A Prior History of Substance Abuse in Veterans Undergoing Bariatric Surgery

Department of Surgery, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94304, USA
Journal of obesity 06/2013; 2013(2):740312. DOI: 10.1155/2013/740312
Source: PubMed


Background. The rates of obesity and substance abuse are high among US veterans. Objective. To examine weight loss and substance abuse rates following bariatric surgery in veterans with a history of substance abuse (SA). Methods. A prospective database of consecutive bariatric operations was reviewed. Data for SA patients were compared to patients without a substance abuse history (NA). Behavioral medicine staff followed patients throughout the pre- and postoperative courses. Results. Of 205 bariatric surgery patients, there were 74 (36.1%) SA patients. The mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 46.2 ± 8.1 kg/m(2), and percent excess weight loss at 12 months was 71.8%, 58.0%, and 33.5% for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and laparoscopic gastric banding, respectively, not significantly different than the NA group (P = 0.15, 0.75, 0.96). Postoperative substance abuse in SA and NA patients was 8.1% and 1.5%, respectively (P = 0.234). Conclusion. A prior history of substance abuse is common in veterans undergoing bariatric surgery; weight loss results are comparable to the general veteran bariatric cohort. Rates of substance abuse are low postoperatively, but higher in patients without a prior history of substance abuse. Close multidisciplinary followup throughout the postoperative course is likely to be integral to the patient's success.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Current literature is scarce in documenting marijuana use after bariatric weight loss surgery (WLS). Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the association among marijuana use patterns, disordered eating, and food addiction behaviors in patients 2 years after WLS. Setting: A university hospital in the United States. Methods: Participants (N = 50, mean age 28 y, standard deviation = 5.8) were administered a structured assessment that included the Addiction Severity Index, Yale Food Addiction Scale, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, and Disordered Eating Questionnaire. Marijuana use was defined based on the Addiction Severity Index as current use (within 30 d), recent use (use in last year), and increased use (increased use since surgery). Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests and linear regression methods adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, time since surgery, and change in body mass index. Results: The majority of the sample was female (76%) and underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (62%). Eighteen percent (18%) of the sample reported current marijuana use; 38% reported recent use; and 21.4% reported increased use post-WLS. A loss of controlled food intake was associated with current (P = .02) and increased post-WLS use (P = .01). Increased use and/or regular marijuana use predicted higher scores on eating disorder subscales compared with respective counterparts (P<.05). Current use did not significantly predict higher scores on the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Conclusions: Findings indicated marijuana use in post-WLS patients despite recommendations against use. A subgroup of WLS patients may be at risk for disordered eating post-WLS, particularly those who used marijuana before surgery, and should be closely monitored for several years post-WLS. (Surg Obes Relat Dis 2015;0:000-000.) © 2015 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Emerging research suggests that some bariatric surgery patients are at a heightened risk for developing substance use problems, especially alcohol use problems. An exhaustive literature review was conducted in January 2015 to investigate all articles published that included data on postoperative alcohol use, alcohol use disorders, and illicit drug use among bariatric surgery patients. Twenty-three studies reported on alcohol and/or substance use among bariatric patients. Six studies longitudinally assessed alcohol use behaviors; 3 of these studies found an increase in alcohol use following surgery. Six studies were cross-sectional, and 2 studies assessed medical records. Five studies investigated the prevalence of admissions to substance abuse treatment, and 3 studies combined alcohol and drug use data in a single index. Six studies reported on illicit drug use and reported low-postoperative use. The studies' samples were primarily non-Hispanic white females in their upper 40s, and only 11 of the 23 studies utilized validated assessment instruments. Studies employing longitudinal designs and large sample sizes indicate that bariatric patients who had the gastric bypass procedure are at an elevated risk for alcohol use problems postoperatively. Research also indicates that bariatric surgery patients might be overrepresented in substance abuse treatment facilities. Risk factors for problematic postoperative alcohol use include regular or problematic alcohol use presurgery, male gender, younger age, tobacco use, and symptoms of attention deficient and hyperactivity disorder. As a whole, however, studies indicate bariatric surgery patients demonstrate a low prevalence of problematic alcohol use, and studies about gastric bypass patients are not entirely conclusive. Prospective, longitudinal studies are needed, utilizing standardized and validated alcohol assessment instruments that follow postoperative bariatric patients well beyond 2 years, and account for types of bariatric procedure. Finally, study samples with greater racial/ethnic diversity and wider age ranges are needed. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the results and complications among obese veterans undergoing sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass at a low-volume center. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective review of bariatric procedures performed by a single surgeon from 2009-2013. Outcomes of interest were mortality, complications, and length of stay. Weight loss and comorbidity resolution were compared between sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-y gastric bypass (RYGB). Length of stay and distance traveled to receive services were analyzed. Distributed groups were compared with Student's t test. Welch's correction was used where variances were unequal via ANOVA. Complications were compared using Fisher's exact test. Results: Eighty-five patients (SG = 51, RYGB = 34) were analyzed. Postoperatively, patients were seen in clinic, contacted by phone or email, and their electronic health care records were reviewed. Average length of follow-up was 114.3 weeks. Mortality was 0 %. Complication rates were comparable between groups. The percent total weight loss was 22.6 % for the SG and 27.5 % for the RYGB (p = 0.02). The percent excess weight loss was 49 % for SG and 55 % for RYGB (p = 0.149). Percent excess body mass index (BMI) loss was 54 and 61 % (p = 0.197) for SG and RYGB, respectively. Comorbidity resolution was similar between groups except for diabetes which was superior for RYGB (p = 0.03). Veterans lived an average of 141.3 miles from our VA, and all 85 patients were able to be contacted for follow-up. Conclusions: Despite long travel distances for high-risk veterans, bariatric surgery can be performed safely even at a low-volume VA hospital with acceptable morbidity and mortality and excellent follow-up. There was no difference in morbidity or mortality between patients undergoing SG vs RYGB.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Obesity Surgery