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Medicinal Properties of Plantago major : Hypoglycaemic and Male Fertility Studies

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Plantago major extract has been traditionally used for treating diabetes and to increase male fertility. This study was conducted to verify its efficacy. The hypoglycaemic property of P. major aqueous leaf extract was determined by oral administration of four treatment doses (l00, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight). Saline and glibenclamide were used as controls. Glucose Tolerance Test was done at -10, 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes and the plasma glucose concentration was determined by the glucose oxidase assay. The study showed that only the 600 mg/kg dose had a significant effect in reducing blood glucose level in diabetic rats. However, the effect of the aqueous extracts was less pronounced compared to glibenclamide. In the fertility study, an aqueous extract from P. major seeds was given orally to rats at 30, 60, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight respectively. The effect of each dose on vas deferens sperm concentrations after 20 days of treatment was determined. Analysis of the data showed significant increases in sperm concentrations in the 60, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight groups. However, the trend in increased testosterone levels from day 8 to 14 in the 60 and 200 mg/kg groups was insignificant, suggestive of otherfactors, possibly antiestrogens in the seed extract contributing to the spermatogenic effect. The studies suggest that aqueous extract from P. major could contain chemicals for treating diabetes mellitus and male infertility problems.
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... The therapeutic effect f of P. major in treatments of acute urticarial in patient was studied (18), While Ghanadian et al. (19) describe the well efficiency role of using 10% P. major leaves extract in treatment of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) and pressure ulcer (19). In addition, it was used in Malaysia country as therapeutic drug for diuretic, tonic, and coughing (20) and to treat urinary calculus (21) and diabetes (22). ...
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The current study was performed to estimate the influence of topical application of 10% of Plantago major leaves extract (PMLE) on a healing process of contaminated excisional wound in local breed rabbits. Twenty adult local breed male rabbits were used. After the animals have generally anesthetized, two 2×2 cm full thickness wounds were created in thoracic region on right and left side (1wound/side) for each animal. Wounds on right side of animal were treated by topical irrigation with normal saline/daily, this consider as control (group A). While, left side wounds were treated by topical application of 10% PMLE ointment (once/day) that consider as treated (group B) dressing was used after each treatment for both groups. Wound healing was evaluated through macroscopic examination, wound contraction rate (WCR) assessment and histopathological examination. Results of macroscopic examination confirmed that PMLE has a role in acceleration healing when compared to control group. These outcomes were parallel with WCR results in which reflect the mean rate of wound contraction on days 7th, 14th, and 21st ‎in PMLE-treated group was ‎significantly higher (P
... To our best knowledge, studies of the antidiabetic effect of P. major L. in type 2 diabetes treatment are limited. A few studies have shown that the extracts from P. major L. were effective in improving blood glucose in type 2 diabetic mice [7][8][9]. ese studies show that the antidiabetic activity test using STZ-induced diabetic mice at a dose of 1000 mg alcoholic extract/kg rat body weight of P. major L. reduced the blood glucose to a comparable level of the control group at the 5 th day until the 14 th day of the study; oral administration of P. major L. extract at the doses of 600 mg aqueous extract/kg rat b.w. for alloxan monohydrate-induced diabetic rat significantly decreases the blood glucose level and 500 mg methanol extract/kg body weight promotes glucose uptake in mice with efficient insulin-secreting pancreas. However, thorough isolation and chemical characterization of the extract components of P. major L. and the determination of bioactives responsible for antidiabetic effects have not been reported. ...
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Plantago major L. (P. major L.) is a perennial plant belonging to the family Plantaginaceae. It has been used as a folk remedy for diabetes in Europe and Asia. However, the biologically active constituents responsible for the antidiabetic effects have not been reported. The objectives of this study aimed at determining the chemical components of Plantago major L. and evaluating the antidiabetic activity of the extracts using streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice. In this study, the Swiss mice were fed a high-fat diet to gain weight before STZ injections to induce diabetic conditions. The STZ-induced diabetic mice were orally treated with P. major L. extracts. The blood glucose test results from the treated diabetic mice and nontreated diabetic mice were compared. We found that a 15-day treatment with EP6 extract from P. major L. at a dose of 400 mg/kg could reduce the blood glucose level to the same level as a 15-day treatment with glucophage at a dose of 70 mg/kg. The major chemical components and structural characterization of EP6 extract were also reported. AST (aspartate transferase) and ALT (alanine aminotransferase) indicators of liver damage were measured in the treated and nontreated diabetic mice to give an overall view of the antidiabetic effect of P. major L. extracts.
... Previous reports have indicated that plantain was also effective against diarrhea, dysentery [5], bronchitis [6,7], cataracts and conjunctivitis [8,9]. Recent researches have demonstrated the importance of this species for treating diabetes, increasing male fertility [10] and as anti-cancer [11][12][13]. ...
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Objective: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of different leaf extracts of Plantago major, using in vitro methods. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions) from Plantago major leaves and their synergistic effect with standard antibiotic (Gentamicin) were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. The total phenolic and total flavonoid content of these extracts was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and Aluminum chloride colorimetric assay respectively. Antioxidant properties were determined via the DPPH free radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay and ferrous ion chelating activity. Results: The total phenols and total flavonoid content of the extracts ranged from 5.79 to 114.45 mg GAE/g dry extract and from 1.24 to 5.48 µg QAE/mg dry extract respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest DPPH scavenging capacity (IC 50 =12.85±0.27 µg/ml) and relative antioxidant activity of 70.48% in the β-carotene bleaching assay. While, aqueous and petroleum ether fractions have the lowest activities. On the other hand, only the aqueous fraction has a capacity of chelating iron (IC 50 Conclusion: Our results showed a potent antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this species. This plant could be exploited as a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for dreadful human diseases and oxidation prevention.
... For example, CA bound to His 264 , Tyr 115 , Ser 153 , Phe 78 , and Pro 181 amino acids in pancreatic lipase (Martinez-Gonzalez et al., 2017). Experimental in vivo studies carried out on rats showed that Plantago species had antidiabetic effect through regulation of blood glucose level (Noor, Juing, Chee, Kueh, & Othman, 2000;Tinkov et al., 2014;Ziaia et al., 2005). An effective antidiabetic agent is proposed to have the abilities of a high inhibitory capacity against α-glucosidase and low inhibitory capacity against αamylase to avoid possible side effects caused by undigested T T T T T T T T carbohydrate (Exteberria, Garza, Campiόn, Martinez, & Milagro, 2012). ...
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The phytochemical profile and potential biological activities of Plantago anatolica Tutel & R. Mill., a traditional endemic food plant of Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, were studied. The study included analysis of phytochemical and mineral compositions of lyophilized sequential extracts (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol and water) and traditional preparations (herbal infusion, decoction and cold water extraction) obtained from aerial parts of the P. anatolica plant, followed by evaluation of their antioxidant capacities and inhibitory activities towards enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome. Chromatographic studies showed that phenolic compounds (caffeic and chlorogenic acids, apigenin and kaempferol), and fatty acids (palmitic and linolenic acids) and an aromatic compound benzotiazole were the major phytochemicals. The ethanol extract and the herbal infusion extracted the most caffeic acid. These two preparations showed significant oxygen radical absorbance capacity (1.9 and 1.0 mmol Trolox equivalent/g dw, respectively), high ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.9 and 0.7 mmol Fe²⁺/g dw, respectively), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (IC50: 0.87 and 0.34 mg/ml, respectively), and ferric chelation activities (IC50: 0.09 mg/ml). Both preparations showed high inhibitory activities towards α-glucosidase (IC50 of 0.8 and 0.6 mg/ml, respectively), and lipase (IC50 of 72 and 44 μg/ml, respectively) but low inhibitory activities towards α-amylase (IC50: 4.31 and 5.32 mg/ml, respectively). These results highlighted the potential of Plantago anatolica as a source of phytochemicals with strong antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties for application in the food and biopharmaceutical industries.
... major) is a perennial plant belongs to the Plantaginaceae family. 10 A wide ranges of biological activities have been found from the plant including analgesic, 11 immunoenhancing, 12 anti-inflammatory, 13 antioxidant, 14 anti-tumor, 15 anti-hypertensive, 16 anti-diabetic, 17 anti-microbial, 18 gastroprotective, 19 and hepatoprotective properties. 20 The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of P. major on kidney function and renal tissue damage in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat. ...
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The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Plantago major (P. major) on cisplatin-induced kidney injury in the rat. Cisplatin was injected on the 6th day of the experiment. Animals were treated with P. major extract (300, 600, and 1200 mg/kg) and Vitamin E for five days before and two weeks after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin caused a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urine osmolarity, and urinary excretion rate of potassium, but significant increase in the kidney index and histological damage compared with the control group. Administration of Vitamin E and P. major (300 and 600 mg/kg) significantly increased GFR compared to cisplatin group. Furthermore, urine osmolarity in Vitamin E and P. major (600 mg/kg) groups were significantly elevated compared to the cisplatin group. P. major (600 mg/kg) significantly increased the urinary excretion rate of potassium compared with cisplatin group. Furthermore, all doses of P. major and Vitamin E significantly attenuated the percentage of kidney tissue damage compared to the cisplatin group. However, only P. major (600 mg/kg) and Vitamin E treated rats showed a significant reduction in the kidney index. This study revealed that P. major extract in a dose-dependent manner provides protection against renal damage induced by cisplatin.
... This paper reviews one of the medicinal plants used in Malaysia known as Plantago major. This plant, called 'Ekor Anjing' in Bahasa Malayu, has been used by Malays and Chinese as a tonic, diuretic and coughs mixture [4]. This plant also has many other medicinal properties as it contains numerous bioactive compounds. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties of Garcinia xanthochymus which is commonly known as gamboge, yellow mangosteen and false mangosteen. The phytochemicals constituents, pharmacological benefits and their mechanisms were previously presented in a number of studies including in vitro and in vivo studies from published books, journals and articles. The literature used in this review were published between 1970 and 2017 and were available from databases such as Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest and others. The chemical structures in this paper are drawn using ChemBio Ultra 14.0. G. xanthocymus contains many phytochemicals that can be extracted from its constituent parts; the bark, fruits, leaves, roots, twigs and seeds. The predominant extracted phytochemicals are xanthones, benzophenones, flavonoids, depsidones and isocoumarins. These phytochemicals contribute to the pharmacological activities of this plant as an antioxidant, antidiabetic, and for having Nerve Growth Factor-potentiating, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. This species contains a broad range of phytochemicals with curative properties that can be greatly beneficial to man. Notably, this review focused on those studies of the pharmacological effects of this plant that were concentrated on by previous researchers. Thus, further study needs to be done on G. xanthocymus in order to unlock additional potential activities and to pinpoint the exact mechanisms of how these activities can be induced, leading to new drug discoveries which have fewer side effects.
... This paper reviews one of the medicinal plants used in Malaysia known as Plantago major. This plant, called 'Ekor Anjing' in Bahasa Malayu, has been used by Malays and Chinese as a tonic, diuretic and coughs mixture [4]. This plant also has many other medicinal properties as it contains numerous bioactive compounds. ...
Article
The medicinal benefits of Plantago major have been acknowledged around the world for hundreds of years. This plant contains a number of effective chemical constituents including flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic acid derivatives, iridoid glycosides, fatty acids, polysaccharides and vitamins which contribute to its exerting specific therapeutic effects. Correspondingly, studies have found that Plantago major is effective as a wound healer, as well as an antiulcerative, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, and antiviral agent. It also combats fatigue and cancer, is an antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. This paper provides a review of the medicinal benefits and chemical constituents of Plantago major published in journals from year 1937 to 2015 which are available from PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar.
... On the other hand, Noor et al. (2000) found that 600 mg/kg dose of P. major water extract had a significant effect in reducing blood glucose level in diabetic rats. Also, Palmeiro et al. (2003) found that aqueous extract of P. australis leaves at 850 mg/kg decreased glucose serum levels in relation to control. ...
Article
This study was carried out through 2010-2014, seasons on on …fresh herbs of Plantago major plant, which was collected from a private nurseries of El Qanater el Khayreyya, Al- Qaluobia Governorate, Egypt. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective potential of ethanolic crud extract of Plantago major against oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in different tissues in rats. Our results observed that CCl4 exhibited a significant increase in the levels of serum glucose and lipid profile i.e. total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) with a significant decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). Also, CCl4 increase liver function including serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALPh), total protein, albumin (ALB) and total bilirubin activities and kidney function including the levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine amounts. Treatment with ethanolic P. major extract at 100mg/kg b.wt before, with and after treatment with CCl4 significantly prevented all of these typically observed changes . Also, P. major extract statistically significant (P<0.01) inhibit DNA damage induced by CCl4 in bone marrow and sperms of rats. Our findings indicate that P. major has a significant protective effect against CCl4 induced genotoxicity and biochemical changes in rat, which may be due to its antioxidant properties.
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Our field surveys on the traditional medicine in Turkey revealed that several plants are used for the treatment of ulcers; Cedrus libani, Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis, Cistus laurifolius, Hypericum scabrum, Plantago major, Sambucus ebulus and Spartium junceum. Various extracts prepared from these plants were tested by using a water immersion-stress ulcer model in rats to confirm the claimed activities. Pharmacological experiments clearly demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of all the plants given orally showed significant antiulcerogenic activity.
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Julie Shaffer shares her views on the availability appropriate web solutions in the market for the printing industry. A number of significant steps need to be followed to select an appropriate solution for specific requirements of a company. The first step involves determining the objective that a printing company wants to achieve with a certain print e-commerce offering. The company needs to consider it as a needs assessment of the print shop, along with the customers who are essential for the growth of business. Some of the factors that determine the selection of such a solution, include making it easier for clients to order print projects on a self-service basis and the intention of offering templates for common products, such as business cards or stationery and allow them to customize orders through a browser interface.
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This study aimed to validate the pharmacological effects of Plantago major L., a medicinal plant used to decrease pain and inflammation. The aqueous extract (AE) was prepared from the dried ground leaves. Pretreatment with AE (1 g/kg, p.o.) decreased writhing induced by acetic acid in mice, but it did not change the tail flick responses to heat nociceptive stimuli. In rats, AE (1 g/kg, p.o.) reduced the paw edema and pleurisy induced by carrageenin, but it did not alter the paw edema induced by dextran. The effect of AE on the carrageenin inflammatory responses was more intense than that obtained on the ear edema induced by croton oil in mice. In addition, daily treatment with AE (1 g/kg/day during 8 days, p.o.) inhibited the exudative process induced by croton oil injected into the air pouch of rats. The results indicate that the aqueous extract of Plantago major is endowed with effective antiinflammatory and analgesic activities.
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The structure of plantamajoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Plantago major subs major, is deduced from chemical, spectral and other physical evidence, to be 3,4-dihydroxy-β-phenethyl-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 →3)-4-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration value has been evaluated for seven plant pathogenic bacteria and for E. coli (ML 30) and S. aureus (502 A) after preliminary investigations by the agar diffusion method.
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Oral administration of the chloroform extracts of Parkia speciosa (petai papan) empty pods to alloxan-induced diabetic rats produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. A hypoglycaemic assay guided extraction, isolation and structure elucidation gave stigmast-4-en-3-one. Stigmast-4-en-3-one produced 84% activity at 100 mg kg−1 body weight (BW) compared to 111% activity of glibenclamide at 5 mg kg−1 BW dosages. The minimum effective dose which produced statistically significant hypoglycaemic effect was 50 mg pericarp kg−1 BW. Hypoglycaemic effect was not observed in healthy rats. Stigmast-4-en-3-one is therefore identified as a new oral hypoglycaemic agent occurring naturally in food.
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The hypoglycemic activity of a purified extract from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fuliginosa Griffiths) was evaluated on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were reduced to normal values by a combined treatment of insulin and Opuntia extract. When insulin was withdrawn from the combined treatment, the prickly pear extract alone maintained normoglycemic state in the diabetic rats. The blood glucose response to administered glucose also showed that the rats receiving the combination treatment of insulin and Opuntia extract for 7 weeks followed by Opuntia extract alone were capable of rapidly returning blood glucose to the levels of the nondiabetic rats. Although the mechanism of action is unknown, the magnitude of the glucose control by the small amount of Opuntia extract required (1 mg/kg body weight per day) preclude a predominant role for dietary fiber. These very encouraging results for diabetes control by the purified extract of this Opuntia cactus make the need for clinical studies in humans evident.
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The hypoglycemic effect of the water extract of the whole plant of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (Piperaceae, Thai name: Chaplu) was examined in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In an oral glucose tolerance test, a single oral administration of the water extract at doses of 0.125 and 0.25 g/kg significantly lowered the plasma glucose level in the normal rats. A reference drug, glibenclamide, at a dose of 5 mg/kg (per os, p.o.) also showed a significant hypoglycemic effect in the normal rats. In contrast, a single oral administration of the water extract at these doses and glibenclamide did not significantly lower the plasma glucose level in the diabetic rats. However, the repeated oral administration of the water extract at a dose of 0.125 g/kg for 7 days produced a significant hypoglycemic effect in the diabetic rats. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) also caused significant hypoglycemia in the diabetic rats. These results demonstrated that the water extract of whole plant of Piper sarmentosum has a hypoglycemic effect in rats.
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Individuals of Spanish and Mexican descent in New Mexico have used a number of plants as emmenagogues and abortifacients. Of the plants used, cotton root bark (Gossypium sp.), inmortal ((Asclepias capricornu Woodson), poleo chino (Hedeoma oblongifolia (Gray) Heller), rue Ruta graveolens L.), wormseed (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.), and three species of Artemesia seem to be used most widely. Of these, the cotton root bark, when used as an abortifacient, seems to exhibit the lowest toxicity. Rue is notable because of its use independently within different cultures, but may exhibit toxic side effects when used as an abortifacient. Seven other plants are outlined on the basis of anecdotal and folkloric reports. Investigations are underway to look at use effectiveness, side effects, impact on fertility, and acceptance among cultures of the Southwestern United States.