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Indications of a major Neolithic trade route? An archaeometric geochemical and Sr, Pb isotope study on amphibolitic raw material from present day Europe

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Abstract

In order to interpret pre-historic cultural interactions, the provenance of amphibolitic raw material used for flat-axes and adzes in lower to middle Neolithic cultures throughout present day Germany were investigated by elemental and Sr, Pb isotopic methods. Within all settlements studied, a homogeneous actinolite-hornblende schist rock type (AHS) was found to be massively dominating, with a distinct petrography of needle-shaped actinolite interwoven with single larger grains of hornblende along with calcic plagioclase and large amounts of ilmenite. Geochemically, the AHS group is very homogeneous and has a signature of an enriched basaltic precursor with high concentrations of particularly the LIL-elements. The geochemical signature is relatively rare and can not be matched in nearby geological outcrops, wherefore the conclusion of “imported material” is quickly reached. Strontium and Pb isotopic analyses of the AHS were compared to the isotopic composition of amphibolitic rocks with similar petrography and trace elemental signatures within possible archaeological trade regions. The isotopic data of the archaeological material point roughly to a Proterozoic age of the stone used; an age which can be reasonable matched to a single outcrop situated at Jistebsko within the Czech Republic. This area further shows archaeological traces of prehistoric mining. Based on petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence, this area is here presented as the provenance area of the stone raw material, which later spread throughout prehistoric Europe – establishing contact and trade routes between Neolithic cultures.

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... Based on data from Refs. [8,10,15,34,[36][37][38]42,97]. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.) ...
... MJH was the predominant raw material in a collection of LBK axes from Györ (Hungary; 375 km from the outcrops, as the crow flies [35]), while some exports reached NE Italy during the 5th millennium BCE (600 km [15,36]). It is remarkable that amphibolite (potentially MJH) was the dominant raw material (≥50%) in LBK settlement areas located at considerable distances to the West, such as Vaihingen (500 km) and Müddersheim (610 km) in Western Germany [37]. The supply of amphibolite among edge-ground tools only drops below 50% in Eastern Belgium and the Graetheide area (Holland; both >650 km [38]) though the situation may differ between settlements and burial grounds. ...
... Although other amphibolite outcrops were exploited in the circum-Bohemian Variscan mountain belt, including the Ore Mountains, the Fichtel Mountains or the Bohemian-Bavarian Forest, as well as in the Harz, or even the Balkans, and their rocks circulated at least during certain phases of the Neolithic (e.g. Ref. [16]), the (limited) petrographic and geochemical analyses suggest so far that the Jizera Mountains were the main source of axeheads during the Early Neolithic of Central Europe [37,[43][44][45]. ...
Article
Slightly retrograded rocks for edge-ground tool manufacture were used in two different supply systems during recent European prehistory. Mechanical properties of five of these rock types were tested to determine if the most exploited and circulated materials were also the most adequate ones. A series of mechanical tests were chosen to characterize their hardness, elasticity, resistance to friction, and Charpy impact toughness. The results were compared with petrographic variables (mineralogical composition, density, homogeneity, grain size, anisotropy, and presence of retrogression). Subsequent correlations between the tested mechanical properties confirm that density is a good proxy to estimate hardness, elasticity, and resistance to friction of the given rocks. It emerged that the amphibolic hornfels (MJH) most used in Neolithic Central Europe and circulated over large distances was harder than most other tested rocks and compositionally more homogeneous. On a broader European scale, however, MJH is not superior in quality to Iberian gabbros. Both rocks show much poorer mechanical qualities than Alpine high-pressure meta-ophiolites, which were largely ignored by the Early Neolithic populations of Central Europe. Analogies from the Iberian Peninsula also indicate that rocks comparable in quality to MJH, and transformed into Neolithic axe heads, only circulated in an area a few hundred kilometers from their sources. Long-distance transport of MJH is thus only partially explained by its mechanical qualities and rather reflects a wide and wellfunctioning social and economic network established over large parts of Central Europe which has no parallels in the European Neolithic.
... Hierzu fanden in den letzten Jahren umfangreiche geochemische und petrographische Untersuchungen von Dechselklingen statt (z. B. Christensen et al. 2003;Christensen et al. 2006;Endlicher 1995;Ramminger 2007;dies. 2010;dies. ...
... Für dieses charakteristische Gestein, das in bislang allen untersuchten Siedlungsräumen in unterschiedlich hohen Anteilen nachgewiesen werden konnte, ist seit einigen Jahren ein Abbaugebiet im böhmischen Isergebirge bekannt (Šrein et al. 2002;Šreinova et al. 2002;Prostředník et al. 2005; Ram min ger/Šída 2012). Durch umfangreiche petrographische und geochemische Untersuchungen in den letzten Jahren konnte die Herkunft zahlreicher Dechselklingen aus dieser Region wahrscheinlich gemacht werden (Christensen et al. 2003;Christensen et al. 2006;Ramminger 2007;dies. 2009;dies. ...
... Diese wurden durchweg mittels wellenlängendispersiver Röntgenfluoreszenzanalyse generiert. Zusätzlich fanden an ausgewählten Stücken im Rahmen eines Forschungsprojektes am Mineralogischen Institut der Universität Würzburg weitere Analysen zur Bestimmung der chemischen Zusammensetzung der Amphibole und Plagioklase (Christensen et al. 2003) sowie Isotopenanalysen zur Bestimmung des Gesteinsalters statt (Christensen et al. 2006). Auf diese Weise ist eine 1 umfangreiche Charakterisierung einer Großzahl von Dechselklingen erfolgt, die als Grundlage für wirtschaftsarchäologische Fragestellungen dient. ...
Book
Full-text available
Shoe-last celts (Dechselklingen) are characteristic legacies of the middle European Old and Middle Neolithic. They are important sources of economic and social archaeological investigations. This requires the determination of the used raw materials and their origin. In recent years, extensive geochemical and petrographic investigations of interchangeable blades have been carried out. Within the scope of various projects, a database with geochemical analyses of wmuch more than 500 blades and raw material pieces has been created. The analyses were all generated by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (WD-RFA). The petrographic and geochemical examination was always accompanied by a sampling of the investigated pieces, which resulted in more or less severe damage to the artifacts. The portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (P-ED-RFA), which has recently been used in archaeometric ceramic analysis, can non-destructiveally determine the geochemical composition of vascular ceramics. In contrast to all the methods used so far, the sample does not have to be prepared in the laboratory, but can be carried out directly on site in a relatively short time. Therefore, a time- and thus cost-effective procedure is available.
... Amphibole-rich metabasites, petrographically similar to those used for the production of the studied axes, outcrop in various areas (Šrein et al. 1998;Přichystal 2000;Christensen et al. 2006;Bradák et al. 2009): ...
... However, recent studies have demonstrated that the most important raw material source for the production of Neolithic axes is the metabasitic rock type, which occurs in the thermal aureole of Tanvald granite in northern Bohemia. Only the artefacts made from this rock type testify to long-distance connection systems covering all Central Europe and beyond, while the metabasites outcropping in the other regions were used only by local groups Christensen et al. 2006;Bradák et al. 2009;Šída and Kachlík 2009). The importance of northern Bohemian metabasite during prehistory is also confirmed by its massive Neolithic exploitation, recently identified in the area between Rádlo and Příchovice. ...
... GEOCHEMISTRY Major and trace element determinations of the axe from the Grotta Azzurra di Samatorza and of a selected metabasite sample (NB01) from the southern thermal aureole of Tanvald granite (Govindaraju and Mevelle 1987). Moreover, the analysed samples have been compared to the rocks JS04-04 and JS04-05, also from northern Bohemia, published by Christensen et al. (2006) (Table 3). Among all the elements, the differences between the investigated axe and all the other rock samples concern only the K 2 O and Ba contents, which are mobile large ion lithophile elements (LILE) (Figs 5 and 6 (a)). ...
Article
Here we show the results of a study concerning a small group of shaft‐hole axes found in northeastern Italy, made from amphibole‐rich metabasites, fine‐grained and free of phenoblasts. The main mineral phases are amphibole, ranging from actinolite to hornblende, and plagioclase (An10–15 and An70–77). The amphiboles generally show a needle shape and are often radially arranged. Quartz is present in thin veinlets, while ilmenite is widespread in small patches. The petrographic and geochemical features suggest that the axes originate from the southern thermal aureole of Tanvald granite in northern Bohemia. In accordance with this provenance, the typology of the tools shows similarities with the perforated shoe‐last axes spread across Central Europe during the fifth millennium bc and made from similar raw material. For the first time, these axes give evidence of long‐distance (about 800 km) contacts between northeastern Italy and Central Europe during the Neolithic.
... Amphibole-rich metabasites, petrographically similar to those used for the production of the studied axes, outcrop in various areas (Šrein et al. 1998;Přichystal 2000;Christensen et al. 2006;Bradák et al. 2009): ...
... However, recent studies have demonstrated that the most important raw material source for the production of Neolithic axes is the metabasitic rock type, which occurs in the thermal aureole of Tanvald granite in northern Bohemia. Only the artefacts made from this rock type testify to long-distance connection systems covering all Central Europe and beyond, while the metabasites outcropping in the other regions were used only by local groups Christensen et al. 2006;Bradák et al. 2009;Šída and Kachlík 2009). The importance of northern Bohemian metabasite during prehistory is also confirmed by its massive Neolithic exploitation, recently identified in the area between Rádlo and Příchovice. ...
... GEOCHEMISTRY Major and trace element determinations of the axe from the Grotta Azzurra di Samatorza and of a selected metabasite sample (NB01) from the southern thermal aureole of Tanvald granite (Govindaraju and Mevelle 1987). Moreover, the analysed samples have been compared to the rocks JS04-04 and JS04-05, also from northern Bohemia, published by Christensen et al. (2006) (Table 3). Among all the elements, the differences between the investigated axe and all the other rock samples concern only the K 2 O and Ba contents, which are mobile large ion lithophile elements (LILE) (Figs 5 and 6 (a)). ...
... Because of their suitable physical properties (strength, density, lack of cleavability, grindability etc.), usage value and relative availability, fine-grained metabasites were sought-after raw materials from the Mesolithic up to the Late Neolithic times. In addition, because their distribution on the Earth's surface is very random, the tools manufactured from these materials were transported over long distances (more than 500 km) from the source of the raw materials to densely populated areas settled by cultures that used the stone artefacts mainly for farming purposes (Christensen et al. 2006). Stone artefacts manufactured from several metabasite types were common mainly in the Early to Middle Neolithic periods in Central Europe (see Christensen et al. 2006 for reference). ...
... In addition, because their distribution on the Earth's surface is very random, the tools manufactured from these materials were transported over long distances (more than 500 km) from the source of the raw materials to densely populated areas settled by cultures that used the stone artefacts mainly for farming purposes (Christensen et al. 2006). Stone artefacts manufactured from several metabasite types were common mainly in the Early to Middle Neolithic periods in Central Europe (see Christensen et al. 2006 for reference). With the onset of the metal use in the Late Neolithic period, the production of stone tools declined. ...
... This means that the thermal aureoles of plutonic rocks, where greenschist-to lower amphibolite-facies metabasites occur, represent the best environment for the formation of such rocks. As follows from the study of Neolithic artefacts (Christensen et al. 2006), the metabasites they are made from should have alkali basalt protolith. This is indeed the case for metabasites in the studied area (Patočka et al. 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the metabasites in a thermal aureole of the Tanvald granite in the northern part of the Bohemian Massif that were used for manufacturing Neolithic tools. The metabasites form relatively thin bodies from several cm to 2 m thick and are intercalated conformably within the host metasedimentary rocks. Two types of thermally metamor-phosed actinolite-hornblende hornfelses (metabasites) were distinguished: 1) fine-grained amphibole-rich metabasite and 2) metabasites with relicts of porphyritic texture. Because of their large lateral extent and geological setting within metasediments, fine-grained metabasites may correspond to former volcanoclastic rocks (meta-tuffs), while the porphyritic metabasites probably represent metamorphosed dolerite sills or dykes. The host rocks are various types of cordierite-biotite spotted schists or andalusite-cordierite-biotite hornfelses. Both groups of metabasites consist of several types of amphiboles, calcic plagioclase (andesine to labradorite) and ilmenite, variably replaced by their alteration products. Apatite, alteration products of ilmenite, magnetite and sulphides are common accessory phases, while epidote and titanite are present only rarely. Relicts of magmatic minerals and minerals from older metamorphic stages are scarce. The peak contact metamorphic conditions were constrained between 540 and 600 °C. Sample of charcoal taken from the base of the Neolithic quarry, where a large amount of waste from making of semi-finished polished tools was found, was dated by radiocarbon dating technique. It gave an age of VERA-2981 6120 ± 35 BP, which places the sampling location in one of the closing stages of quarrying in this part of the site. The correspondence of the petrological and mineralogical characteristics of metabasites from the thermal aureole and stone tools found in Germany and southern Moravia provided evidence that Neolithic tools were traded over distances of several hundred kilometres.
... s from Jistebsko had been utilised to fabricate the majority of the investigated artefacts from the excavations Langensteinbach (LST-06), Rathendorf (RDF-04) and Brodau (BOU-03), although further studies are indisputably necessary. In contrast, amphibolite artefacts from the excavation Eythra (ZW-01) obviously display differing 87 Sr/ 86 Sr-values. Christensen et al. 2006, Zschor nack 2008, Ramminger 2010). Šreinová et al. (2003) beschreiben in diesem Zusammenhang zudem die Entdeckung eines prähistorischen Abbaugebietes von Amphibolhornfels bei Jistebsko und weisen auf die Notwendigkeit zur weiteren Erforschung der potentiellen Rohstoffe hin. Um die Hypothese, dass der Gesteinsrohstoff aus dem Isergebirg ...
Article
Full-text available
Die Herkunftsbestimmung der Gesteinsrohstoffe von neolithischen Steinartefakten kann zur Erschließung möglicher Handelswege aus dieser Zeit beitragen. Zu diesem Zweck wurden geschliffene Beile, Steinbeilfragmente und Abschläge aus einer bandkeramischen Siedlung bei Langensteinbach (Penig, Sachsen) sowie wenige gleichartige Artefakte aus drei weiteren neolithischen Grabungen (Rathendorf, Brodau, Eythra, alle in Nordwestsachsen) untersucht. Die Ergebnisse dieser petrographischen, mineralogischen und geochemischen Analysen wurden mit ausgewählten sächsischen Referenzgesteinen sowie Metabasiten aus dem Isergebirge nahe Jistebsko (Tschechien) verglichen. Makroskopische und dünnschliffmikroskopische Analysen zeigen eine Dominanz von fein- bis selten mittelkörnigen Amphiboliten mit einer unterschiedlich stark ausgeprägten Schieferung und häufig einem Gefüge aus hauptsächlich verfilzten, nadelig-stängligen Amphibolen unter den Artefaktrohstoffen. Vor allem die Analysen mittels Thermionen-Massenspektrometer (Sr- und Pb-Isotope) lassen erkennen, dass die beprobten Referenzgesteine aus dem Granulitgebirge, dem Erzgebirge und dem Erzgebirgsbecken als Rohstoff der untersuchten Artefakte wahrscheinlich auszuschließen sind. Trotz der Notwendigkeit weiterer Analysen geben die Untersuchungen Anlass zu der Vermutung, dass zur Herstellung eines Großteils der untersuchten Artefakte aus Langensteinbach (LST-06), Rathendorf (RDF-04) und Brodau (BOU-03) Amphibolite aus Jistebsko genutzt wurden. Amphibolitartefakte von Eythra (ZW-01) weisen dagegen deutlich abweichende 87Sr/86Sr-Werte auf. Identifying the provenance of the raw material of Neolithic stone artefacts is an important clue for detecting putative trade routes of that period. For this aim, polished stone adzes, their fragments, and flakes from a Linear Pottery Culture settlement nearLangensteinbach (Penig, Saxony) as well as some similar artefacts from three other Neolithic excavation localities (Rathendorf, Brodau, Eythra, all in NW-Saxony) were investigated. The petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analyses were compared with that of well-chosen reference material from Saxony and metabasites from the Jizerské Mountains near Jistebsko (Czech Republic). In this study, macroscopic analysis and petrographic investigation of thin-sections reveal the dominance of fine- to rarely medium-grained amphibolites of different grades of schistosity, often showing a texture with felted acicular-columnar amphiboles among the artefacts. Particularly, the thermal ionization mass spectrometer analyses (Sr- and Pb-isotopes) indicate that the tested reference stones from the Granulitgebirge, the Erzgebirge, and the Erzgebirge Basin were probably not used as raw material for the analyzed artefacts. There is a first evidence that amphibolites from Jistebsko had been utilized to fabricate the majority of the investigated artefacts from the excavations at Langensteinbach (LST-06), Rathendorf (RDF-04), and Brodau (BOU-03), although further studies are indisputably necessary. In contrast, amphibolite artefacts from Eythra (ZW-01) obviously display differing 87Sr/86Sr-values.
... In a large part of central and eastern-central Europe, BM polished flat stone axes and shoe-last axes and, after the end of the 6th millennium BC, perforated wedges are widespread among Linearbandkeramik groups and those that developed in the same areas during the 5th millennium BC (Christensen et al. 2006;Schwarz-Mackensen and Schneider 1986;Šída and Kachlík 2009;Skak-Nielsen 2007;Raemaekers et al. 2011;Verhart 2013; Fig. 10), while only sporadic long HPm axes are reported before the last centuries of the 5th millennium BC (Pétrequin, Cassen, Gauthier et al. 2012). This is probably related to cultural traditions deriving from different Neolithization processes (i.e. ...
Article
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This paper reports the results of a long-term project on the stone axes from Caput Adriae. Available data show that jade axes originating in the western Alps reached the Neolithic groups of Friuli Venezia Giulia and coastal Istria as early as the second half of the 6th millennium BC, during the Danilo/Vlaška culture. The exchange of this and other classes of lithic artefacts testifies that in this period this area was fully integrated into long-distance exchange systems that used mainly coastal routes. These systems would have continued in the 5th millennium BC, as indicated by a few oversized jade axe blades and other materials. Far from the coast, jade axes entered central Slovenia, probably reaching sites of the Sava Group of the Lengyel culture in the first half of the 5th millennium BC. In roughly the same period, shaft-hole axes made of Bohemian metabasites (BM) spread over central and southeastern Europe, crossed the Alps and reached Italy. According to different Neolithic traditions, during the 5th millennium BC Europe appears to be divided into a jade-using western area and a central-eastern BM-using one. During the 4th millennium BC, the exchange networks of Caput Adriae are increasingly influenced by the eastern Alpine and Balkan world, where the raw material sources of the main groups of shaft-hole axes are located. The association of the rocks used for axe production and copper ore suggests that the changes in raw material exploitation strategies during the Copper Age were probably related to the development of the first metallurgy.
... (Bentley/Knipper 2005a, Tab. 1 (Gronenborn 2003, 36). Nennenswerte, im Neolithikum genutzte Amphibolitvorkommen sind in den Sudeten, im Iser-und Riesengebirge, unweit des Böhmischen Mittelgebirges bekannt (Christensen et al. 2006 so dass eine direkte Herkunft aus dieser Region nun auszuschließen ist. Zu überlegen wären jedoch Beziehungen zwischen der potentiellen böhmischen Heimat des "Jäger-Kriegers" und Mitteldeutschland, die dann auch in der neu gegründeten Schwanfelder Siedlung aufrecht erhalten wurden. ...
... Following immediately, may be within one century, the Early Neolithic LBK (Linien Bandkeramik) started at Jistebsko, Czech Republic [45] [46], at Eitzum [47], and at ESBECK [48], both the latter located in the Harz Mts. Foreland, North Germany. ...
Article
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Pushed by the results of a preceding publication on the possibly Quaternary Jebel Waqf as Suwwan Meteorite Crater, Jordan [5], where an amazing coincidence of Rapid Climate Changes (RCCs) with Rise and Fall of Neolithic and Bronze Age Cultures became evident for the Near/Middle East, this paper deals with the same subject, however, relating to the complete Holocene period in the same area and, additionally, in Central Europe as well. By application of modern climatic data [6] comprising isotope analysis (δ18O, 14C, 10Be), acid and aerosol events, and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) Greenland ice cores as well as other astro-/geophysical and geological parameters, an overwhelming coincidence/relation/interdependence of both natural and cultural evidences becomes obvious throughout the last 15,000 years across the Northern Hemisphere. Apart from solar output and other astrophysical processes, most important climate- and Earth-related parameters are Mega-Volcanism (i.e. Santorini Greece: ~3640 yr cal. B. P.), Impact Events (i.e. during Mesolithic: ~9600 yr cal. B. P), rapid oceanic current change (DO-Events), and Plate Tectonics (possibly Atlantis-Event: ~11,500 yr cal. B.P. = Pleistocene/Holocene boundary). The most essential parameter is a significant temperature change related to more or less restricted latitude realms of the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, glacier advance/retreat controls the mobility of peoples (i.e. Nations' Migration, Teutonic Empires) and the access to ore deposits (Au, Ag, Cu, Sn, Zn, Pb, Fe) located in Alpine Mountain Ranges (i.e. End-Neolithic, Early Bronze Age). Myths like the Gilgamesh Epos and John Apocalypse convincingly reveal realistic contents relating to natural hazards like tsunamis, impact and flooding events. They unmisunderstandably make obvious that Myths may providevaluable contributions, especially to Geosciences. Some of the controlling parameters interrelate with others or present a kind of hierarchy: Mega-Volcanism/impact events  ejecta  wildfires, heat storms  cosmic winter, sint winter  stop of photosynthesis  mass extinction environmental pollution  greenhouse effects. Significant events (21 cases in total) occurred on i.e.: • 14,450 yr cal. B.P. (first settling of NTUFIAN CULTURE, Jordan). • 11,500 yr cal. B.P. Pleistocene/Holocene b. Atlantis-Event, interruption of the ABU HUREYRA CULTURE, Syria). • 9600 yr cal. B.P. (Tectites of vast distribution indicate impacting, collapse of all NATUFIAN TOWNS in southern Jordan, mass extinction of mammals). • 8200-8000 yr cal. B.P. (temperature decrease, collapse of Cultures in the Near/Middle East, rise of Cultures in Southern Europe). • 7100-7000 yr cal. B.P.: Early/Middle Neolithic b. caused by an incisive drought in Central Europe, cannibalism throughout the last 10 years at Herxheim, West-Germany. • 6400-6200 yr cal. B.P. (Middle/Younger Neolithic b., glacier advance in European Alpine Ranges, AHS (actinolite-hornblende-schist for stone adzes and axes) raw materials export stop from High Balkan Mts. to Central Europe). • 5000-4200 yr cal. B.P. (End Neolithic/Early Bronze Age in Europe, glacier retreat, access to Alpine ore deposits (Cu!), pre-Gilgamish time, beginning of the OLD EGYPTIAN KINGDOM and MINOAN CULTURE). • 3640 yr cal. B.P. (Santorini outbreak accompanied by tremendous ejection of pumice ashes and environmental pollution across the Mediterranean, strong influence on Ikhnaton’s AMARNA C., HYKSOS INVASION, JEWS’ IMMIGRATION Invasion of MERITIME NATIONS along the East Mediterranean Coast, Early Bronze Age Hügelgräber C.b. in Central Europe). • 350-700 yr cal. B.P. (glacier retreat in the alpine region, NATION’S MIGRATION Rise of TEUTONIC EMPIRES). • 1100-1250 yr A. D. (Great Temperature Maximum, Mongolian invasions in Asia and Europe, HANSA and MARITIME TOWN'S activities: Venice, Genua, Pisa, Crusaders’ ENDEAVORS, starting EAST COLONIZATION, EMPEROR/POPE constellation in Europe). Foundation of one of the largest THERAVADA BUDDISTIC PAGODA FIELDS (BAGAN, MYANMAR) in Asia. • 1460-1780 yr A. D. (“Little Glaciations”, during intercalated temperature rise: RELIGIOUS WARS). • 1890 until Present (exponential rise of average temperature, Imperialism, dramatic growth of Science and Technology, wars, global environmental pollution, refugee problems, continuous step by step species extinction, increasing global confusion). Balanced and constructive periods existed through i.e.: • 7500-7100 yr cal. B.P. (during early Neolithic in Southeast and Central Europe). • 700-400 yr B. C. (“Achsenzeit” [61] in middle latitudes). • 600-900 yr A.D. (TANG DYNASTY, Syncretism along Silk Road). The “Great Temperature Maximum” (1100-1250 A.D.) and the modern temperature rise (since 1890) obviously show activities of Cultures triggered in a “positive” or “negative” sense. They indicate higher thermal energy has to be transformed in activities of different quality as suitable to the geographic position and to physical/spiritual/psychic state of the concerned Cultures and Societies. The results presented underline and reconfirm the postulation of Hoyle and Clube and Napier that Rapid Climate Change and “Rare Events” profoundly control/trigger the behavior of Cultures in relation to definite latitude realms and generate "positive/negative" developments
... Recent studies place the source area of a high amount of the amphibolite having occurred at LBK sites at Jistebsko (Czech Republic). The precise description of this type of amphibolite is actinolite-hornblende schist (Christensen et al. 2006(Christensen et al. , 16391653; Ramminger in press). ...
... The discovery of the Neolithic quarrying complex in Jistebsko (Czech Republic; Prostředník et al. 2005), the work from Ramminger (2007) and Christensen et al. (2006) seems to have solved problems about the provenance of raw material for artefacts from several neolithic sites in Germany. To determine the rock characteristics and the provenance of the raw materials thin sections, SEM/EDX and XRD have been used. ...
... The five main study sites are located in western, central and northern Czech Republic (large solid circles in Fig. 1 Holub and Janoušek (2003;CB) and Janoušek et al. (1995;CB), Magna and Rapprich (2017; KV), Frýda et al. (2002;ON), and Klomínský (2018;ER). Granite from ER had been used for manufacturing Neolithic tools (Christensen et al., 2006;Š ída and Kachlík, 2009). ...
Article
Assuming that strontium (Sr) isotope ratios in trees mirror the bedrock isotope signal, between-site 87 Sr/ 86 Sr comparisons can serve as a powerful tool in archaeological wood provenance studies. Here we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this approach using Sr isotope data for bedrock, trees and rainfall collected at seven sites in the Czech Republic. The study included basalt, durbachite, granite, paragneiss, limestone and phyllitic slate. The range of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of these bedrock types was extremely large (0.704-1.743). The investigated tree species included oak, pine, and spruce. Within-tree variability in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (~0.010) was two orders of magnitude smaller than the variability in Sr ratios across the studied bedrock types. Oak and pine growing on identical bedrock exhibited statistically indistinguishable 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios. In four types of spruce tissues from a particular site, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios were indistinguishable, while significantly different from spruce tissues at another site. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the wood differed from those of bedrock, converging to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of rainfall (0.709-0.714). Even at a 450-km distance from the nearest sea, atmospheric Sr partly originated from sea-spray. Incorporation of atmospheric Sr in trees often results in overlapping 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ranges and hampers source identification of archaeological wood.
... En prenant du recul, on constate qu'à la fin du VIe et pendant la première moitié du Ve millénaire, l'Europe est segmentée du nord vers le sud en plusieurs systèmes de haches-signes socialement valorisés. Au nord, entre la République tchèque et les Pays-Bas, la diffusion des grandes lames polies porte sur des herminettes à section étroite et haute en amphibolite, dont l'origine est main-tenant identifiée au nord de la Tchéquie, dans les exploitations des Monts Jizera (Christensen et al. 2006). Au centre, entre l'Italie et la Bretagne, la répartition des lames polies de type Bégude en jade, également destinées à des herminettes à manche coudé, est indiscutablement le répondant méridional de la diffusion des herminettes "danubiennes en amphibolite. ...
Conference Paper
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During the 5th and 4th millennia BC, large polished axeheads of Alpine jades circulated around Europe over distances of up to 2800 km. The Iberian peninsula was affected late on by this major phenomenon. In the west of the Peninsula, the importation of Carnac-style axeheads, which were of considerable religious value, gave rise to the manufacture of imitations – the ‘Cangas type’ axeheads – during the second half of the 5th millennium. In Catalonia, by contrast, the earliest jade axeheads only arrived at the end of the 5th millennium and at the beginning of the 4th, in the form of objects that were either consecrated, or else were tools whose use was restricted to certain individuals. This is particularly the case with the Sepulcres de fosa culture, during the expansion of the Chasséen culture and of the exchange network over which honey Bedoulian flint from Vaucluse circulated.
... Onder het tiental bewerkte botten bevinden zich vijf priemen en een spatel, zoals ze veelvuldig bekend zijn uit de LBK. Daarnaast zijn er enkele bijzondere stukken ontdekt : ( Christensen et al. 2006 . 22). ...
Article
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In dit artikel wordt een eerste overzicht gegeven van de opgraving van en vondsten uit een bandkeramische waterput uit oostelijk Duitsland. Door de unieke conservering in het onderste deel van de constructie zijn zowel het hout van de beschoeiing als organische vondsten bewaard gebleven. Hierdoor kunnen eerste inzichten in het verrassend geavanceerde houtgebruik in het Vroeg-Neolithicum verworven worden. In de vulling van de put bevond zich bovendien een serie intentionele deposities die een schat aan informatie over met name het aardewerk opleveren. Hoewel niet vergeten mag worden dat één structuur zoals een waterput geen substituut kan zijn voor grootschalig nederzettingsonderzoek, geven de onder normale omstandigheden niet bewaarde vondsten een waardevolle aanvulling op het beeld van het vroege Neolithicum in Centraal- en Noordwest-Europa.
Chapter
Under the assumption that the health status of a population is closely connected to its living conditions (Steckel and Rose 2002; Cohen and Armelagos 1984) the aim of this study is to track changes in signs of pathology during the transition period from foraging to farming societies in Europe. The NDT is expected to be related to a major shift in health parameters from Mesolithic to Early Neolithic populations. This hypothesis is followed by studying European LBK skeletal populations and by comparing their health status to earlier Mesolithic as well as to Late Neolithic samples, roughly following the site list composed by Bocquet-Appel (2002). A selection of skeletal populations was examined depending on the availability of data relevant to health. A database was built up including around 600 skeletons. The major limitations were given by the facts that (1) skeletal indicators connected to health factors were only available for a smaller part of the relevant skeletal samples, that (2) frequencies of pathological signs could not be obtained due to incomplete individual data published and that (3) coding systems differed significantly from each other. Representativeness for Mesolithic or LBK populations cannot be assured as the database is characterised by a few larger samples who lived under locally specific conditions. As a consequence, the data could not be broken down to a comparison of males and females.
Conference Paper
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Archaeometric analysis of stone tools is one of the common ways to interpret interactions between Neolithic people and their environment. Previous research for different regions in Germany showed that there is a predominant appearance of stone tools made of amphibolitic or similar raw material during the Neolithic period (e.g. Schwarz-Mackensen & Schneider 1983, 1986). The discovery of the Neolithic quarrying complex in Jistebsko (Czech Republic; Prost ředník et al. 2005), the work from Ramminger (2007) and Christensen et al. (2006) seems to have solved problems about the provenance of raw material for artefacts from several neolithic sites in Germany. However, there is still only a fragmentary knowledge about the provenance of amphibolitic stone tools discovered in Saxony. For this reason we studied 20 stone tools, predominantly polished stone axes, from three Neolithic settlements near Geithain which were excavated in 2006 and 2007. To determine the rock characteristics and the provenance of the raw materials thin sections, SEM/EDX and XRD have been used. As a result a high number of artefacts can be described as variations of a fine-grained hornblende-(actinolithe-) plagioclase-hornfels. The thin sections show a predominant nephritic texture with a „felted“ appearance of needle-shaped amphibols with hornblendic or actinolithic composition. The sub-ordinate plagioclase is characterized by an intermediate to alkaline chemistry. A large amount (>5%) of opaque phases mainly ilmenite is characteristic. Further minerals are quartz, biotite and pyrite. The search for similar rocks was focused on outcrops in the surrounding area of the excavation sites (within 45 km), such as the Sächsische Granulitgebirge or the Erzgebirge. We also took samples from the Neolithic quarrying complex from Jistebsko, approximately 170 km away from the archaeological sites. The analysis of the thin sections and geochemistry revealed a positive correlation between the most artefacts and the samples from Jistebsko. The quality of the raw material sought for the production of polished stone axes seems to have been most important. It resulted in a long-distance transport and exchange network more than 7.000 years ago. In our further research we will concentrate on additional excavation sites in Saxony and the use of more reliable geochemical analyses, such as rare and trace element as well as isotopic investigations. Literature Christensen, A.-M. et al. (2006): Indications of a major Neolithic trade route? An archaeometric geochemical and Sr, Pb isotope study on amphibolitic raw material from present day Europe. Applied Geochemistry 21: 1635-1655. Prostředník, J. et al. (2005): Neolithic quarrying in the foothills of the Jizera Mountains and the dating thereof. Archeologické rozhledy LVII: 477-492. Ramminger, B. (2007): Wirtschaftsarchäologische Untersuchungen zu alt- und mittelneolithischen Felsgesteingeräten in Mittel- und Nordhessen. Archäologie und Rohmaterialversorgung. Internationale Archäologie 102: 1-653; Schwarz-Mackensen, G., Schneider, W. (1983): Wo liegen die Hauptliefergebiete für das Rohmaterial Donauländischer Steinbeile und -äxte in Mitteleuropa? Archäol. Korrespondenzblatt 13: 305-314; Schwarz-Mackensen, G., Schneider, W. (1986): Petrographie und Herkunft des Rohmaterials neolithischer Steinbeile und -äxte im nördlichen Harzvorland. Archäol. Korrespondenzblatt 16: 29-44.
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In approaching the study of Alpine axeheads, we did not wish to follow previous researchers in privileging regional studies over broader reviews, and so we adopted a global, pan-European approach, examining all large Alpine axe- heads across Europe. And since it would be a colossal task to document all of the many thousands of Alpine axeheads that have been found across Europe, we decided to limit our researches -following the ethnographic criteria used in our work in New Guinea- to axeheads that are, or had been, over 13.5 cm long. After ten years of desk- and museum-based work, our inventory of such axeheads currently stands at 1 764 examples, whose distribution stretches across Europe from Ireland, Brittany and Portugal in the west, to Bulgaria and Turkey in the east, and from Denmark in the north to Sicily in the south. The network over which Alpine axeheads circulated thus extended over 3 000 kilometres as the crow flies, between the Atlantic and the Black Sea.For the 5 th millennium BC, the typological classification of these tools allows us to distinguish 15 different types.In studying the length/thickness ratio of complete examples, these types fall into a chronological sequence, informed by a factor analysis of axehead hoards (from both funerary and non-funerary contexts) and excluding those of Puy type (which have been influenced by copper axe- heads and constitute a late introduction with the Chasséen, towards the end of the 5 th millennium). According to this sequence: - the Bégude hoard is the earliest, being deposited at the beginning of the 5 th millennium; - the next hoards are the group deposited around the middle of the 5th millennium in the Morbihan region of Brittany. Of these, those from Mané er Hroëck and Tumiac are the earliest, followed by Bernon, and finally Saint Michel and Petit Rohu; - the series ends with the hoards of Büssleben, Mönchpfif- fel, Gonsenheim, Altenstadt, Le Pecq et Abbeville, deposited during the second half of the 5th millennium and at the beginning of the 4th millennium.The ‘intuitive’ typology and the initial chronological seriation that we had proposed in previous publications (based on typological associations in hoards and on axeheads from dated contexts) has been confirmed by this new work, with minor alterations. The mapping of the various axehead types at the scale of western Europe is a step that is key to understanding the dating and circulation of the large axeheads from their sources of raw material in the Alps to the maritime fringes of Europe. Globally, as we have noted previously, there is a striking symmetry, around the middle of the 5th millennium, between a western Europe where jade was the ‘must have’ material, and an eastern Europe in which this role was played by copper and gold. The two poles of this pattern lie at Carnac and the Gulf of Morbihan in the west and Varna in the east. The distribution maps allow us to follow and to confirm our chronological propositions: - The Bégude type of axehead, which is sometimes asso- ciated with regularly-shaped disc-rings of serpentinite or of jadeitite, is found over the entire area of influence of Cardial pottery styles to the west of the Alps. In opposition to this southern distribution, there is the northern distribution pattern of axeheads of Altenstadt/Greenlaw type. - Axeheads with expanded blades, even though some of them had been shaped in the quarries of Monte Viso, show an extraordinary concentration around the Gulf of Morbihan. These are the highly polished ‘Carnac type’ axeheads.- Finally the Puy type, the latest of the Alpine types, covers most of Continental Europe and heralds the decline in Al- pine axehead production and the progressive return to the use of Alpine rock for making workaday axeheads and other woodworking tools. For certain axehead types -in particular, Altenstadt/Greenlaw- one notes the absence of roughouts in the quarrying sites of the Alps and Liguria. This is due to the fact that we are dealing with axeheads that were repolished on their arrival in the Paris Basin, using Alpine and Italian axehead types (in particular those of Durrington and Puymirol). This phenomenon, which occured in the south- eastern part of the Paris Basin, seems to be identical to that which saw the transformation of polished Alpine axeheads on their arrival in the Morbihan, with the production of the ‘Carnac’ types of axehead. The intention could have been to produce styles of axehead that were incapable of being imitated and that were reserved for the elites. The incoming Alpine axeheads would have been regarded as magnificent exotic raw material, lacking in form or looking too much like the standard versions as used by neighbouring communities. At the other end of Europe, the same phenomenon of repolishing can be observed in Bulgaria with the Varna type (trapezoidal) and the thinned-down Durrington/Chelles type.
Article
Adze blades were mainly made from amphibolite. In Later Bandkeramik settlements in the Wetterau, Taunus and Vogelsberg regions, regionally occurring basalts, rare siliceous slate and fine sediments were also part of the raw-material spectrum. South of the Main, however, amphibolites were used almost exclusively. In this case, regionally occurring types of stone can be clearly distinguished from those that were imported. The Bandkeramik site at Otzberg-Habitzheim "Zimmerer Hohe" shows a relatively high number of adze blades, in terms of both regional and supra-regional comparisons. In addition, manufacturing waste and half-finished objects are found here. Therefore, this settlement is seen to be a production site and regional supply centre for adze blades in the Later Bandkeramik. © 2013 by Romisch-Germanische Kommission des Dcutschen Archaologischen Instituts Frankfurt a. M.
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The book is a detailed, and in some cases an opinionated, account of the use of what are basically standard graphical statistical methods used for the presentation of archaeological data. The use of the software package R is advocated and is illustrated in detail - with data and R code available. This is contrasted with the common (mis)use of Excel which has resulted in some of the most unfortunate graphics that have sullied archaeological data presentation in the literature/
Chapter
In most of Europe the Neolithic is defined as the time segment starting with the appearance of farming communities and lasting until the appearance of bronze metallurgy, which marks the beginning of the Bronze Age. The east Baltic, Belarus, and Russian Neolithic however is defined by the appearance of pottery and polished stone tools (Gimbutas 1956, Dolukhanov 1979, Rimantienė 1996, Dolukhanov et al. 2005). Zhilin (2000:287) has pointed out that if the Neolithic were defined by the presence of farming, then there would be no Neolithic in the forest zone of eastern Europe.
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Analyses for Ti, Zr, Y, Nb and Sr in over 200 basaltic rocks from different tectonic settings have been used to construct diagrams in which these settings can usually be identified. Basalts erupted within plates (ocean island and continental basalts) can be identified using a Ti-Zr-Y diagram, ocean-floor basalts, and low-potassium tholeiites and calc-alkali basalts from island arcs can be identified using a Ti-Zr diagram (for altered samples) and a Ti-Zr-Sr diagram (for fresh samples). Y/Nb is suggested as a parameter for indicating whether a basalt is of tholeiitic or alkalic nature. Analyses of dykes and pillow lavas from the Troodos Massif of Cyprus are plotted on these diagrams and appear to the tholeiitic ocean-floor rocks.
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This book presents the first systematic English review of the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the various regional tectonic elements which comprise the central European orogens. Recent political changes have permitted authors from all central European countries, to contribute to this work, thus providing access to previously unavailable material. Each major tectonic element is systematically described in terms of its stratigraphic, structural, igneous, metamorphic and economic evolution. Each section is thoroughly referenced, thus providing an invaluable introduction to the geological complexity of the region. Introductory chapters provide the required regional geophysical and tectonic overviews.
Article
Geochemical data help to constrain the sizes of identifiable reservoirs within the framework of models of layered or whole-mantle circulation, and they identify the sources of the circulating heterogeneities as mainly crustal and/or lithospheric, but they do not decisively distinguish between different types of circulation. The mass balance between crust, depleted mantle and undepleted mantle based on 143Nd/144Nd, Nb/U and Ce/Pb, and the concentrations of very highly incompatible elements Ba, Rb, Th, U, and K, shows that ca. 25-70% (by mass) of depleted mantle balances the trace element and isotopic abundances of the continental crust. This mass balance reflects the actual proportions of mantle reservoirs only if there are no additional unidentified reservoirs. Evidence on the nature and ages of different source reservoirs comes from the geochemical fingerprints of basalts extruded at mid-ocean ridges and oceanic islands. Consideration of Nd and He isotopes alone indicates that ocean island basalts (OIBS) may be derived from a relatively undepleted portion of the mantle. This has in the past provided a geochemical rationale for a two-layer model consisting of an upper depleted and a lower undepleted (`primitive') mantle layer. However, Pb-isotopic ratios, and Nb/U and Ce/Pb concentration ratios demonstrate that most or all OIB source reservoirs are definitely not primitive. Models consistent with this evidence postulate recycling of oceanic crust and lithosphere or subcontinental lithosphere. Recycling is a natural consequence of mantle convection. This cannot be said for some other models such as those requiring large-scale vertical metasomatism beneath OIB source regions. Unlike other trace elements, Nb, Ta, and Pb discriminate sharply between continental and oceanic crust-forming processes. Because of this, the primitive mantle value of Nb/U = 30 (Ce/Pb = 9) has been fractionated into a continental crustal Nb/U = 12 (Ce/Pb = 4) and a residual-mantle (MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt) plus OIB source) Nb/U = 47 (Ce/Pb = 25). These residual mantle values are uniform within about 20% and are not fractionated during formation of oceanic crust. By using these concentrations ratios as tracers, it can be shown that the possible contribution of recycled continental crust to OIB sources is limited to a few percent. Therefore, recycling must be dominated by oceanic crust and lithosphere, or by subcontinental lithosphere. Oceanic crust normally bears a thin layer of pelagic sediment at the time of subduction, and this is consistent with OIB sources that are dominated by subducted oceanic crust with variable but always small additions of continental material. Primordial 3He, 36Ar, and excess 129Xe, in oceanic basalts demonstrate that the mantle has been neither completely outgassed nor homogenized, but they do not constrain the degree of mixing or the size of reservoirs. Also, helium does not correlate well with other isotopic data and may have migrated into the basalt source from other regions. The high 3He/4He ratios found in some OIBS suggest that, even though the basalts are not derived from primordial mantle, their sources may be located close to a reservoir rich in primordial gases. This leads to models in which the OIB sources are in a boundary layer within the mantle. The primordial helium migrates into this layer from below. The interpretation of the rare-gas data is still quite controversial. It is often argued that the upper mantle is a well-homogenized reservoir, but the data indicate heterogeneities on scales ranging from 100 to 106 m. The 206Pb/204Pb ratios in the oceanic mantle range from 17 to 21, which is similar to the range in most continental rocks. The degree of mixing cannot be directly inferred from these data unless the size and composition of the heterogeneities and the time of their introduction into the system are known. The relative uniformity of Nb/U and Ce/Pb ratios in the otherwise heterogeneous MORB and OIB sources indicates that this reservoir was indeed homogenized after the separation of the continental crust, and that the observed isotopic and chemical heterogeneities were introduced subsequently. Overall, the results are consistent with, but do not prove, a layered mantle where the upper layer contains both MORB and OIB sources, and the lower, primitive mantle is not sampled by present-day volcanism. Alternative models such as those involving a chemically graded mantle have not been sufficiently explored.
Article
A system is presented whereby volcanic rocks may be classified chemically as follows:I. Subalkaline Rocks:A. Tholeiitic basalt series:Tholeiitic picrite-basalt; tholeiite; tholeiitic andesite.B. Calc-alkali series:High-alumina basalt; andesite; dacite; rhyolite.II. Alkaline Rocks:A. Alkali olivine basalt series:(1) Alkalic picrite–basalt; ankaramite; alkali basalt; hawaiite; mugearite; benmorite; trachyte.(2) Alkalic picrite–basalt; ankaramite; alkali basalt; trachybasalt; tristanite; trachyte.B. Nephelinic, leucitic, and analcitic rocks.III. Peralkaline Rocks:pantellerite, commendite, etc.A system is presented whereby volcanic rocks may be classified chemically as follows:I. Subalkaline Rocks:A. Tholeiitic basalt series:Tholeiitic picrite-basalt; tholeiite; tholeiitic andesite.B. Calc-alkali series:High-alumina basalt; andesite; dacite; rhyolite.II. Alkaline Rocks:A. Alkali olivine basalt series:(1) Alkalic picrite–basalt; ankaramite; alkali basalt; hawaiite; mugearite; benmorite; trachyte.(2) Alkalic picrite–basalt; ankaramite; alkali basalt; trachybasalt; tristanite; trachyte.B. Nephelinic, leucitic, and analcitic rocks.III. Peralkaline Rocks:pantellerite, commendite, etc.
Book
This book describes the composition of the present upper crust, and deals with possible compositions for the total crust and the inferred composition of the lower crust. The question of the uniformity of crustal composition throughout geological time is discussed. It describes the Archean crust and models for crustal evolution in Archean and Post-Archean time. The rate of growth of the crust through time is assessed, and the effects of the extraction of the crust on mantle compositions. The question of early pre-geological crusts on the Earth is discussed and comparisons are given with crusts on the Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus and the Galilean Satellites.
Article
Seabeam mapping in the central Pacific Ocean, southeast of Pitcairn Island, has revealed a number of large volcanic edifices, some of which appear to be currently active. Here we document the first isotope and trace element data obtained for dredge samples from these volcanoes which are believed to represent the present-day surface expression of the Pitcairn mantle plume.Striking linear trends in multi-isotope plots suggest the operation of a simple two-component mixing process in the genesis of these lavas with end-members of extreme EM-I and isotopically more depleted type. Isotope-trace element covariations allow limits to be placed upon the composition of the Pitcairn plume source, which is then compared with other EM-type oceanic islands. Current hypotheses for the generation of EM components are then evaluated in the light of these data.Temporal trends, similar to those seen on Pitcairn Island, are present within the seamount data, although samples equivalent to the post-shield formations on Pitcairn Island are not observed. These evolutionary trends suggest a high level origin for the depleted component rather than entrainment of asthenospheric material into a rising diapir.Three of the Pitcairn seamounts are much older, in the region of 20–25 Ma, and were probably formed in a near-ridge environment.
Article
All samples studied here exhibit lowεNd (lamproites; Western Australia = −10 to −19.2 and Smoky Butte = −21.6 to −25.9: Group II kimberlites: Finsch Mine = −5.8 to −7.4) and(87Sr/86Sr)i > Bulk Earth. They are all LREE enriched (up to 1000 × chondrite) and have high trace element contents (i.e. Rb, Rb, Ba, Th, K, Ta, Sr, P, Hf, Zr and Ti). Smoky Butte and Finsch rocks plot below the Pb-ore growth curve(206Pb204Pb) = 16.02−16.64 and 17.74−17.99, and207Pb204Pb= 15.19−15.28 and 15.48−15.57, respectively) consistent with two-stage evolutions whereas the Western Australia rocks exhibit high207Pb204Pb (15.71−15.75) with unradiogenic206Pb204Pb (17.23−17.57) indicative of a more complex three-stage evolution. These lamproites and Group II kimberlites were at least predominantly derived from source regions which had had low, but variableUP/b andRb/Sr for between 1 and 2.5 Ga. Such source regions are inferred to exist within the subcontinental mantle lithosphere.Different styles of trace element enrichment are recognised which with time develop different isotope-isotope trends. HighRb/Sr,Rb/Ba andK/Ti ratios observed in Group II kimberlites and metasomatised peridotites are probably related to the migration of H2O-rich fluids within the upper mantle, while the lamproites have features consistent with the introduction of small volume silicate melts to their source regions, i.e. highT/iK,Ta/Yb and lowRb/Ba. At Smoky ButteRb/Sr was also low, but the Western Australia rocks have highRb/Sr because they are relatively less enriched in Sr. Hence highRb/Sr ratios (and with time high87Sr/86Sr) are developed in mantle source with both high and lowRb/Ba.Inferred μ for the last stage of evolution of their source regions is < 7.5 for all the rocks studied and there is a striking positive correlation betweenεNd and206Rb/204Pb, which indicates that lowSm/Nd andU/Pb ratios coexist (over long periods of time) within the subcontinental mantle lithosphere.
Article
A SrNdPb isotope data base is available now which includes over 300 samples from some 43 oceanic islands or island groups. This data base supports the identification by Zindler and Hart [20] of four principal end-member isotopic components in oceanic basalts: depleted MORB mantle (DMM), high U/Pb mantle (HIMU) and two enriched mantle components (EMI, EMII). Linear mixing arrays (in five isotopic dimensions) between EMI and HIMU and between DMM and HIMU are documented and argue for similar proportions of SrNdPb in these three components. EMI is argued to be a slightly modified bulk-earth component; HIMU is a component with a greatly enhanced U/Rb ratio, probably generated by intra-mantle metasomatism. It is unlikely that either EMI or HIMU are recycled oceanic crust or sediment. EMII is easily reconciled with a recycled (subducted) sediment protolith; this leads to strong Pb enrichment and consequently to markedly curved mixing arrays between EMII and the other components.The DUPAL anomaly is demonstrated to be unequivocally real, and is marked by basalts with enhanced contents of EMI, EMII, or HIMU; polar regions are marked by only weak or absent signatures from these components. Not all basalts from the DUPAL belt show a strong DUPAL signature, but 95% of all basalts showing a strong DUPAL signature lie between 0° and 50° south latitude.The mesosphere boundary layer model of Allègre and Turcotte [21] is shown to be consistent with available data, provided a somewhat ad-hoc plea is made for preferential recycling of sediments and delaminated continental lithosphere within the DUPAL latitudes. An alternative model is proposed which links the DUPAL with other deep mantle geophysical anomalies, and utilizes a core/mantle boundary layer as a source of the DUPAL components. The low-degree mantle circulation is viewed as whole mantle quadrupolar convection, with equatorial upwelling; this serves to concentrate DUPAL components (and hotspots themselves) into the low-latitude regions.
Article
Basalts from many Southern Hemisphere regions have anomalous Sr and Pb isotopic characteristics. This article shows that the isotopic mantle anomaly is globe-encircling in extent, centred on latitude 30° S. Arguments suggesting that this mantle anomaly has been in existence for billions of years place severe constraints on mantle convection models.
Zur Versorgungslage bandkeramischer Dechselrohmaterialien in Mittel-und Sü dhessen
  • A.-M Christensen
  • B Ramminger
Christensen, A.-M., Ramminger, B., 2004. Zur Versorgungslage bandkeramischer Dechselrohmaterialien in Mittel-und Sü dhessen (Wetterau und Umgebung). AIAr-GNAA Joint Conference. Papers, 215.
Petrology and miner-alogy of the Neolithic and Aeneolithic artefact in Bohemia
  • B Sreinova
  • V Srein
  • M Stastny
Sreinova, B., Srein, V., Stastny, M., 2003. Petrology and miner-alogy of the Neolithic and Aeneolithic artefact in Bohemia. Acta Montana IRSM AS CR, AB Series 12 (132), 111–119.
Nephrite und Amphibolschiefer. Verö ffentlichungen des Brandenburgischen Landesmuseum fü r Ur-und Frü hgeschichte
  • L Illásová
  • D Hovorka
Illásová, L., Hovorka, D., 1995. Nephrite und Amphibolschiefer. Verö ffentlichungen des Brandenburgischen Landesmuseum fü r Ur-und Frü hgeschichte 29, 229-236.
Petrographie und Herkunft des Rohmaterials neolithischer Steinbeile und -äxte im nördlichen Harzvorland
  • Schwarz-Mackensen
Schwarz-Mackensen, G., Schneider, W., 1986. Petrographie und Herkunft des Rohmaterials neolithischer Steinbeile und -äxte im nö rdlichen Harzvorland. Archäol. Korrespondenzblatt 16, 29-44.
Using Geochemical Data: Evaluation Presentation, Interpretation. Longman Scientific and Techni-cal Wo liegen die Hauptliefergebiete fü r das Rohmaterial Donaulä Steinbeile und -a ¨xte in Mitteleuropa? Archä. Kor-respondenzblatt 13
  • H Rollinson
  • G Mackensen
  • W Schneider
Rollinson, H., 1993. Using Geochemical Data: Evaluation Presentation, Interpretation. Longman Scientific and Techni-cal, Oxford. Schwarz-Mackensen, G., Schneider, W., 1983. Wo liegen die Hauptliefergebiete fü r das Rohmaterial Donaulä Steinbeile und -a ¨xte in Mitteleuropa? Archä. Kor-respondenzblatt 13, 305–314.
Mineralogisch-petrologische Untersuchungen an Steinbeilen aus linearbandkeramischen Gräberfeldern in Bayern. Charakterisierung und mögliche Herkunft des Rohmaterials
  • G Endlicher
Endlicher, G., 1995. Mineralogisch-petrologische Untersuchungen an Steinbeilen aus linearbandkeramischen Gräberfeldern in Bayern. Charakterisierung und mö gliche Herkunft des Rohmaterials. In: Nieszery, N. (Ed.), Linearbandkeramische Gräberfelder in Bayern. Internat. Arch., vol. 16, pp. 1218-1234.
Danmarks Oldtid, Stenalder 13000-2000 f.Kr. Nordisk Forlag A Neolithische Fels-gesteinrohmaterialversorgung in Hessen
  • J / S Jensen
  • København
  • N Kegler-Graiewski
  • B Ramminger
Jensen, J., 2001. Danmarks Oldtid, Stenalder 13000-2000 f.Kr. Nordisk Forlag A/S, København. Kegler-Graiewski, N., Ramminger, B., 2003. Neolithische Fels-gesteinrohmaterialversorgung in Hessen. Berichte der Komm. Arch. Landesforschung in Hessen 7, 31–42.
Neolithische Felsgesteinrohmaterialversorgung in Hessen
  • Kegler-Graiewski
Kegler-Graiewski, N., Ramminger, B., 2003. Neolithische Felsgesteinrohmaterialversorgung in Hessen. Berichte der Komm. Arch. Landesforschung in Hessen 7, 31-42.
Wo liegen die Hauptliefergebiete für das Rohmaterial Donauländischer Steinbeile und -äxte in Mitteleuropa?
  • Schwarz-Mackensen
Schwarz-Mackensen, G., Schneider, W., 1983. Wo liegen die Hauptliefergebiete fü r das Rohmaterial Donauländischer Steinbeile und -äxte in Mitteleuropa? Archäol. Korrespondenzblatt 13, 305-314.
Geology of the Krknose and Jizerské hory mountains
  • J Chaloupský
Chaloupský, J., 1981. Geology of the Krknose and Jizerské hory mountains. MS Ú str. Ù st. Geol. Praha, pp. 247-288 (In Czech. with English summary).
Danmarks Oldtid, Stenalder 13000-2000 f
  • J Jensen
Jensen, J., 2001. Danmarks Oldtid, Stenalder 13000-2000 f.Kr. Nordisk Forlag A/S, København.
Petrology and mineralogy of the Neolithic and Aeneolithic
  • B Sreinova
  • V Srein
  • M Stastny
Sreinova, B., Srein, V., Stastny, M., 2003. Petrology and mineralogy of the Neolithic and Aeneolithic artefact in Bohemia.
Re-calibration of NBS lead standards using a 202Pb+205Pb double spike
  • Todt
Todt, W., Cliff, R.A., Hanser, A., Hofmann, A.W., 1993. Recalibration of NBS lead standards using a 202Pb + 205Pb double spike. Terra Abstracts 5 (Suppl. 1), 396.
Petrology and mineralogy of the Neolithic and Aeneolithic artefact in Bohemia
  • Sreinova
Nephrite und Amphibolschiefer
  • Illásová