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Intensified agricultural land-use and bird conservation in Burkina Faso

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Abstract

The response of bird communities to a gradient of agricultural intensity was investigated in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Such knowledge may aid in predicting how avian diversity copes with increased human population density and land-use. A total of 34 transects were established on which bird censuses were made to test the effects of different fallow age, soil type and grazing intensity. Avian species richness was highest on actively disturbed land and gradually decreased with time since disturbance. Of 23 species restricted to one land-use type, 16 were found on cultivated land or recent fallows, 8 of them being categorized as uncommon in West Africa. Guild analyses suggest that availability of nest sites and food were the principal factors affecting bird distribution. For birds to persist in the agricultural landscape woody vegetation should include many different species and large trees should occur in the fields. Cultivated lands on the cuirasse had the highest average number of birds and many species were restricted to this land-use type. The potential for negative impact on the bird community was hence particularly high on the cuirasse.

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Article
We provide an updated and annotated check-list of Burkina Faso birds. This compilation takes into account our field research (2003, 2010, 2011 and 2012), museum specimens, and a thorough bibliographic search providing references to all the original records for each taxa. We clearly define criteria for acceptance in the checklist and discuss dubious or erroneous records. In this list, we adopted the HBW–BirdLife International List for nomenclature, species sequence, and higher level taxonomy (from genus to order). The list includes information for 566 species, admitting 486 species as part of the Burkina Faso bird checklist (updated on 31 December 2020). Twenty-three species are of conservation concern, among which it is worth mentioning the seven species of vultures.
... As countryside habitats have increased, so too have studies attempting to quantify their biodiversity value, especially in Central America (Ricketts et al. 2001, Horner-Devine et al. 2003, Harvey et al. 2004, Karp et al. 2012 where the agropastoral mosaic retains a considerable proportion of forest species , Hughes et al. 2002, Lindell et al. 2004, Şekercioğlu et al. 2019) and β-diversity (Karp et al. 2012). In the Afrotropics (Kofron and Chapman 1995, Söderström et al. 2003, Naidoo 2004, Waltert et al. 2005 and Southeast Asia (Thiollay 1995, Waltert et al. 2004) results have ranged from a reasonably positive effect of the countryside (Söderström et al. 2003) to negative (Thiollay 1995). In the Amazon, however, there has been considerably less research conducted on the biodiversity value of tropical countryside. ...
... As countryside habitats have increased, so too have studies attempting to quantify their biodiversity value, especially in Central America (Ricketts et al. 2001, Horner-Devine et al. 2003, Harvey et al. 2004, Karp et al. 2012 where the agropastoral mosaic retains a considerable proportion of forest species , Hughes et al. 2002, Lindell et al. 2004, Şekercioğlu et al. 2019) and β-diversity (Karp et al. 2012). In the Afrotropics (Kofron and Chapman 1995, Söderström et al. 2003, Naidoo 2004, Waltert et al. 2005 and Southeast Asia (Thiollay 1995, Waltert et al. 2004) results have ranged from a reasonably positive effect of the countryside (Söderström et al. 2003) to negative (Thiollay 1995). In the Amazon, however, there has been considerably less research conducted on the biodiversity value of tropical countryside. ...
... Based on these results, the authors forecasted that removing relictual trees would lead to the loss of 81% of forest species (and 43% of edge species) while the additional loss of scrub would remove another 13% of forest species. The importance of both remnant trees and vertical habitat complexity in supporting bird diversity is corroborated by several other studies throughout the tropics (Thiollay 1995;Hughes et al. 2002;Söderström et al. 2003;Peh et al. 2006;, 2019Nájera and Simonetti 2010;Azhar et al. 2013;Muñoz et al. 2013). By explicitly ignoring forested habitats (including forest edge habitats and large tracts of secondary growth) the study failed to detect 66% of the regional species pool, a far worse situation than in other studies (Hughes et al. 2002). ...
Article
The Amazon has a long history of disturbance under subsistence agriculture, but slash-and-burn agriculture is small in scale and has relatively low impact on resident avifauna. More recently, the Amazon has suffered extensive deforestation in favor of cattle ranching and other modern systems of agriculture. Cattle pastures, mechanized agriculture, and even tree plantations have detrimental effects on bird communities, greatly lowering diversity, especially that of primary forest interior specialists. A rising threat to the Amazon is the spread of oil palm plantations that retain few bird species and are not viable alternatives to forest. Embedded within the expanding agropastoral mosaic are forest fragments that have experienced a well-documented loss of diversity. Yet, the matrix can mitigate the recovery of fragmented bird communities depending on the type of secondary regrowth. Connectivity via matrix habitats or forest corridors is critical for the maintenance of forest avifauna. With so many types of land use developing across the Amazon, the “tropical countryside” has potential value for bird diversity. However, evidence suggests that the agropastoral mosaic harbors a small, more homogenized avifauna with few forest species, especially when primary forest is absent from the landscape. For the Amazon Basin’s bird life to be conserved into the future, preservation of large tracts of well-connected primary forest is vital. Tropical countryside dominated by agriculture simply cannot sustain sufficient levels of biodiversity.
... The birds of the grasslands of North America are sensible to the loss of winter, reproductive and feeding habitats (Sherry y Holmes, 1992;Knopf, 1994;Herkert et al., 1996;Holmes y Sherry, 2001;Söderström et al., 2003). The design of strategies for their management requires more precise methods for the assessment of their populations. ...
... The design of strategies for their management requires more precise methods for the assessment of their populations. Las densidades y la riqueza de especies de aves se estiman, comúnmente, con las técnicas de transecto en línea (Söderström et al., 2003) y de conteo puntual (Ralph et al., 1995). En la primera de ellas (TL), se registran todos los individuos observados, y se calcula la distancia perpendicular entre el ave y la línea central del transecto. ...
... Área de estudio El trabajo de campo se realizó en la parte central de la sub-provincia geográfica de los Llanos de Ojuelos, Jalisco, Density and bird species richness are regularly estimated by means of line transect (Söderström et al., 2003) and bird-count (Ralph et al., 1995). In the first one (TL), all the observed individuals are recorded and the perpendicular distance between the bird and the central line of the transect is estimated. ...
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Article
Inside the birds group, the grassland birds are the most threatened in the world. In Mexico, these ecosystems have been affected by overgrazing by domestic livestock and conversion of soil to agriculture. To develop conservation plans is necessary to evaluate birds populations and the use of tools that help us to accurately assess the status of bird populations. The main objective of our study was to compare two bird-count methods (transect and point count), to contrast the effectiveness of estimating species richness and population densities at four detection distances in three contrasting grassland habitats: open middle grassland, savanna grassland and agriculture lands, these habitats differ in vegetation cover. Bird counts were conducted during winter 2004 and spring 2005. Estimated population densities were highest when using the PC method at distances of 0 - 25 m and 25 - 50 m. The greatest number of species was detected when both methods at distances of 0 to 75 m. These results were consistent for both seasons and for the three grassland habitats, in base to these results, combining both methods when realizing birds' diversity inventories in Mexican semiarid grasslands.
... Another common explanation for population declines in A-P migrants is environmental degradation and habitat loss caused by associated land-use change in the Sahel Wilson & Cresswell 2006;Söderström et al. 2003). According to Vickery et al. (2014), human-induced habitat change, including forest loss and degradation, is the most important factor in the non-breeding grounds for the declines in A-P migrants species. ...
... Integrating conservation strategies at a landscape level, in this case the Sahel region, is often necessary to safeguard ecosystem functions (BirdLife 2000). Indeed, the conservation of (birds in) the drylands of the Sahel should not only be focused on protected areas, but also on the wider countryside, because countryside habitats may contain large populations of many bird species that have considerable conservation value Zwarts et al. 2009;Söderström et al. 2003; see also Box 2.3). Farmed Sahelian drylands matter for conservation, and the management of trees and shrubs on the fields are important for migrant land birds (Adams 2002). ...
... The earlier example in which farmers in Niger have protected and managed on-farm natural regeneration of trees and shrubs on a large scale (Reij 2010;Botoni & Reij 2009), illustrates the perceived importance by the local inhabitants of retention of high density of trees in farmlands. 33 Söderström et al. (2003) argue that conservation in the Sahel can be compatible with human land use as long as the land use maintains a landscape with significant heterogeneity at different scales. Thus, "interventions that meet local development needs while sustaining tree and woodland cover could be beneficial for migrant land birds" (Atkinson et al. 2014: 12). ...
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The links between conservation and livelihood concerns remain much debated, and there is no agreement about the degree to which these concerns are linked, and how they should be tackled together. The main objectives of this study are to uncover the local values of birds, the environment and conservation for rural people in Burkina Faso’s Sahel region, and to increase insights into interventions that aim to achieve integrated (migrant bird) conservation and sustainable development objectives in this area. By focusing on issues like local perceptions, local participation, local institutional arrangements and the role of birds, this study adds new insights to the existing literature and knowledge. The study demonstrates that both birds and the environment are valued in many ways and are strongly linked with local livelihoods. At the same time, the study shows that serious environmental problems exist, and that both local livelihoods and birds are negatively impacted. This has created conservation incentives among the local population, which is a major contributing factor for conservation organizations seeking local motivation and participation to combat environmental issues. In fact, the study provides a strong argument for the need to increase local participation, and demonstrates several ways to do so.
... Bouyer et al. [82] x x Devineau and Fournier [83] Cattle x Jamnadass et al. [84] x Kiema and Sanon [85] x Thiollay [86] Cattle x x Mortimore and Turner [88] x x Gardiner et al. [87] x x Ramisch [89] x x Diallo et al. [90] x x Söderström et al. [92] x Madsen et al. [91] x x de La Rocque et al. [93] Cattle x x Vickery et al. [96] x x ...
... Pastoralism can also affect the populations of birds in West Africa [41,73,86,92]. For instance, Manu et al. [73] suggest that bird species richness and diversity are threatened by fire, grazing and shifting agriculture in important bird area sites in south-eastern Nigeria. ...
Article
Biodiversity loss is a pressing challenge. This is particularly so in regions where the pressure on ecosystems is high such as in the Sahel region. This pressure is due, inter alia, to different land uses such as pastoralism. In this context, the present systematic review analyses the state of research on the nexus between pastoralism and biodiversity in West Africa. In particular, it explores the relationships between pastoralism (cf. agro-pastoralism, sylvo-pastoralism, agro-sylvo-pastoralism), on the one hand, and plant diversity, animal diversity, and ecosystem diversity, on the other hand. The paper also analyses the bibliometrics of the research field. A search performed in March 2021 on the Web of Science yielded 205 documents and 73 of them were included in the systematic review. The bibliometric analysis suggests an increasing interest in the research field, especially in Burkina Faso and Benin, but also the weakness of the domestic research system as a large share of the selected documents is authored by researchers based outside West Africa. In general, the scholarly literature shows a negative impact of pastoralism on plant diversity (cf. richness, abundance, composition) and animal diversity (cf. wild herbivorous mammals, predators, birds, insects) in West Africa. However, the literature analysis suggests that the effects of pastoralism are rather mixed. They are context-specific and depend on many factors such as grazing intensity and livestock species. The effects on plant diversity differ between woody (trees and shrubs) and herbaceous species. There is a general trend towards the erosion of indigenous livestock genetic diversity due to uncontrolled mating and cross-breeding. The impacts of pastoralism on ecosystem diversity are mainly due to changes in land use and habitat fragmentation. Further multi-country, comparative studies are needed to better qualify the interactions, complementarities and possible conflicts between the different pastoralism-related land uses and biodiversity conservation in West Africa.
... In these countries, agricultural development has been a relatively recent phenomenon and 6 Chapter 1 -Introduction most native species that inhabit these modified landscapes rely on patches of native vegetation to fulfil their foraging and breeding requirements (Hughes et al. 2002. Nonetheless, the potential conservation value of countryside elements such as shade coffee plantations, fallow fields and fencerows has been recognised (Yahner 1983, Best et al. 1995, Petit and Petit 2003, Söderström et al. 2003, Harvey et al. 2006. A key factor influencing the value of these elements for species dependent on native vegetation is their structural complexity (Petit et al. 1999. ...
... Freemark and Merriam 1986, Verboom et al. 1991, Major et al. 2001) but increasingly there is recognition of the importance of the modified countryside elements (i.e. 'matrix' habitats), such as plantations, scattered trees, crops and pasture lands, in these landscapes , Söderström et al. 2003. A growing body of research is highlighting the contribution that such elements (i.e. ...
... This so-called 'intermediate disturbance hypothesis' (Ricklefs & Miller, 1999) has been shown to apply to trees (Uriarte et al., 2005) as well as birds (Magnall & Crowe, 2003;Holbech, 2005). That said, the extra species are generalists that are of little conservation concern (Söderström et al., 2003): we cannot expect forest interior species to survive outside forests (whose own conservation is therefore of great importance) but there are many other categories of birds which use trees. ...
... Previous studies in Uganda by Naidoo (2004) and Nalwanga (2004) found similar associations, but we have extended these over a larger area. Results elsewhere, for example Hirano et al. (1985) in Japan and Söderström et al. (2003) in West Africa, suggest a global trend in the relationships of birds and trees. Especially Hirano et al. showed the particular importance of large trees of a variety of species to overall species richness in birds; our results appear to confirm this for Uganda. ...
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Article
This paper examines the relationship between the intensity of agricultural land use and the abundance and richness of trees and birds in a humid tropical developing region where natural vegetation is being rapidly converted into farmland under market and population pressures. We analysed survey data on land use, birds and woody plants collected in 14 study sites situated within smallholder cropland and commercial plantations in southern Uganda. Commercial plantations had very few trees and only 10% of the original bird species. Land use intensification in smallholder systems also showed losses in bird abundance and species richness, but not nearly as much as in plantations. In both systems the impact of intensification was much bigger on the specialised and threatened birds compared to the less specialised species. This argues strongly for 'species-sensitive' conservation policies combining protected areas with land use regulation in areas undergoing intensification. We also found a much higher loss in bird biodiversity during the first phases of land use intensification (when larger tracts of forest are cleared) than in later phases characterised by clearing of smaller patches of vegetation and improved management of farm trees. This suggests high pay-offs to geographical targeting of conservation efforts in farmed landscapes.
... The "European farmland bird index" documents a drastic decline in the most common birds of the agricultural landscape (Donald et al., 2001(Donald et al., , 2006Traba & Morales, 2019), a few of them being listed under the most endangered category (Anderson et al., 2011;Pustkowiak et al., 2021). Similar declines in bird populations were also recorded in Australia (Martin et al., 2006), North America (Brennan & Kuvlesky, 2005), Africa (Soderstrom et al., 2003), and Asia (Semwal et al., 2004). Delta regions globally provide unique habitats for birds like the Indian Gangetic delta (Everard et al., 2019), Ebro Delta reed beds of northeastern Spain (Martinez-Vilalta et al., 2002), Nemunas Delta of the Curonian lagoon, south-eastern Baltic Sea (Morkune et al., 2022); and the Yellow River Delta in China (Li et al., 2019). ...
Article
Farmland bird populations have declined globally raising concerns over habitat loss for a wide range of species. In this study, we explored the significance of agroecosystems for birds at different temporal and spatial scales along the Cauvery delta region, South India. Our results recorded a wide range of 102 species, with passerines and wetland birds dominating the landscapes. Among the guild types, omnivores and insectivores were the well-represented groups followed by carnivores, granivores, frugivores, and nectarivores. Species richness and diversity were recorded higher during winter which could be associated with the maturing phase of rice paddies in the agroecosystem. There were significant differences recorded in species diversity and richness between the cropping period and the non-cropping periods, thus recognizing the high potential of paddy ecosystems in biodiversity conservation. The results of the multivariate analysis revealed that the diversity of birds in the agroecosystem was more influenced by the woody vegetation cover, crop cover, and field size; however, bird abundance was related to farm activities, plantations, and herbaceous cover surrounding the agroecosystem. Fewer generalist species revealed an interesting pattern of taxonomic homogenization with monoculture cropping patterns that could influence the adaptability and functional traits of the other species. The results of the study highlight that both HNV and the non-HNV zones attract a rich diversity of birds and the conservation of this traditional agricultural belt would aid in the conservation of threatened species and biodiversity globally.
... Livestock species also compete with wild large herbivorous mammals (Zliobaite et al., 2018). Pastoralism can also affect the populations of birds in West Africa (Söderström et al., 2003;Thiollay, 2006); for instance, Thiollay (2006) postulates that hunting, and habitat degradation and fragmentation, mainly due to intensive cattle grazing and woodcutting, have contributed to a decline of the passerine bird community in the Sudanian belt of Burkina Faso. ...
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Chapter
Burkina Faso and Niger are two landlocked countries in Sahelian West Africa. Pastoralism is one of the most important livelihood strategies in both countries and can play a central role in biodiversity conservation. This paper analyses the state of research on the relation between pastoralism and biodiversity in Burkina Faso and Niger. It draws upon a systematic review of 36 documents identified through the Web of Science. Literature analysis shows that the effects of pastoralism are rather mixed as they are context-specific and depend on many factors such as grazing intensity and livestock species. In general, pastoralism has a negative effect on plant species diversity, especially in terms of abundance, but with distinct effects on woody (trees and shrubs) and herbaceous species. Pastoralism can also impact the diversity of wild fauna. On the other hand, while there is a general trend towards the erosion of indigenous livestock genetic diversity, due inter alia to cross-breeding, pastoralism and traditional knowledge of pastoral communities result fundamental in the conservation of local, indigenous livestock breeds. Further research is needed to promote sustainable management of pastures and grasslands that ensures biodiversity conservation while preserving pastoral communities’ livelihoods in Burkina Faso and Niger.
... Th roughout the world, agriculture development poses the prime threat to the biodiversity. Both the spread of agricultural lands and the intensifi cation of agriculture production play main role in this regard (Soderstrom et al., 2003;Bolwig et al., 2006). Th e spread of agricultural land is always at the expense of natural habitats, which are destructed, fragmented or degraded. ...
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Article
The line transect method has been employed to assess species diversity, population densities and community structure of birds breeding in a mosaic of Kalahari Woodland and farmland, NE Namibia. The transect, 4.5 km long, was surveyed in 2014 and 2015. The total annual rainfall in 2014 was much higher than in 2015 (427 mm vs. 262 mm). In total, 40 breeding species in 2014, and 46 in 2015 were recorded. Six species were dominant in 2014 (Cape Turtle Dove, Laughing Dove, Emerald-spotted Dove, Blue Waxbill, and White-browed Scrub Robin) and only three species in 2015 (Cape Turtle Dove and Blue Waxbill and Yellow-fronted Canary). Although the cumulative dominance in 2014 almost doubled that in 2015, the Community Index in both years was almost identical. Also diversity indices and evenness index were very similar in both years compared. Granivorous birds were the most numerous feeding guild. Their contribution was similar in 2014 and 2015 (46.7 % vs. 43.4 %). Two other feeding guilds, insectivores and frugivores, comprised together more than 50 % in both years. The number of bird species and species diversity were not influenced by the differential rainfall. However, contrary to expectations, population densities of most bird species (at least the more numerous ones) were higher in the year with lower than in the year with higher rainfall. The number of species and species diversity was similar in the farmland and in neighbouring Kalahari Woodland in a pristine stage. However, population densities of most species were lower in the farmland than in the pristine woodland.
... On the other hand, the impact of agricultural land use intensity on socio-economic development has been shown to be mainly concentrated around the relationship with population [18], urbanization [19,20], rural transformation [21], food production [22], and food security [23], which have effectively guided the coordinated and sustainable development of intensive agricultural land use [24]. Research on the impact of agricultural land use intensity on the ecological environment has also become widespread in recent decades, mainly focusing on the impact on biodiversity [25][26][27], plant diversity [28,29], the microbial living environment [30,31], landscape structure [32], river health [33], and so on. Some studies have also comprehensively discussed whether the increase in agricultural land use intensity has significantly increased ecological-environmental risks. ...
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Article
Scientifically characterizing the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of agricultural land use intensity and analyzing its driving factors are of great significance to the formulation of relevant agricultural land use intensity management policies, the realization of food safety and health, and the achievement of sustainable development goals. Taking Hubei Province as an example, and taking counties as the basic evaluation unit, this paper establishes an agricultural land use intensity evaluation system, explores the spatial autocorrelation of agricultural land use intensity in each county and analyzes the driving factors of agricultural land use intensity. The results show that the agricultural land use intensity in Hubei Province increased as a whole from 2000 to 2016, and the spatial agglomeration about the agricultural land use intensity in Hubei Province experienced a process of continuous growth and a fluctuating decline; the maximum of the Global Moran's I was 0.430174 (in 2007) and the minimum was 0.148651 (in 2001). In terms of Local Moran's I, H-H agglomeration units were mainly concentrated in two regions: One comprising the cities of Huanggang, Huangshi and Ezhou, and the other the cities of Xiangyang and Suizhou; the phenomenon is particularly obvious after 2005. On the other hand, factors such as the multiple cropping index (MCI) that reflect farmers' willingness to engage in agricultural production have a great impact on agricultural land use intensity, the influence of the structure of the industry on agricultural land use intensity varies with the degree of influence of different industries on farmers' income, and agricultural fiscal expenditure (AFE) has not effectively promoted the intensification of agricultural land use. The present research has important significance for enhancing insights into the sustainable improvement of agricultural land use intensity and for realizing risk control of agricultural land use and development.
... Among the animal groups displaying landscape-wide biodiversity losses, populations of many farmland bird species have severely declined across Europe due to post-war agricultural intensification (Donald et al. 2001;Benton et al. 2003;Geiger et al. 2010;EBCC 2016). Links between agricultural intensification and avian biodiversity loss have also been reported at a global scale, with severe population declines in Africa (Söderström et al. 2003) and North America (Brennan and Kuvlesky 2005). Over several decades, modernisation of agriculture has led to drastic reductions in foraging resources in arable landscapes, which has strongly affected populations of seed-specialist farmland birds (Siriwardena et al. 2007). ...
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Article
Bird survival in winter relies on the availability of key population resources such as food, shelter and resting sites. In annual crops, intensive crop management has been shown to affect bird communities through a reduction in winter resources, but much less is known about perennial crops. In this study, we performed bird surveys in 30 orchards for two years to investigate how abundance, species richness and evenness in wintering bird communities were affected by the availability of unharvested fruits in pome fruit orchards and of fruiting ivy in surrounding hedgerows. We further investigated how these resources depend on orchard management. We observed 41 bird species overall, among which 13 were of conservation concern. Bird abundance was mainly driven by the number of unharvested fruits and to a lesser extent by the number of ivy bearing trees. Bird species richness was primarily driven by the number of ivy bearing trees. This result was consistent with analyses at the species level, indicating that the occurrence of seven species (Sylvia atricapilla, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Erithacus rubecula, Turdus iliacus, Turdus merula, and Turdus philomelos) was significantly dependent on the number of ivy-bearing trees. Interestingly, compared to organic orchards, non-organic (conventional and integrated) orchards had significantly more unharvested apples because of the absence of prophylactic measures against pests, thus providing wintering birds with more available resources. Our study supports the conservation value of commercial pome fruit orchards for Palearctic bird species overwintering in Southern Europe.
... Considerable measures are required to protect bird biodiversity (Ranganathan et al., 2012). The trend of reduction in cropland area, agricultural intensity and bird biodiversity is not only common in Asia (Semwal et al., 2004), but research in other parts of the world such as North America (Brennan & Kuvlesky, 2005), Europe (Clay, 2004) and Africa (Söderström et al., 2003) also show an identical scenario. ...
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Article
Bird damage to agricultural crops has been a chronic problem in many parts of the world. Although considerable effort has been made in developed countries to solve local or regional bird damage problems, very little effort in fighting the bird pests is witnessed in developing countries. Majority of avian pests are weaver-birds which cause serious damage to cereals, maize, rice, sorghum, millet, palms, plantains, and wheat cultivated in many parts of Africa, and form a staple diet in many localities. The aim of this study was to assess the feeding behavior of weaver-birds in the key neighborhoods of Buea municipality. The research data collection program was done by a research team made up of four persons, the principal investigator and three other student colleagues. The three-month study witnessed a research data collection process, from 7:00am-6:00pm each day, for a period of 6 days each week, Monday-Saturday. The team visited the key neighborhoods of the city on a daily bases to record observations on weaver-bird species, feeding activity, locations, and day-period. The study revealed a significant link between weaver-bird feeding on crop-part and crop species, X 2 = 5.188 df=4, P<0.05, and X 2 = 15.620 df=14, P<0.05 respectively. The study has shown a significant relationship between feeding and nesting behavior, X 2 = 230.556 df=7, P=0.000. However, nesting and feeding correlated significantly with the plant species in various neighborhoods, r = 0.607, P=0.000, and X 2 = 7.164 df=4, P<0.05 respectively. Additionally, the most affected crop-farms were found in Bomaka neighborhood (68.60%), a newly created neighborhood with less houses and more farmland while the least was Bokwango (3.72%), an old human residence. Nevertheless, feeding was more prominent on maize (Zea mays), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), and plum (Dacryodes edulis), while nesting on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), banana (Musa acuminate), mango (Mangifera indica), orange (Citrus sinensis), and avocado (Persea americana). The eradication of pests such as weaver-birds in croplands has been a huge challenge to the agricultural and wildlife stakeholders in developing countries like Cameroon. Moreover, the high proliferation character of the pest is one of the key problems that has made its population control ineffective and difficult in sub Saharan Africa.
... Hence, the mere establishment of protected areas will not solve the problem for most species, as reserves will contain an insufficient part of the whole wintering population. Instead, their conservation demands a landscape-scale approach and the success is inextricably linked to livelihood security of Sahelian people (Söderström et al. 2003;Adams et al. 2014). The importance of agricultural landscapes for open-habitat species is often overlooked in conservation approaches focusing on natural habitats (Wright et al. 2012). ...
Thesis
Long-distance migratory birds are in decline, especially species breeding in agricultural landscapes. The intensification of agriculture has been shown to be the main cause of the dramatic decline of farmland birds in Europe. However, species that depend on agricultural landscapes also during their overwintering stay in Africa are in double jeopardy because rapid and dramatic land use changes degrade and destroy their wintering habitats. In this thesis, I describe the annual movements and habitat use of Montagu’s Harriers tracked with GPS-trackers. Harriers winter in the Sahel where they apparently lead an easy life compared to the breeding season: they spend less time in flight compared to other annual cycle phases. However, at the end of the winter, harriers work harder to sustain themselves and prepare for migration. Our fieldwork in Africa showed that their main food becomes scarce at the end of the winter. Individuals wintering under harsh conditions depart later for spring migration, with possible knock-on effects for reproduction. In addition, more direct effects of adverse wintering conditions may exist, since mortality at the end of the winter and during spring migration has increased in recent years. In the Dutch breeding areas, Montagu’s Harriers seem to be food-limited and have to work hard to raise their young in the intensified agricultural landscape. Fortunately, our results indicate that increasing high-quality foraging habitat by implementing agri-environment schemes such as Birdfields, might help harriers.
... These heterogeneous landscapes composed of numerous and diverse wooded areas (Martin et al., 2012) are important seed sources and are decisive in the evolution of the vegetation beyond the young stages. Indeed, the frugivorous forest species present in the landscape were found to occupy almost exclusively areas with trees because they remain highly dependent on the arboreal structures distributed in the landscape, as has been demonstrated in several studies elsewhere (De Clerck et al., 2010;Harvey et al., 2006;Söderström et al., 2003). These structures, including Pinus plantation regrowth, may thus also serve as stepping stones, refuges and complementary habitats for birds and other species fluxes in the agricultural mosaic (Fischer and Lindenmayer, 2002;Harvey et al., 2006;Manning et al., 2006). ...
... Considerable measures are required to protect bird biodiversity [18]. The trend of reduction in cropland area, agricultural intensity and bird biodiversity is not only common in Asia [19], but research in other parts of the world such as North America [20], Europe [21] and Africa [22] also show an identical scenario. ...
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Article
One of the most common conflicts between people and wildlife takes the form of crop-raiding, a problem that has created severe crop-yield decline in sub Saharan Africa. The main objective of this survey was to investigate the various methods used by the local farmers in Tiko farming area against weaver-bird raids. The research data was collected through the administration of 250 questionnaires to a chosen population of farmers in the study area. The results have revealed a positive significance between crop-raiding and the various methods used to control the weaver-birds pest, χ 2 =7.592, df=6, P<0.05. More so, there is a positive significance between the age-class and the various methods used to control weaver-birds' population in Tiko farmland, χ 2 =21.207, df=18, P<0.05. The study has also revealed a significance on the individuals involved in pest management χ 2 =50.115, df=24, P<0.05. In addition, the study recorded a significance between challenges faced in crop-production and pests problems, χ 2 =9.960, df=3, P<0.05. The study has shown a positive significance on the seasonal pests management cost and the period of crop-raiding, χ 2 =9.454, df=6, P<0.05. This study has revealed the use of many methods by the local farmers in Tiko farming area to prevent the weaver-bird population from growing. Though, most of these methods are local and produce very little results on the fields, the farmers are yet to learn and master modern methods. The application of poisonous pesticides in fighting the weaver-bird raids in crop farmlands in Tiko as indicated by some respondents should be avoided for the welfare of the entire ecosystem.
... Considerable measures are required to protect bird biodiversity (Ranganathan et al., 2012). The trend of reduction in cropland area, agricultural intensity and bird biodiversity is not only common in Asia (Semwal et al., 2004), but research in other parts of the world such as North America (Brennan & Kuvlesky, 2005), Europe (Clay, 2004) and Africa (Söderström et al., 2003) also show an identical scenario. ...
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Article
The major human activities that have transformed the Earth include agriculture and urbanization. There has been an enormous deterioration in bird populations of late, consequently many farmland birds are listed as endangered species. Francolin birds are known in the destruction of crop, especially the tubers like cassava, yams, cocoyams, and yams in Cameroon, yet no serious study has been carried out to mitigate this crises. Hence, the objective of this survey is to assess the difficulties faced by the local farmers in handling the francolin-crop damage in Muyuka municipality. A total number of two hundred and fifty questionnaires were administered to a population sampled of local farmers in the study area. The results obtained reveal that profession associates significantly with the best method used prevent bushfowl damage in crop-farms (X 2 = 14.225 df=6, P<0.05). Inaddition, the survey has shown a very significant correlation link between the location areas of francolins and their crop-pest behaviour in farms (R 2 = 0.848, P<0.05). A significant correlation is also shown between gender and the best method used to prevent francolin birds from crop-farms (R 2 = 0.362, P<0.05). A respondent score of 82.04% recorded acknowledging that francolin birds are very serious crop-farmland pest in this community, necessitating its population control. The best method needed for the control of francolin population from damaging crop-farms recorded a respondent score of 46.53%, 27.76% and 25.71% for the use of traps, scarecrow and chemical spray respectively. This study requests the stakeholders in wildlife conservation and agriculture to jointly work in furnishing the local farmers with the best possible solutions to mitigate this crises in the community.
... It seems from various studies that habitat heterogeneity is the lifeline of farmland biodiversity from the individual field to the whole landscape (Benton et al. 2003). For example, seed-eating birds seemed to occur in higher numbers in pastoral areas containing small patches of arable land than in pure grassland landscapes (Robinson et al. 2001); though some bird species specifically depend on the open habitats provided by farming systems in Africa (Söderström et al. 2003), in Europe (Pain and Pienkowski 1997) and ...
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Technical Report
Abstract: Access to nutritious food to an ever-growing global population becoming a challenge and the situation might worsen in the face of climate change and environmental degradation. It is largely agreed that modern agriculture requires a major overhaul in its strategy, that should tap the technological innovations from the traditional agricultural system. The key is to develop sustainable intensification methods that optimally improve efficiency gains to produce more food without using more land, water, and other inputs. Coupled rice and fish culture have been offering a viable solution at many parts of the world. In the many parts of West Bengal and Bangladesh, a flash flood is a major problem causing havoc in villages, destroying crops, and jeopardizing livelihood. In order to circumvent the problem, in this pilot study, we have attempted to co-cultivate indigenous cat fish (Clarias magur) and deepwater rice landraces to examine their performance for a possible integration in flood-prone areas. The entire process was devoid of any inorganic fertilizer or chemical pesticide. In the flooded condition, out of the five landraces tested, three survived and yielded a significant amount of rice; similarly, the catfish also demonstrated promising growth and attained its maturity within the period. In 0.025 hectare of land, we obtained 53.8 kg of rice along with 43.8 kg of fish, which is promising to ascertain subsistence in the flash flood areas. At the end, we also suggest a probable extension of the proposed scheme. To our knowledge, it is the first report of integration of deepwater rice with catfish that holds potential for implementation to ensure rural livelihood, food security, and ecosystem health.
... An emerging issue, shared by many tropical developing countries, is the unsustainable trade-off between rapid human population growth and the need for preserving natural habitats and their biodiversity. In this framework, rapid changes in land-use, due to the inexorable spread of agriculture and exploiting of natural resources constitute the major threats to priority sites for avian conservation in Africa (Söderström et al. 2003). Such a scenario is particularly evident in Burkina Faso, West Africa, where 90 % of the population base its livelihood on agriculture and animal husbandry (Lungren et al. 2001). ...
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Article
A precise knowledge on biodiversity in tropical developing countries is pivotal to address proper conservation guidelines and policies, especially when natural habitats are strongly jeopardized by land use changes due to agriculture or industrial issues. In West Africa, Burkina Faso is a typical example of this emerging trend, and its natural or semi-natural wetland areas are of great importance as breeding or wintering sites for many passerine species, including the taxonomic complex group of unstreaked reed warblers (genus Acrocephalus). The use of morphological characters to distinguish between A. baeticatus and A. scirpaceus occurring in syntopy, is often subtle. To shed more light on the taxonomic status of a newly found Acrocephalus community in South Burkina Faso and on the reliability of the available criteria adopted to identify members of this species complex, we here compared the morphological features of some specimens collected during different field expeditions and supported our phenotypical assessment with a molecular identification approach. Sixteen Acrocephalus specimens were collected at a recent wetland area located South of Burkina Faso during winter. Specimens were measured and assigned to the species level based on the published and conventionally adopted morphological criteria. A COI-based DNA barcoding approach was used to confirm identification. Our integrated identification approach confirmed the occurrence of the first population of A. baeticatus for Burkina Faso. It is geographically isolated from other West African known populations. Interestingly, our results highlighted that the traditionally adopted identification trait, based on the emargination on the 7th primary, is not always valid to distinguish A. baeticatus from its conspecifics, which also partly overlap in biometric measurements. We therefore support the greater reliability of the ‘wing length / P9 notch’ criterion recently proposed for the identification of Palaearctic unstreaked Acrocephalus species and its importance to separate the wintering species of Palearctic origin from the African resident ones.
... Many studies have examined the impact of habitat loss and fragmentation due to agriculture on tropical bird communities (Naidoo, 2004 andMarsden 2006). Relatively, few studies have focused on bird communities in Africa (Soderstrom 2003;Mangnall and Crowe, 2003). Although, African Green Pigeon (Treron calvus) appears to be widely distributed, very few studies have been conducted on them (Ali, 1987) and some studies are mostly based on morphological adaptations (Bhattacharya 1994) but status survey had not been investigated. ...
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Conference Paper
Abstract: The population estimate of African Green Pigeon in Ekiti State, Nigeria was investigated between 2014 and 2015. Point count method, through direct observation was adopted for the study. A total of five (5) locations (A =Aramoko/Ijero Ekiti, B=Isan Ekiti, C =Ikogosi Ekiti, D= Awo/Igede Ekiti and E= Iyemero Ekiti) were selected for the study. The number of counting points established at each station was based on the size of the forest. African Green Pigeon was observed to be present in seven out of the 20 locations visited. A mean total of the population estimates of 102 birds were counted during the wet and dry season of the study, 42 during the dry season and 60 counted during the wet season. Site A had the highest mean bird number (9 ± 4.24 and 15 ± 1.14 in the dry and wet seasons) while station E had the least mean number (8± 0.70 birds in the dry and 9± 2.82 birds in the wet season). It was concluded that the population of African Green Pigeon had greatly reduced due to the level of anthropogenic activities in the state. Therefore, for sustainability and to avoid loss of biodiversity, urgent conservation measures of the habitat management may help to conserve the declining population size of African Green Pigeon as well as other fauna and flora species of the forests in Ekiti state. Keywords: Habitat, African Green Pigeon, Population decline, Conservation
... Several studies relating birds to their environments in forest-agricultural landscapes globally suggest that variations in agricultural land use can have different impacts on forest-dependent bird assemblages (Carrara et al., 2015;García & Martínez, 2012). However, only a few of such studies were conducted in tropical Sub-Saharan Africa (Phalan, 2010;Sekercioglu, 2002;Söderström, Kiema, & Reid, 2003). In West Africa, the effects of agricultural land use on tropical forest fauna are poorly understood (Beier, Van Drielen, & Kankam, 2002). ...
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Article
The conservation of biodiversity within tropical forest regions does not lie only in the maintenance of natural forest areas, but on conservation strategies directed toward agricultural land types within which they are embedded. This study investigated variations in bird assemblages of different functional groups of forest-dependent birds in three agricultural land types, relative to distance from the interior of 34 tropical forest patches of varying sizes. Point counts were used to sample birds at each study site visited. Data from counts were used to estimate species richness, species evenness, and Simpson's diversity of birds. Mean species richness, evenness, and diversity were modeled as responses and as a function of agricultural land type, distance from the forest interior and three site-scale vegetation covariates (density of large trees, fruiting trees, and patch size) using generalized linear mixed-effect models. Mean observed species richness of birds varied significantly within habitat types. Mean observed species richness was highest in forest interior sites while sites located in farm centers recorded the lowest mean species richness. Species richness of forest specialists was strongly influenced by the type of agricultural land use. Fallow lands, density of large trees, and patch size strongly positively influenced forest specialists. Insectivorous and frugivorous birds were more species-rich in fallow lands while monoculture plantations favored nectarivorous birds. Our results suggest that poor agricultural practices can lead to population declines of forest-dependent birds particularly specialist species. Conservation actions should include proper land use management that ensures heterogeneity through retention of native tree species on farms in tropical forest-agriculture landscapes.
... Emellett az állomány csökkenést befolyásolják a rövid és hosszú távú vonuló madárfajok esetében a telelő területen bekövetkezett változások (például időjárási szélsőségek, élőhelyek eltűnése), amelyeket SANDERSON et al. (2006) vizsgálatukban kimutattak, vagy akár a klímaváltozás (ARCHAUX, 2003). A telelő területen végbement agrárintenzifikáció is negatív hatással van a vándorló fajok állományaira (SÖDERSTRÖM et al., 2003). ...
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Article
NÉMETH T.M: POPULATION CHANGES AND STATUS OF FARMLAND BIRDS IN EUROPE – A REVIEW. Hungarian Small Game Bulletin 13: 143–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.17243/mavk.2017.143 The present review aimed to summarize the available evidence on farmland bird populations and their changes over the past decades in Europe. Firstly, a short historical background of the European agricultural intensity is presented. Secondly, the European Farmland Bird Index, published papers and grey literatures were searched and studied to show the recent population trends and population sizes of farmland bird species (37 species selected for monitoring by the EU and more specifically focusing on 10 bird species breeding in Hungary). Finally, a short summary and a conclusion are given.
... Loss and degradation of natural habitats, increase in fragmentation and emergence of man-made habitats threatens some species, as well as benefit other (Siriwardena et al., 1998). Some of these benefited species are able to satisfy their needs for food, shelter and reproductive habitat in the new agricultural matrix and may to dominate the assemblages (Söderström et al., 2003;Elmore et al., 2007;Dias et al., 2013) and even become overabundant and cause damage in crops or structures. Understanding the landscape settings that benefit such species and which factors contribute to population dynamics are key issues for proper management (Lutz and Jensen, 2007). ...
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Article
Changes at the landscape scale associated with expansion in agricultural land use and changes in agricultural practices are common causes of alteration in patterns of abundance and composition of avian communities. Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata - Des Murs, 1847) is among the most common species in the Neotropics, considered both as game and pest in some countries. Here we characterized the regional and seasonal patterns of Eared Doves abundance in Southwestern Brazil and examined the relationship between landscape features and these abundance patterns. We counted Eared Doves using the point count system along routes in summer and winter and recorded land use at two scales. We used linear regressions to model the effect of landscape matrix and land use at local scale with Doves abundance in two seasons. At the landscape scale, in winter, the abundance was greater in routes crossing landscapes dominated by plantations. In summer, it was lower in routes with large tracts of forests and mixed farming. While in winter, at the local scale, the Doves abundance was greater in routes with higher frequency of maize plantations, in summer higher abundances were observed in routes with higher frequency of sugar cane and soybean plantations. Agricultural settings, which include both sustained production of food in the form of grains as well as and large stretches of habitat suitable for reproduction, favor large population of Eared Doves.
... The most commonly used audiovisual methods in the tropics are point counts, line transects, and the species-list method (e.g. Poulsen et al. 1997, Fjeldså 1999, Haselmayer and Quinn 2000, 2005, Söderström et al. 2003, O'Dea et al. 2004, Abrahamczyk et al. 2008, Clough et al. 2009, MacLeod et al. 2011), owing their popularity to time-and cost-effectiveness. Sound recording is an integral part of these methods, as it provides documentation of a large number of species, and enables analysis and identification of unknown vocalizations after surveys are completed. ...
... The most commonly used audiovisual methods in the tropics are point counts, line transects, and the species-list method (e.g. Poulsen et al. 1997, Fjeldså 1999, Haselmayer and Quinn 2000, Söderström et al. 2003, O'Dea et al. 2004, Abrahamczyk et al. 2008, Clough et al. 2009, MacLeod et al. 2011, owing their popularity to time-and cost-effectiveness. Sound recording is an integral part of these methods, as it provides documentation of a large number of species, and enables analysis and identification of unknown vocalizations after surveys are completed. ...
... The most commonly used audiovisual methods in the tropics are point counts, line transects, and the species-list method (e.g. Poulsen et al. 1997, Fjeldså 1999, Haselmayer and Quinn 2000, 2005, Söderström et al. 2003, O'Dea et al. 2004, Abrahamczyk et al. 2008, Clough et al. 2009, MacLeod et al. 2011, owing their popularity to time-and cost-effectiveness. Sound recording is an integral part of these methods, as it provides documentation of a large number of species, and enables analysis and identification of unknown vocalizations after surveys are completed. ...
... The most commonly used audiovisual methods in the tropics are point counts, line transects, and the species-list method (e.g. Poulsen et al. 1997, Fjeldså 1999, Haselmayer and Quinn 2000, Söderström et al. 2003, O'Dea et al. 2004, Abrahamczyk et al. 2008, Clough et al. 2009, MacLeod et al. 2011, owing their popularity to time-and cost-effectiveness. Sound recording is an integral part of these methods, as it provides documentation of a large number of species, and enables analysis and identification of unknown vocalizations after surveys are completed. ...
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Book
A handbook of methods for conducting biological data collection of over numerous taxa . Co-author of the "Introduction" and "Camera Traps" chapters.
... Varios estudios recientes que relacionan la composición de la vegetación arbórea con la abundancia y riqueza de especies de aves (Harvey et al. 2006, Matlock et al. 2006, y el efecto de la perturbación de la estructura vertical de la vegetación sobre la comunidad de aves (Söderström et al. 2003, Dale et al. 2000, Watson et al. 2004 indican que a mayor diversidad de especies arbóreas y mayor complejidad estructural de la vegetación los grupos de aves dependientes de estas características biofísicas son más diversos en especies cuando son comparados con sitios con menor cober-tura arbórea, menos diversidad de especies de árboles y una estructura de la vegetación simple o perturbada. Los resultados de esta investigación concuerdan con estos patrones. ...
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Article
Aunque se reconoce el aporte del componente arbóreo de los sistemas silvopastoriles (SSP) para la conservación de aves, no se conoce el efecto combinado de la diversidad arbórea y la ubicación en el paisaje de estos sistemas sobre la avifauna, los cuales son aspectos claves en el diseño y la planificación del paisaje para la conservación de la biodiversidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la diversidad de especies arbóreas, la distancia que existe entre el bosque y los potreros con árboles dispersos, la dominancia de especies arbóreas y la conexión del bosque con las cercas vivas sobre la avifauna residente de Matiguás, Nicaragua. La avifuana se registró mediante el método de puntos de conteo, dos veces al día (mañana y tarde) y durante dos periodos estacionales (seco y húmedo), en 24 potreros y 24 cercas vivas seleccionadas para este estudio. Se calculó la abundancia, la riqueza y el índice de Shannon con el total de individuos de aves registrados. Las variables fueron evaluadas con un análisis de varianza en diseño bifactorial comple-tamente aleatorizado. Se registraron un total de 3.506 individuos de aves pertenecientes a 94 especies distribuidas en 28 familias. Además, se observaron cuatro especies con importancia para la conservación. El gremio insectívoro fue el más abundante y con mayor riqueza de especies. Se encontró que a mayor diversidad arbórea, mayor es la diversidad y riqueza de especies de aves en los potreros y cercas vivas. No obstante, no encontramos efectos importantes de la distancia o conexión al bosque. Es probable que en el agropaisaje de Matiguás la conectividad estructural presente influyera a que el factor distancia no fuera muy importante.
... Anthropogenic disturbance have acted for a very long time, which could have resulted in long-term changes of amphibian assemblages in these areas. Agriculture and livestock farming have long been carried out in these areas but traditional cultivation has shifted towards intensive cropping and pasturing due to human population growth (BATIONO et al. 1998, SÖDERSTRÖM et al. 2003. Amphibians are known to be particularly sensitive to agricultural land use (SEMLITSCH 2000) due to pesticide application, sedimentation and fertilizer run off (RELYEA 2005). ...
Thesis
Amphibien sind global von einem Artenrückgang betroffen, wobei Ausbeutung bestimmter Froscharten einer der Gründe hierfür ist. Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt erstmals Einblick in Form, Umfang und Auswirkungen der extensiven Nutzung von Fröschen in Westafrika. Interviews mit Konsumenten und in den Froschhandel Involvierten ermöglichten die Nutzung und den Handel von Fröschen in Burkina Faso, Benin und Nigeria zu quantifizieren und zu bewerten. Während der Froschhandel in Burkina Faso eher auf lokaler Ebene abläuft, ließ sich im Norden Benins und in Nigeria ein intensiver grenzüberschreitender Handel nachweisen. Um einen möglichen anthropogenen Einfluss auf natürliche Amphibien Gemeinschaften zu ermitteln wurden natürliche Gewässer untersucht. Auf Kaulquappenebene wurden Artenverluste und die sich daraus ergebenen Konsequenzen studiert. Temporäre Savannengewässer wurden in zwei Untersuchungsgebieten in Burkina Faso untersucht, wobei die Gewässer jeweils in Gebieten mit unterschiedlichem Störungsgrad lagen: in Dörfern mit Froschfang, gegenüber in geschützten Gebieten mit Froschfangverbot. Generell konnte in den anthropogen gestörten Gebieten ein niedrigerer Artenreichtum mit gleichzeitig veränderter Zusammensetzung der Artengemeinschaften konstatiert werden. Für diese Unterschiede waren primär anthropogen veränderte Habitatfaktoren verantwortlich. Aber auch das Froschfangen kann Grund für veränderte Kaulquappengemeinschaften sein. Um Voraussagen für mögliche resultierende Konsequenzen treffen zu können ist es wichtig die ökologische Rolle betroffener Arten im System zu kennen. In künstlichen Gewässern wurde die trophische Position von vier Kaulquappenarten mit jeweils unterschiedlicher Nahrungsstrategie und die Konsequenzen ihres Verlustes für die restlichen Kaulquappen und bestimmter Ökosystemfaktoren, wie Moskitolarven, ermittelt. Die vier Kaulquappenarten unterschieden sich in ihrer trophischen Position. Zudem konnten komplexe Interaktionen zwischen den vier Fokusarten aufgedeckt werden, wobei die trophische Position je nach Gemeinschaft wechseln konnte. So konnte ich mit meiner Arbeit zeigen, dass der Verlust nur einer Art essentielle Konsequenzen für Amphibien Gemeinschaften und ökosystemische Prozesse haben kann. Chapter 1 Summary II I
... Les deux sexes sont affectées négativement par l'intensification de l'agriculture dans la région du Tonlé Sap et l'incitation à la production industrielle du riz afin de conserver plus d'habitats "naturels" ailleurs semble être contre-productif pour cette espèce globalement menacée. Perfecto 1997, Söderström et al. 2003, Donald 2004. Given recent discussion of the biodiversity benefits of wildlife-friendly farming versus land-sparing through agricultural intensification , Matson and Vitousek 2006, Vandermeer and Perfecto 2007, it is crucial to identify what features of changing agricultural landscapes are used by endangered wildlife and how intensification may affect habitat quality for such species. ...
Article
Understanding sexual differences in habitat use is important for effective conservation management, particularly with regard to polygynous species, the sexes of which may differ in their responses to land-use change. We examined sex-specific habitat use in the critically endangered Bengal Florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis), a polygynous bustard whose most important population occurs in traditionally farmed grasslands in the Tonle Sap floodplain, Cambodia. This habitat is undergoing rapid conversion to intensive dry-season rice production. Using radiotelemetry, we compared male and female breeding-season habitat selection and home-range sizes and configurations. The sexes differed in their spatial use of the lek and their ability to utilize anthropogenic habitat features. Both sexes avoided intensive dry-season rice fields. Males selected habitats related to low-intensity human activity, chiefly burned grassland, whereas females selected unburned grassland but also used unburned, uncultivated grassland in dry-season rice head-ponds. These differences reflect the species' breeding system, with males using open areas for display and females selecting cover. Our findings demonstrate the importance of the landscape heterogeneity associated with traditional human activity in maintaining the habitat mosaics necessary for the contrasting breeding-season requirements of male and female Bengal Floricans. Two-thirds of tagged females may have left the lek to nest elsewhere, which suggests that protecting habitat in which males display will not be a sufficient conservation response for such lekking species. Both sexes are detrimentally affected by agricultural intensification within the Tonle Sap, and encouragement of industrial rice production to spare more "natural" habitats elsewhere is likely to be counterproductive for this globally threatened flagship species. Received 5 February 2008, accepted 28 July
... In Africa, rapid human population growth drives overexploitation of the land and is a major cause of past, present and future biodiversity loss (Biggs et al., 2008), reflected by a decrease in species richness as land-use is increasingly dominated by human activities (Homewood et al., 2001;Sinclair et al., 2002;Söderström et al., 2003;Blaum et al., 2007). Compared to the rest of the continent, West Africa's biodiversity stands out for being most severely threatened (Newmark, 2008;Craigie et al., 2010). ...
Article
To provide insight into raptor declines in western Africa, we investigated associations between land-use and raptor distribution patterns in Cameroon. We examined the role of breeding distribution, species' migratory mobility, diet, body size, and thus area requirements, on 5-km scale patterns of raptor richness and abundance. We recorded 15,661 individuals, comprising 55 species during road surveys, spanning four annual cycles. Results revealed evidence for the importance of National Parks (N.P.'s), natural vegetation, humans, and cotton in shaping raptor assemblages, but responses differed between functional groups and biogeographical zones. Human populations and natural habitat, interacting with zone, were important predictors of Afrotropical raptor richness, and N.P.'s of Palearctic raptor richness. Areas cleared of natural habitat in the Guinea zone had comparatively rich and abundant large, small sedentary and migratory Afrotropical raptor assemblages, but humans limited positive effects. Palearctic raptor abundance peaked at higher levels of human land-use than Afrotropical raptors. Vertebrate-hunting Palearctic raptor richness was positively associated with cropland, while cotton and human land-use in the Inundation zone had a stronger negative impact on insectivorous Palearctic raptors. Richness of large sedentary raptors declined with increasing distance to N.P.'s, contrary to communal scavenger richness, which increased with human populations. Humans, habitat loss and cotton in the Inundation and Sudan zones had similar, negative effects on small sedentary and small migratory Afrotropical raptor assemblages. We conclude that increasing human populations, natural vegetation loss, and expanding cotton will negatively affect the majority of Afrotropical and insectivorous Palearctic raptors, while vertebrate-hunting Palearctic raptors may benefit from cropland expansion.
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Article
This research study examined the influence of agricultural operations effect in Leventis Foundation Farm Weppa-Agenebode, Edo state Nigeria. The farm is the largest privately owned in Nigeria. The farm is was divided into three compartments for the purpose of this study, Arable crop unit, Agroforestry unit, and wetland. The crop grown in the farm are as follows, rice, cassava, maize and soya bean. Others are cashew, mango citrus, oil palm, and teak. Point count method was used to collect data on bird species. Counting stations or predefined spots were established in roosting sites, wetland and feeding sites as well as forest edges. Counting bands of the50m radius were used for all the stations. The minimum distance between two counting per each study sites stations was 200m. The number of counting stations was determined by the site size. In all, 30 counting station were used, 15 counting stations in each compartment were laid out. PAST model was used to analyze the diversity index, SHE analysis, diversity profile and plot the diversity index in different compartments. A total of 902 bird encounters was made with one hundred twenty (120) bird species belonging toforty-eight (48) families and sixteen (16) orders were observed in the study area.Agroforestry unit has higher bird species diversity of (52) bird species than Arable crop unit (27) and Wetland (42). Arable crop unit has bird species richness (324) followed by Agroforestry unit (234) and wetland (115). Within Arable crop unit compartment the result indicates that rice plot has the highest (218) bird species richness, followed by maize plot (155) and the least was soya bean plot (40). This was followed by maize. In agroforestry unit, Citrus plantation has the highest bird species richness (71) followed by cashew plantation (67) and the least was Teak plantation (29). Diversity in Shannon_Hdex indicates that Agroforestry
Full-text available
Article
This research study examined the influence of agricultural operations effect in Leventis Foundation Farm Weppa-Agenebode, Edo state Nigeria. The farm is the largest privately owned in Nigeria. The farm is was divided into three compartments for the purpose of this study, Arable crop unit, Agroforestry unit, and wetland. The crop grown in the farm are as follows, rice, cassava, maize and soya bean. Others are cashew, mango citrus, oil palm, and teak. Point count method was used to collect data on bird species. Counting stations or predefined spots were established in roosting sites, wetland and feeding sites as well as forest edges. Counting bands of the50m radius were used for all the stations. The minimum distance between two counting per each study sites stations was 200m. The number of counting stations was determined by the site size. In all, 30 counting station were used, 15 counting stations in each compartment were laid out. PAST model was used to analyze the diversity index, SHE analysis, diversity profile and plot the diversity index in different compartments. A total of 902 bird encounters was made with one hundred twenty (120) bird species belonging toforty-eight (48) families and sixteen (16) orders were observed in the study area.Agroforestry unit has higher bird species diversity of (52) bird species than Arable crop unit (27) and Wetland (42). Arable crop unit has bird species richness (324) followed by Agroforestry unit (234) and wetland (115). Within Arable crop unit compartment the result indicates that rice plot has the highest (218) bird species richness, followed by maize plot (155) and the least was soya bean plot (40). This was followed by maize. In agroforestry unit, Citrus plantation has the highest bird species richness (71) followed by cashew plantation (67) and the least was Teak plantation (29). Diversity in Shannon_Hdex indicates that Agroforestry
Article
Farmland harbors valuable biodiversity, providing habitats and associated resources for birds. However, environmental change is affecting the habitat availability within agricultural landscapes. Thus, conserving farmland areas that have the potential to provide habitats for birds is increasingly considered to mitigate pressure on ecological systems. Incorporating these concerns into bird habitat analysis to aid in conservation actions is needed to assist policy developers in protecting bird habitats in Taiwan efficiently. In the present study, we propose combining an expert-based approach with empirical data to develop an evaluation of bird habitat suitability on farmlands. Experts were initially gathered to construct a research framework and then express their judgments on ecological factors. We obtained the significant factors such as farmland fragmentation, farmland landscape heterogeneity, and distance to surrounding vegetation within fifteen evaluated sub-criteria under four criteria of farmland functionality, farmland utilization, farmland located within a major conservation area, and farmland landscape ecology as the habitat requirements of birds. Combing the weight-based priority and empirical data, we finally determined a highly suitable habitat for birds accounting for 31.92% of farmlands. In an assessment involving bird distribution records in the study area, the accuracy derived from model validation is 91.25%. The findings of this work can provide authorities and policymakers with potential hotspots for ecosystem conservation.
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Book
Intrepid journeys are made by migratory birds, often straddling thousands of kilometers, migratory birds cross many boundaries, connecting different countries and utilizing riparian bio-network which is considered essential habitats for the said species and other associated avian fauna without reservation. Construction of dam, agriculture, livestock grazing, forest harvesting, mining, recreation, urbanisation, floods, climate change and wildfires are responsible for rapid habitat modification for migratory birds, leading to loss and introduction of exotic plant species, excessive generalization of native riparian vegetation, declines and endangerment of migratory birds on the global landscape. Additional effort to protects, restore and control the distinctive diversity of the riparian bio-network globally, depends on better understanding of essential, physical and biological process surrounding and sustaining that unique diversity on large scale.
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Land-use change, and associated land clearing/conversion and fragmentation are major drivers of biodiversity decline across the globe. The spread of invasive species is a well-recognised consequence of land-use change. The extent and intensity of invasion however is often difficult to assess due to a lack of temporal data. Using detailed mapping information for 130, 950 km² of sub-coastal Queensland, Australia and results from field surveys we investigated changes to land-use, the extent of remnant (intact) vegetation and the spread of prominent invasive plant species over time (1997–2018). In the 50 years prior to 1997 the area underwent significant land development (mostly for livestock grazing and crops), resulting in a reduction of 45% of its remnant vegetation. Despite key policy developments aimed at protecting the remaining vegetation and species, 7392 km² was cleared/converted between 1997 and 2017, mainly for the expansion of grazing and cropping lands. Vegetation types specifically listed for national protection under these policies were some of the greatest affected, highlighting the need for improved implementation and regulation of these control measures. Within remaining fragments of remnant vegetation, the cover and presence of two invasive perennial grass species indian couch (Bothriochloa pertusa) and buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) increased significantly during this time period. There was also a moderate increase in the cover and presence of the annual herb Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus). The spread of these species within the landscape likely reflects an ‘invasion debt’, incurred from an intense history of land-use within the region and we predict this trend will continue to threaten remnant ecosystems.
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Rice Oryza sativa ecosystems provide foraging and nesting habitat for a variety of birds. Myanmar is a major rice-producing nation and yet bird use of rice ecosystems remains largely unstudied. We present the results of a case study of avian species richness in a traditional rice ecosystem at Limpha Village in upper Myanmar. The rice field at Limpha occupies 17.5 ha where a single crop is produced each year without chemical inputs (fertilizer and pesticides). Village lands are contiguous with the buffer zone of Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary. We conducted bird surveys of the rice field during dry and wet seasons (2013–20) and documented the occurrence of 85 species (exclusive of Buttonquail these included 58 resident species, 20 migratory species, six species with both resident and migratory populations in upper Myanmar), including 10 species of conservation concern. Species richness was greatest during the dry season when an influx of Palearctic migrants was present. We ranked 52 species as Common, 23 as Uncommon, and 10 as Rare. Most birds used the rice field as foraging rather than breeding habitat. Insectivore was the most common feeding guild (43 species), followed by Omnivore (22 species), Carnivore (12 species), Granivore (6 species), Frugivore (1 species), and Nectarivore (1 species) guilds. We observed eight species associated with domestic Water Buffalo Bubalus bubalis and 15 species foraging at active fires or in burned areas in the rice field. Piles of rice straw are important foraging sites for several species. Low intensity agricultural practices, habitat heterogeneity, and proximity to the nearby swamp, forest, & Chindwin River are probably responsible for the relatively high avian species richness at Limpha. Future agricultural intensification could negatively impact avian species richness in the Limpha rice field. Our findings suggest that traditional rice agriculture is compatible with conservation objectives in the buffer zone of Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary. Our study, however, requires replication before generalizations can be made concerning the value of traditional rice ecosystems to avian conservation in Myanmar.
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Population increase and urbanization have considerably altered land-use patterns in central Taiwan. To determine the effects of urbanization in central Taiwan, this study used a buffer analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling to identify the relationship between egret nesting sites and land-use changes during the agricultural, industrial, and service economy periods of the urbanization process. The results demonstrate that built-up land increased markedly over time in central Taiwan, especially within the 1-km circle buffer of egret nesting sites. A longer interquartile range in the service economy period indicates that the distribution of cultivated land near egret nesting sites was relatively fragmented. The types of land-use with similar features were clustered into the same group using hierarchical cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. The group classification results of the hierarchical cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were consistent with the results of the Pearson correlation analyses. The horizontal axis in the multidimensional scaling dendrogram may represent the gradient from the main to minor food source areas. Hierarchical cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling could be used for initial identification of urbanization processes. Furthermore, egrets in central Taiwan adapted to urbanization and fed on discarded human food during Taiwan’s service economy period.
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This research study examined the influence of different land use types in Leventis Foundation Farm Weppa-Agenebode, Edo state Nigeria. The farm is the largest privately owned in Nigeria. The farm was divided into three compartments for the purpose of this study, Arable crop unit, Agroforestry unit, and wetland. The crop grown in the farm are as follows, rice, cassava, maize and soya bean. Others are cashew, mango citrus, oil palm, and teak. Point count method was used to collect data on bird species. Counting stations or predefined spots were established in roosting sites, wetland and feeding sites as well as forest edges. Counting bands of the 50m radius were used for all the stations. The minimum distance between two counting each study sites stations was 200m. The number of counting stations was determined by the site size. In all, 30 counting station were used, 15 counting stations in each compartment were laid out. PAST model was used to analyze the diversity index, SHE analysis, diversity profile and plot the diversity index in different compartments. A total of 902 bird encounters were made with one hundred twenty (120) bird species belonging to forty-eight (48) families and sixteen (16) orders were observed in the study area. Agroforestry unit has higher bird species diversity of (52) bird species than Arable crop unit (27) and Wetland (42). Arable crop unit has bird species richness (324) followed by Agroforestry unit (234) and wetland (115). Within Arable crop unit compartment the result indicates that rice plot has the highest (218) bird species richness, followed by maize plot (155) and the least was soya bean plot (40). This was followed by maize. In agroforestry unit, Citrus plantation has the highest bird species richness (71) followed by cashew plantation (67) and the least was Teak plantation (29). Diversity in Shannon_H dex indicates that Agroforestry unit has the highest index of 3.578 followed by wetland unit 3.567 and Arable crop unit has 2.946 which was the smallest.
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Birds are indicators of environmental changes which emphasize the need to study their abundance, diversity and distribution in order to monitor these changes. The present study was conducted to assess the avifauna species diversity and distribution pattern in Akure Forest Reserve and provide baseline data on avifaunal species' richness and relative species abundance. The bird species were assessed in the two vegetation partitions (Queen's and Enrichment plots) using point count and line transect counting methods. Data collected were analysed using PAST version 3 model and BioDiversity Pro statistical packages. The results show that 40 bird species were identified in the entire community with 34 species each in the study areas and individual sightings of 114 and 70 in Enrichment plot and Queen's plot respectively. Fifteen trigger species of birds for Important Bird Area (IBA) were identified in Queen's plot while 11 species were recorded in Enrichment plot. The Shannon diversity index was slightly higher in Queen's plot at 29.08 as the effective number of species which differed significantly from Enrichment plot at 27.11. The Queen's plot was richer in bird species richness (4.06) compared to the species richness in Enrichment plot (3.18) while the Sorenson's coefficient of species similarity indicated 83% similarity in bird occurrence in the two study areas of the forest reserve.
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Birds are indicators of environmental changes which emphasize the need to study their abundance, diversity and distribution in order to monitor these changes. The present study was conducted to assess the avifauna species diversity and distribution pattern in Akure Forest Reserve and provide baseline data on avifaunal species' richness and relative species abundance. The bird species were assessed in the two vegetation partitions (Queen's and Enrichment plots) using point count and line transect counting methods. Data collected were analysed using PAST version 3 model and BioDiversity Pro statistical packages. The results show that 40 bird species were identified in the entire community with 34 species each in the study areas and individual sightings of 114 and 70 in Enrichment plot and Queen's plot respectively. Fifteen trigger species of birds for Important Bird Area (IBA) were identified in Queen's plot while 11 species were recorded in Enrichment plot. The Shannon diversity index was slightly higher in Queen's plot at 29.08 as the effective number of species which differed significantly from Enrichment plot at 27.11. The Queen's plot was richer in bird species richness (4.06) compared to the species richness in Enrichment plot (3.18) while the Sorenson's coefficient of species similarity indicated 83% similarity in bird occurrence in the two study areas of the forest reserve.
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Diversity of avian species were studied in Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research Edo State Nigeria. Ten transect lines of 1000 m each and 8 counting stations were randomly placed. Data were collected for twelve months (Dry and Wet seasons). Transects lines were patrolled three times a week and all birds seen and heard were recorded. In all, a total of 807 individual bird species spread across 77 bird species, 22 families and 8 orders were recorded. The dominant family was Estrilda it has 7 of the total bird species. Two rare bird species of Malimbe (Malimbus erythrogaster and Malimbus scutalus) were encountered in the study area. The relative abundance of bird species were higher (25.2 and 18.9) dry season was higher than the wet season (18.9and 18.2 of the year, This study showed that the value of Shannon diversity index for bird species was higher in the dry season (3.52) than the farmland (3.438). A total of 13 taxas and 17 individual trees species belonging to 13 families were enumerated.
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Diversity of avian species were studied in Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research Edo State Nigeria. Ten transect lines of 1000 m each and 8 counting stations were randomly placed. Data were collected for twelve months (Dry and Wet seasons). Transects lines were patrolled three times a week and all birds seen and heard were recorded. In all, a total of 807 individual bird species spread across 77 bird species, 22 families and 8 orders were recorded. The dominant family was Estrilda it has 7 of the total bird species. Two rare bird species of Malimbe (Malimbus erythrogaster and Malimbus scutalus) were encountered in the study area. The relative abundance of bird species were higher (25.2 and 18.9) dry season was higher than the wet season (18.9and 18.2 of the year, This study showed that the value of Shannon diversity index for bird species was higher in the dry season (3.52) than the farmland (3.438). A total of 13 taxas and 17 individual trees species belonging to 13 families were enumerated.
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A expansão da agricultura e a intensificação dos processos agrícolas levam a um rearranjo nas comunidades de aves, incluindo a perda de diversidade e o aumento populacional de espécies capazes de aproveitar os novos recursos disponíveis. Em algumas circunstâncias espécies podem apresentar um marcado aumento populacional passando a ser percebidas como superabundantes e conflitantes para atividades humanas. Esta dissertação analisa 1) a influência do uso do solo na abundância da pomba-de-bando e 2) a aplicação de conceitos de superabundância para esta espécie no Sudoeste do Brasil. A área de estudo abrangeu regiões produtoras de grãos dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná e São Paulo. Contamos aves em 50 rotas, cada uma com 12 estações de contagem, alocadas em estradas vicinais em meio a matrizes agrícolas e relacionamos ocorrência e abundância com a paisagem. Aplicamos questionários aos agricultores com a intenção de obter dados da percepção dos mesmos frente a danos causados pela pomba na agricultura. A pomba-de-bando foi a espécie mais abundante, representando 48% do total de indivíduos contados, e também uma das mais frequentes, sendo encontrada em 93% das amostras. Na escala da paisagem, mais ampla, a abundância esteve positivamente associada às áreas destinadas à agricultura e agropecuária no inverno e negativamente associada às áreas com grandes extensões de agropecuária e remanescente florestais no verão. Na escala local, mais fina, a abundância de pombas no inverno foi maior em rotas de contagem em que houve maior frequência de plantações de milho. Já no verão a abundância foi positivamente relacionada com a maior frequência de plantações de cana-de-açúcar e soja. Assim, o tipo de uso do solo na paisagem agrícola influenciou a abundância de pombas nas duas escalas. Dos respondentes aos questionários, 41% alegaram dano às suas plantações, sendo que 70% relataram danos inferiores a 10% da área plantada. O maior percentual de respostas positivas se deu no Paraná, com 54% de reclamações. Sessenta e sete por cento responderam sim a ocorrência de danos quando o local de aplicação do questionário estava a menos de 100 km de uma colônia de pombas. A probabilidade de reclamações decaiu 1% a cada 10 km de afastamento da colônia mais próxima. Consideramos que a pomba-de-bando pode ser classificada como superabundante somente em partes do Paraná e de São Paulo, onde a paisagem agrícola favorece uma alta abundância de pombas durante todo o ano e o risco de conflitos com a agricultura é maior.
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The increasing demand for agricultural products partly due to the high population growth requires agriculture to struggle for productivity improvement. However, productivity search is constrained by environmental preoccupations, raising the question of agricultural development models to be adopted to increase productivity while limiting environmental consequences. This paper examines the role of market orientation by assessing the effect of agricultural commodity export on greenhouse gas emissions relatively to local market oriented agricultural production model. Using panel data from 1986 to 2010 for 136 countries around the world, and accurate instrumental variables technique, the findings suggest that the proportion of primary commodity export in agricultural production increases greenhouse gas emissions. These results are robust to different sources of agricultural export and environmental data, and to the inclusion of additional control variables.
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Abundance and Diversity of avian species were studied in Old Oyo National Park Nigeria. The study area was divided into two ranges based on their different vegetation types. Point count method was used to collect data on bird species diversity and abundance in the two ranges. Counting bands of the 50m radius were used for all the stations. The minimum distance between two counting stations was 200 m. In all 30 counting station were used, 15 stations per a study range were used. On arrival at the sites, birds were allowed time to settle before recording all the birds seen or heard for a predetermined time, (usually, 20 minutes). Bird calls were also recorded with a voice recorder and played back later for confirmation. Physical features of birds sighted but could not be identified immediately were taken and field guide book of West African birds was used to identify the bird species and bird calls was used to confirmed the presence of nocturnal bird species within the study sites. Data was collected for six months with three months in the dry season (November, February and March) and three months in the wet season (June, August, and September) in 2015. A total of 149 bird species belonging to 52 families and 20 orders were recorded in the study area. The Order passerformes had the highest frequency (51 %) of the entire number of birds recorded, while the dominant family was Pycnonotidae, comprising (10 %) of the total species One endangered bird species, Crested Guinea Fowl (Guttera pucherani) was encountered inYemosho Range. The relative abundance of bird species was higher in Yemosho range (34.5 and 26.2) than in Maguba range 31.5 and 24.7) in both seasons of the year.
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his study examined the avifauna diversity of Covenant University Ota South Western Nigeria. The study area was divided into three blocks based on their different land use types. A total of 30 counting stations was used, and10 stations per each study site. Counting bands of 50m radius was used for all the stations. Forty one bird species were recorded in the Developed Area, Sixty six (66) bird species in the Farmland and fifty (98) species encountered in the forest area. In all, a total of 104 bird species belonging to 33 families and 13 orders were recorded, The Order Passeriformes had the highest frequency (56 %) of the entire number of birds recorded, while the dominant family was Pycnonotidae, comprising (9.2 %) of the total species One rare bird species, Grosbeak weaver and 3 species of the malimbe were recorded From the result of the relative abundance of bird species obtained Pied Crow has the highest of (0.74) followed by Cattle Egret (0.53) in the Developed Area, Black Headed Weaver has the highest (0.16) followed by Cattle Egret (0.14) in the Farm Land while Common Bulbul had the highest in the Fallow Area. The Developed Area had the highest relative abundance of (1.723), Fallow Area (0.474 and Farmland (0.437). From the result obtained on the bird species diversity index Fallow Area had the highest diversity index in both seasons of the 4.218 in the dry season and 3.893 in the wet season while Developed area had the lowest 3.298 and 2.6.
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Habitat use by man is one of the most important factors affecting terrestrial ecosystems in global scale and leads very often to strong biodiversity impoverishment. Negative influence of human activity on biodiversity is noticeable especially in farmlands. For example, birds disappearing from an agricultural landscape is common in Europe, lately also in Poland. Among habitats present in typical lowland farmland, midfield afforestations play a particularly important role for birds. They constitute breeding habitat for up to 80 species. In spite of many studies and their syntheses, mechanisms which shape avifauna in afforestations, its dynamics and long-term changes have not been fully understood. Especially importance of afforestation surrounding, called “landscape context” remains controversial. The aim of own study carried out in 1999-2002 was hierarchization of factors affecting breeding bird communities occurring in small, isolated afforestations, and in result – valorization of afforestation structure, their adjacent areas and landscape around afforestations with respect to their importance for bird diversity protection in the agricultural landscape. The study was carried out in the Kościańska Plain, within the Dezydery Chłapowski Landscape Park and neighbouring areas. It covered 66 afforestations – wood “islands” distributed in the area of 200 km2. The structure of bird life habitat was quantified with respect to its three different elements: afforestation structure, habitat structure in nearest neighbourhood of afforestations and landscape structure around afforestations. Bird population densities were estimated with the aid of cartographic method. The avifauna was characterized in relation to three “levels” of its organization: whole community, individual species and their groups (habitat groups): crop field species, wood-crop ecotone species, wood edge species, wood “generalists”, wood interior species and others. In result of the performed analysis of habitat features variability and their interrelations, a group of variables has been selected, which describe the above mentioned aspects of bird life habitat comprehensively and in detail. These variables were used for analysis of relationship between habitat and landscape structure and bird communities of afforestations. Among 61 observed breeding species the most common were: chaffinch, yellow hammer, blackbird, black cap, great tit, blue tit, gold finch, and spotted flycatcher. The results show that species richness in small afforestations covering usually 1-3% of farmland area is high. The data confirm that the species number of farmland breeding avifauna may reach the level of 1/3-1/4 of breeding avifauna of Poland. According to species number, most abundant were wood species – wood interior, wood edge and wood “generalists” species. They constituted together almost 60% of all the species. Woodcrop ecotone species represented less than 1/4 of all the species number. Mean bird density amounted to 15 pairs/ha, and most abundant species were: chaffinch, black cap, yellow hammer, icterine warbler and blackbird. Share of particular habitat groups was more differentiated. Wood “generalists” consituted more than 40% of community while ecotone species – more than 1/3 of community. Although the group of wood interior birds was rich in species, its share in total density was very low i.e. 2%. Bird communities in particular afforestations were strongly differentiated. Mean density in particular afforestations was equal to 4.4-47.9 pair/ha, mean pair number – 0.7-42.3, mean number of species per year – 1-18, total number of species per afforestation – 3-27. Species turn-over rate was similar in consecutive years and was equal to about 35%. It should be underlined that although bird communities in particular afforestations were very changeable, the total bird species number and density with respect to total group of the studied afforestations were highly stable in 1999-2002. It indicates that bird diversity protection in a farmland can be based on managing of the system of small but numerous midfield afforestations. Stability of bird communities and their species turn-over rate in individual afforestations were dependent mainly on the afforestation area but some features of landscape structure like heterogeneity (high fragmentation degree) and presence of grasslands have also positive although slight influence. The results of the study show also that communities have individualistic characters – the importance of habitat as well as landscape structure was stronger when lower level of community organization was considered. The relationships between habitat and landscape structure and individual species were strongest, the relationships between habitat and landscape structure and habitat groups were weaker, and relationships between whole bird community and structure of habitat and landscape were weakest. Most important for shaping breeding bird communities in afforestations was their area, consistently with well-known, common rule of increasing number of species with the area studied. However, it should be stressed that adaptive ability of many bird species, even those typical for wood interior, is significant. These species colonized even very small (< 1 ha) afforestations. Apart from the afforestation area, other aspects of their structure played an important role. For groups preferring wood edge afforestation structure was less important but neighbourhood habitat structure was more significant. For group of wood interior species most important were features dealing with tree stand while shrub and herb layer did not have any effect. Habitat structure in nearest neighbourhood of afforestations an played important role for bird communities in afforestations, especially heterogeneity of this habitat and – in case of a few species – share of crop fields. The impact of these factors was strongest for ecotone species but invisible for wood interior species. Also landscape structure had a significant influence on bird communities in afforestations. This influence was strongly differentiated in relation to the level of community organization considered. It is only slightly noticeable in relation to the whole community but plays an important role for individual species or their habitat groups, especially for wood species. Summing up, all the three studied aspects of bird life habitat have a significant impact on bird communities in afforestations – structure of these afforestations, structure of habitat in nearest neighbourhood of afforestations and structure of landscape. Only considering the influence of all the three groups of habitat features on birds offers a possibility for complete understanding the reasons for spatio-temporal variability of farmland bird community and for possibility for effective avifauna protection by conscious managing of habitats in an agricultural landscape.
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Understanding the multifaceted relationship between biodiversity and land- use intensity is key to conservation policy. To begin to characterize this relationship in a tropical region, we investigated the bird fauna in an agricultural landscape in southern Costa Rica. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data show that about 27% of the land remains forested in the 15 km radius study region encompassing our sites. The rest was cleared about 40 yr ago for relatively small-scale coffee and cattle production, intermixed with other crops. Our goals were to: (1) compare the composition of the avifauna found in forest- fragment and open habitats of the countryside; (2) assess the faunal change that has occurred since deforestation; and (3) provide a baseline for future comparisons. We surveyed the avifauna of eight forest fragments (0.3-25 ha) and 13 open-habitat sites (1.0 ha each) in the agricultural landscape. The pre-deforestation avifauna was ap- proximated by the long-term bird list for the largest forest fragment (Las Cruces, LC; 227 ha) in the study region. We assumed conservatively that a species recorded in LC but not detected elsewhere occurred only in LC. Of the 272 locally extant bird species considered in this study, 149 (55%) occurred in forest habitats only. There was a significant positive correlation between forest fragment size and species richness for these forest birds. Of the remaining 123 species, 60 (22% of the total) occurred both in forest and open habitats. Sixty-three species (23%) occurred in open habitats only; the three nonnative species (1%) are in this group. Based on comparisons with larger forest tracts outside of the study region, it appeared that between 4 and 28 species (1-9% of the possible original totals) have gone locally extinct since deforestation began. The avifauna of open habitats was similar through- out the study region and did not vary with proximity to extensive forest. A substantial proportion of the native bird fauna occurs in a densely (human) populated, agricultural landscape almost a half-century after extensive clearance. There are, however, cautionary messages: (1) the common occurrence of forest birds in human-dominated coun- tryside (including both forest-fragment and open habitats) does not necessarily imply that these species maintain sustainable populations there; (2) about half of the species have little prospect of surviving outside of the forest; and (3) ongoing intensification of land use may greatly reduce avian diversity in countryside habitats. Nonetheless, countryside habitats may buy time for the conservation of some species; at best, they may even sustain a moderate fraction of the native biota.
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Land-use practices can impact on bird populations. This study set out to explain why the helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris (Linnaeus 1766; Aves: Numididae) declined in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, an agricultural area where these birds were once abundant in savannas mixed with cultivation. Within the Midlands, the potential roles of land-use practices and pesticides were investigated. Using a grid cell approach, the distribution of 11 land-uses was mapped for 19 farms with different levels of guineafowl abundance. The edge distance between extensive and intensive agriculture was significantly associated with the presence of guineafowl. The presence of guineafowl was associated with greater land-use diversity, showing this species' preference for a mosaic of land-uses. Extensive agricultural areas were used for cover and intensive ones for food, but the adjacency of these land-uses affected access to these resources. Larger flocks (≥100 birds) were associated with pastures free of agro-chemicals, while smaller flocks (
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There is evident conservation value to numerous small habitat preserves (parks) when large protected areas are impractical (Simberloff 1982). However, such a management policy brings to mind a caution that is often unappreciated for parks and other forms of conserved pristine vegetation, and becomes ever more appropriate as park size decreases. The smaller the patch (island) of habitat that is viewed as pristine, the greater the effect of the surrounding secondary successional vegetation and croplands as a source of 1) animals and seeds that enter the park and interact with the residents, and 2) food subsidy for residents capable of foraging outside of the pristine forest.
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De 1991 à 1997, un programme de recherche initié par l'Orstom en relation avec le Centre national de la recherche scientifique et technologique burkinabé (CNRST) s'est déroulé sur le site de Bondoukui, dans l'ouest du Burkina Faso. La région de Bondoukui regroupe les principaux types pédologiques, écologiques et d'occupation humaine de l'Ouest burkinabé. Elle se prête à l'étude comparative de l'impact des activités humaines (agricoles, forestières et pastorales) sur une large gamme de milieux ainsi qu'à la connaissance des contraintes qui leur sont liées. L'objectif du présent ouvrage est de fournir aux chercheurs ou aux étudiants menant des recherches sur le site les éléments de caractérisation du milieu et d'en dégager les principaux niveaux d'organisation. Dans une première partie, B. Kaloga présente la répartition, les propriétés physico-chimiques et les potentialités culturales des différents types de sols, en fonction des différents niveaux morphologiques. Dans la seconde partie, J.-L. Devineau et A. Fournier présentent les caractéristiques générales de la végétation de la zone d'étude. La diversité des communautés végétales rencontrées est analysée tant du point de vue de leur richesse spécifique que de leur variabilité taxinomique, biomorphologique ou chorologique. L'analyse des données satellitaires, qui est présentée dans la troisième partie par J.-L. Devineau et B. Kaloga, met en évidence l'organisation des différents domaines géomorphologiques dans la zone d'étude et permet de caractériser la densité et l'organisation du couvert végétal pour chacun d'entre eux.
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We live in an increasingly fragmented world, with islands of natural habitat cast adrift in a sea of cleared, burned, logged, polluted, and otherwise altered lands. Nowhere are fragmentation and its devastating effects more evident than in the tropical forests. By the year 2000, more than half of these forests will have been cut, causing increased soil erosion, watershed destabilization, climate degradation, and extinction of as many as 600,000 species. Tropical Forest Remnants provides the best information available to help us understand, manage, and conserve the remaining fragments. Covering geographic areas from Southeast Asia and Australia to Madagascar and the New World, this volume summarizes what is known about the ecology, management, restoration, socioeconomics, and conservation of fragmented forests. Thirty-three papers present results of recent research as well as updates from decades-long projects in progress. Two final chapters synthesize the state of research on tropical forest fragmentation and identify key priorities for future work.
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Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties. For terrestrial ecosystems, land-use change probably will have the largest effect, followed by climate change, nitrogen deposition, biotic exchange, and elevated carbon dioxide concentration. For freshwater ecosystems, biotic exchange is much more important. Mediterranean climate and grassland ecosystems likely will experience the greatest proportional change in biodiversity because of the substantial influence of all drivers of biodiversity change. Northern temperate ecosystems are estimated to experience the least biodiversity change because major land-use change has already occurred. Plausible changes in biodiversity in other biomes depend on interactions among the causes of biodiversity change. These interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in projections of future biodiversity change.
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Determining the impact of forest disturbance and fragmentation on tropical biotas is a central goal of conservation biology. Among tropical forest birds, understory insectivores are particularly sensitive to habitat disturbance and fragmentation, despite their relatively small sizes and freedom from hunting pressure. Why these birds are especially vulnerable to fragmentation is not known. Our data indicate that the best determinant of the persistence of understory insectivorous birds in small fragments is the ability to disperse through deforested countryside habitats. This finding contradicts our initial hypothesis that the decline of insectivorous birds in forest fragments is caused by impoverished invertebrate prey base in fragments. Although we observed significantly fewer insectivorous birds in smaller fragments, extensive sampling of invertebrate communities (106,082 individuals) and avian diets (of 735 birds) revealed no important differences between large and small fragments. Neither habitat specificity nor drier fragment microclimates seemed critical. Bird species that were less affected by forest fragmentation were, in general, those that used the deforested countryside more, and we suggest that the key to their conservation will be found there.
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This study was conducted to determine how savanna grass sward modifications caused by heavy grazing pressure influenced the abundance and guild structure of grasshoppers. Heavily grazed communal land was compared with a lightly grazed area and a mowed airstrip, in adjacent protected land, in the Mpumalanga lowveld, South Africa. Plant species composition, height, aerial cover and greenness of grass in the herbaceous stratum were measured in representative sites. Total grasshopper abundance and relative abundance of grasshopper species were also assessed in each site. Grasshoppers were assigned to feeding and habitat functional groups for comparison among the three areas. The heavily grazed area, characterised by short vegetation and low aerial cover, high greenness of grass, and high frequency of forbs, was inhabited by grasshopper species associated with bare ground or short and/or sparse grass, that were non-graminivorous or soft grass feeders. The lightly grazed area, characterised by tall vegetation and high aerial cover, low greenness of grass, and low frequency of forbs, was inhabited by grasshopper species associated with long and/or thick grass, that were mixed feeders or tough grass feeders. The mowed area, characterised by short vegetation and low aerial cover, low greenness of grass, and low frequency of forbs, exhibited lower grasshopper abundance, species richness, and diversity than either of the grazed areas.
Article
1. More effective control of the tsetse fly in Africa will reduce constraints imposed by the livestock disease, trypanosomiasis. Trypanosomiasis lowers livestock productivity, and in some areas, may limit the ability of farmers to keep livestock and plough the land using animal traction. Control of the disease may cause the expansion of livestock populations and cultivated land area which, in turn, may have negative impacts on ecosystem structure and function. 2. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of tsetse control, through expansion of agricultural land-use, on vegetative structure and tree species composition in the Ghibe Valley, south-western Ethiopia. This was done by first describing land cover/land-use patterns in areas with and without tsetse flies, and then quantifying land-use impacts on vegetation. 3. Land-use/land cover was assessed and quantified by classifying a recent LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the valley and analysing the abundance of cover types in a geographical information system (GIS). Vegetative structure and tree species composition were measured in field plots in two types of cultivated fields (oxen and tractor-ploughed), and in upland wooded grasslands and riparian woodlands. 4. Land cover in the Ghibe Valley was dominated by wooded grasslands (60%) and cultivation (26%), with smaller patches of dense upland woodland (9%) and sparse woodland strips along river courses (3%). Most farms were cultivated by smallholders using oxen (25% of the total cultivated area) with limited areas ploughed by large holders using tractors (0.5%). 5. The cover of woody plants was highest in riparian woodlands (53%), moderate in oxen-ploughed fields (6%) and wooded grasslands (9%), and lowest in tractor-ploughed fields (1%). Species diversity (Shannon index -H') was greatest in riparian woodlands (1.6) and smallholder fields (1.4), moderate in grasslands (1.0) and low on largeholder farms (0.7). 6. These results highlight the importance of rare but biologically rich riparian areas, which should be a focus for conservation. If tsetse control, through the expansion of cultivation causes degradation of these woodlands, the potential for impact is high. 7. However, there appear to be few changes in the vegetation in the process of conversion of wooded grasslands into smallholder fields, which is the likely result of successful tsetse control. A hypothetical model of vegetative change in the Ghibe Valley is described in the light of the vegetative potential of the area and recent changes in the frequency of hunting and burning in the valley.
Article
Successful control of tsetse (Glossina spp.)-transmitted trypanosomiasis in the Ghibe Valley, Ethiopia, appears to have accelerated conversion of wooded grassland into cropland. Land conversion, in turn, may have fragmented wildlife habitat. Our objective was to assess the influence of the expansion of agricultural land-use, brought about by tsetse control, on ecological properties by using bird species richness and composition as indicators of environmental impacts. We sampled bird species richness and composition (using Timed-Species counts) and habitat structure (using field sampling and remote sensing) in four land cover/land-use types in areas subjected to tsetse fly control and adjacent areas without control. At the height of the growing season bird species numbers and vegetative complexity were greater in the small-holder, oxen-plowed fields and riparian woodlands than in wooded grasslands or in large-holder, tractor-plowed fields. Species composition was highly dissimilar (40-70% dissimilarity) comparing among land-use types, with many species found only in a single type. This implies that trypanosomiasis control that results in land conversion from wooded grasslands to small-holder farming in this region may have no adverse impacts on bird species numbers but will alter composition. These results also suggest that moderate land-use by humans (e.g., small-holder field mosaics) increases habitat heterogeneity and bird species richness relative to high levels of use (e.g., tractor-plowed fields). Tsetse control may be indirectly maintaining species richness in the valley by encouraging the differential spread of these small-scale, heterogeneous farms in place of large-scale, homogeneous farms. Nevertheless, if the extent of small-holder farms significantly exceeds that of present levels, negative impacts on bird species richness and large shifts in species composition may occur.
Article
This paper presents the results of a multi-scale investigation of the social and biophysical dimensions of land degradation in three villages in southwestern Burkina Faso. In this region, technological change in the form of animal traction and cotton has combined with massive migration to create pressure on natural resources. These pressures have, in turn, increased farmed areas and decreased fallow periods. Whether this has resulted in widespread land degradation, however, depends on the scale of analysis. At the broad scale, aerial photos confirm farmers' perceptions that their land resource is degraded, showing decreases in forested land, increases in area under cultivation, and increases in areas characterized as degraded. At the field scale, an analysis of soil samples collected from these farmers' fields in 1988 and again in 1996 indicates that there has not been a widespread reduction of soil quality. Soils under continuous cultivation revealed few changes, while soils that were fallowed during the eight-year period showed improvement in nutrient status. A study of agricultural practices illustrates how some farmers are responding to the lack of fallow land by intensifying their production system. They nurture trees on agricultural fields, use more inputs and construct anti-erosion barriers on sloped fields to prevent erosion.Changes apparent on one scale are therefore met with responses which are apparent at other scales. The paper illustrates the importance of farmer perceptions, access to resources and local social structures in determining decisions about agricultural practices. These decisions then shape whether land degradation or land improvement characterize the nature of environmental change. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Understanding the multifaceted relationship between biodiversity and landuse intensity is key to conservation policy. To begin to characterize this relationship in a tropical region, we investigated the bird fauna in an agricultural landscape in southern Costa Rica. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data show that about 27% of the land remains forested in the 15 km radius study region encompassing our sites. The rest was cleared about 40 yr ago for relatively small-scale coffee and cattle production, intermixed with other crops. Our goals were to: (1) compare the composition of the avifauna found in forest-fragment and open habitats of the countryside; (2) assess the faunal change that has occurred since deforestation: and (3) provide a baseline for future comparisons. We surveyed the avifauna of eight forest fragments (0.3-25 ha) and 13 open-habitat sites (1.0 ha each) in the agricultural landscape. The pre-deforestation avifauna was approximated by the long-term bird list for the largest forest fragment (Las Cruces, LC; 227 ha) in the study region. We assumed conservatively that a species recorded in LC but not detected elsewhere occurred only in LC. Of the 272 locally extant bird species considered in this study, 149 (55%) occurred in forest habitats only. There was a significant positive correlation between forest fragment size and species richness for these forest birds. Of the remaining 123 species, 60 (22% of the total) occurred both in forest and open habitats. Sixty-three species (23%) occurred in open habitats only; the three nonnative species (1%) are in this group. Based on comparisons with larger forest tracts outside of the study region, it appeared that between 4 and 28 species (1-9% of the possible original totals) have gone locally extinct since deforestation began. The avifauna of open habitats was similar throughout the study region and did not vary with proximity to extensive forest. A substantial proportion of the native bird fauna occurs in a densely (human) populated, agricultural landscape almost a half-century after extensive clearance. There are, however, cautionary messages: (1) the common occurrence of forest birds in human-dominated countryside (including both forest-fragment and open habitats) does not necessarily imply that these species maintain sustainable populations there; (2) about half of the species have little prospect of surviving outside of the forest; and (3) ongoing intensification of land use may greatly reduce avian diversity in countryside habitats. Nonetheless, countryside habitats may buy time for the conservation of some species; at best, they may even sustain a moderate fraction of the native biota.
Article
The woody and herbaceous vegetation was investigated around four rural settlements in the savanna area of the eastern Transvaal Lowveld, South Africa. At each settlement three transects radiating out from the settlement, representing a gradient from high to low disturbance, were sampled for community structure and species composition. In general, attributes of woody community structure (density, height, biomass, basal area and diversity) were negatively related to increasing disturbance. Herbaceous cover responded positively. Although individual woody species exhibited a range of responses to disturbance, overall species compositional changes were not related directly to the intensity of disturbance. Individual woody species were classified into behavioural species response groups according to their response along the disturbance gradient. Local wood harvesters demonstrated marked selection for particular species and size classes, which should have disproportional impacts on community structure. However, proportional size class distributions were little altered along the gradient.
Article
Patterns of higher plant species richness and beta diversity were assessed using standard Modified-Whittaker plots in relation to landuse, slope position and mean annual rainfall across a rainfall gradient in the savanna areas of the Bushbuckridge lowveld, South Africa. In particular, comparison of communal areas with adjacent protected areas was important in showing the impacts of potential changes in landuse within an overarching catchment management plan. Although most of the protected areas considered preservation of biodiversity as their primary goal, they were characterised by significantly fewer plant species than the adjacent, highly utilised, communal lands, at both the plot and point scale. Slope position also had a significant effect on plant species richness, with eutrophic bottomlands having c. 30% more species than the dystrophic toplands. This adds weight to the need for greater public awareness for the judicious use and management of the sensitive bottomlands, which fringe the primary drainage lines that are vital for sustained supplies of good quality surface water in this semi-arid environment. The total number of species increased with increasing mean annual rainfall across the rainfall gradient. This suggests that, if the catchment management plan aims to identify additional areas for conservation, the higher rainfall areas should be the first to be assessed. Species turnover was greater along the rainfall gradient than the catenal gradient between toplands and bottomlands.
Article
Indicator species analysis is a divisive polythetic method of numerical classification applicable to large sets of qualitative or quantitative data. It incorporates a key which enables new data to be assigned to the classificatory framework. Each dichotomy is established in several steps. First, a one-dimensional reciprocal averaging ordination is computed. The stands are then divided into two groups according to whether they fall on one side or the other of the centre of gravity of the ordination. Five indicator species are then identified which discriminate as well as possible between the two groups of stands. These are then used to construct a secondary ordination. The balance between the indicator species in the secondary ordination provides an objective and easily applied criterion for identifying the two groups of stands which can be used conveniently in the form of a key. The method has been applied to a survey of the native pinewoods of Scotland. The main floristic variation in these woods is related to two gradients: wetness and pH. The indicator species analysis helped to highlight the gradients, and provided a means of pigeon-holing the stands into acceptably homogeneous groups as a basis for further, more detailed, studies.
Article
Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem brings together twenty years of research by leading scientists to provide the most most thorough understanding to date of the spectacular Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in East Africa, home to one of the largest and most diverse populations of animals in the world. Building on the groundwork laid by the classic Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem, published in 1979 by the University of Chicago Press, this new book integrates studies of the ecosystem at every level—from the plants at the bottom of the visible food chain, to the many species of herbivores and predators, to the system as a whole. Drawing on new data from many long-term studies and from more recent research initiatives, and applying new theory and computer technology, the contributors examine the large-scale processes that have produced the Serengeti's extraordinary biological diversity, as well as the interactions among species and between plants and animals and their environment. They also introduce computer modeling as a tool for exploring these interactions, employing this new technology to test and anticipate the effects of social, political, and economic changes on the entire ecosystem and on particular species, and so to shape future conservation and management strategies.
Impacts of intensification of agricultural systems after tsetse control on vegetation in southwestern Burkina Faso
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Les contraintes et potentialités des sols vis-à-vis des systèmes de culture paysans dans l'ouest Burkinabé Tropical Forest Fragments: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Frag-mented Communities
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Farming and Birds in Europe: the Common Agricultural Policy and its Implications for Bird Conservation
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Background, study site description and general study design for impacts research
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Reid, R., Kiema, S., Gardiner, A., Swallow, B.M., 1998. Background, study site description and general study design for impacts research, southwestern Burkina Faso and northern Cote d'Ivoire. In: Proceedings of the Final Technical Report for IFAD. ILRI and ICIPE, Nairobi, pp. 205-220.
Les contraintes et potentialités des sols vis-à-vis des systèmes de culture paysans dans l’ouest Burkinabé. Memoire de fin d’études, Diplome d’Ingénieur du Développement Rural
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The Birds of Africa, vols. I–VI
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Important Bird Areas in Africa and Associated Islands: Priority Sites for Conservation
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Birds of Western Africa
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Important Bird Areas in Africa and Associated Islands: Priority Sites for Conservation
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SPSS for Macintosh Release 6.1.1
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Les sols et al végétation de la région de Bondoukuy
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