Influence of State Laws Mandating Reporting of Healthcare-Associated Infections: The Case of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections
Department of Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Science, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Richmond, Virginia.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.18). 08/2013; 34(8):780-4. DOI: 10.1086/671280
Objective. To evaluate the impact of state laws on reporting of healthcare-associated infections on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates. Design. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Methods. Hospital-level administrative and Hospital Compare data were collected on University HealthSystem Consortium hospitals. An ordered probit regression model assessed the association between state legislation and CLABSI standardized infection ratio (SIR). The main independent variable was a state legislation variable concerning 3 legal requirements (data submission, reporting of data to the public, inclusion of facility identifiers in public reports) and was coded for hospitals accordingly: located in a state that did not have CLABSI reporting, located in a state that had CLABSI reporting legislation and met 3 legal requirements, or located in a state that had CLABSI reporting but did not meet the 3 legal requirements. A secondary analysis ascertained whether the mean state SIR values differed among the 3 legislation groups. Results. There were 159 hospitals included; 92 were located in states that had CLABSI reporting and met 3 requirements, 33 were located in states that had reporting but did not meet the 3 requirements, and 34 were in states that had no legislation. There was no effect of state legislation group on CLABSI SIR. There were no significant differences in the mean state CLABSI SIRs among the legislation groups. Conclusions. In this sample of academic medical centers, there was no evidence of an effect of state HAI laws on CLABSI occurrence. The impact of state legislation may be lessened by other CLABSI prevention initiatives.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: We evaluated capacity built and outcomes achieved from September 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011, by 51 health departments (HDs) funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) for health care-associated infection (HAI) program development. Methods: We defined capacity for HAI prevention at HDs by 25 indicators of activity in 6 categories: staffing, partnerships, training, technical assistance, surveillance, and prevention. We assessed state-level infection outcomes by modeling quarterly standardized infection ratios (SIRs) for device- and procedure-associated infections with longitudinal regression models. Results: With ARRA funds, HDs created 188 HAI-related positions and supported 1042 training programs, 53 surveillance data validation projects, and 60 prevention collaboratives. All states demonstrated significant declines in central line-associated bloodstream and surgical site infections. States that implemented ARRA-funded catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention collaboratives showed significantly greater SIR reductions over time than states that did not (P = .02). Conclusions: ARRA-HAI funding substantially improved HD capacity to reduce HAIs not targeted by other national efforts, suggesting that HDs can play a critical role in addressing emerging or neglected HAIs.
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ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, most US states and territories began mandating that acute care hospitals report health care-associated infections (HAIs) to their departments of health. Trends in state HAI law enactment and data submission requirements were determined through systematic legal review; state HAI coordinators were contacted to confirm collected data. As of January 31, 2013, 37 US states and territories (71%) had adopted laws requiring HAI data submission, most of which were enacted and became effective in 2006 and 2007. Most states with HAI laws required reporting of central line-associated bloodstream infections in adult intensive care units (92%), and about half required reporting of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile infections (54% and 51%, respectively). Overall, data submission requirements were found to vary across states. Considering the facility and state resources needed to comply with HAI reporting mandates, future studies should focus on whether these laws have had the desired impact of reducing infection rates.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To determine the association between state legal mandates for data submission of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) with process and outcome measures. Design. Cross-sectional study. Participants. National sample of level II/III and III NICUs participating in National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance. Methods. State mandates for data submission of CLABSIs in NICUs in place by 2011 were compiled and verified with state healthcare-associated infection coordinators. A web-based survey of infection control departments in October 2011 assessed CLABSI prevention practices, ie, compliance with checklist/bundle components (process measures) in ICUs including NICUs. Corresponding 2011 NHSN NICU CLABSI rates (outcome measures) were used to calculate standardized infection ratios (SIRs). Association between mandates and process and outcome measures was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results. Among 190 study NICUs, 107 (56.3%) were located in states with mandates, with mandates in place >3 years in 52 (49%). More NICUs in states with mandates reported ≥95% compliance to at least 1 CLABSI prevention practice (52.3%-66.4%) than NICUs in states without mandates (28.9%-48.2%). Mandates were predictors of ≥95% compliance with all practices (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.1). NICUs in states with mandates reported lower mean CLABSI rates in the ≤750-g birth weight group (2.4 vs 5.7 CLABSIs/1,000 central line-days) but not in others. Mandates were not associated with SIR <1. Conclusions. State mandates for NICU CLABSI data submission were significantly associated with ≥95% compliance with CLABSI prevention practices, which declined with the duration of mandate but not with lower CLABSI rates.
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