Article

Investigating the Use of the Stakeholder Notion in Project Management Literature, a Meta-analysis

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Abstract

In project management it is commonly accepted that the interests of stakeholders need to be dealt with to support the success of a project. By doing a meta-analysis of project management literature it is investigated how the stakeholder notion is used in this literature. Forty two publications are assessed against the purpose of this notion, the stakeholder definition and how the identification of stakeholders is addressed. The analysis shows that only a minority of the publications provides a clear definition and addresses the identification of stakeholders. We argue that a role perspective on the stakeholders issue fits the project context and therefore could fill this gap in the project management literature. After comparing the stakeholder approach with project role classifications from the literature, we conclude that a role-based stakeholder identification method is a promising approach for identifying stakeholders in projects.

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... Consequently, a key element and a vital first step, in any participatory development project, is the ability to identify relevant stakeholders: their needs, interests, relative power, and potential impact on project outcomes (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;Taylor, 2006). Stakeholder analysis, in this respect, is particularly essential (ADB, 2001;IFAD, 2001), with its three main steps: stakeholder identification, stakeholder mapping, and stakeholder strategies to generate interest and capacity building (Reed et al., 2009;UN-Habitat, 2001). ...
... Despite the vitality of the "stakeholder analysis" in any participatory planning, stakeholders are often identified and selected on an ad hoc basis; which may lead to the control of process via well-connected powerful representatives, and the exclusion of the marginal groups; a problem that is frequent in urban development projects (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;Reed et al., 2009). This may jeopardize the viability and sustainability of the project expected impacts; as studies have shown that if relevant stakeholders were not well defined and, hence engaged from the early planning stages, the result would be misguided strategies, inappropriate action plans which would be poorly (if at all) implemented and, in sometimes, could have negative impacts on the local community (Bryson, 2004;Didibhuku Thwala, 2009;IFAD, 2001;UN-Habitat, 2001). ...
... Reviewing the stakeholder literature within management discourse (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;Bryson, 2004;Chigona et al., 2009;Yang et al., 2011), and urban development discourse (ADB, 2001;Bradley, 2004;IFAD, 2001;Rowe and Frewer, 2000;Taylor, 2006;UN-Habitat, 2001;Zimmermann and Maennling, 2007), it has been found that there is relatively little guidance on how stakeholder identification can be practically applied. The mainstream of literature discusses various tools to classify and analyze pre-defined stakeholders, but how to systematically select the stakeholder representatives is still unanswered. ...
Article
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A key factor for the success of the urban development projects is the ability to identify and classify relevant stakeholders. Stakeholder analysis, in this respect, is particularly essential, with its three main steps: stakeholder identification, stakeholder mapping, and stakeholder strategies to generate interest and capacity building. However, reviewing stakeholder literature, it has been found that there is relatively little guidance on how stakeholder identification can be practically applied. The mainstream of literature discusses various tools to classify and analyze pre-defined stakeholders, but how to systematically select the stakeholder representatives is still unanswered. This study aims to develop a structured tool for the stakeholder identification designed for urban development projects at the local level. Accordingly, an identification tool was designed and tested in the "Ard Al-Liwa crossing development initiative" in Egypt. Being a field research, data (for testing the tool) was gathered using multiple methods: direct observation to the execution of the tool, informal interviews with the involved stakeholders, combined with documentation analysis of meeting minutes conducted during the project planning phase. Finally, the tool was modified in order to be adequate to the Egyptian context. Results show that identifying relevant stakeholders should be based on a field work rather than being a desk task. Moreover, building trust and measures for engaging different stakeholder groups are prerequisites for the success of the stakeholder identification.
... Stakeholder management has aroused interest in practitioners and academics as an important means to achieve project objectives. Some authors (Aaltonen, 2011;Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;Aladpoosh et al., 2012;Bourne andWalker, 2005a, 2005b;Gil, 2010;Littau et al., 2010;Mok et al., 2014) defend that it is necessary to find an approach and engagement with the stakeholder to achieve the project success. The project performance criteria such as cost, time and scope are not enough to ensure success. ...
... The project performance criteria such as cost, time and scope are not enough to ensure success. The relationship between project manager and project stakeholders came to have a greater emphasis to the extent that the more instrumental approach of stakeholder management did not result in an improvement in the perception of project success (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;Bourne, 2015;Heravi et al., 2015;Mok et al., 2014;Olander and Landin, 2005;Rajablu et al., 2015). ...
... Managing the relationship with stakeholders is one of the activities in stakeholder management and several authors recommended not restricting the performance objectives, such as scope, cost and time during the managerial application, but promoting approximation and engagement (Aaltonen, 2011;Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;Aladpoosh et al., 2012;Bourne and Walker, 2005b;Gil, 2010;Littau et al., 2010;Mok et al., 2014). ...
Article
This article aims to analyze the influence of stakeholder management on trust in project environments. Data was collected from 130 project professionals in companies from several national and multinational segments operating in Brazil. PLS-PM was applied for treatment and for data analysis. The results show that the relational stakeholder management influence on the three types of trust is relevant and significant. Therefore, it is important that the project manager not fail to consider actions such as communication with empathy as of the beginning of the project.
... Stakeholder literature has offered various conceptualizations and descriptions. According to [5], a stakeholder is a person, group or organization that has interest or concern in an organization. Ward and Chapman [6] postulates that "voluntary stakeholders bear some form of peril as a consequence of having invested some form of capital, human or financial, something of value, in a firm. ...
... The role of the stakeholders is to produce a system that best meets their needs, be willing to work with others, particularly those outside your chosen specialties, share all information, including "work in progress", and to actively expand their knowledge and skills. It can be upheld that the role of project stakeholders may include but not limited to: provide resources (time, money, etc.) to the project team, educate project implementers about their community, spend time to provide and clarify requirements, be specific and precise about requirements, make timely decisions with respect to project implementers assessment of cost and feasibility, review and provide timely feedback regarding relevant work artifacts of project implementers and promptly communicate changes to requirements [5]. These roles effectively define the relationship between project team and its stakeholders, a relationship that must be honored for a project to be successful. ...
... 2. Literature review First, it was necessary to start by uncovering the existing literature about stakeholder management and more specifically stakeholder dynamics, including the different influence strategies that stakeholders employ to impose their will and exercise their power in different projects. To achieve this, an online search into different databases, such as ProQuest, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar, was carried out, using different combinations and synonyms for stakeholder evolution, stakeholder dynamics, stakeholder management, course of a project, project life cycle, etc. Papers were selected from prestigious journals (Aaltonen and Kujala, 2010;Aaltonen et al., 2015;Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;Burga and Rezania, 2017;Davis, 2014;De Schepper et al., 2014;Eskerod and Vaagaasar, 2014;Floricel et al., 2014;Jepsen, 2013;Khang and Moe, 2008;Mitchell et al., 1997;Olander and Landin, 2005;Papadopoulos and Merali, 2008;Windsor, 2010). The literature review is divided into several parts. ...
... According to the broad definition of the concept of stakeholders as any person or group of people who may affect or be affected (Freeman, 1984), everyone can be considered a stakeholder to an organization or a project (Aaltonen and Kujala, 2010). That is why, in order to make the stakeholder identification process easier and more accurate, authors have suggested narrower definitions of the term "stakeholder," which allow a finer categorization (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008). This has led to different categorizations of stakeholders as those who have "potential for collaboration" or "potential for threatening" (Blair and Whitehead, 1988), "fiduciary" and "non-fiduciary" stakeholders (Goodpaster, 1988), "primary" and "secondary" stakeholders (Clarkson, 1995), and "voluntary" and "involuntary" stakeholders (Clarkson, 1994). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of stakeholder dynamics and to show how stakeholders demonstrate their dynamic nature in the power/interest matrix. This, in turn, should assist project management and stakeholder management practitioners predict the behavior of different stakeholder groups in their projects, and strategize their stakeholder management approaches accordingly. Design/methodology/approach The findings in this paper are based on data collected from 12 diverse projects from five different business sectors executed in Norway by means of an online, closed-question questionnaire, which was analyzed using various statistical approaches. Findings Stakeholder dynamics is a contextual phenomenon, which takes different forms and shapes from one stakeholder group to the other, from one industry or business sector to the other, and even from one project to the other within the same industry or business sector. The stakeholder group of user(s) was the most dynamic in Norwegian projects based on their continuous repositioning on the power/interest matrix from one project phase to the other. Environmental activists/organizations were the least dynamic stakeholder group in the full sample of projects. Originality/value This paper presents the first more comprehensive empirically based findings about stakeholder dynamics in projects the authors have been able to find. The study gives project management practitioners insights from various industries and business sectors into how stakeholders change position over time. It also shows that the two attributes of power and interest are strongly connected and affect one another, which might make it possible to control and design a safer and less complex stakeholder environment for future projects.
... The dynamics may also be illustrated by the application of another mix of attributes. Vos and Achterkamp [31] developed a role-based stakeholder model (client, decisionmaker, designer, and passively involved). Crosby [32] based stakeholder analysis on criteria of stakeholder interest and influence. ...
... The literature overview reveals that the utility of stakeholder analysis varies depending on its purposes, which might include defining success, risk management, stakeholder information provision, or stakeholder management [31]. Dalcher [35] states that the adoption of a stakeholder-centric approach enriches the research perspective and promises new insights relating to project management. ...
Article
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The development of a wide range of infrastructure projects based on the idea of cooperation between the public and private sector, known as PPPs, contributes to fulfilling social and economic needs, rises the quality of life, and supports sustainable development. The expected results of these undertakings cannot be comparable; however, some PPPs are perceived as a success and some are not. The research is based on the stakeholder concept and the idea that different stakeholder groups present different attitudes to the success of PPPs and are motivated by different issues including economic, social, and environmental factors. Based on this assumption, a conceptual model of PPP stakeholders’ identification and classification according to the attributes of preferred benefits, related to dimensions of sustainable development and engagement, including time and scope perspective, has been derived and tested. This exploratory analysis improves and tests the benefit–engagement conceptual model of PPP stakeholders’ identification. This contributes to the theory and concepts of sustainable infrastructure investment and public–private partnership practice.
... Quand l'entreprise n'est plus au centre de l'analyse : l'acception de la notion de parties prenantes en projet Cleland (1986, in Aaltonen et Kujala, 2010 est à l'origine de l'importation de la notion de parties prenantes dans le champ du management de projet. Ce champ, le project stakeholder management, connaît une croissance importante depuis la fin des années 2000 (pour une revue de littérature, voir Achterkamp et Vos, 2008 ;et d'autres auteurs : Jepsen et Eskerod, 2009 ;Aaltonen & al., 2008 ;Aaltonen et Kujala, 2010 ;Assudani et Kloppenborg, 2010). ...
... Elles n'ont pas de lien contractuel avec l'organisation focale. D'autres exemples de classification existent (Achterkamp et Vos, 2008), ils font écho à la définition initiale de Freeman (1984), tout en mettant l'accent sur la spécificité des contextes relatifs à un projet. Ils distinguent les parties prenantes internes et externes au projet. ...
... In a similar vein, the editors of Project Management Journal introduced another special issue, attempting to advance the comprehension of stakeholder management by investigating theories outside the field of the project management (Eskerod et al., 2015b). Additionally, numerous review papers have been published in recent years, confirming the importance role of stakeholders in managing projects (cf Aaltonen and Kujala, 2016;Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;Chan and Oppong, 2017;Littau et al., 2010;Maddaloni and Davis, 2017;Mok et al., 2015;Nguyen et al., 2018b;Oppong et al., 2017). ...
... Other useful models have also been developed as a result of synthesising previous definition and classification approaches (see Miles, 2017;Mitchell et al., 1997). Given the variety of approaches to classifying stakeholders, a model, according to Achterkamp and Vos (2008), should fit the usage situation. In this study, we adopt the internal-external categorisation to explore stakeholder strategic actions. ...
Article
Although understanding external stakeholders’ influence is important to achieving success, little attention has been paid to their influence strategies in project management. This paper aims to explore combinations of actions that external stakeholders normally pursue to influence construction projects, and to hypothesise factors affecting the use of these combinations. A theoretical framework of stakeholder strategic actions was proposed and applied, and a multiple-case study in the Vietnamese construction industry was employed. Three combinations of influence strategies were identified: communication and credibility building were employed concurrently by organised groups in projects affecting the environment; direct action and conflict escalation were exerted together by unorganised groups in cases leading to displacements of the locals; and coalition building was combined with communication by both groups irrespective of projects’ impacts. The utilisation of a combination can be affected by the selection of lobbying actions and characteristics of individual strategies, and stakeholders’ motives, attributes and perceptions.
... According to stakeholder theory, there are different views and theories on who or what are a firm's stakeholders and to whom they are accountable (Achterkamp & Vos, 2008;Clarke, 1998;Reed et al., 2009). In reviewing the conceptual rigor of stakeholder theory, Clarke (1998) noted the simplicity of the stakeholder notion but identified various definitions of who are a firm's stakeholders. ...
... According to the project management standards and literature, whether a stakeholder is active or passive revolves around the stated objectives and the definition of project success given to the project manager. In addition, both the project management standards and literature define stakeholders as individuals with an interest in the project outcome or success, individuals who can have an effect on or be affected by the project, or a combination of both (Achterkamp & Vos, 2008;PMI, 2017). Thus, project stakeholders are viewed from an instrumental stakeholder perspective. ...
Conference Paper
This study uses a stakeholder accountability model and network analysis to address a question regarding the gaps in accountability between artificial intelligence projects and society. Individuals and society are considerably impacted by the outcomes and decisions that result from algorithms, but have limited or no role in the projects in which these algorithms are implemented. Furthermore, the organizations that develop, operate, and host the algorithms prefer self-regulation over new regulations or legislation. Using a mixed-method approach, this study addresses the following research question: What are the gaps in accountability between algorithm projects and the society impacted by algorithms? The findings identified six accountability, knowledge, and governance gaps. The discussion explains why the deficits are regrettable and identifies options for addressing the gaps. This information can be useful for project managers, project sponsors, and policy advisors interested in algorithmic decision-making and development processes.
... They argue stakeholders should be identified regarding their "interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success," communicated with, worked with, and involved based "on their needs, expectation, interest, and potential impact on the project" (PMI, 2017: 503). Similarly, the project management literature defines stakeholders with an interest in the project outcome or success, stakeholders that can have an effect on or be affected by the project, or a combination of both (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;PMI, 2017). While the literature argues passive stakeholders should be considered, not all project stakeholder classification models consider passive stakeholder roles (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008). ...
... Similarly, the project management literature defines stakeholders with an interest in the project outcome or success, stakeholders that can have an effect on or be affected by the project, or a combination of both (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;PMI, 2017). While the literature argues passive stakeholders should be considered, not all project stakeholder classification models consider passive stakeholder roles (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008). Next, the decision on whether a stakeholder is an active or passive stakeholder revolves around the stated objectives and the definition of project success given to the project manager. ...
Conference Paper
This research presents a conceptual stakeholder accountability model for developing and using algorithm systems. Artificial intelligence (AI) and big data projects are used to implement systems that form a basis for algorithmic decision-making. There are many cases where algorithmic decisions have failed society or individuals, e.g., discriminatory hiring practices, plane crashes, erroneous facial recognition. The people most impacted by AI projects are passive stakeholders who may never know the project or the algorithm existed. This study will use accountability theory, project success, and stakeholder models to answer novel questions regarding success factors in AI projects, framing the question of project success from the perspective of moral decision-making with algorithms. Using qualitative research methods, the study assessed 14 stakeholder roles and 14 groups of AI project success factors using accountability theory. The resulting stakeholder accountability model is useful for project managers and sponsors in project planning and determining project scopes, for firms in updating corporate ethical guidelines, and for policy advisors in closing some gaps in accountability on algorithm development and usage.
... As a means, it is a process in which people and communities cooperate and collaborate in developing the project. A wide number of researchers depicted stakeholder involvement as a potential contributor to project success (Freeman, 1984;Boonstra, 2006;Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;Adrienne Watt, 2014). The predominant idea behind that has been oriented in understanding the extent of stakeholders' contribution on project performance within organizations (Rabe and Betsil, 2009). ...
... Any project be economic, social, educational, environmental needs an active commitment of all its stakeholders (Freeman and Beale, 1992). Thus development projects require participatory approach of stakeholders in identifying and solving problems affecting project implementation (Boonstra, 2006;Achterkamp and Vos, 2008;Adrienne Watt, 2014). ...
Article
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Stakeholder involvement plays an important and critical role in project performance. In Guinea, the Administration and Control of Major Projects and Public Procurement (ACMPPP) has initiated a huge reforms and reorganizations of development projects implementation since 2014.This has involved different stakeholders who include: the Government through the operating Ministries, International Institutions such as United Nations Development Program, World Bank, Africa Development Bank etc., Construction and Manufacturing Companies as well as Non Governmental Organizations. This paper will examine the literature around the stakeholders’ involvement concepts to address their influence in project identification, planning, implementation and monitoring on development project performance within organizations in Guinea.
... Hence, PSM does not only depend on an integration of theoretical perspectives but also on refinements of these concepts and theories. However, contributions to theory development are limited despite an increasingly complex understanding of stakeholders (e.g., Aaltonen et al. 2015;Achterkamp and Vos 2008;Aladpoosh et al. 2012;Killen et al. 2012;Littau et al. 2010;Söderlund 2004). This complex understanding includes different presentations of the stakeholder management process. ...
... Recapitulating, the three concepts address the phenomena of critical secondary stakeholders from various angles. Stakeholder salience helps managers determine who "counts," and despite Achterkamp and Vos' (2008) preference for a role-based stakeholder model, we favor this concept, as its applicability to the project setting has been proven (e.g., Aaltonen 2011; Parent and Deephouse 2007). Next, the concept of public participation with its different archetypes provides the tools to steer interaction with affected individuals. ...
Article
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Despite the increasingly active role of civic actors, there is often no possibility for them to participate in project planning and decision-making. This discrepancy leads to costly conflicts and even failures. Unfortunately, the literature on project stakeholder management does not have sufficient theoretical substantiation to address this issue. To fill this knowledge gap, we integrate the concepts of stakeholder salience, public participation, and nonmarket strategy, and apply them to two urban infrastructure projects in Germany. This study contributes to the literature in two dimensions. First, it offers a dynamic and conceptual model for project stakeholder management, providing explanations for different conflict intensities. Second, it advances each individual area of research. Examples include the identification and clustering of so-called nonmarket assets, an examination of the influence of nonmarket strategies on managers’ perceptions of stakeholder salience, and the study of public participation in a corporate–political context, rather than a purely political one.
... Effective communication also helps in developing a clear and consistent SEP and ensures honest and accurate information is delivered in an effective and timely manner. Irrespective of the type of project, researchers(Achterkamp & Vos, 2008;Chen & Chen, 2007) have agreed that project failure is not only caused by ineffective project management practices, but of inappropriate communication among the project stakeholders. ...
Article
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This research examined whether communication and feedback flow among stakeholders contribute significantly to project success. Communication and feedback flow is one of the most needed areas of project management of which attention of many researchers had been drawn to it. To ensure the project success, information such as requirements, expectations, resources, budgets, expenditures, and progress reports need to be communicated to all stakeholders on regular basis. Most software engineering projects in Nigeria have failed due to irregular communication among stakeholders in the project. To achieve the objective, questionnaire method was used to gather data from the respondents and analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. It was concluded that communication and feedback among stakeholders contribute to effective software engineering projects in Nigeria. It is important that the project managers encourage useful contributions from the stakeholders without losing control of the project.
... Furthermore, ethical checklists as proposed by Brey (2012), Stahl (2011), and Palm and Hansson (2006) or frameworks as proposed by Heintz et al. (2015) and Wright (2011) can be used to find the areas of interest and thus define the classification. For the selection of stakeholders Yves Fassin (2009) and Achterkamp and Vos (2008) provide methodical support. However, for methods that deal with stakeholder identification, Reijers et al. (2018) demand a justified stakeholder selection. ...
Article
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The integration of ethics into the day-to-day work of research and innovation (R&I) is an important but difficult challenge. However, with the Aachen method for identification, classification and risk analysis of innovation-based problems (AMICAI) an approach from an engineering perspective is presented that enables the integration of ethical, legal and social implications into the day-to-day work of R&I practitioners. AMICAI appears in particular capable of providing a procedural guidance for R&I practitioners based on a method established in engineering science, breaking down the object of consideration into partial aspects and prioritizing the innovation-based problems in dependence of potential risk. This enables the user to apply AMICAI continuously during all stages of the research and development (R&D) process and to analyze and choose between certain sociotechnical alternatives. In this way, problems that affect ethical, legal, and social aspects can be understood, reflected and considered in the mostly technically focused R&D process. The paper gives a general guidance about AMICAI by describing principles and assumptions, providing the steps of analysis and application aids, giving an example application, explaining the necessary adjustments of AMICAI compared to the methodical basis of failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis and discussing the advantages and limits. AMICAI’s simple applications can stimulate interdisciplinary cooperation in the R&D process and be a starting point for the development of an “open RRI risk analysis platform” allowing society to evaluate innovation-based problems.
... The widely used definition by Freeman (1984) describes stakeholders as 'those groups who can affect or are affected by the achievement of an organisation's purpose' (Freeman 1984). The identification of stakeholder should be structured and exhaustive (Achterkamp and Vos 2008). The multi-stakeholder approach in the SCM derives from the concept of collaboration and collaborative enterprise, where companies 'seek to build long-term, mutually beneficial relationships with all stakeholders and want to produce sustainable values for their whole business ecosystem' (Tencati and Zsolnai 2008). ...
Article
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Supply chains are an indispensable element of any global economy. At the same time such supply chains create a societal and environmental burden. Drastic actions are required to mitigate these effects. Supply chains should become responsible and sustainable (where responsibility and sustainability are understood in a broad sense) addressing economic, political, societal, legal, human rights, ethical and environmental concerns. This research shifts from the question of why companies should implement responsibility and sustainability into supply chains, to how they should do so effectively. Illustrated by a case study of Sedex, a collaborative platform for buyers and suppliers, this paper proposes three solutions for responsible and sustainable supply chain management (SCM). Firstly, supply chains have to be supported by research and innovation (R&I). Secondly, supply chains should be based on multi-stakeholder efforts of industry, governmental and non-governmental organisations. Thirdly, the responsibility should lie not only with an individual company and its employees, but also with organisations of companies (supra-agency). As a result, responsible and sustainable supply chains require technological, political and ethical solutions involving the development of sound, multi-stakeholder business and governance models. These models should be based on the equal consideration of all three dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental and social), the cooperation of the partners in the chain, strengthening long-term relationships and legitimate requirements of the stakeholders of a supply chain.
... Stakeholder theory is usually used for corporation management purposes ( Heidrich et al. 2009), but some studies used this theory for other fields such as project management (Aaltonen et al. 2008;Achtercamp and Vos 2008), social management (Crane and Ruebottom 2012), agriculture (Hoppe and Sanders 2014), natural environment ( Reed et al. 2009) and waste management ( Srivastava et al. 2005;Heidrich et al. 2009;Caniato et al. 2014). Although there are some studies about waste management using stakeholder theory, there is little evidence of research carried out to analyse all of the stakeholders engaged in the household solid waste management, particularly in Indonesia. ...
Chapter
Food wastage is a major problem at all supply chains stages that faces severe implications such as the environmental cost associated to the release of greenhouse gases and loss of monetary value due to inefficient use of resources. According to FAO (Food wastage footprint: impacts on natural resources: summary report. FAO, Rome, 2013) the global carbon footprint (CF) of annual food wastage is about 3.3 Gt carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). This fact is altering the sustainability of the food supply chain. Although retailers as part of the food supply chain do not generate as much food waste as other stages, the food management at the retailers’ stage is deeply encompassed. Their influence as the nexus amongst producers and consumers play a key role on the amount of food wasted throughout the supply chain. Therefore, the retail sector’s strategies to reduce food wastage seem to be essential in order to pursue a sustainable economy and to combat climate change. Moreover, it is also aligned to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) number 12 from the United Nations “Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns” that establishes an objective that “by 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains”. In this scenario, one of the best practices of Walmart Inc. is the Project Gigaton. The objective of this project is to avoid the generation of one billion CO2 tons throughout the Walmart’ supply chain. In order to demonstrate best practices and to lead its suppliers towards CO2 reduction initiatives, Walmart Mexico as one of the main markets of the company is implementing the “Zero Waste” (ZW) strategy on its operations. The ZW strategy at Walmart is aimed to manage efficiently any type of waste and also to consider the potential carbon footprint reduction due to a proper food waste management. Hence, this research sought to explore the potential of the carbon footprint reduction through different alternative food waste management routes aimed to lessen even further Walmart Mexico’s environmental footprint. Consequently, in this chapter, the carbon footprint emissions were calculated based on each final destination, which includes: food donations to food banks, animal feeding, bio-digestion and composting. The findings of this analysis showed that every final destination had a reduction of the carbon footprint from food waste avoidance, which would help to support the development and actions needed to amplify the benefits of the ZW strategy in a broader scope and to contribute to the SDG.
... We adopt Mitchell, Agle, and Wood's (1997) broad definition of stakeholders, which includes virtually anyone who can have an impact on the organization's actions or who experiences an impact as a result of them. Stakeholders are in a position to influence the well-being of an organization, defined in terms of its capacity to achieve goals (Freeman, 1984); thus, they are significant in the project context (Achterkamp & Vos, 2008). In their review of stakeholder literature in projects, Littau, Jujagiri, and Adlbrecht (2010) note that stakeholders can be classified in three ways: (1) those who have an interest in the project; (2) those who can affect the project; and (3) those who both have an interest in and can affect the project. ...
Article
Megaprojects involve managing external stakeholders with diverse interests. Using an Indian megaproject case study, we discuss how the project managed external stakeholders through strategies such as: persuasion, deputation, give and take, extra work for stakeholders, and flexibility. Drawing from theories and frameworks of power, we explain how these strategies emerge through a process of tactical clustering. We also analyze the resources available to the project team—such as recruitment discretion, government backing, and fund discretion—that influence these power dynamics and enable these strategies. We posit that changes in the resource base can significantly affect strategic action and, in turn, megaproject outcomes.
... To deal with such prevailing situations, the project authorities may take countermeasures to neutralize the rifts through a collaborative negotiation process (Moura and Teixeira, 2010). As a result, what is required from the negotiation with multiple stakeholders is managing their differing needs so that the outcome can achieve the highest possible satisfaction for those involved in the process (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008). Many problems are attributed to infrastructure projects around the world, which is the cause of project failure. ...
Article
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The underlying risks and complexities in government infrastructure projects have increased the importance of external stakeholder management in contemporary project management. In developing countries, it is also important for policymaking and planning of infrastructure programs due to the varying nature of stakeholders and their expectations from the government. Few studies have looked at how external stakeholders are involved in public infrastructure projects and how they work together to achieve common project goals by overcoming communication and decision-making barriers. The internal stakeholders and project managers also need to properly liaise with the external stakeholders without compromising the project goals. Thus, there is a need to strategize the stakeholder management process to improve public sector infrastructure projects, especially from a developing nation's perspective. Therefore, the scope of this research has evaluated the prevalence of external stakeholder management in public sector infrastructure construction projects in Pakistan by developing and validating its five core dimensions. Among the constructs were identification and classification, communication, engagement, empowerment, and risk control. Besides this, twenty-seven sub-variables of stakeholder management have also been identified in the context of public sector projects. The results of the factor loading show that "Risk Control" is the most contributing dimension of stakeholder management, and "Empowerment" is the least concern in the current practices. The study emphasizes the importance of establishing a systematic and comprehensive framework for empowering external stakeholders, which will strengthen and improve performance and project outcomes. This study reveals insights that will assist project organizations in integrating external stakeholders into their government-sponsored projects with their effective empowerment and sufficient engagement.
... Key informants included federal regulators, state regulators, fisheries council members, non-governmental organizations, industry members, consultants, and academics. These stakeholders, individuals who can affect or are affected by a project (modified from NOAA 2007, Achterkamp and Vos 2008), are experienced with the offshore wind industry and/or the NEPA process. Potential interviewees were identified through attendance lists, presentations, and agendas at state task force meetings and public comments received from 2011 to 2017 as listed on BOEM's Renewable Energy website ( Table 2). ...
Article
The United States contributes only 0.2% of the 18,814 MW of global installed offshore wind capacity. Lack of development has been attributed in part to a cumbersome regulatory process that includes the evaluation of environmental impacts. Assessments are based on biological, social, and technical data that are often incomplete. Marine spatial planning (MSP) may help fill data gaps. We conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants to understand (1) whether a lack of biological data impedes offshore wind environmental assessments, (2) whether MSP could mitigate these impediments, and (3) whether MSP could advance offshore wind development in the U.S. in other ways. Most informants stated that a lack of biological data in offshore wind environmental assessments was problematic due to incomplete data, uncertainty of data, and mismatched scales. Data issues may be mitigated by creation of data products and increased communication, outcomes of MSP that may benefit the regulatory process by increasing data availability, resolving conflicts among users, and providing a common operating picture. Challenges remain in integrating MSP into the processes of siting and permitting offshore wind, but it provides a strategic framework for the systematic identification, collection, collation, analyses, application, and management of data in the offshore wind environmental regulatory process.
... Up-front stakeholder management plays a key role in delivering successful project outcomes, both in terms of satisfying stakeholders' expectations and avoiding stakeholder problems. Samset (2013) claimed that the designs of megaprojects are often undertaken without sufficiently analyzing the interests and needs of key stakeholders; Achterkamp and Vos's (2008) literature survey on project stakeholders confirms the need for stakeholders' interests toward a project to be dealt with during the early stages of the project (see also Assudani and Kloppenborg 2010). But evidence shows that the identification of a project's stakeholders in the front-end is still a considerably challenging task. ...
Article
This paper summarizes the results of a comprehensive systematic literature survey on the front-end of a project, commissioned by the Project Management Institute. The dedicated literature on the front-end is sparse: although the front-end has been shown to be critical to the strategic success of the project, this phase of the lifecycle is not well understood. This paper presents the literature on the concept of the front-end, and defines a temporarily ordered structure of generic processes that form the ‘front-end’ and how these fit together as a coherent whole. These start from the preliminaries to the initiative, then the project purpose (for various stakeholders), the initial analysis and scenario analysis; the analysis of alternatives and choice of project concept; assessment of the project, finishing with setting up project execution. It summarises the recent literature at each of these elements in turn, specifically as they relate to the front-end.
... За останні роки було опубліковано чимало праць закордонних дослідників, що підтверджують важливу роль зацікавлених сторін в проектному управлінні. Серед них Achterkamp & Vos [1], Chan & Oppong [2], Littau зі співавторами [3], Maddaloni & Davis [4], Mok, Nguyen, Oppong та інші. Зокрема, Aaltonen та Kujala відзначають що, "проект створює динамічний контекст для управління зацікавленими сторонами та поведінкою зацікавлених сторін, оскільки проект рухається через різні фази протягом свого життєвого циклу" [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Предметом дослідження в статті є управління зацікавленими сторонами проектів при реалізації стратегії програми. Мета статті – розробка методу визначення очікувань зацікавлених сторін і їх коригування з позицій стратегічного управління програмою проектів. В статті вирішуються наступні завдання: виділити у певну класифікацію стейкхолдерів проектів залежно від характеру їх ставлення до стратегії програми проектів; розробити матрицю оцінки рівня їх залучення до реалізації стратегії програми; модифікувати матрицю "влада/інтерес" для більш точного представлення характеру інтересу; побудувати модель стратегічного кубу зацікавлених сторін проектів та програм; розробити рекомендації щодо організації цілеспрямованого впливу на очікування зацікавлених сторін проектів програми з метою коригування їх очікувань для сприяння ефективності реалізації стратегії програми. Використовуються такі методи: теорія множин, кола Ейлера, матричні та графоаналітичні методи. Отримані результати: pозроблена класифікація стейкхолдерів проектів залежно від характеру їх ставлення до стратегії програми проектів. Матриця оцінки рівня залучення стейкхолдерів до реалізації стратегії програми передбачає розробку поточного та бажаного стану. Модифікована матриця "влада/інтерес" розмірністю 2*4 містить у кожному квадранті рекомендації щодо управління стейкхолдерами. Побудована модель стратегічного кубу зацікавлених сторін містить 20 квадрантів. Сформульовані рекомендації щодо використання методу з п’яти етапів для визначення очікувань зацікавлених сторін і їх коригування з позицій стратегічного управління програмою проектів. Висновки: розроблено метод визначення очікувань зацікавлених сторін і їх коригування, заснований на оцінці рівня залучення стейкхолдерів до реалізації стратегії програми проектів з урахуванням класифікації відповідно до характеру ставлення до неї, який на відміну від існуючих передбачає побудову та аналіз модифікованої матриці "влада/інтерес" та стратегічного кубу зацікавлених сторін проектів та програм, що дозволяє розширити горизонт аналізу та швидкість реагування на мінливі запити стейкхолдерів при плануванні реалізації стратегії програми.
... Whereas, efforts are made to manage internal stakeholders due to their active involvement in the project as members of the project organisation, less attention have given to external stakeholders which has led to the negative influence they impact have on the project. This may be consequent to lack of understanding of the socio-cultural backgrounds of various interest groups, their possible influence on the project and the motivation behind their actions (socio-political environment); especially, when it concerns rural communities and their resources(Aaltonen and Kujala 2010;Achterkamp and Vos 2008;Achterkamp and Vos 2007; Olander and Ladin 2005). Therefore, effective stakeholders' management needs to be prioritised in decision-making processes, identifying, categorising and managing them accordingly from concept phase of RDPs to the termination of such projects to ensure sustainable success is achieved(Crawford, Langston and Bajracharya 2012). ...
Research Proposal
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To propose a primary research execution plan; having investigated the causes of failure in RDPs and how this can be eliminated through the implementation of a tailor-made PMF, adopting effective project success factors and recommended practices in public investment in developing an effective RDPs management framework for repeatable project success.
... The literature using this perspective has extensively covered the recurrent question of who are stakeholders? Abundant typologies classify them according to the existence or not of a contractual relationship with the business (Aaltonen, 2011;Clarkson, 1995;Donaldson & Preston, 1995); according to their characteristics: urgency, power, legitimacy (Mitchell, Agle, & Wood, 1997); group categories: regulatory, organizational, community stakeholders, the media (Henriques & Sadorsky, 1999); and according to the existence and degree of a societal commitment on their part (Girard & Sobczak, 2012) or even to active versus passive behaviors (Achterkamp & Vos, 2008). Mok, Shen, and Yang (2015), who draw a systematic review of stakeholder management in megaprojects, consider that the literature primarily focuses on individual stakeholder attributes and salience. ...
Article
This article explores the involvement of stakeholders agencing sustainability in the context of megaprojects, which represent an extreme setting with inherent uncertainty and complexity. Through the concept of milieu, project marketing has for many years studied the diversity of actors, their heterogeneous nature and their multiple interactions, but without really tackling the issue of sustainability. As part of a three-year interaction with a rail supplier company, this research is based on three case studies of urban rail projects in France. Actor-network theory was applied as method theory. Findings suggest that agential configurations for sustainability include non-business actants, as well as hybrid and future collectives. We differentiate stakeholders according to the role they play in agencing sustainability: promoters, translators and targets. The study enriches the concept of milieu through a distinction between actors from the territory, milieu and project network. We propose the concept of sustainability agencing to offer (1) a dynamic view of stakeholders in project and industrial marketing and (2) a project-centered perspective of sustainability in business markets. Implications for theory and practice are given to foster future research in this area.
... Like Delone and McLean's assumption, which combined the logic of communication [46] and information influence theories [47], the ISRS model was proposed by adopting the above-mentioned logic and combining it with Parasuraman and Colby's [25] readiness constructs. Subiyakto [39,40] explained that the combination assumption was developed by considering the essential issues of stakeholder readiness in IT/IS projects [12,[16][17][18][48][49][50][51] referring to the input-process-output (IPO) logic of Davis and Yen's [52] information processing theory and the process logic of Kellogg's [53] model development theory. The readiness constructs of the TRI model [25], namely, optimism (OPT), innovativeness (INN), discomfort (DIS), and insecurity (INS), were then placed in the input dimension of the ISRS model. ...
Article
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The implementation of ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is a good opportunity to address the affordability, accessibility, and quality issues of the higher education sector that are present in many countries. However, its broad application is still limited within the instructionist paradigm. Improving its implementation performance is a challenge for researchers and practitioners. This study aimed to understand the readiness and success status of u-learning implementation in Indonesia and to assess factors influencing the status based on stakeholder perspectives. A mixed methods inquiry with the sequential nested strategy was carried out by focusing on a quantitative analysis. The findings revealed that the readiness constructs influence u-learning performance. The study may contribute, theoretically and practically, to future studies, especially u-learning implementation studies, from the perspective of a developing country.
... There is a limited number of research works concerning interdisciplinary debates about the concepts of sustainable urban development [7,8]. The issue of stakeholders engagement in PPP projects is also a rare subject of research [9][10][11][12]. Finally, Prandecki et al. [13] claim that urbanization, public networking, and institutional changes (all related to the subject of the research) will have the most significant impact on sustainable development. ...
Article
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The strategic goal of city management is to ensure its sustainable development which requires a balance of rare resources. From the operational perspective, namely projects implementing sustainable development, the balance refers to human resources. They can be classified into the public or private sector and their cooperation is known as Public–Private Partnership (PPP). Building on the concept of sustainable development and stakeholder theory, the research develops a conceptual framework of stakeholder analysis in PPP projects. More generally, the research aims to contribute to a theoretical understanding of the determinants of sustainable city development and PPP success factors. The research claims that the PPP procurement is consistent with sustainable urban development and the PPP model, accompanied by the stakeholder theory, requires evaluation which balances diverse stakeholders’ interests along the triple bottom of sustainable development. The conceptual framework combines stakeholder attributes of preferred benefits and power and urgency. It includes a time and scope perspective. The research has a descriptive but also a normative character as the framework could be helpful to understand and engage stakeholders in sustainable urban development. The developed framework can be considered for the future construction of a model that can be implemented and tested. This theoretical research is based on a literature survey, applying methods of critical analysis and construction. The innovative approach of the research is based on integrated application of already known concepts of sustainable development, stakeholder theory, and Public–Private Partnership, which are all necessary to create a new approach to management of city development consistent with the known facts.
... The ability to influence internal or external conditions related to projects influence (Achterkamp & Vos, 2008;Yang, 2014) 20 ...
Article
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This article presents a comprehensive project stakeholder typology model (PSTM) based on stakeholder salience attributes (SSAs). Stakeholders are considered as one of the major pillars of construction projects and management of stakeholders is essential to effective project management in the construction industry. A literature review of stakeholder typology and management models was conducted to identify all the different SSAs that are being applied. This analysis revealed important variation in the attributes, models, and frameworks. A questionnaire survey and semistructured interviews were conducted to fulfil the research purpose. Based on a Venn-diagram analysis of data, we suggest a clear and nonoverlapping SSAs framework to be used in construction projects. We also propose a project stakeholder typology model based on SSAs. The results indicated that PSTM divides stakeholders into 15 different types based on four attributes, namely Potency, Legitimacy, Urgency, and Proximity. It is expected that the results of this study can be used by practicing professionals such as project managers when identifying, categorizing, and managing stakeholders in construction projects.
... All projects have phases, even though these may vary from project to project or by industry (Schwalbe, 2016). There are various tools available for identifying PTs as stakeholders, including stakeholder mapping (Bonke and Winch, 2002), stakeholder circle (Bourne and Walker, 2006) (not withstanding its weakness as discussed above) and role-based stakeholder models (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008). The PMO as custodian of project management practices and standards in an organisation (Bolles, 2002;Hans and Mnkandla, 2018) should provide PMs with enforceable guidelines for gathering PT views and concerns during a project life cycle. ...
... Stakeholder identification and their necessary engagement in a project is an important task (Achterkamp & Vos, 2008;Pouloudi & Whitley, 1997). Pouloudi and Whitley (1997) emphasized that practical techniques for stakeholder identification are limited in the literature. ...
Article
The dynamic and ever-increasing complex nature of a port system involves a variety of stakeholders with a broad spectrum of involvement and objectives. In the port master planning, to fulfill the objectives of the various stakeholders and manage conflicts and controversies, a stakeholder analysis is carried out. However, effective and timely engagement of the key stakeholders in the planning process is not an easy task. This paper presents a framework of stakeholder analysis for the case study of the Multi-Purpose Port of Isafjordur in Iceland to underpin the master planning process. The framework deals with a systematic procedure of identification, grouping and then static mapping of stakeholders by means of the power-interest matrix. Further, the fuzzy logic 3-dimensional decision surface was adopted for dynamic salience mapping of the stakeholders. A survey and face-to-face interviews were conducted as tools to collect input for the stakeholder analysis based on the elements of the port master planning. The elements include competitiveness, land use, environmental implication, safety and security, hinterland connection, economic and social impact, financial performance, and flexibility. This paper reveals that dynamic mapping provides a more accurate stakeholder analysis in the field of port master planning than do other methods. The result of the decision surface shows different saliences of key stakeholders, including legislation and public policy, and internal and external stakeholders in the master planning. Thus, in order to have effective and timely stakeholder inclusion throughout the port planning process, a different strategy of engagement with them should be applied.
... In many project managements journals, stakeholder management along with stakeholder classification, identification, and management procedures has been considered by researchers (Aaltonen et al., 2008). Stakeholder identification is crucial, and delay may occur if the stakeholders are not identified (Achterkamp and Vos, 2008). The reason for stakeholder identification is to manage the stakeholder in an unpredictable environment (Aaltonen et al., 2008). ...
Conference Paper
Stakeholder management is considered as one of the success factors of projects, but the number of studies on stakeholder management in a sophisticated project setting is narrow. This study will analyze two complex projects in different sectors to contribute to stakeholder management discussion. The projects include the Äänekoski bioproduct mill, Finland, and Sydney Metro West, Australia. The first project is analyzed using public resources, and the second project is analyzed by public resources and the project owner's interview. Both cases were investigated using tools such as Martinsuo and Lehtonen's complex project characteristics tool, guidelines from the GAPPS report, Mitchell et al.'s stakeholder salience theory and scoring method. This study combines the analysis of the projects and suggests tools to determine complex projects and prioritize stakeholders in complex project setting. The study attempts to benefit project management researchers interested in stakeholder management and complex projects.
... In this perspective, the notion of project stakeholder is used extensively in the literature on project management, in order to highlight the multi-dimensional and political nature of project success (Achterkamp & Vos, 2008;Baccarini, 1999;Shenhar, Dvir, Levy & Maltz, 2001;Diallo & Thuillier, 2005;Chan & Chan, 2004;Bannerman, 2008). For example, the following success criteria can be considered: the classical iron triangle (cost, quality, time), the product performance, the benefits for the organization developing the project and the benefits for the local community (Atkinson, 1999). ...
Article
This paper proposes a risk based approach in order to obtain a quantitative estimate of the salience of the stakeholders involved in a project. The integration between stakeholders and risk management processes in the Project Management System allows us to realize a twofold objective: a quantitative estimate of the salience of each stakeholder in terms of the contribution to the overall project riskiness and an identification of the most effective responses as a function of the dynamics of the risks generated by each stakeholder. The proposed approach has been applied to an international project concerning the building of a pipe line.
... The terms have been widely applied with increasing popularity in various contexts since the 1980s [31,35,37]. Likewise, numerous definitions have been published on what can be classed as a stakeholder [31,38,39], which is why a clear explanation of the term is pivotal in order to know to whom one is referring [40]. In the context of this paper, we use an adapted version of the stakeholder definition proffered by Engi and Glicken [38], namely"An individual or group influenced by-and/or with an ability to significantly impact (either directly or indirectly)-the European Union (EU) regulation of microplastics and which have actively participated in the regulatory debate". ...
Article
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Stakeholder involvement is pivotal EU governance. In this paper, we complete a stakeholder analysis of the European Chemicals Agency’s recent Annex XV restriction proposal process on intentionally added microplastics. The aim of this study is to map the interests, influence and importance of active stakeholders in order to understand the arguments being put forward by different stakeholders and provide recommendations to policy-makers on how to ensure a balanced consideration of all stakeholder perspectives. Stakeholders were identified through niche media analysis and by scrutinising comments from the public consultation on the restriction proposal. Their importance and influence were mapped using three approaches: “scale from low to high”, “psychometric scale” and “qualitative ranking”. We identified 205 different stakeholders out of which 77 were industry and trade associations, 25 were large companies and only four were small and medium-sized enterprises. National authorities and researchers did not comment on the restriction proposal, whilst large companies were very active providing comments. Industry trade associations and sports-related non-governmental organizations articulated anxiety about the costs associated with the implementation of the restriction proposal. Among environmental non-governmental organizations, there was consensus that plastics should be handled like other substances under EU’s chemical regulation. Primary stakeholders identified exhibited high importance, but varying degrees of influence, while the opposite applied to the major European institutions. Based on our analysis, we recommend that: The European Chemicals Agency implement measures to include “silent” stakeholders and invite guest experts to participate in their committees on Risk Assessment and Socio-Economic Analysis; Researchers should be more active in the public consultation; and that special emphasis should be put on helping small and medium-sized enterprises. With regards to stakeholder consultation, we find that media analysis is a good supplement to stakeholder analysis and that a more objective top-down measure of stakeholder importance and influence is needed.
... This might derive from market power, or, in the case of a regulator, for example, institutional power. This approach has the effect of marginalizing all but the most powerful participants (Mitchell, Agle, & Wood, 1997, Achterkamp & Vos, 2008. ...
... Concepts like interactive governance provide guiding principles or dimensions to facilitate stakeholder involvement for the purposes of "good" water governance (Ingram, 2011;Schulz, Martin-Ortega, Glenk, & Ioris, 2017), but also provide benefits like support among stakeholders to avoid legal action against implementation (Edelenbos & Klijn, 2006;Irvin & Stansbury, 2004;Kooiman, 1993). Studies have shown that stakeholder management to create support through satisfaction is essential for the implementation of different types of projects (Achterkamp & Vos, 2008;Littau, Jujagiri, & Adlbrecht, 2010). Within literature the benefits of interactive governance, for example creating support, are often taken for granted. ...
Article
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The European Flood Directive (FD) shifted water management policy from flood protection to flood risk management. To facilitate the shift, a new instrument was introduced called the flood risk management plan. According to the FD, a flood risk management plan shall first take into account relevant aspects from water management, nature conservation, land use, spatial planning, navigation, and port infrastructure. Second, the flood risk management plan will be coordinated at the river basin level. This changes the spatial scope of water management compared to (old) flood protection approach and affects a broader group of stakeholder interests, namely landowners behind dikes. As a result, water management has to introduce a governance approach that facilitates stakeholder involvement in which different spatial interests are balanced, bargained and negotiated. Academic governance literature consists mostly of qualitative case studies, because of their complex nature. As a result, most governance literature operates on assumptions which make it difficult to formulate governance strategies that work based on general patterns. To contribute towards scientific methodologies for comparative research a quantitative method was developed to measure satisfaction in a stakeholder process. The method first provides new insights on the relation between interactive governance processes and the procedural satisfaction of stakeholders. Second, it provides insights that help to improve interactive governance in terms of managing a stakeholder process in such a way that greater procedural satisfaction can be achieved.
... The benefit of the project, in terms of individual and institutional, has explicitly described being something that should be openly known for anyone involved in it [1] [ 2]. For most of the time, a failure in the project is were not caused by ineffective project management practices, but because of inappropriate or lacking social interactions among the parties involved [3]. Awareness of the effective management of socioecological systems has grown, as well as the awareness of the needs of collaboration on all levels. ...
... Cascetta et al. (2015) have developed Freeman's theory and have either enhanced it or have applied it to their study to prove and test the benefits of conducting stakeholder engagement. The stakeholder theory asserts that a firm exists to serve its stakeholders apart from achieving its 9nalyzing9tion target interests (Achterkamp & Vos, 2008). This chapter discusses the techniques that will be employed to (1) generate an initial list of stakeholders, (2) to identify the interests of each stakeholder and compare their level of power, and (3) depict how stakeholders related with and influenced each other in decision-making processes through communication processes. ...
Article
Current studies identify an increasing need to develop enriched tools for ergonomic risk management that can foster an atmosphere enhancing commitment of all stakeholders to create safe and heathy work environment using ergonomic principles. In this study, a new tool for visualization of ergonomic practices in the workplace is proposed. For developing this tool, an interactive Ergonomic Risk Mapping (intERM) methodology is introduced consisting of five steps while integrating company’s strategic vision and helping to accommodate the impacts of changes in policy and regulatory context, economic and demographic environment, technology and employment context. The proposed systematic and practical methodology is demonstrated on a real-life example. This visual and interactive tool enables prompt identification of and reaction to ergonomic risks, anticipating changes for reducing/eliminating ergonomic risks, as well as increasing company-wide awareness for ergonomic risks and enhance engagement and ownership of stakeholders.
Conference Paper
In construction management, organization main target is focus on how to avoid maximum risk related to quality, time, cost, stakeholder, and environmental impacts when planning and designing, therefore promoting the effectiveness of risk, stakeholder, and environmental management to increase the productivity of the project is primordial. A literature review is conducted based on risk, stakeholder, and environmental management, throughout the review, identification of the connection between them is crucial to understand their linkages and lead to the improvement of the integrated risk and environmental management toward a sustainable building, future directions that enable integrating risk, stakeholder, and environmental management to benefit the management process and management outcome of RM, SM, and EM. Risk, stakeholder, and environmental management integration is not easy to solve, but can improve project performance for which this research conceptually justifies its feasibility and benefits, which merits further study and achievement.
Chapter
The Aachen method for the identification, classification, and risk analysis of innovation-based problems (AMICAI) was employed with relevant stakeholders in order to identify and analyze ethical, legal and social aspects (ELSA) related to the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the German forestry sector. Based on the problem of different demands due to regional differences and the variety of stakeholders, a need for standards and regularities was reported and a lack of confidence in the functionality of ICT was identified. Hereby, the greatest concern was the insufficient mobile net coverage in the forest. However, problems regarding data protection were most concerning for the participants. Especially an uncertainty regarding data collection and processing was identified. The AMICAI method encouraged stakeholders to change their perspective, which enabled them to understand that their individual problems are interdependent. Thus, it was found that the method can make a substantial contribution towards responsible research and innovation in the field of ICT development.
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one of the most significant of the information and communications technologies being applied to surveillance. AI’s proponents argue that its promise is great, and that successes have been achieved, whereas its detractors draw attention to the many threats embodied in it, some of which are much more problematic than those arising from earlier data analytical tools. This article considers the full gamut of regulatory mechanisms. The scope extends from natural and infrastructural regulatory mechanisms, via self-regulation, including the recently-popular field of ‘ethical principles’, to co-regulatory and formal approaches. An evaluation is provided of the adequacy or otherwise of the world’s first proposal for formal regulation of AI practices and systems, by the European Commission. To lay the groundwork for the analysis, an overview is provided of the nature of AI. The conclusion reached is that, despite the threats inherent in the deployment of AI, the current safeguards are seriously inadequate, and the prospects for near-future improvement are far from good. To avoid undue harm from AI applications to surveillance, it is necessary to rapidly enhance existing, already-inadequate safeguards and establish additional protections.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to overlook influential factors associated with the collaboration itself, and to explore the effect of these factors on inter-organizational relationship. Design/methodology/approach This paper analyses two different technology projects requiring inter-organization collaboration for implementing medicine traceability: end-to-end verification system and e-pedigree. Based on a survey where 72 pharmaceutical organizations exposed their perceptions about each technological project, collaboration factors are identified. Findings This paper shows that pharmaceutical organizations in this study perceived differently the cost and benefits from traceability project. Organizations involved experience neither organizational nor technological proximity, impacting negatively collaboration in the inter-organizational project. Practical implications To strengthen collaboration, organization from different levels should consider how close they are each other, and this is at the geographic, organizational and technological level. Geographic proximity is defined as physical closeness, organizational proximity can be understood as the degree to which organizations are similar in interests and structure, and technological proximity concerns the similarity between the systems used to mediate communication and store information. Originality/value This paper presents empirical evidence on inter-organizational collaboration for industrial projects (i.e. implementing medicine traceability systems). It demonstrates proximity is a significant factor in producing inter-organizational collaboration success. Indeed, organizations experiencing proximity have a better knowledge of actors involved in the inter-organization project.
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Zusammenfassung Das Konzept der Ökosystemleistungen wird genutzt, um die verschiedenen Effekte von Landnutzungsänderungen systematisch zu erfassen und monetär zu bewerten. Eine Bewertung der in Kapitel 4 erarbeiteten Maßnahmen und Strategien der Landnutzung erfolgt auf der Grundlage der Ergebnisse einer umfangreichen Befragung im Rahmen einer erweiterten Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse. Die Bewertung erfolgt für landwirtschaftliche sowie für forstwirtschaftliche Ökosystemleistungen. Darüber hinaus wurden die Rahmensetzungen des Umwelt- und Planungsrechts, die Anreizsetzungen verschiedener Förderpolitiken sowie die Einflüsse privater und öffentlicher Akteure und Institutionen untersucht. Es wurden Möglichkeiten aufgezeigt, diese Regelungs- und Steuerungssysteme der Landnutzung anzupassen und weiterzuentwickeln, um den Herausforderungen des Klimaschutzes und der Klimaanpassung sektorspezifisch und sektorübergreifend begegnen zu können. Mit Landnutzung befasste gesellschaftliche Akteure wurden im Forschungsprozess, für die Validierung von Zwischenergebnissen und die Praxisrelevanz der zu erzielenden Ergebnisse kontinuierlich im Projekt beteiligt. Die Ergebnisse dieses Prozesses, die Beteiligung und inhaltlichen Anregungen der Stakeholder werden dargestellt und methodische Fragen reflektiert.
Article
Building consensus among numerous stakeholders is an important yet difficult step in stadium construction projects. Understanding who the stakeholders are and their characteristics is necessary for the success of construction projects. Using archival materials and semi-structured interviews, we identified and characterized the most salient stakeholders associated with the subsidization decision for the stadium construction plan in Kitakyushu city. Stakeholder classification was carried out using a framework designed by Mitchell et al. (1997) that characterized salient stakeholders using attributes of power, legitimacy, and urgency. Definitive stakeholders identified as having all three attributes included the J. LEAGUE, the Kitakyushu City Assembly, and the Kitakyushu City Public Works Evaluation Committee. Although these groups were classified into the same stakeholder categories, their detailed features or roles were different. The Giravanz Kitakyushu, the city’s professional football team, was considered a dependent stakeholder with legitimacy and urgency, but limited power. Our findings highlighted the importance of stakeholder analysis as a strategic tool, especially in the initial planning phase. Practical implications and ideas for further research were discussed.
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Despite the role that non-government organisations, including community development organisations, play in social transformation, their approach to managing projects has received little attention. Employing a processual approach and participatory methodology, this paper investigates how a small, distributed, community-based organisation negotiates the challenges associated with managing its geographically dispersed development projects. It examines lessons that this organisation’s project management approach offers for managing projects at a distance in ways that encourage community ownership, partnership with project beneficiaries and their maximum participation in the process. The paper underlines the need for positioning people’s participation in development projects as a key component of development, rather than as a tool for project implementation. It concludes by advocating a blend of participation and empowerment with technical assistance for recipient communities.
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The objective of this review is to examine how the interactive use of project‐level management control systems (PMCS) impacts information technology (IT) project performance. To answer this research question, we focus on the mechanisms of team learning behavior, expertise integration, and the notion of the project manager’s stakeholder analysis efficacy to develop a conceptual framework that explains the relationship between the interactive use of PMCS and IT project performance. The contextual influence of an organizations’ emphasis on process accountability is also considered. The conceptual framework is based on the theoretical underpinnings of organizational information processing theory, organizational learning theory, and the knowledge‐based view of the firm.
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The article covers process models for HR IT projects and in particular for HR transformation projects. Based on the authors' experience, an applied process model for HR transformation projects in a cloud-based environment is derived. The article identifies findings applicable to the fields of organisation, business, and IT as well as decisions and critical success factors in the specific context of cloud-based HR solutions.
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Purpose Previous studies have proposed that correctly managing stakeholders with certain attributes can benefit project management; however, robust theoretical elaborations and empirical investigations of this topic have been lacking. The purpose of this study is to empirically test the effects of two stakeholder attributes – contractor-perceived contractor salience and contractor project position – on the criticality of five typical contractor-related risks: risk of (1) injuries and accidents, (2) quality defects, (3) work delays, (4) cost overruns and (5) breaches of contract. Design/methodology/approach Questionnaire data were collected from 118 Chinese contractor managers. Regression models were run in Mplus 7.11 to test the hypotheses. Findings The data show that higher contractor-perceived contractor salience and a more supportive contractor project position were both related to lower criticality of contractor-related risks, including risk of (1) injuries and accidents, (2) quality defects, (3) work delays, (4) cost overruns and (5) breaches of contract. Contractor salience also mediated the negative relationship between a supportive contractor project position and the criticality of contractor-related risks. Research limitations/implications The authors’ research design is cross-sectional and thus cannot establish causation in the relationships among the studied variables. The single item measure of contractor project position was used for the first time in the present study; thus, its reliability and validity still await more empirical examinations. Originality/value The findings advance the understanding of the value of stakeholder management in projects by specifying that prioritizing stakeholders' claims and securing their support for the project reduce the criticality of stakeholder-related risks. By providing empirical evidence from the construction context, the findings also add to knowledge on the instrumental power of stakeholder management in enhancing project risk management performance.
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This article presents a framework that can serve as a first step towards managing stakeholder involvement in sustainable innovation projects. This framework is based on the questions of which stakeholders ought to be involved, in which phase of the innovation project, and how. The underlying idea is that stakeholder involvement serves two goals: to clarify the local criteria for sustainable outcomes, and to activate organisational practices according to these criteria. In the framework we combine a new perspective on sustainability, 'the reduction of offload', with the well-known Triple P-perspective, to designate certain types of stakeholders. These stakeholders should be consulted to clarify criteria for sustainable innovation. Active participation of organisational members in stakeholder involvement might lead to the commitment needed for the actual use of these criteria in different phases of the innovation process. In this way stakeholder involvement can also lead to organisational practices consistent with sustainability criteria.
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The last 50 years has seen a shift in the nature of work, from mass production, with stable customer requirements and slowly changing technology, to the current situation where every product or service may be supplied against a bespoke design, and technology changes continuously and rapidly. This modern environment is a more project-based economy. The management of the former situation was well understood, based on classical management theory, developed over the previous 100 years. Classical management offers the traditional organization many strengths derived from the functional hierarchy at its core. These include strong central planning, governance and control, knowledge management and human resource development. The project-based organization requires a new approach to its management, which addresses the unique, novel and transient nature of its work, but retains the strengths of classical management. This paper is one of a series aimed at deriving such a management paradigm for the project-based organization. In this paper, we describe governance structures adopted by successful project-based organizations, and how they use them to manage the interface between projects and their clients. We describe two roles observed at this interface, labelled the broker and steward. We provide a Transaction Cost perspective of the governance mechanisms observed and the two roles. We note that the same governance mechanisms are adopted whether the project is managed in the market or the hierarchy. This is in stark contrast to the classically managed organization, and suggests different pressures act on the project-based organization requiring hybrid governance structures to be adopted for all projects. We outline the roles of the broker and steward in the different project governance structures we have identified. We consider why it is necessary to have two roles, a broker and a steward, and not one person fulfilling both.
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In this paper, we describe how a project management-based application model was designed to implement sustainable urban renewal projects in Hong Kong. The model was based on project organizational structure, team structure, attributes of team members, stakeholder management, communication, and information technology enablers. We conducted studies of other local and international urban renewal cases to verify and fine-tune the project management model identified in this paper. From our study, we conclude that the model used in Hong Kong can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of urban renewal project implementation. Our findings e also provide a foundation for applying the model at other locations, after taking into account the respective environments of these other locations.
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Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach was first published in 1984 as a part of the Pitman series in Business and Public Policy. Its publication proved to be a landmark moment in the development of stakeholder theory. Widely acknowledged as a world leader in business ethics and strategic management, R. Edward Freeman’s foundational work continues to inspire scholars and students concerned with a more practical view of how business and capitalism actually work. Business can be understood as a system of how we create value for stakeholders. This worldview connects business and capitalism with ethics once and for all. On the 25th anniversary of publication, Cambridge University Press are delighted to be able to offer a new print-on-demand edition of his work to a new generation of readers.
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Stakeholder theory has been a popular heuristic for describing the management environment for years, but it has not attained full theoretical status. Our aim in this article is to contribute to a theory of stakeholder identification and salience based on stakeholders possessing one or more of three relationship attributes: power, legitimacy, and urgency. By combining these attributes, we generate a typology of stakeholders, propositions concerning their salience to managers of the firm, and research and management implications.
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… the subtle but distinct quality of the survivors is that their organisations become engines of inquiry. Yes they solve problems, but what they do best is harness the forces of the organisation so that they constantly and obsessively question their modus operandi. It is this continually questioning that generates the next paradigm … and the next … and the next. R Pascale, Managing on the Edge, Penguin Books, London (1990).This paper describes a process for managing information systems' development through a continuous evaluation approach. This process requires active participation from the primary stakeholders including line managers and users, financial staff and information systems developers. The process requires a direct and continuous focus on business benefits realisation. It enables the finally commissioned information system to support the business or organisational objectives by realising the expected information systems goals or outcomes. This is a theoretical paper in which the evidence to support the arguments presented is drawn both from the general literature on evaluation and from conceptual and empirical work done in the information systems field.
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This paper is written by a man who has never managed a project, but who has frequently employed project managers. He has the temerity to discuss what clients really want. Many project managers might be surprised to learn that time and cost are the twin imperatives of clients. (It is assumed that projects will be completed more or less to specification.) The reasons why projects are seldom completed on time and within budget are explored and suggestions are made as to how a project manager can minimize the fall-out when these twin imperatives are not met. It is concluded that the problem lies partly with a lack of understanding of the complexities of a project by sponsors and partly in the manner in which project managers position themselves. It is recommended that project managers should not consider that they are working for a ‘client’, but rather that they should position themselves as a member of the client group, working from within rather than from without. It is contended that in this manner a project manager will be in a better position to gain the acceptance and understanding of all the stakeholders of a project. Without acceptance and the cooperation of stakeholders it is considered unlikely that any project will be completed near time or close to budget. Finally, it is concluded that for a variety of reasons seldom will any project come in on time and budget. It is suggested that if communication between the project manager and the other stakeholders is free and open then the project manager's reputation, instead of suffering when the twin imperatives of time and budget are not achieved, might even be enhanced.
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Various problems have been encountered on public private partnership (PPP) initiatives around the world that have eventually led to project failure. Stakeholder opposition has been reported as the main reason for failure in several instances. As such, capturing and addressing of stakeholder inputs is crucial to the success of PPP projects. Stakeholder involvement (SI) is an interdisciplinary domain that spans many disciplines (engineering, sociology, psychology, marketing, etc). The fragmented nature of knowledge in this domain is impeding project managers from leading successful SI programmes. As such, this paper presents a semantic model and taxonomy that represents the key concepts underlying stakeholder involvement in PPP infrastructure projects. The model has the potential to act as a core for knowledge representation, sharing and reuse in the multidisciplinary domain of SI. A portion of the model is implemented in a knowledge-base that can be used to recommend the most suitable set of stakeholder involvement tools to be utilized on a particular project. The recommendations provided by the system can act as a ‘short-list’ of potential tools to the inexperienced SI coordinator.
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This paper proposes a risk reduction strategy in winning and managing build–operate–transfer (BOT) concession through positive management of differences between enterprise stakeholders, proactive control of variation of critical risk factors and internal competency through strong and entrepreneurial leadership of consortium teams. The concepts and proposed procedures are derived from applying a relevant systemic approach to the real world of BOT concession and supported by cases. The systemic approach is a proactive process of problem defining and solving which can lead to a significant reduction in both business and project risks and enhanced performance.
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This article defines corporate social performance (CSP) and reformulates the CSP model to build a coherent, integrative framework for business and society research. Principles of social responsibility are framed at the institutional, organizational, and individual levels; processes of social responsiveness are shown to be environmental assessment, stakeholder management, and issues management; and outcomes of CSP are posed as social impacts, programs, and policies. Rethinking CSP in this manner points to vital research questions that have not yet been addressed.
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Stakeholder theory development has increased in recent years, in part because of its emphasis on explaining and predicting how an organization functions with respect to the relationships and influences existing in its environment. Thus far, most researchers have concentrated on dyadic relationships between individual stakeholders and a focal organization. Using social network analysis, I construct in this article a theory of stakeholder influences, which accommodates multiple, interdependent stakeholder demands and predicts how organizations respond to the simultaneous influence of multiple stakeholders.
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This article presents conclusions from a 10-year research program, the purpose of which has been to develop a framework and methodology, grounded in the reality of corporate behavior, for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance. There are three principal sections: (a) a summary of the approaches, models, and methodologies used in conducting more than 70 field studies of corporate social performance from 1983-1993; (b) a discussion of the principal conclusions derived from the data that (1) corporations manage relationships with stakeholder groups rather than with society as a whole, (2) it is important to distinguish between social issues and stakeholder issues, and (3) it is necessary to identify the appropriate level of analysis in order to evaluate CSP; and (c) a discussion of propositions and areas for further research.
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Purpose – The management of stakeholder involvement within innovation projects is a task of growing importance. The purpose of this paper is to present a method for the first challenge in stakeholder management: the identification of those stakeholders to be involved in innovation projects. Design/methodology/approach – Analysis of stakeholder literature leads to the conclusion that stakeholder identification is considered a problem of classification. Although the availability of a classification model is necessary, it is argued that for a classification model to be of use in identifying stakeholders, such a model needs to be supplemented with an identification procedure for identifying real world parties. Furthermore, a classification model should fit the context the stakeholders are identified for, in this case for innovation projects. These insights have led to the development of a classification model fitting the innovation context, and to the embedding of this model, along with a matching identification procedure, in an identification method. Findings – A partial and integral evaluation of the method on four cases showed its efficacy in the managerial practice of identifying stakeholders within innovation projects. Originality/value – The method as proposed in the paper can be used for identifying stakeholders in innovation projects. The method can be considered a first step in managing stakeholder involvement.
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There are case studies that suggest an obstacle to effective client–contractor working relationships is a failure to agree on measures of success and a failure by the client to consider the needs of stakeholders, though there has been little systematic research in this area. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of an empirical study that compares the measures of success emphasised as important by client and contractor organisations and the extent to which differences of emphasis is translated into project management practice. The results show that contractors put more emphasis on minimizing project cost and duration, whilst clients put more emphasis on satisfying the needs of other stakeholders. However, in their project management practice clients show no stronger focus on meeting stakeholder needs than contractor organisations. Implications of these results are discussed in the context of possible barriers to effective client–contractor working relationships.
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The paper outlines the role matrix technique (RMT) – a paper-based method for resourcing processes with identified human roles. It was developed in a number of field projects, where the aim was to explore alternative configurations of roles, responsibilities, interactions, activities etc. All stakeholders in a given process can generate a common understanding of roles, responsibilities, and interactions between roles. The visualisation is generated by means of a rule-based, bottom-up approach. The paper uses a case-study approach to illustrate the method and the three main stages involved: modelling the process of interest; identification and allocation of the roles required to process activities; and the representation of these roles within the role matrix – this is where the key innovation lies. The paper finishes with an evaluation of the RMT.
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We probably have simplified matters too much. We tend to talk about systems thinking and practice as if we knew what they are. The fashionable call for holistic or systems thinking in ecological issues provides a major example. This much is certain: the quest for comprehensiveness, although it represents an epistemologically necessary idea, is not realizable. If we assume that it is realizable, the critical idea underlying the quest will be perverted into its opposite, i.e., into a false pretension to superior knowledge and understanding—a danger of which the environmental movement does not always appear to be sufficiently aware. My question, therefore, is this: How can we deal critically with the fact that our thinking, and hence our knowledge, designs, and actions, cannot possibly be comprehensive, in the sense that we never comprehend all that ought to be understood before we pass to judgment and action? What consequences does this fact imply for a critical systems approach to ecological concerns and, ultimately, for our concepts of rationality in general?
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A review of the outcome of many information technology (IT) projects reveals that they fail to meet the pre-specified project objectives of scope, time and budget. Despite well-established project risk management processes, project managers perceive their application as ineffective to manage risk. This failure may well be attributed to the inadequate application of those risk management processes. The purpose of this research was to investigate how project managers responsible for the management of risk in IT projects actually managed risk and to relate this back to established project risk management processes. In undertaking this investigation, we were seeking to understand the ways in which the project managers’ approaches and behaviours, when considering risk in IT projects, differed from what might be expected. Results show that because of environment-related and decision maker-related conditions, project managers tend to deny, avoid, ignore and delay dealing with risk, with the consequence of those actions having an adverse influence on their perceived effectiveness of risk management and the project outcomes. If project risk management, and its underlying processes are not to be discredited, the behaviour of project managers when confronted by uncertainty should be considered and actions need to be taken to discourage project managers’ irrational actions.
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An important development in project management in recent years has been the emergence of a new class of projects, in areas such as organisational change and IT, integrated business solutions, and long-term public service delivery. Often referred to as ‘business projects’, this new class of projects (and programmes) reflects a growing conceptual shift away from the traditional engineering view of projects, towards a more business-oriented view, in which the primary concern is no longer the capital asset, system or facility etc, but increasingly the challenge of implementing business strategy, improving organisational effectiveness, and managing the realisation of stakeholder benefits. Drawing on recent research from the UK Government-funded Rethinking Project Management Network, this paper argues that future research in this area needs to look beyond the mainstream literature on project management, to other relevant disciplines such as strategic management, operations management, and the management of change. Against this background, the authors present four conceptual perspectives from the management literature, which can be usefully applied to business projects. They represent exploratory contributions from four participants in the Network – a special collaboration between researchers – whose ideas and perspectives were either discussed at the Network meetings, or are the subject of research elsewhere. Collectively, the four contributions represent an exploratory discussion of different theoretical perspectives, in order to inform and stimulate other researchers and practitioners working in the field.
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This paper is based on a case study featuring the introduction of a new Management Information System in a large, corporate-structured, project-engineering organisation. The aim was to review the project and to assess perceptions of success amongst different stakeholder interests. To this end, the responses of senior managers, system-developers and end-users including project-managers within the respective business units, were evaluated by detailed interview. The paper highlights the considerable perceptional differences revealed, discussing and linking experiences in this project to a number of issues appearing in the literature.
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This paper begins with the observation that people directly involved often express diametrically opposite views about the success or otherwise of major projects. If senior managers choose to ignore or suppress these competing narratives they may damage the quality and acceptability of the project. The paper proposes that competing narratives arise from the complexity of projects and their organisational context: it illustrates this by comparing three published case studies of major change. It then introduces two tested methods for using competing narratives constructively.
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Health care planning, city and regional planning, energy and transportation planning, environmental design and other areas of social systems design are becoming issues of increasing concern to policy makers. Faced with complex steering problems that may have far-reaching societal implications, they except help from applied disciplines such as Operational Research, systems science, technology assessment, program evaluation, cost-effectiveness analysis, and similar approaches to scientifically informed planning. But these approaches offer little help in critically reflecting on the normative implications of the problem definitions and solution proposals they inspire.Critical Heuristics seeks to provide both the involved planners and affected citizens with a conceptual framework for identifying and discussing the normative implications of problem definitions, systems designs, program evaluations, etc. The paper introduces some key concepts of Critical Heuristics and briefly discusses their significance to ‘rational’ planning.
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This paper draws on a qualitative study to increase understanding of what project managers do, and how project managers understand and talk about what they do. It includes insights from in-depth analysis of interviews with a nominal group of project managers. However, rather than use competence frameworks to bring out the network of relationships between the project manager and the multiple political, environmental and technological factors in any project, concepts from Actor-Network Theory are used to interpret the stories told by experienced project managers about their work and their use of project management techniques against the fluid and transient nature of projects. The paper shows how project management processes act as allies, enabling the project manager to interest and enrol team members and stakeholders and to mobilise the support of sponsors and other powerful players.
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Unlike traditional asset-based financing, where lenders have recourse to the assets of the project sponsor, “pure”, zero recourse project finance is a method of financing large-scale, capital intensive projects, in which only the cash flows generated by the project serve as the source of loan repayment and project assets serve as collateral for the loan. The exact nature and duration of the complex set of property rights in a project are established in detailed and complex contracts which define the relationships between various project participants. As the number of project stakeholders increases, the agency risk, that some will take unobserved actions to transfer wealth from the unwary to themselves, increases. The failure of accounting standards to adapt to the explosion of new property rights, as in the case of the collapse of Enron Corp in the United States, would tend to increase project agency risk. The purpose of this paper is illustrate, using a numerical example, a potential agency risk problem for unwary suppliers of project-based financing due to asset substitution.
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Aid agencies are required to conform to stringent project reporting requirements in order to satisfy the wide range of stakeholders. Project monitoring and evaluation (M&E) information systems (IS), frequently a requirement for funding, are believed to inform the reporting process. The logical framework approach (LFA) is widely used throughout the aid industry for project design and appraisal, and although much of the literature also promotes the use of the LFA for the purposes of M&E, it has proved inadequate. This article reviews the key limitations of the conventional LFA for M&E and proposes an extension to the LFA matrix (the “logframe”) in order to facilitate its application beyond the design phase. This is achieved by adding a time dimension, more precisely defining the elements of the project MIS, and integrating other project management tools.
Article
A negative attitude to a construction project by stakeholders can severely obstruct its implementation. Such obstruction will cause cost overruns and exceeded time schedules due to conflicts and controversies concerning project design and implementation. A case study consisting of two projects has been undertaken to investigate how the problems of managing the concerns of stakeholders present themselves in an actual construction project. A method of stakeholder mapping, together with the power/interest matrix, has been used to identify stakeholders and their influence on the projects studied. Which problems arose, how were they resolved, and what were the consequences of the solution? The case study shows that an evaluation of stakeholder demands and influence should be considered as a necessary and important step in the planning, implementation, and completion of any construction project.
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This paper provides some thoughts about success criteria for IS–IT project management. Cost, time and quality (The Iron Triangle), over the last 50 years have become inextricably linked with measuring the success of project management. This is perhaps not surprising, since over the same period those criteria are usually included in the description of project management. Time and costs are at best, only guesses, calculated at a time when least is known about the project. Quality is a phenomenon, it is an emergent property of peoples different attitudes and beliefs, which often change over the development life-cycle of a project. Why has project management been so reluctant to adopt other criteria in addition to the Iron Triangle, such as stakeholder benefits against which projects can be assessed? This paper proposes a new framework to consider success criteria, The Square Route.
Article
The common assessment of success on Information Systems/Information Technology (IS/IT) projects is that it is delivered on time, to budget and it meets the specification. However, this is taking a very narrow view of criteria and how a project is measured. The criteria for success is much wider, incorporating the views of all stakeholders in the project. This paper examines the limited research on the issue and develops a set of criteria appropriate to all IS/IT projects, using research as illustrations. However, not all the criteria will be appropriate on all projects. Project managers must agree the criteria with the stakeholders and apply appropriate factors to deliver that success criteria.
Article
If hospital managers are to cope with the environmental turbulence and uncertainty facing hospitals, they must effectively manager their stakeholders. The stakeholder approach helps integrate managerial concerns normally treated separately, such as strategic management, marketing, human resource management, organizational politics, and social responsibility. This approach enables hospital executives to develop strategies for handling conflicting demands for effectiveness and efficiency from various stakeholders. Four generic strategies hospital managers can use depending on the type of stakeholder are detailed, and an overarching strategy for hospital managers is discussed.
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This paper explores the role of strategic conversations in corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy formation. The authors suggest that explicitly engaging stakeholders in the CSR strategy-making process, through the mechanism of strategic conversations, will minimize future stakeholder concerns and enhance CSR strategy making. In addition, suggestions for future research are offered to enable a better understanding of effective strategic conversation processes in CSR strategy making and the resulting performance outcomes. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006
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