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Relationship between human physiological parameters and geomagnetic variations of solar origin

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  • Space Research and Technologies Institute, Sofia, Bulgaria

Abstract and Figures

Results presented concern influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure and heart rate of 86 volunteers were measured on working days in autumn 2001 (01/10–09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04–28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. Questionnaire information about subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also gathered. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were the following: (1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; (2) gender – males and females; (3) blood pressure degree – persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors’ levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the group examined reached 9%. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females.
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Relationship between human physiological parameters
and geomagnetic variations of solar origin
S. Dimitrova
*
Solar Terrestrial Influences Laboratory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str. Bl. 3, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
Received 29 August 2004; received in revised form 7 March 2005; accepted 23 March 2005
Abstract
Results presented concern influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pres-
sure and heart rate of 86 volunteers were measured on working days in autumn 2001 (01/10–09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04–28/05).
These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and ana-
lysed. Questionnaire information about subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also gathered. MANOVA was employed to
check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were the
following: (1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; (2) gender – males and females;
(3) blood pressure degree – persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc
analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factorsÕlevels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group
was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic
blood pressure of the group examined reached 9%. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that
hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pres-
sure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons
who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity
increase and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females.
Ó2005 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Geomagnetic activity; Arterial blood pressure; Human physiological state
1. Introduction
Human physiological status is influenced by environ-
mental factors changes requiring from the organism and
its vegetative nervous system a large range of adaptation
reactions, which are decreased in case of different dis-
eases. Although of the skepticism about the investiga-
tions of the relationship between geomagnetic field
(GMF) variations of solar origin and human beings
there are publications during the last two decades which
disclose influence of helio-geophysical factors on biolog-
ical processes. It has been revealed that cardio-vascular,
circulatory, nervous and other functional systems react
under changes of geophysical factors (Cornelissen
et al., 2002; GurfinkelÕet al., 1995; Kay, 1994; Persinger
and Richards, 1995; Watanabe et al., 1994; Zhadin,
2001). In most of the cases the reactions observed are
adaptive and support an easier endure of the changes
ensuring survival of the biological system in the changed
environment. But in some cases there is no such protec-
tive reaction or it is prevented. Then the organism is ex-
posed to a danger by the influence of the environment
factors changes of any kind. The presence of this reac-
tion is especially important for the sick and unstable
0273-1177/$30 Ó2005 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.03.153
*
Tel.: +359 2 979 22 18.
E-mail address: svetla_stil@abv.bg.
www.elsevier.com/locate/asr
Advances in Space Research 37 (2006) 1251–1257
subjects (emotionally and physiologically unstable,
physically overloaded, exhausted and under stress
persons).
Changes in the GMF are an indirect indicator for the
geoeffective solar events. During the last years we have
studied the influence of changes in geomagnetic activity
(GMA) by using different indices (Dst-, Ap-, Kp-indices
and amplitude of H-component of the local GMF) on
human physiological and psycho-physiological parame-
ters. The results obtained from the investigations of
influence of changes in Ap-index on the arterial blood
pressure (ABP), pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR)
and subjective psycho-physiological complaints (SPPC)
are presented here.
2. Materials and methods
Data were obtained in 86 volunteers (33 males and 53
females) of an average age 47.8 (±11.9) years. They were
persons working at different Institutes of the Bulgarian
Academy of Sciences in Sofia city (latitude: 42°43 0
North, longitude: 23°200East). There were 16 hypoten-
sive, 41 normotensive and 29 hypertensive persons in the
group examined. The recording of the physiological
parameters was performed from 01/10/2001 to 09/11/
2001 and from 08/04/2002 to 28/05/2002. These periods
were chosen because of the high probability for geo-
effective solar storms during autumn and spring. Addi-
tionally, these years were of maximal solar activity.
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP)
and HR were measured. PP (algebraic difference be-
tween SBP and DBP) was calculated. ABP was regis-
tered by sphygmomanometric method to the single
mmHg and HR by palpatoric method on the arteria
radialis as beats/min and by counting for a full minute.
Questionnaire information about SPPC was obtained as
well. One and the same person performed the measure-
ments at an appointed time for each volunteer on every
workday. The volunteers and the person who performed
the measurements were blinded to the degree of GMA.
Some of the persons examined could not be found daily
at the appointed time and then they were left out of data
for the relevant day. If the persons examined reported
some personal troubles and, respectively, their physio-
logical parameters were changed as a result, their mea-
surements were not considered. Altogether 2799
registrations for each of the physiological parameters
under consideration were gathered.
The questionnaire data concerned information about
general condition, working ability, sleep disturbances,
nausea, vertigo, headache, stitches or aches in the heart
area, heart thumping, tachycardia, arrhythmia and
other information about physiological or psychological
discomfort of the persons examined. If there was a psy-
cho-physiological complaint during a particular day by
a person, then this person was classified into the group
with ‘‘complaints’’ and marked by ‘‘1’’ for the corre-
sponding day. Persons with no psycho-physiological
complaints for the corresponding day were classified
into the group ‘‘there are no complaints’’ and marked
by ‘‘0’’.
A multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) for the
following three factors: GMA, gender and blood pres-
sure degree was performed. The influence of these fac-
tors on SBP, DBP, PP, HR and SPPC was investigated.
According to variations of daily planetary Ap-index
the factor ‘‘GMA’’ was divided into five levels: first level
(calm GMA)– Ap-index was lower than 15; second level
(weak storm) – Ap-index was in the range 15–30; third
level (moderate storm) – Ap-index was in the range 30–
50; fourth level (major storm) – Ap-index was in the
range 50–100; fifth level (severe storm) – Ap-index was
larger than 100. Fig. 1 shows variations of Ap-index
during both periods of registrations. The data about
planetary GMA were got from Internet (World Data
Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto).
The factor ‘‘gender’’ was regarded as a two level fac-
tor: males and females.
The factor ‘‘blood pressure degree’’ was divided into
three levels: hypotensive, normotensive and hyperten-
sive persons.
The purpose of ANOVA is to test for significant dif-
ferences between means by comparing variances. In AN-
OVA a null hypothesis is under consideration, according
to which the treated factor A does not effect significantly
variation of the parameter X. This means when compar-
ing the mean values of Xat each factor A level there is
no statistically significant difference between them. If
such a difference found, then the null hypothesis should
be rejected. MANOVA is more powerful and flexible
method in comparison to the StudentÕst-test. By MAN-
OVA we can check the influence of each factor taking
into consideration the influence of the other factors as
well as we can establish the interaction effect for the
factors.
Date
Ap
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
01.10.01
10.10.01
20.10.01
30.10.01
08.04.02
17.04.02
27.04.02
07.05.02
17.05.02
27.05.02
Fig. 1. Ap-index variations during examination periods.
1252 S. Dimitrova / Advances in Space Research 37 (2006) 1251–1257
A post hoc analysis (Neman–Keuls test) was also
used to establish the statistical significance of the differ-
ences between the average values of the measured phys-
iological parameters in the separate factor levels.
MANOVA method was employed using the package
for statistical analyses STATISTICA. From MANOVA
variants (repeated measures and between-groups facto-
rial design) the between-groups factorial design was cho-
sen because: during the parameters measurements
always some of the persons examined (up to 20–25%)
were absent or reported some subjective troubles; the
experiment could not be planned with respect to the
environmental conditions; the persons examined were
divided into groups (males and females; hypo-, normo-
and hypertensive persons). Therefore the samples exam-
ined were regarded as independent and the repeated
measures variant was not used.
The chosen level for statistical significance was
p< 0.05.
3. Results
Three-factor analysis of variance was employed and
the main effect and the interaction effect for the factors
under consideration on the physiological parameters
examined were investigated. Table 1 presents the signif-
icance levels (pvalues).
3.1. Arterial BP
The main effect for the factor Ap-index on SBP and
DBP is statistically significant (Table 1). The average va-
lue of ABP of the group increased with the increment of
GMA (Fig. 2). Vertical bars in the figure denote 0.95
confidence intervals (CI). The sharpest increase of
ABP was during severe geomagnetic storms. Post hoc
analysis revealed that the average value of the group
for SBP and DBP were significantly higher during severe
geomagnetic storms in comparison to all of the other
GMA levels. It was also obtained that DBP increased
significantly still at major geomagnetic storms in com-
parison to calm GMA. The maximal range of changes
for SBP is 8.7% and for DBP 8.6%. These results reveal
that an adverse affect on ABP of the group examined
render severe geomagnetic storms and on DBP still ma-
jor geomagnetic storms.
The main effect for the factor gender revealed that in
principle males have significantly higher ABP in com-
parison to females. The main effect for the factor blood
pressure degree revealed significantly lowest value of
ABP for hypotensive persons and significantly highest
value of ABP for hypertensive persons.
The results obtained from the two-factor interaction
effect for the factors Ap-index and gender did not reveal
a difference in the ABP reaction of males and females
(Table 1). The range of increase of SBP and DBP from
1st to 5th GMA level for the both genders was very sim-
ilar (for females, respectively, 8.6% and 7.8% and for
males 8.8% and 9.7%). Post hoc analysis showed that
malesÕSBP and DBP during severe geomagnetic storms
were significantly higher than the other GMA levels. It
was obtained for femalesÕSBP significant increase at
5th level in comparison to 1st, 2nd and 3rd GMA level
and for DBP significant increase at 5th level in compar-
ison to 1st GMA level. The results obtained indicate an
adverse affect for severe geomagnetic storms on the ABP
irrespectively of gender.
The two-factor interaction effect for the factors Ap-
index and blood pressure degree on SBP and DBP did
Table 1
Significance levels (p-values) of the main effect and interaction effect for the factors investigated (GMA; Gender; Blood pressure degree) on the
physiological parameters examined
Effect (main and interaction effect for the factors) p
SBP DBP PP HR SPPC
Ap-index 0.000* 0.000* 0.296 0.553 0.000*
Gender 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000*
Blood pressure degree 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.010*
Gender*Blood pressure degree 0.265 0.818 0.069 0.195 0.053
Ap-index*Gender 0.869 0.905 0.869 0.766 0.010*
Ap-index*Blood pressure degree 0.209 0.657 0.287 0.923 0.005*
Ap-index*Gender*Blood pressure degree 0.976 0.994 0.935 0.965 0.002*
S
y
st(L) Diast(R)
12345
Ap-index levels
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
Systolic BP, mmHg
75
80
85
90
95
100
Diastolic BP, mmH
g
Fig. 2. Main effect for the factor Ap-index on SBP and DBP (±95%
CI).
S. Dimitrova / Advances in Space Research 37 (2006) 1251–1257 1253
not reveal significant differences in the reaction of ABP
of hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive persons
to GMF changes (Table 1). Although hypertensive per-
sons had the largest range of increase of SBP (14.4%)
and DBP (11.4%) and hypotensive persons had the low-
est range of increase of SBP (3.2%) and DBP (4.1%)
from 1st to 5th GMA level. The increment for normo-
tensives was, respectively, 6.9% and 9.6%. Post hoc anal-
ysis revealed that SBP and DBP for hypertensive
persons increased significantly during severe storms in
comparison with all of the other GMA levels and
DBP of normotensive persons increased significantly
during severe geomagnetic storms in comparison to
1st, 2nd and 3rd GMA level. These results show that se-
vere geomagnetic storms have adverse affect on ABP of
hypertensive persons and on DBP of normotensive
persons.
The effect of the three-factor interaction did not show
significant differences (Table 1) in the ABP of the six
subgroups examined (males/females/hypotensive/nor-
motensive/hypertensive). Post hoc analysis employed re-
vealed that significant changes occurred during severe
geomagnetic storms in SBP of hypertensive persons
(both males and females) and in DBP of hypertensive
males. These results can be noticed in Figs. 3 and 4
and also indicate a higher sensitivity for ABP of hyper-
tensive persons in respect to changes in Ap-index.
3.2. Pulse pressure
The main effect for Ap-index did not reveal statisti-
cally significant influence on PP (Table 1). Fig. 5 shows
that PP increased sharply during severe geomagnetic
storms and the maximal range of changes was 8.7%.
Post hoc analysis confirmed that PP of the group during
severe geomagnetic storms was significantly higher than
PP for the other GMA levels.
The influence of the interaction effect for the factors
Ap-index and gender on PP did not reveal significant
differences in the PP reaction of males and females
(Table 1). It was obtained that the only considerable
increase of PP for both genders was during severe
storms (for males 8.2% and for females 11.6%) but it
was not disclosed by Post hoc analysis statistically sig-
nificant increment of PP during severe geomagnetic
storms compared to the other GMA levels neither for
males nor for females.
The interaction effect for Ap-index and blood pres-
sure degree did not reveal significant changes (Table 1)
in PP reaction of hypo-, normo- and hypertensive per-
sons to GMA changes. Although, the results obtained
from additional analysis performed suppose that hyper-
tensive persons have the most sensitive PP to GMA
changes. It was determined that the maximal increase
of PP for hypotensive persons was 6.1%, for normoten-
sive persons only 2.6% and for hypertensive persons
21.2%. Post hoc analysis revealed that only hypertensive
persons increased statistically significantly PP during se-
vere geomagnetic storms compared to all of the other
GMA levels.
Hypo Normo Hyper
Males
12345
Ap-index levels
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
Systolic BP, mmHg
Females
12345
Ap-index levels
Fig. 3. Interaction effect for the factors Ap-index, gender and blood
pressure degree on SBP (±95% CI).
Fig. 4. Interaction effect for the factors Ap-index, gender and blood
pressure degree on DBP (±95% CI).
PP(L) HR(R)
12345
Ap-index levels
35
40
45
50
Pulse pressure, mmHg
55
60
65
70
75
80
Heart rate, beats/min
Fig. 5. Main effect for the factor Ap-index on PP and HR (±95% CI).
1254 S. Dimitrova / Advances in Space Research 37 (2006) 1251–1257
The influence of the interaction effect for the three
factors investigated is not significant (Table 1) but the
most considerable increment of PP was obtained for
hypertensive persons (both males (21.2%) and females
(21.5%)). Post hoc analysis performed revealed signifi-
cant increase of the hypertensive males PP during severe
geomagnetic storms compared to 1st and 3rd GMA le-
vel. This result indicates that probably PP of hyperten-
sive males is the most sensitive to GMF variations of
solar origin.
3.3. Heart rate
The main effect for Ap-index on HR revealed that the
average value of HR of the group examined increased
with the increment of GMA but this increase reached
only 1.8% and is not statistically significant (Table 1,
Fig. 5). It was not revealed statistically significant differ-
ence in the HR reaction of the subgroups examined to
Ap-index changes (Table 1).
3.4. Subjective psycho-physiological complaints
The main effect for GMA on SPPC is statistically sig-
nificant (Table 1). It is seen in Fig. 6 that SPPC in-
creased during moderate and especially during severe
geomagnetic storms. It was established by post hoc anal-
ysis that the percentage of the persons in the group with
SPPC at 5th GMA level was significantly higher than at
1st, 2nd and 4th GMA level as well as at 3rd level than
at 1st GMA level. The increment from 1st to 5th level
was 18.9% and during severe geomagnetic storms 1/3
of the persons examined reported complaints. The re-
sults obtained show that the most adverse influence on
the group examined render moderate and severe geo-
magnetic storms.
The main effect for the factor gender revealed that in
principle the percentage of females in the group with
SPPC is significantly higher than the percentage of
males with SPPC. The main effect for the factor blood
pressure degree revealed that with the increase of the
blood pressure degree the percentage of SPPC rises sig-
nificantly. Post hoc analysis showed that the percentage
of the hypertensive persons who reported SPPC is signif-
icantly higher than the percentage of the hypotensive
persons who reported SPPC.
The influence of the interaction effect for the factors
Ap-index and gender on SPPC revealed significant dif-
ferences in SPPC reaction of males and females (Table
1). Fig. 7 shows that females have more sensitive psy-
cho-physiology than males to the increase of GMA.
The percentage of females with SPPC increased more
considerably with the increment of Ap-index and during
severe storms nearly a half of the females in the group
examined reported SPPC. Post hoc analysis revealed
that only females increased significantly SPPC during se-
vere geomagnetic storms compared to all of the other
levels.
The interaction effect for the factors Ap-index and
blood pressure degree on SPPC revealed significant dif-
ferences in the reaction of the three subgroups examined
(Table 1). It is seen in Fig. 8 that the sensitivity of the
persons to the increase of GMA rises with the increase
of the blood pressure degree. Hypertensive persons
12345
A
p
-index levels
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
Subj. phys. complaints, %
Fig. 6. Main effect for the factor Ap-index on SPPC (±95% CI).
Males Females
12345
Ap-index levels
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
Subj. phys. complaints, %
Fig. 7. Interaction effect for the factors Ap-index and gender on SPPC
(±95% CI).
Fig. 8. Interaction effect for the factors Ap-index and blood pressure
degree on SPPC (±95% CI).
S. Dimitrova / Advances in Space Research 37 (2006) 1251–1257 1255
had the biggest range of changes of the percentage of
persons with SPPC – during severe storms 41.3% from
the hypertensive subjects reported complaints. For the
normotensive persons the percentage of the subjects
with SPPC increased considerably during moderate
and severe geomagnetic storms when 1/3 of them re-
ported SPPC. The percentage of hypotensive subjects
with SPPC increased during weak and major storms
and reached 22.1%. It was obtained by post hoc analysis
that only hypertensive persons significantly increased
SPPC during severe storms in comparison to 1st and
4th GMA level. These results show that severe storms
render significant adverse effect on hypertensive persons
and suggest that hypertensive persons have the most
sensitive psycho-physiological reaction to GMF
variations.
It was also obtained significant influence for the three-
factor interaction on SPPC (Table 1). It is seen in Fig. 9
that the largest increase of SPPC was for the hyper- and
normotensive females during severe geomagnetic storms
as well as for the hypotensive males during major storms.
The range of changes of the percentage normotensive
males with complaints was the smallest. Post hoc analysis
revealed only for hypertensive females a significant in-
crease during severe storms in comparison to 1st, 2nd
and 4th GMA level, i.e., there is a significant adverse ef-
fect during severe planetary geomagnetic storms on the
psycho-physiological status of the hypertensive females.
4. Conclusions and discussion
ABP of the group examined increases with the incre-
ment of planetary GMA and the maximal increase is
about 9%. DBP increases significantly still at major
storms and SBP at severe storms. PP also increases sig-
nificantly during severe storms by 9%. In addition, the
percentage of the persons who reported SPPC increases
significantly during moderate and severe storms and in
the last case it covered 1/3 of the persons in the group
examined. It was not established a significant change
in HR under GMA variations. The biggest increase of
HR is only 1.8%.
The results obtained did not reveal significant differ-
ence in the reaction of ABP, PP and HR for the genders.
Both males and females increase significantly ABP dur-
ing severe geomagnetic storms. Regarding psycho-phys-
iological reaction it was obtained that females are more
sensitive – only they are influenced significantly by se-
vere geomagnetic storms and about a half of them re-
ported SPPC.
The analyses revealed that with the increase of the
blood pressure degree the sensibility of the persons to
GMA changes increases – it was not established a sensi-
tivity of the hypotensive personsÕABP to the increment
of GMA; normotensive persons increased significantly
only DBP during severe storms; and hypertensive per-
sons increased considerably and significantly both SBP
and DBP during severe geomagnetic storms. Addition-
ally, only for the hypertensive persons it was obtained
a significant increase of PP as well as of the percentage
of the subjects with SPPC during severe storms.
Post hoc analyses employed for the three-factor inter-
action effects also support the hypothesis that physiolog-
ical parameters of the hypertensive persons are more
sensitive to the changes in planetary GMA. Both males
and females hypertensive persons increase significantly
SBP during severe storms and hypertensive males in-
crease significantly DBP and PP under these conditions.
Regarding psycho-physiological reaction it concerns
hypertensive females – only their SPPC are affected sig-
nificantly by severe storms.
The influence of some meteorological elements (daily
average atmospheric pressure, air temperature and rela-
tive humidity; variation of the daily average atmospheric
pressure and temperature between two consecutive days;
and daily amplitude of the temperature) on the physio-
logical parameters examined was also investigated. Some
of the results obtained by ANOVA (not MANOVA) are
statistically significant but the changes of the physiolog-
ical parameters are not so biologically significant as they
are under GMA influence. The maximal range of
changes is: for ABP 2.1–8%, PP 2.3–6.8%, HR 1.8–
4.2%, SPPC 9–20.3%. The observation periods were dur-
ing spring and fall when the meteorological elements at
our latitudes are very similar and the weather is neither
hot nor freezing. We suppose that this is the reason not
to find a significant biological influence of the meteoro-
logical factors. Should we perform our examinations
for the all year interval possibly such influence would
be established. This fact is an advantage of the investiga-
tions performed since decreasing of the influence of mete-
orological factors helps to separate the prevailing
influence of the factor under consideration – GMA.
Another important advantage of this study is that the
measurements performed were every working day for a
Hypo Normo Hyper
Males
12345
Ap-index levels
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Subj. phys. complaints, %
Females
12345
Ap-index levels
Fig. 9. Interaction effect for the factors Ap-index, gender and blood
pressure degree on SPPC (±95% CI).
1256 S. Dimitrova / Advances in Space Research 37 (2006) 1251–1257
long period of time but only within several months and
not years – a time, which supposes a lack or minimal
changes in the physiological parameters of the persons
examined.
The results obtained add further evidence to previous
similar but retrospective investigations (Ghione et al.,
1998; Stoupel et al., 1995) that blood pressure seems
to be affected by geomagnetic variations of solar origin.
It suggests that helio-geophysical forecasts are needed
for timely applying prophylactic measures (pharmaco-
logical and regime) to prevent the adverse physiological
reaction of the sensitive and unstable persons.
Acknowledgements
We thankfully acknowledge the contribution of all
volunteers who took part in the examinations.
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S. Dimitrova / Advances in Space Research 37 (2006) 1251–1257 1257
... At the beginning of the week in the morning significant negative correlations were observed in GMF in SAlpha [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Hz band and QRS duration ( (21) = -0.538; = 0.012), similar correlations were found between GMF in SBeta [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Hz band and QRS duration ( (21) = -0.570; = 0.007). ...
... At the beginning of the week in the morning significant negative correlation was observed in GMF SBeta [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Hz band ( (21) = -0.433; = 0.050) and tendency of correlations in SDelta We observed that as fatigue increased correlations become more positive. ...
... They found that humans have changing sensitivity for these factors, which was confirmed in our study. Dimitrova et al. [23] investigated coherence between arterial blood pressure and index of global GMF, however its still remain unclear how global GMF influence local GMF and in what frequencies it can manifest. ...
Article
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The aim of this research was to identify the interactions between Earth's local time varying magnetic field and cardiovascular system parameters in women, performing sedentary work, during their workweek. The tasks of research: 1. To examine the relationship between the Earth's local magnetic field and the electrocardiographic parameters of women performing sedentary work, during the workweek. 2. To examine the relationship between the Earth's local magnetic field and arterial blood pressure of women performing sedentary work, during the work week. The methods used: electrocardiographic monitoring and arterial blood pressure measurement. The Earth's magnetic field data was obtained using a magnetometer located in the town of Baisogala. Every female was assessed four times: before and after work on Monday, before and after work on Friday of the same week. Participants of the research: the research group consisted of 21 females who perform sedentary work (average age ± SD – 50.1±9.5 years). Conclusions of the research: 1. The most significant correlations between local GMF and ECG and arterial blood pressure parameters were found with the low frequency field, the most often in SDelta [0-3.5] Hz and STheta [3.5-7] Hz bands. 2. The correlations between ECG parameters (RR, JT and QRS intervals ant ST amplitude) during the workweek changed from negative to positive, which appears to be associated with fatigue influence on person sensitivity to local GMF. 3. Systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure changed in different ways. The correlations between local GMF and diastolic arterial blood pressure were especially pronounced. 4. All ECG and arterial blood pressure parameters showed great variability in correlation with local GMF. It can be associated with changing human sensitivity to GMF due to increasing fatigue.
... Regarding the first category, there are several interesting results. Specifically, in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, a study was conducted on a group of 86 volunteers in the periods of 1 October 2001 to 9 November 2001 and 8 April 2002 to 28 May 2002, that is, periods of high solar and geomagnetic activity [5,6,8,9,[26][27][28][29][30]. As mentioned, daily values of heart rate, mean arterial systolic and diastolic pressure, and psycho-physiological complaints were studied in relation to variations in GMA (geomagnetic indices Ap and Dst) and the CRI. ...
... Regarding the first category, there are several interesting results. Specifically, in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, a study was conducted on a group of 86 volunteers in the periods of 1 October 2001 to 9 November 2001 and 8 April 2002 to 28 May 2002, that is, periods of high solar and geomagnetic activity [5,6,8,9,[26][27][28][29][30]. As mentioned, daily values of heart rate, mean arterial systolic and diastolic pressure, and psycho-physiological complaints were studied in relation to variations in GMA (geomagnetic indices Ap and Dst) and the CRI. ...
... According to this study, mean arterial systolic and diastolic pressure increased statistically significantly during increased GMA and decreases in CRI [5,6,8,26,30]. It was further found that the effect of disturbances in the geomagnetic field on the human condition appears to be influenced by gender, with women being more sensitive [5,20], as well as by medication related to hypertension [5,28,29]. In addition, the same research shows that while the dynamics of blood pressure show a compensatory response of the body to adaptation, the heart rate for healthy people (mainly in middle latitudes) can be considered as a stable cardiovascular parameter, which is not so sensitive to changes. ...
Article
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It is well known that the various manifestations of space weather can influence a wide range of human activities, from technological systems to human health. Various earlier, as well as more recent multi-disciplinary heliobiological and biometeorological studies have revealed that the human organism is sensitive to environmental physical activity changes and reacts to them through variations of the physiological parameters of the human body. This paper constitutes an overview of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens investigations in regard to the possible effect of solar, geomagnetic, and cosmic ray activity on human physiological parameters. The Athens Cosmic Ray and Solar Physics Groups collaborated with scientific teams from different countries, statistically processing and analyzing data related to human physiological parameters (such as mean heart rate, arterial systolic, and diastolic pressure), or the number of incidents of different types of cardiac arrhythmias and so forth, in relation to data concerning and describing geomagnetic activity (geomagnetic indices Ap and Dst) and variations in cosmic ray intensity (Forbush decreases and cosmic ray intensity enhancements). In total, four projects were carried out concerning data from different geographical regions (Baku, Azerbaijan; Kosice, Slovakia; Tbilisi, Georgia; Piraeus, Greece), covering different time periods and time scales (daily data or yearly data), and referring to different groups of individuals (selected healthy persons or random persons). The studies concluded with interesting results concerning the possible influence of geomagnetic and cosmic ray activity on the human physiological state.
... The normal human condition is affected by changes in environmental factors, which require a series of adaptation reactions from the body and its nervous system. These reactions weaken when various diseases are under discussion (Dimitrova 2006). As it is shown cardiovascular, nervous, and other functional systems respond to changes in geophysical parameters (Zhadin 2001;Cornelissen et al. 2002;Podolská 2021). ...
... On several occasions, however, such a protective reaction to changes in environmental factors is not observed or is not sufficiently expressed, in which case the living organism is also threatened. The existence of this reaction is especially important in patients or unstable organisms that are organically and emotionally burdened (Dimitrova 2006 The aforementioned investigations have concluded in the rise of three new scientific fields, biogeomagnetics, clinical cosmobiology, and heliobiology. Biogeomagnetism (Dorman et al. 2001) describes how space weather parameters generally and the geomagnetic field especially may affect the pathological condition of various diseases (Dorman et al. 2001;Stoupel 2002). ...
Article
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Many scientific investigations have focused on how space weather phenomena, taking place in the vicinity of the Earth, may influence different aspects of life on Earth and presumably human health itself. From 2005, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens has established an important position in the field of these investigations by collaborating with various scientists and Institutes, both international and domestic, in different heliobiological projects. In this work, the Cosmic Ray Group of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens has co-operated with the medical staff from different hospitals and clinics around the country so as to develop large records of medical data (heart rate) which covers a long time period. These data are analyzed in regard to physical activity, either on a daily basis or on different levels of geomagnetic disturbances and variations of the cosmic ray intensity using the ANalysis Of Variance (ANOVA) and the multiple linear regression analysis. Results suggest that space weather phenomena may be related to heart rate variability, i.e., heart rate is statistically significantly effected either by variations of cosmic rays intensity or geomagnetic activity.
... Additionally, cosmic radiation has been linked to software electrical resets in implantable cardioverter defibrillators during air travel. Data from research performed by S. Dimitrova in 2001 and2002 indicates relationships to geomagnetic activity of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate, and subjective psychophysiological complaints (Dimitrova, 2006). ...
Technical Report
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Understanding the interactions of the Sun, Earth, and other natural and man-made objects in the solar system with the space radiation environment is crucial for improving activities of humans on Earth and in space. An important component of understanding these interactions is their effects on the instrumentation required in the exploration of air and space. NASA Glenn Research Center fills the role of developing supporting technologies to enable improved instruments for space science missions as well as for aeronautics and ground-based applications. In this review, the space radiation environment and its effects are outlined, as well as the impact it has on instrumentation and the technology that Glenn is developing to improve performance for space science.
... In the recent past several studies have been made relating the possible effects of solar activity and related changes in the Earth's magnetosphere on the human life and health (Zhadin, 2001;Breus et al., 2002;Breus and Rapoport, 2003;Dimitrova, 2006;Palmer et al., 2006). These studies suggest enhanced changes in the normal functioning of the central nervous system, vegetative nervous system, human brains functional states, cardio-vascular system and cognitive performance may occur by significant changes in the geomagnetic field by solar activity (Brand and Denis, 1989;Maynard, 1995;Pikin et al., 1998;Stoupel et al., 2002Stoupel et al., , 2006Stoupel et al., , 2007Babayev and Allahverdiyeva, 2007). ...
... increase in blood pressure and myocardial infarction (Dimitrova, 2006;p. 1251). ...
Thesis
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This research explores Biometeorology, which is the relationship between the environment and human behavior. Previous research has indicated that meteorological events such as lunar cycles, solar activity, temperature, and humidity have been extensively documented to affect human psychophysiology through systemic variation. The purpose of this document is to explore the effects of environmental factors on typical everyday aggregate behaviors in distinct, unique and separate investigations that relate to participation in sporting events and economic activities in order to determine if these naturally occurring influences are genuine. For example, local weather related and extra-terrestrial phenomena were collected during time- stamped Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) acquisition in the National Football league (NFL) for 645 concussed players from 2012-2015. Components of the Earth’s geomagnetic field were also documented in relation to global search tendencies for highly emotional states in addition to stock market indices. Furthermore, solar and lunar cycles were recorded during the monumental rise in the cryptocurrency market in order to identify if these cyclical background patterns systemically altered interest in Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH) or influenced their price index in-and-of-itself. The results indicate that intrinsic capacities of the game of football inherently impacted injury severity and return to play considerations. TBI’s did however, vary as a function of geo-coordination and were most pronounced in the Northwest U.S. Injury severity was also found to be greatest during increased geomagnetic intensities. Lunar contributions also appeared to play a central role in injury acquisition insofar as TBI player height weight and injury severity were predicted by solar and geomagnetic variables of interest during the full moon. Aggregate search behavior on the Internet of Things (IoT) was found to correlate with magnetic variability, geomagnetic intensity as well as Dow Jones price movement and trading volume. Finally, traditional technical analysis indicators closely followed cryptocurrency price.However, Bitcoins Aroon up and down was found to cycle with the Moon, while Ethereum’s Heiken Ashi displayed a relationship with the Sun. Internet interest in Ethereum was found to have significant associations with the Earth’s geomagnetic field, the Sun and the Moon which was enhanced during specific alignments of these heavenly bodies. In summary, seemingly random events and aggregate group behaviors are intimately associated with external interconnected dynamics.
... While research groups from Israel [13,15,24], Italy [18], Bulgaria [8][9][10][11], Mexico and Cuba [4], Canada [1], and the U.S. [2] have shown evidences of the connection between GMD and CVD deaths and other outcomes in relatively small cohorts, there is a need to determine the temporal and spatial impact of short term exposure to GMD on deaths in a large epidemiological study including CVD deaths. Consequently, we conducted a large national epidemiological study to investigate the acute effects of GMD on total and cause-specific mortality in 263 U.S. cities. ...
Article
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Background: Short-term geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) driven by the quasi-periodic 11-year cycle of solar activity have been linked to a broad range of adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and total deaths. We conducted a large epidemiological study in 263 U.S. cities to assess the effects of GMD on daily deaths of total, CVD, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. Methods: We employed a two-step meta-analysis approach, in which we estimated city-specific and season-stratified mortality risk associated with a GMD parameter (Kp index) in 263 U.S. cities. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed to assess whether effect modification of particulate matter (PM2.5) in the prior day changed Kp index effects on daily deaths after adjusting for confounders. Results: We found significant association between daily GMD and total, CVD, and MI deaths. The effects were even stronger when we adjusted the models for 24-h PM2.5 for different seasons. For example, in the winter and fall one standard deviation of z-score Kp index increase was associated with a 0.13 and 0.31% increase in total deaths, respectively (Winter: p = 0.01, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.24; Fall: p = 0.00001; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.4), without adjusting for PM2.5. The effects of GMD on total deaths were also observed in spring and summer in the models without PM2.5 (p = 0.00001). When the models were adjusted for PM2.5 the total deaths increased 0.47% in winter (p = 0.00001, 95% CI: 0.3 to 0.65) and by 0.23% in fall (p = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.37). The effects of GMD were also significant associated with MI deaths and CVD. No positive significant association were found between Kp and stroke. The GMD effects on deaths were higher than for 24 h-PM2.5 alone, especially in spring and fall. Conclusion: Our results suggest that GMD is associated with total, CVD and MI deaths in 263 U. S cities. Increased mortality in the general population during GMD should be further investigated to determine whether those human physiological dynamics driven by variations in solar activity can be related to daily clinical cardiovascular observations.
... While the mechanism(s) responsible for these associations are not yet fully understood, it has been hypothesized that enhanced periods of solar and geomagnetic activity might potentially disrupt the stability of cardiovascular, endocrine, and neural vegetative systems (Close 2012;Rapoport et al. 1998). This vulnerability may only become evident during conditions in which these regulatory systems are operating outside of their normal range, such as during periods of enhanced stress, conditions of compromised health, or in the presence of certain types of drugs (Dimitrova 2006). ...
Article
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The influence of the geomagnetic environment on the human organism and other biological entities has been a topic of intense scientific investigation. A large and growing body of evidence has linked elevated geomagnetic activity with effects on an array of neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, and psychological outcomes. For example, elevations in the rates of epileptic seizures, suicides, aggressive behavior, sleep disturbances, and sudden unexpected death from cardiac pathologies have been reported to occur more frequently on days associated with increased geomagnetic activity. Additional evidence also suggests that geomagnetic conditions might have an impact on the biological actions of specific drugs classes that have important implications for pain management, sedation, and seizure control. The present study set out to determine if periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity could influence the induction of behavioral sedation by pentobarbital in rodents undergoing a routine surgical procedure. The surgical records of 250 subjects were retrospectively analyzed, and the occurrence of complete behavioral sedation (e.g., loss of righting reflex, lack of nociceptive response to tail pinch, absence of corneal and conjunctive reflexes) was noted. We found a significant correlation between periods of increased geomagnetic activity and the number of non-responsive surgical patients (i.e., patients still demonstrating behavioral responsiveness after treatment with pentobarbital). These findings provide evidence for the first time that the potential efficacy of some surgical anesthetic compounds might be reduced on days associated with increased geomagnetic activity. Potential mechanisms are presented, and the broad implications of these findings to phenomena such as surgical awareness are discussed.
... In the case of these events, the chance of harmful effects increases for astronauts and cosmonauts on space missions and airplane crew members and passengers due to the extra radiation exposure (Jones et al., 2001;Shea and Smart, 2000;Spurny and Dachev, 2009). At ground level, studies over decades implied the correlation between the geophysical phenomena and human health (Breus et al., 2002;Dimitrova, 2006;Dimitrova et al., 2009;Babayev and Allahverdiyeva, 2007;Mavromichalaki et al., 2012;Singh et al., 2011) and even some fatal health risks (Stoupel et al., 2015). Unlike the daily exposure to cosmic rays, the doses in these rare and intense solar events are not predictable and can only be determined retrospectively (ICRU, 2010). ...
Article
This work explores the application of Health Canada's Fixed Point Surveillance (FPS) network for cosmic ray monitoring and dose estimation purposes. This network is comprised of RS250 3 inch by 3 inch Sodium Iodide (NaI) spectroscopic dosimeters distributed throughout Canada. The RS250's high channel count rate responds to the electromagnetic and muonic components of cosmic ray shower. These count rates are used to infer cosmic ray doses throughout FPS locations. The derived dose was found to have an accuracy within 6.5% deviation relative to theoretical calculation. The solar cycle effect and meteorologically induced fluctuation can be realistically reflected in the estimated dose. This work may serve as a basis to enable the FPS network to monitor and report both terrestrial and cosmic radiation in quasi-real time.
Chapter
In Chap. 2 we saw why voice is susceptible to, and how it can respond to, intricate changes in the mechanisms of its production. In this chapter we will look at empirical evidence of this fact. We will take a closer look at what causes these changes—at the various bio-relevant and environmental parameters that have been observed to affect it. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview of this topic, based on prior studies. However, the range of scientific studies in this context is vast. This chapter only represents a small sampling of the key findings and current understanding of the subject.
Article
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Alignment of serial epidemiological, physiological, including electrocardiographic data with variations in galactic cosmic rays, geomagnetic activity, and atmospheric pressure suggests the possibility of links among these physical environmental variations and health risks, such as myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes, among others. An increase in the incidence of myocardial infarction in association with magnetic storms, reported by several investigators from Russia, Israel, Italy and Mexico, accounts in Minnesota for a 5% () increase in mortality during years of maximal solar activity by comparison with years of minimal solar activity. Magnetic storms are also found to decrease heart rate variability (HRV), indicating a possible mechanism since a reduced HRV is a prognostic factor for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. Longitudinal electrocardiographic monitoring for a week or much longer spans in different geographic locations, notably in the auroral oval, further suggests that the decrease in HRV affects spectral regions other than that around (0.15–), reportedly associated with the parasympathetic nervous system. Differences in some associations are observed from solar cycle to solar cycle, and as a function of solar cycle stage, a finding resolving controversies. Coordinated physiological and physical monitoring, the scope of an international project on the Biosphere and the Cosmos, seeks reference values for a better understanding of environmental effects on human health and for testing the merit of space weather reports that could prompt countermeasures in space and on earth. Physiological data being collected systematically worldwide and morbidity/mortality statistics from causes such as myocardial infarction and stroke constitute invaluable data bases for assessing changes within the physiological range, for detecting environmental effects and for recognizing endogenous as well as exogenous disease-risk syndromes. Timely and timed intervention may then be instituted to lower risk, in preference to exclusive current focus on treating overt disease. These chronodiagnostics are particularly important for those venturing into regions away from hospitals, such as astronauts in space.
Article
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Episodic reports suggest that geomagnetic disturbances of solar origin are associated with biological and clinical events, including increased arterial blood pressure (BP). We reassessed this aspect by relating solar activity levels to ambulatory BP measured in our out-patient population. The ambulatory BP measurements of 447 consecutive untreated patients attending a hypertension out-patient clinic who did a monitoring for diagnostic purposes over 5 years were retrieved. The mean daytime, night-time and 24-h BP and heart rate values were related to the temporally corresponding geomagnetic index k-sum obtained by the nearest observatory. K-sum is a local measurement of the irregular disturbances of the geomagnetic field caused by solar particle radiation. Significant to highly significant positive correlations were observed for k-sum with systolic (daytime and 24 h) and diastolic BP (daytime, night-time and 24 h), but not with heart rate. No correlations were found with the k-sum of 1 or 2 days before the monitorings. Multiple correlations which also included other potential confounding factors (date, age) confirmed a significant effect of k-sum on BP. Comparison made in season-matched subgroups of quiet and disturbed days (using three different criteria of definition), always showed significantly higher values in the disturbed days for all BP parameters except systolic night-time pressure. The difference between the quietest and the most disturbed days was of about 6 to 8 mm Hg for 24-h systolic and diastolic BP. These results are unlikely to be due to unrelated secular trends, but seem to reflect a real relation between magnetic field disturbances and BP.
Article
The intensity of reported vestibular experiences by normal volunteers (n = 127, over a 4-year period) increased significantly in a step-like manner during partial sensory deprivation when the daily geomagnetic activity exceeded about 15 nT; the effect size was equivalent to a correlation of about 0.33. Post hoc analyses indicated that the geomagnetic activity during the 3-h period at the beginning of the previous sleep cycle was the single greatest contributor. The enhanced occurrences of experiences that are similar to those associated with complex partial epileptic seizures suggests that specific stimuli associated with geomagnetic activity above about 15 nT affects specific regions of the human brain; the vulnerability occurs during the subsequent 24 h. However, in non-epileptic individuals these experiences must be amplified neurocognitively by removing input from auditory and visual modalities.
Article
A total of 80 patients with ischemic heart diseases (men-47, women-33) were followed up daily during 2-3 weeks. We studied capillary flow in the cuticle above the nail (eponichium) with TV-capillaroscope, allowed to conduct prolonged studies. We evaluated capillary indices for perivascular edema, erythrocytes aggregation, blood velocity. Microcirculations data were compared daily values of geomagnetic activity (A-index), three-hour-range indices (K) and atmospheric pressure. In the first day magnetic storms pathological changes of capillary flow were detected in 71.5% patients with acute myocardial infarction (men-73.7%, women-69.2%). We could see appearance of perivascular edema, red blood cell aggregation, delay and slowing down capillary flow. Similar changes were detected in patient with angina pectoris in 64.8% (men-73.3%, women-56.3%). Number patients with ischemic heart diseases reacted upon geomagnetic disturbances exceed more then 2.5 times quantity patients, who react upon change of atmospheric pressure.
Article
A 35-year-old cardiologist monitored himself with an automatic ABPM-630 (Colin Electronics) monitor, mostly at 15-minute intervals around-the-clock for three years with a few interruptions. In this subject with a family history of high blood pressure and stroke, a cross-spectral analysis revealed a statistically significant coherence at 27.7 days between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate vs. the geomagnetic disturbance index, Kp. A lesser peak in coherence was found for systolic blood pressure with Kp at a trial period of 4.16 days (P = 0.046). These results suggest that changes in geomagnetism may influence the human circulation, at least in the presence of familial cardiovascular disease risk, and they may do so at frequencies that have no precise human-made cyclic worldwide match.
Article
The hypothesis that geomagnetic storms may partly account for the seasonal variation in the incidence of depression, by acting as a precipitant of depressive illness in susceptible individuals, is supported by a statistically significant 36.2% increase in male hospital admissions with a diagnosis of depressed phase, manic-depressive illness in the second week following such storms compared with geomagnetically quiet control periods. There is a smaller but not statistically significant increase in female psychotic depression and non-psychotic depression admissions following storms. There was no correlation between geomagnetic storm levels and number of male admissions with psychotic depression, which is consistent with a threshold event affecting predisposed individuals. Phase advance in pineal circadian rhythms of melatonin synthesis may be a possible mechanism of causation or be present as a consequence of 5-hydroxytryptamine and adrenergic system dysfunction associated with geomagnetic disturbance. Effects on cell membrane permeability, calcium channel activity and retinal magneto-receptors are suggested as possible underlying biochemical mechanisms.
Article
This review considers the Russian scientific literature on the influence of weak static and of low-frequency alternating magnetic fields on biological systems. The review covers the most interesting works and the main lines of investigation during the period 1900 to the present. Shown here are the historical roots, beginning with the ideas of V. Vernadsky and A. Chizhevsky, which led in the field of Russian biology to an increasing interest in magnetic fields, based on an intimate connection between solar activity and life on the Earth, and which determined the peculiar development of Russian magnetobiology. The variety of studies on the effects of magnetic storms and extremely low-frequency, periodic variations of the geomagnetic field on human beings and animals as well as on social phenomena are described. The diverse experiments involving artificial laboratory magnetic fields acting on different biological entities under different conditions are also considered. A series of theoretical advances are reviewed that have paved the way for a step-by-step understanding of the mechanisms of magnetic field effects on biological systems. The predominantly unfavorable influence of magnetic fields on living beings is shown, but the cases of favorable influence of magnetic fields on human beings and lower animals are demonstrated as well. The majority of Russian investigations in this area of science has been unknown among the non-Russian speaking audience for many reasons, primarily because of a language barrier. Therefore, it is hoped that this review may be of interest to the international scientific community.
The effect of geomagnetic disturbances in capillary 443
  • A S Iurõev
IurÕev, A.S. The effect of geomagnetic disturbances in capillary 443
blood flow in ischemic heart disease patients
blood flow in ischemic heart disease patients. Biofizika 40 (4), 793– 444 799, 1995. 445