±. .–.
Total protein (g/dL) . ±. . ±. –
Cholesterol total (mg/dL)  ±.  ±. <
HDL-c (mg/dL) . ±. . ±. 
LDL-c (mg/dL) . ±. . ±. <
Triglycerides (mg/dL) . ±. . ± <
Results are expressed as mean ±S.D. §: masculine; |: females.
of  observational studies showed a signicant inverse
association between selenium status with the risk of coronary
heart disease (CHD), particularly within populations with
low selenium intake or status []. A positive association
between plasma selenium levels with lower atherogenic index
(a reliable indicator of predisposition to heart diseases [])
has been suggested in nutritional surveys among Japanese
[], Indians [], and Koreans [].
depending on several factors such as the soil in which they
and the usage of Se-containing fertilizers []. Selenium
concentration in Brazil nut varies between and  𝜇g/g
humans [].Brazilnutisalsoagoodsourceofother
nutrients, including unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, ber,
magnesium, phosphorus, thiamin, niacin, vitamin E, vitamin
oily endosperm contains about % monounsaturated fatty
acids (MUFA) [].
As pointed out above, Se consumption and selenoen-
zymes (particularly GPx) have been associated with cardio-
vascular protection in rodents and humans [,,,].
Brazil nut has a high content of selenium and could, therefore,
have cardioprotective eects. In addition, dierent types of
nuts such as peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and macadamia nuts,
among others, have been shown to modulate the lipid prole
in both unhealthy as well as healthy subjects []. is
benecial eect has been attributed to the high levels of
MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in nuts
Fatty acids from nuts are important contributors to the
benecial health eects which protect from the development
of CHD []. Willett et al. [] reported that high MUFA
diets are associated with a reduced cardiovascular disease-
associated mortality. Recently, a few studies have indicated
a benecial eect of long-term Brazil nut intake on serum
cholesterol among obese and nonobese subjects [,,].
However, the acute eects of the ingestion of Brazil nut on
the atherogenic index of healthy subjects have not yet been
evaluated. In this study, we investigate the eects of moderate
to high amount Brazil nut ingestion on lipid prole, hepatic
and kidney biochemical parameters in healthy volunteers
to determine either benecial or potentially toxic eect of
2. Methods
2.1. Study Subjects. Fieen healthy subjects ( men and 
women) were initially recruited at the Universidade Fed-
eral de Santa Maria, Brazil. Study candidates (– years
old) were evaluated based on their self-reported medical
history and laboratory tests. Early in the study, two male
and one female subjects were excluded due to high acute
alcohol intake. Two female subjects were diagnosed with
hypothyroidism and were, therefore, excluded. Body weight
was measured to the nearest . kg using a digital scale,
and height was measured to the nearest . cm using a
wall-mounted stadiometer. e body mass index (BMI)
(kilograms per square meter) was calculated, and the subjects
were classied according to the World Health Organization
guidelines []. e demographics and baseline test results of
the  selected participants ( men and  women) are shown
in Table . is study has been reviewed and approved by the
Universidade Federal de Santa Marias Internal Review Board
(no. ...-), and informed consent was obtained
from all participants.
2.2. Experimental Design. Each subject was tested  times
following a randomized crossover regarding the administra-
tion of the dierent amounts of Brazil nut: , , , and  g.
Two L a t in squar es of  × for the  treatments were used to
randomize participants into  orders of treatment. Prior to
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
each treatment, the volunteers underwent a -day washout
2.3. Brazil Nut Diet. e volunteers were given instructions
by a nutritionist to exclude Se-rich foods from their diets
(eggs, egg yolks, garlic, Brazil nut, whole wheat cereal, viscera,
etc.) throughout the blood sampling period.
e volunteers were given a balanced diet with daily
energy requirement of  kcal/kg/day, a diet normocaloric.
We applied -hour dietary recall ( hDR) and food fre-
quency questionnaires (FFQ) aer the last blood sampling to
verify the types of foods consumed during the study period.
According to the United States Department of Agriculture—
USDA, Brazil nut contains (per  g) . g of protein, . g
of carbohydrates, . g of total fat (. g SFA, . g MUFA,
and  g PUFA), and . g of dietary ber, for a total of , kJ
2.4. Se Determination in Brazil Nut. Samples with mass up to
 was weighed, transferred to quartz vessels together with
 mL of concentrated nitric acid. e vessels were heated in a
microwave oven with maximum temperature and pressure of
2.5. Lipid Determination in Brazil Nut. e extraction of
Brazil nut was performed according to the method described
by Bligh and Dyer [], grinding a known amount of Brazil
nuts in the presence of a methanol/chloroform ( :  v/v) mix-
ture at  mL/g of fresh weight. e fatty acid methyl esters
were analyzed by a gas chromatograph using a procedure
described by Christie []. e results were expressed as
relative percent of total fatty acids according to Visentainer
2.6. Blood Samples Collection. Blood samples were collected
by venous puncture prior to and at , , , , , and 
hours and  and  days aer the ingestion of nuts. Except
for the - and -hour time points, all volunteers were at
a -hour fasting period for the collection of blood. Blood
samples were collected by venous puncture into Vacutainer
(BD Diagnostics, Plymouth, UK) tubes with no anticoagulant
and EDTA anticoagulant. Blood samples stored in ice were
routinely centrifuged within h aer collection at  ×g
to assess fasting glucose, total cholesterol (TC), high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, aspartate and
alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT, resp.), albumin,
total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, cre-
atinine, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Aliquots of plasma
samples were then stored at Cforuptoweeksbefore
the analyses.
2.7. Blood Tests. Hemoglobin levels and hematocrit were
determined in a Cobas Micros system (Hematology Analyzer,
Roche Diagnostics). Fasting glucose, TC, HDL-c, triglyc-
erides, AST, ALT, albumin, total protein, alkaline phos-
phatase, gamma-GT, urea, creatinine, and CRP measure-
ments were performed using Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics
reagents on a fully automated analyzer (Vitros  dry chem-
istry system, Johnson & Johnson, Rochester, NY, USA). Low-
density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) was calculated using
2.8. Atherogenic Index (AI) Determination. e atherogenic
index was calculated as the ratio between total cholesterol
and HDL-c or as the ratio between LDL-c and HDL-c
concentrations according to Kinosian et al. []andLemieux
et al. [].
2.9. Se Concentration in Plasma. e plasma Se concentra-
tion was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry
with graphite furnace atomizer (GFAAS) and Zeeman Eect
background correction. Samples were diluted with Triton
X-. Palladium chemical modier, wavelength . nm,
pyrolysis temperature C, and atomization temperature
2.10. Statistical Analysis. Data are expressed as mean ±Stan-
dard Deviation (SD). e statistical analysis was performed
using analysis of variance with measure repeated (ANOVA)
and nonparametric tests (Wilcoxon). Descriptive statistics
was performed for all baseline characteristics. Dierences
were considered signicant when 𝑃 < 0.05.
3. Results
e volunteers included in the study were . ±. years old
(range – years old). Demographic, anthropometric, and
laboratory characteristics are listed in Table .
e average Se concentration in Brazil nut was .
±. 𝜇g/g. erefore, the net Se intake was about  𝜇g,
 𝜇g, and 𝜇g for the groups ingesting , , and  g of
nuts, respectively. e estimated fat intake from nuts is shown
in Table .
e biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function
in he a l thy v ol u nt e ers, su c h a s AS T, A LT, a l k alin e p h o sp ha t as e,
Gama GT, urea, and creatinine, were not modied by inges-
tion of nuts, indicating an absence of hepatic and renal
toxicity of high amounts of Brazil nuts intake. PCR was also
evaluated, and there was no change in its levels aer ingestion
of Brazil nuts (data not shown).
Plasma selenium levels were signicantly increased in all
groups  hours aer the ingestion of Brazil nut. Moreover, at
the highest dose ( g) the Se increase was evident starting
at as early as  h and remained above baseline levels for up to
 h (Figure ). At  hours, the plasma Se levels did not dier
from its baseline concentration (Figure ).
Serum LDL-c levels were signicantly lower starting at 
hours aer the ingestion of nuts within the groups receiving
 or  g and reached a steady level at  hours (Figure ).
Subjects that consumed higher amounts of Brazil nut exhib-
ited an increase in HDL-c starting at  hours aer the intake
which reached a stable level at  days (Figure ,𝑃 < 0.05).
Interestingly, the ingestion of  g of Brazil nut deter-
mined a more pronounced decrease in LDL-c levels as well
as a higher increase in HDL-c than did  g. ese results
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
T : Fatty acids composition of the Brazil nut.
Fatty acids g/ g SD
C: . .
C: . .
C: . .
C: . .
C: . .
Total . .
C: . .
C:n cis . .
C: . .
Total . .
C:n cis . .
C:n . .
C:n . .
Total . .
MUFA: monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids;
SFA: saturated fatty acids.
0g Brazil nut
5g Brazil nut
20 g Brazil nut
50 g Brazil nut
Plasma selenium
Basal 1h3h6h9h24 h48 h5days 30 days
Plasma (𝜇g/L)
F : Plasma levels of selenium in healthy volunteers aer
consumption of the Brazil nut. Measures repeated—ANOVA and
Wilcoxon tests.
suggest that eating an average of  nuts might be enough to
improve the levels of LDL-c and HDL-c for up to  days.
Accordingly, the AI (TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c ratio)
was decreased in subjects that consumed  and  g of Brazil
nut (𝑃 < 0.05, data not shown). Serum triglycerides and total
cholesterol did not signicantly vary (𝑃 > 0.05)withinthe
study time frame (data not shown).
Even though the measured plasma Se concentrations did
not signicantly vary following the ingestion of , , or  g
of nuts, changes in LDL-c and HDL-c were only observed
with the ingestion of  or  g which persisted for up to 
days. ese results raise the question of whether the benecial
eects of Brazil nut on the atherogenic index may be due
to factors other than selenium (MUFA and PUFA perhaps),
0g Brazil nut
5g Brazil nut
20 g Brazil nut
50 g Brazil nut
Basal 1h3h6h9h24 h48 h5days 30 days
tion of the Brazil nut. Measure repeated—ANOVA and Wilcoxon
0g Brazil nut
5g Brazil nut
20 g Brazil nut
50 g Brazil nut
Basal 1h3h6h9h24 h48 h5days 30 days
tion of the Brazil nut. Measure repeated—ANOVA and Wilcoxon
highlighting the importance of studying the separate and
combined eect of selenium and fatty acids on atherogenic
4. Discussion
Regular nut intake has been associated with many health
benets in adults [,,].eresultsofthisstudysupport
the notion that the consumption of a single serving of nuts
can acutely benecially modify serum lipids.
Contrasting with diets rich in SFA, MUFA- and PUFA-
rich foods are potentially benecial for health []. Nuts are
generally low in saturated fatty acids and high in unsatu-
rated fatty acids []. Unsaturated fatty acids (both mono-
and polyunsaturated) have been shown to reduce serum
TC zand LDL-c. Brazil nut is a good source of unsaturated fat
(% MUFA). However, despite knowing that the Brazil
nut has high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids when
compared with other nuts such as macadamias, almonds,
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
walnuts, pecans, pistachios, and peanuts, the Brazil nut has
a relatively higher content of SFAs.
erefore, the increase in HDL-c observed in this present
study may be attributed to the higher MUFA and SFA content
in Brazil nut []. According to Riccardi et al. [], SFA
and MUFA increase HDL-c, whereas high intakes of PUFA
decrease HDL-c. Unsaturated fatty acids have been shown to
increaseHDL-clessthanSFAsdo[]. Furthermore, while
the unsaturated fatty acid prole of nuts (high MUFA and
PUFA) is thought to mediate the majority of the benecial
eects of nuts on serum lipids, other components such as ber
and selenium might contribute to these eects [,,,].
Many studies have shown that chronic intake of varying
trations of Se and improve lipid prole [,,].
A meta-analysis by Flores-Mateo et al. []basedonsev-
eral observational studies pointed to an inverse correlation
between plasma selenium concentrations and coronary heart
disease incidence. But the validity of such correlations needs
further conrmation. Stranges et al. []concludedthat
an increase in plasma selenium in adult population was
associated with increased total and non-HDL cholesterol
levels but not with HDL-c. Moreover, evidence showing that
low selenium status is a cardiovascular risk factor must still
be considered provisional.
In conclusion, the results obtained here suggest that the
consumption of a single serving of Brazil nut is sucient to
improve the lipid prole of healthy volunteers (lowered LDL-
c and raised HDL-c), without producing hepatic and renal
toxicity of high amounts of Brazil nuts intake. However, fur-
ther investigation is needed to validate the benecial eects
of Brazil nut because here we have used a small number
of subjects. In addition, it is also important to evaluate the
isolated and combined eects of selenium and/or unsaturated
fatty acids found in Brazil nuts on atherogenic parameters
in order to better understand their mechanistic role in
modulating cardiac indexes in healthy and dyslipidemic
subjects. In addition, the evaluation of the eects of chronic
consumption of Brazil nuts and the inclusion of dyslipidemic
patients are paths to be followed.
GPx: Glutathione peroxidase
TrxR: ioredoxin reductase
CHD: Coronary heart disease
MUFA: Monounsaturated fatty acids
PUFA: Polyunsaturated fatty acids
SFA: Saturated fatty acids
BMI: Body mass index
 hDR: -hour dietary recall ( hDR)
FFQ: Food frequency questionnaires
TC: Total cholesterol
HDL-c: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
LDL-c: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
AI: Atherogenic index
AST: Aspartate aminotransferases
ALT: Alanine aminotransferases
CRP: C-reactive protein.
Conflict of Interests
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that
Authors’ Contribution
ao Batista Teixeira da Rocha designed the research, ana-
lyzed and interpreted data and wrote the paper; Elisˆ
Colpo, Carlos Dalton de Avila Vilanova, Luiz Gustavo Bren-
ner Reetz, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Iria Luiza
Gomes Farias, Edson Irineu Muller, Aline Lima Hermes
Muller, Erico Marlon Moraes Flores, and Roger Wagner
conducted the research, compiled and interpreted the data,
is work was nanced by grants received from the Na-
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... Se is an essential trace element and cofactor of antioxidant enzymes and is incorporated into the active sites of approximately 20 selenoproteins, including glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) (Colpo & Vilanova, 2013). Regarding Se absorption and metabolism, the retention of organic forms (mainly SeMet and SeCys) is higher than that of inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, selenate) in animals and humans, but all dietary forms are highly bioavailable (Fairweather-Tait, Collings, & Hurst, 2010). ...
... However, in non-deficient subjects, changes in plasma Se depend on the form of Se ingested (organic or inorganic). Inorganic forms increase plasma Se by<20%, whereas SeMet substantially increases plasma Se levels, even in subjects with a high Se status (Combs, 2015)). Plasma Se comprises GPX-1, GPX-3, and SelP, the most common biomarkers analyzed in humans. ...
... Plasma Se comprises GPX-1, GPX-3, and SelP, the most common biomarkers analyzed in humans. GPX-3 represents 10% -30% of plasma Se, SelP1 represents 20-70%, and GPX-1 is commonly assessed in erythrocytes (Combs, 2015)). Interestingly, maximal GPX-3 expression is Alcântara et al. ...
Selenium is an essential element in mammals. We review how its bioavailability in soil and the ability of plants to accumulate Se in foods depends on the soil Se profile (including levels and formats), besides to describe how the various selenoproteins have important biochemical functions in the body and directly impact human health. Owing to its favorable characteristics, the scientific community has investigated selenomethionine in most nut matrices. Among nuts, Brazil nuts have been highlighted as one of the richest sources of bioavailable Se. We summarize the most commonly used analytical methods for Se species and total Se determination in nuts. We also discuss the chemical forms of Se metabolized by mammals, human biochemistry and health outcomes from daily dietary intake of Se from Brazil nuts. These findings may facilitate the understanding of the importance of adequate dietary Se intake and enable researchers to define methods to determine Se species. Keywords: Brazil nuts; extraction methods; liquid chromatography; Se deficiency; selenomethionine; selenoproteins
... Moreover, BN supplementation can cause modulation of the lipid profile; previous studies have shown its potential in reducing cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), and oxidized LDL levels and increasing HDL-c levels (Carvalho et al., 2015;Colpo et al., 2013). Studies have revealed that selenium deficiency is linked with an increased risk of osteoporosis due to reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) and deterioration of bone microarchitectonics (NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention & Therapy, 2001;Wang et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2014). ...
... BAT is linked to thermogenesis and abundant in small rodents; it has potential applications in studies on metabolic disorders, particularly those associated with obesity (Nadal-Casellas et al., 2011; Peng et al., 2020). Despite its importance, the impact of nutritional strategies on alleviation of oxidative damage in BAT, particularly lipid peroxidation, is poorly explored.According toColpo et al. (2013), intake of only one BN may confer health benefits, such as improved lipid profile, in healthy people without causing hepatic and renal toxicity. This study showed that HDL-c levels were increased in the supplemented groups, which might be due to high content (approximately 75%) of unsaturated fatty acids in BN because polyunsaturated fatty acids can decrease Apo B levels, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids can increase Apo A1 levels, a protein involved in lipid metabolism(Silva Figueiredo et al., 2017). ...
Full-text available
Oxidative stress, adipose tissue, and bone compartments can be disturbed in chronic diseases. Non‐pharmacological strategies, such as Brazil nuts (BNs), can improve these parameters. This study evaluated the effects of BN supplementation at different concentrations on body composition, lipid profile, and peroxidation in healthy rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (CT), Brazil nut 5% (BN5), and Brazil nut 10% (BN10) groups. Body composition, brown adipose tissue (BAT), plasma lipid peroxidation, and lipid profile were evaluated in the three groups. The BN5 group showed an improvement in all bone parameters compared with that of the CT group (p < .0001). The BN5 and BN10 groups showed reduced plasma lipid peroxidation compared with that of the CT group (p = .0009), whereas the BN10 group presented lower BAT lipid peroxidation than that of the other groups (p = .01). High‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol (HDL‐c) levels were higher in the BN5 group than in the CT group (p = .01). Conclusively, the use of BNs in a controlled manner promoted improvement in bone parameters, HDL‐c levels, and lipid peroxidation in healthy rats. Practical applications Nuts has been included in the diet because of their versatility, acceptance, and easy access. Among them, Brazil nut (BN) is considered one of the major known food sources of selenium as well as a source of fibers, unsaturated fatty acids, and phenolic compounds. Studies have shown that BN supplementation is effective in reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and selenium deficiency when used as a non‐pharmacological strategy in experimental models of chronic diseases and in clinical trials. The present study showed that controlled administration of BN improved bone parameters, high‐density lipoprotein‐cholesterol levels, and lipid peroxidation in healthy rats. Therefore, BN is a promising non‐pharmacological agent for the prevention of the onset of chronic non‐communicable diseases.
... Regular (15 days to 12 weeks) consumption of BNs (1-11 units/day; 48 µg to 862.65 µg of Se) improved the antioxidant statuses (increased Se in plasma and erythrocytes, GPx, GPx3, SELENOP, and SELENOP mRNA expression), and lipid profiles (decreased TC and increased HDL-c cholesteryl reception) of healthy subjects and reduced their fasting glucose [16,17,21,28,30,32] (Figure 3). Similarly, acute consumption of 1-10 units/day of BNs (156 µg to 1560 µg of Se) associated with a normocaloric diet improved the antioxidant statuses (increased Se in plasma) and lipid profiles (increased HDL-c, decreased LDL-c, and atherogenic indices) in 24 postprandial hours up to 30 days after a single day of consumption [39,40]. Considering that the recommended plasma Se range is between 60-100 µL, only one study with healthy subjects observed that the participants were Sedeficient at baseline ( Figure 4A). ...
Full-text available
The Brazil nut (BN) is a promising food due to its numerous health benefits, but it is still necessary to systematically review the scientific evidence on these benefits. Thus, we examined the effects of regular BN consumption on health markers in humans according to the health state (with specific diseases or not) of the subjects. PubMed, Embase®, and Scielo databases were used to search for clinical trials. The PRISMA guideline was used to report the review, and the risk of bias for all studies was assessed. Twenty-four studies were included in the present review, of which fifteen were non-randomized. BNs were consumed in the context of a habitual free-living diet in all studies. Improvement in antioxidant status through increased levels of selenium and/or glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma, serum, whole blood, and/or erythrocytes was observed in all studies that evaluated antioxidant status, regardless of the health state of the sample. In addition, healthy subjects improved lipid markers and fasting glucose. Subjects with obesity had improvement in markers of lipid metabolism. Subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or dyslipidemia improved oxidative stress or DNA damage. Subjects undergoing hemodialysis benefited greatly from BN consumption, as they improved lipid profile markers, oxidative stress, inflammation, and thyroid function. Older adults with mild cognitive impairment improved verbal fluency and constructional praxis, and controversial results regarding the change in a marker of lipid peroxidation were observed in subjects with coronary artery disease. In conclusion, the benefits of BN consumption were found in different pathways of action and study populations.
... contienen muchos ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (USDA, 2019) que ayudan mejorar la salud cardiovascular (Forouhi et al., 2018). El consumo de almendras mejora los niveles de colesterol en la sangre y mejora el funcionamiento vascular (Colpo et al., 2013). ...
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Desde que CIPCA NA empezó sus actividades en la Amazonía boliviana, la producción de especies frutales (incluyendo el cacao) en sistemas agroforestales y el aprovechamiento de productos forestales no maderables, además de su transformación y comercialización a través de Organizaciones Económica Campesinas (OECA) fueron aspectos claves de su Propuesta Económica Productiva. Después de más de dos décadas de promoción e incidencia en la Amazonía boliviana, actualmente una creciente cantidad de productores campesinos e indígenas apostaron a estas actividades económicas, mientras que propuestas con este enfoque no solamente fueron adoptados por las asociaciones productivas como tal, pero también ganaron su espacio en las organizaciones matrices, incluyendo el BOCINAB como plataforma regional del sector campesino e indígena de la Amazonía boliviana. Gracias a estos antecedentes se generó todo un marco legal y política a favor de esta propuesta de producción. Luego de los grandes cambios sociales, la redistribución de tierra y la aprobación de una nueva constitución política en la primera década del siglo XXI, en los últimos años se produjeron cambios adicionales a favor de una propuesta de desarrollo económico basado en el aprovechamiento democrático y sostenible de los frutos amazónicos. A nivel nacional el “Complejo de Frutas Amazónicas” fue incluido como una de los pilares productivos identificadas en el Plan de Desarrollo Económico y Social 2016-2020, que fue la base de diversos programas y proyectos productivos que buscan consolidar una economía plural con fuerte participación campesina-indígena basada en el aprovechamiento de frutas amazónicas como el cacao, el asaí, el majo y el copuazú. Por su lado, los gobiernos subnacionales mostraron similares tendencias. Por ejemplo, en el Departamento del Beni en 2019 se aprobó una Ley Departamental del Cacao Nativo Amazónico (Ley Departamental Beni Nº 88, 14/03/2019) y el mismo año el municipio de Riberalta aprobó la Ley Declaratoria de Frutas Amazónicas como Productos Estratégicos del Municipio de Riberalta (Ley Municipal Amazónica Nº 113, 04/04/2019), El presente documento fue elaborado en el marco del proyecto "Consolidación de estrategias de adaptación y atenuación del cambio climático en los sistemas de producción familiar en Bolivia y en la región Andino-Amazónico del continente” financiado por AFD, FFEM y Secours Catholique, con el objetivo de Sistematizar el proceso participativo de construcción del Complejo de Frutos Amazónicos para lograr una alimentación saludable y nutritiva en las familias del área rural del Municipio de Riberalta, adoptando una estrategia de replicabilidad, se presenta un análisis histórico de estos procesos de construcción, mostrando tanto aspectos relacionados a las propuestas e iniciativas desde las comunidades y organizaciones campesinas de Riberalta y áreas aledañas, como también aportes técnicos y científicos desde diversas instancias públicas y privadas y en especial desde CIPCA, y finalmente también los avances en cuanto a la construcción de normas y políticas públicas favorables para esta modalidad de producción. Desde 2018 esa co-construcción de una nueva propuesta de desarrollo, adquiere un componente adicional en forma de una serie de acciones que buscan aprovechar los grandes beneficios alimenticios y nutricionales de las frutas amazónicas para ayudar reducir los problemas de salud en la población de Riberalta. Asimismo, este documento también describe los aportes de CIPCA para la conformación del Consejo Municipal de Alimentación y Nutrición de Riberalta y un estudio nutricional que facilitaron la incorporación de estos aspectos en las propuestas regionales. El documento termina con la presentación de un caso de estudio: a través de una breve evaluación de las decisiones tomadas por Sandra Justiniano en relación a los procesos de desarrollo de su familia, la comunidad Buen Retiro y una asociación productiva en torno al asaí y majo. Se evalúa, también, cómo fueron los aportes de CIPCA a los procesos históricos anteriormente descritos y cómo vienen favoreciendo la replicación de esta nueva propuesta alternativa de desarrollo amazónico en torno a los frutos amazónicos.
... Ik denk dat de redelijke standaardpositie zou moeten zijn om het gewoon te doen proberen in het geval dat de interventie goedkoop, gemakkelijk, onschadelijk en gezond is totdat het tegendeel is bewezen. In deze studie concludeerden ze dat een enkele portie voldoende is zonder lever-en niertoxiciteit te veroorzaken welke toxiciteit ze mogelijk benoemde om te verwijzen naar het relatief hoge seleniumgehalte in paranoten, zo hoog dat het eten van 4 (vier) paranoten per dag ons zelfs kan opstoten tegen of over de aanvaardbare dagelijkse limiet voor selenium, maar daar hoeven we Brazil nut bertholletia excelsa continue meta-analyse 6 / 11 ons geen zorgen over te maken als we slechts één keer per maand 4 (vier) van deze noten eten [1]. ...
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Author: Rody Citation: Mens RW. 18 December 2021. Brazil nut bertholletia excelsa continual meta-analysis; ; Summary: The Brazil nut bertholletia excelsa could possibly help as nutrition for the cardiovascular system, as nutrition for the immune system, and as nutrition for the treatment of cancer. The relatively high amount of unsaturated fats and relatively high amount of selenium compound containing brazil chestnut fruit seeds found in the coconut-like nut containing capsule from the bertholletia excelsa tree plant (also called castañas de Brasil, paranoten, nuez de Brasil, castanha-do-pará, nigger toes, and chestnuts from Pará) categorizable in the lecythidaceae plant family is possibly usable for >It is possibly usable as nutrition for the cardiovascular system since in a study titled "A single consumption of high amounts of Brazil nuts improves the cholesterol levels of healthy volunteers" the researchers gave 10 men and women a single meal containing zero, one, four, or 8 Brazil nuts, and found that the ingestion of just that single serving almost immediately improved cholesterol levels. The LDL so-called "bad" cholesterol levels in the blood were significantly lower starting just 9 (nine) [hours] after the ingestion of the nuts and by no insignificant amount as they made the LDL cholesterol levels significantly drop with nearly 20 points within a day. As compared to currently available drugs, even currently available LDL cholesterol lowering drugs do not work that fast as it takes statins like about 4 (four) days to have a significant effect. They also went back and measured their cholesterol 5 (five) days later, and then 30 days later and they were not eating Brazil nuts this whole time as they had just that earlier mentioned single serving of Brazil nuts a month before and the researchers measured that their LDL cholesterol levels were still down 30 days later concluding that the LDL cholesterol levels went down and stayed down after eating just 4 (four) of these nuts. This all the while the study was not funded by the Brazil nut industry. Interestingly, (4) four nuts seemed to work faster than 8 (eight) nuts to lower bad cholesterol and boost good cholesterol which results suggest that eating just 4 (four) nuts might
... Badania przeprowadzone u 50 pacjentów z cukrzycą typu drugiego wykazały korzystny wpływ spożycia orzechów laskowych, gdyż dzięki wzrostowi stężenia witaminy E oraz kwasów MU-FA we krwi działały one stabilizująco na stężenie antyaterogennej frakcji HDL-cholesterolu (Damavandi, Eghtesadi, Shidfar, Heydari i Foroushani, 2013). W innych badaniach (Colpo i in., 2013) z kolei po spożywaniu codziennie niewielkiej ilości (około 4 sztuk) orzechów brazylijskich wykazano poprawę całkowitego profilu lipidowego krwi. Orzechy te cechują się najwyższą zawartością selenu i już po 6 godzinach od ich spożycia w osoczu pacjentów obserwowano zwiększone jego stężenie. ...
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Streszczenie: Orzechy jadalne (arachidowy, brazylijski, laskowy, makadamia, migdały, ner-kowca, pekan, piniowy, pistacji, włoski) należą do grupy produktów spożywczych, która po-winna znaleźć się w zrównoważonej i prozdrowotnej diecie człowieka. Owoce te mają wiele walorów prozdrowotnych dzięki swojej wartości odżywczej i zawartości związków biologicz-nie aktywnych. Jednak ze względu na występujące w nich substancje antyżywieniowe orzechy mogą mieć również działanie antyzdrowotne. Dlatego rodzaj spożywanych orzechów i ich ilość powinna być dobierana indywidualnie w zależności od wieku, płci, stanu fizjologicznego, aktywności fizycznej i stanu zdrowia. Ponadto nieprawidłowy sposób przechowywania orze-chów nie tylko obniża ich wartość odżywczą, ale czasem stwarza nawet ryzyko rozwoju pleśni i wytwarzania przez nią szkodliwych dla ustroju aflatoksyn. W profilaktyce i dietoterapii chorób rekomenduje się osobom dorosłym dzienne spożycie orzechów w ilościach 30-50 g. Słowa kluczowe: orzechy, dieta, wartość odżywcza, związki antyodżywcze, zdrowie. Abstract: Edible nuts (peanuts, Brazil nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia, almonds, cashews, pecans, pistachios, pine nut, and walnuts) belong to the group of food products that should be present in a balanced, pro-health diet of every human being. These fruits contain many pro-health benefits because of their nutritious value and content of biologically active compounds. However, taking into consideration antineutrinos substances that they contain, they may also have anti-health activity. For this reason, the kind and amount of consumed nuts should be chosen individually according to age, sex, physiological state, physical activity, and the state of health. What is more-improper storage of nuts not only lowers their nutritious value but
... Badania przeprowadzone u 50 pacjentów z cukrzycą typu drugiego wykazały korzystny wpływ spożycia orzechów laskowych, gdyż dzięki wzrostowi stężenia witaminy E oraz kwasów MU-FA we krwi działały one stabilizująco na stężenie antyaterogennej frakcji HDL-cholesterolu (Damavandi, Eghtesadi, Shidfar, Heydari i Foroushani, 2013). W innych badaniach (Colpo i in., 2013) z kolei po spożywaniu codziennie niewielkiej ilości (około 4 sztuk) orzechów brazylijskich wykazano poprawę całkowitego profilu lipidowego krwi. Orzechy te cechują się najwyższą zawartością selenu i już po 6 godzinach od ich spożycia w osoczu pacjentów obserwowano zwiększone jego stężenie. ...
Purpose Brazil nuts ( Bertholletia excelsa) are consumed world-wide and have become a new trend in weight loss supplementation. We present a unique case of severe hypertriglyceridemia-associated acute pancreatitis following daily usage of a Brazil nut supplement product. Summary A Hispanic female presented with severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis several months after starting a Brazil nut weight loss supplement in the setting of poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Her initial triglyceride level was undetectably high >10,000 mg/dL but improved rapidly following euglycemic insulin infusion and supplement cessation. The patient was managed with supportive care, started on oral fibrate therapy after abdominal symptoms improved, and was discharged to home in stable condition. Conclusion It is essential for pharmacists to maintain a high index of suspicion for patients taking complementary and alternative medications and supplements who present with acutely altered laboratory parameters or onset of acute disease. In this instance, a patient was found to have profound hypertriglyceridemia with onset of acute pancreatitis following usage of a Brazil nut weight loss supplement.
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Previous studies suggest that Brazil nut can improve the nutritional status of selenium, reduce oxidative stress, modify lipid profile, and alter inflammatory markers. A systematic review was performed to evaluate and synthesize the results of studies on the effect of Brazil nut supplementation on human health. The review was conducted according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for reviews and was based on searches of the databases BIREME, BMC Proceedings, The British Library, The Cochrane Library, and PubMed up to December 2019. The searches also included at the databases Google Scholar and Web of Sciences. The descriptors were identified using the Health Science Descriptors system and the search strategy included the following combination of keywords: Bertholletia, protein, lipid, nutritive value, and selenium; in English and Portuguese. A total of 510 potential studies were screened, of which 25 studies were considered for this review. All studies showed that supplementation with Brazil nut in the amounts evaluated improved the selenium status in the body and had positive effects without reports of adverse effects. This systematic review indicates that Brazil nut has a beneficial effect on human health, but further studies with double-blind controlled clinical trials and larger sample sizes are needed for the validation of these effects.
IntroductionFactors involved in a healthy vascular systemPathogenesis of cardiovascular diseaseRisk factors for cardiovascular diseaseDietary components and their effect on plasma lipidsDiet and blood pressureEffects of dietary factors on coagulation and fibrinolysisHomocysteineDiet and antioxidant functionInsulin sensitivityPerspectives on the futureFurther reading
Lipid decomposition studies in frozen fish have led to the development of a simple and rapid method for the extraction and purification of lipids from biological materials. The entire procedure can be carried out in approximately 10 minutes; it is efficient, reproducible, and free from deleterious manipulations. The wet tissue is homogenized with a mixture of chloroform and methanol in such proportions that a miscible system is formed with the water in the tissue. Dilution with chloroform and water separates the homogenate into two layers, the chloroform layer containing all the lipids and the methanolic layer containing all the non-lipids. A purified lipid extract is obtained merely by isolating the chloroform layer. The method has been applied to fish muscle and may easily be adapted to use with other tissues.
Background— Oxidant stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis and other vascular disorders accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. Glutathione peroxidases (GPx) play an important role in the cellular defense against oxidant stress by utilizing glutathione (GSH) to reduce lipid hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide to their corresponding alcohols. Cellular GPx (GPx-1) is the principal intracellular isoform of GPx. We hypothesized that GPx-1 deficiency per se induces endothelial dysfunction and structural vascular abnormalities through increased oxidant stress. Methods and Results— A murine model of heterozygous deficiency of GPx-1 (GPx+/−) was investigated to examine this hypothesis. Mesenteric arterioles in GPx-1+/− mice demonstrated vasoconstriction to acetylcholine compared with vasodilation in wild-type mice (maximal change in vessel diameter, −13.0±2.8% versus 13.2±2.8%, P<0.0001). We also noted an increase in the plasma and aortic levels of the isoprostane iPF2α-III, a marker of oxidant stress, in GPx-1+/− mice compared with wild-type mice (170.4±23 pg/mL plasma versus 98.7±7.1 pg/mL plasma, P<0.03; 11.7±0.87 pg/mg aortic tissue versus 8.2±0.55 pg/mg aortic tissue, P<0.01). Histological sections from the coronary vasculature of GPx-1+/− mice show increased perivascular matrix deposition, an increase in the number of adventitial fibroblasts, and intimal thickening. These structural abnormalities in the myocardial vasculature were accompanied by diastolic dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusions— These findings demonstrate that heterozygous deficiency of GPx-1 leads to endothelial dysfunction, possibly associated with increased oxidant stress, and to significant structural vascular and cardiac abnormalities. These data illustrate the importance of this key antioxidant enzyme in functional and structural responses of the mammalian cardiovascular system.