Article

Comparison of the effectiveness of a purported anti-static cape (the Storm Defender (R)) vs. a placebo cape in the treatment of canine thunderstorm phobia as assessed by owners' reports

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Abstract

Canine thunderstorm phobia is considered a noise phobia, however, it has been theorized that pain associated with discharge of accrued static electricity could contribute to this malady. This project aimed to determine if a purported anti-static cape (the Storm Defender®) and a non-anti-static cape (placebo cape) were therapeutic for canine thunderstorm phobia. Twenty-three owners used either the Storm Defender® (n=13) or the placebo cape (n=10) on their dogs during four thunderstorms. A baseline pretreatment anxiety score (pre-cape use) and four treatment anxiety scores (with use of a cape) were generated by scoring owners’ responses to 12 questions that concerned the severity of behaviors associated with thunderstorm phobia. Use of both cape types was associated with a statistically significant decrease in median anxiety scores from baseline. After a fourth cape use, the median anxiety score of the Storm Defender® group decreased by 63% from baseline (P=0.005) and the placebo cape group's median anxiety score decreased by 36% (P=0.002). Owners in both groups indicated that their dogs displayed significantly less hiding behavior by the fourth use of the cape. Seventy percent of owners who used the Storm Defender® on their dogs and 67% of the placebo cape owners reported some degree of improvement via a global assessment score, made after the fourth use of the cape. There was no statistically significant difference between the Storm Defender® and placebo cape groups in their baseline pretreatment anxiety scores, median treatment anxiety scores or in their owner global assessment. The results indicate that use of a form-fitting cape may be moderately therapeutic in treating canine thunderstorm phobia. More research is needed to determine why owners reported effectiveness with both cape types.

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... Research showed that maximal effi cacy was often achieved through a combination of on-going behavioural therapy and pharmacological support (Crowell-Davis et al. 2003). In addition, an owner's compliance with behavioural modifi cation programmes is an essential factor in their success or lack thereof ( Levine et al. 2007;Cottam and Dodman 2009). ...
... The manner in which owners responded to their animals' presentations of fear was associated with the fear responses. A causal relationship could not be established in the study presented here, however owners' behaviours were previously identifi ed as important infl uences on fear responses in the dog (Cottam and Dodman 2009). Likewise, our results showed an association between animals whose owners comforted them and higher levels of fear, increased duration of fear, and subsequently higher levels of fear over time. ...
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To establish reliable information regarding the behavioural responses of dogs and cats to fireworks in New Zealand; record interventions used by owners, and their perceived efficacies; and establish the prevalence of firework-related injury, and quantify owners' attitudes towards fireworks. A questionnaire targeting dog and cat ownerswas distributed via the Auckland Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) Animals Voice magazine and 25 veterinary clinics. The questionnaire covered demographics of animals, fear of fireworks, severity of the fear, and behaviours exhibited. Also included were treatments tried, source and perceived efficacy, prevalence of injury, and owners' attitudes towards the sale of fireworks for private use. From a total of 8,966 questionnaires distributed, 1,007 valid questionnaires were returned, representing 3,527 animals. Of these 1,635 (46%) animals displayed a level of fear of fireworks recognisable to their owners. Owners of dogs identified a significantly higher fear response than owners of cats but the duration of these fear responses did not differ between species. Fear of fireworks frequently resulted in dogs exhibiting active fear behaviours, whereas cats were more likely to exhibit hiding and cowering behaviours. A significantly increased severity and duration of fear response over time in dogs and cats was associated with owners who comforted them when they displayed a fearful response. Only 141/890 (15.8%) of owners sought professional treatment from a veterinarian, animal behaviourist or animal trainer for their animals, with variable efficacy. Six percent (51/923) of animals had received physical injuries from fireworks. The majority (837/1,007; 83%) of respondents, regardless of whether they owned a fearful animal or not, supported a ban on the sale of fireworks for private use. The results provide valuable information that is, as yet, unsubstantiated in New Zealand, although potential biases exist due to the non-random selection of respondents. Differences between dogs and cats were likely due to differing responses to fear-provoking stimuli between the species. Owner-reported increase in fearful response over time for comforted animals may indicate a negative impact on the longer-term psychological welfare of their animal. The greater the awareness of effective treatment plans for animals that suffer from a fear of fireworks, the greater the possibility that this fear can be reduced. Wider dissemination of effective owner behaviour and treatment programmes for firework fears is needed to improve levels of professional treatment for dogs and cats.
... The caregiver placebo effect may be defined as a perceived benefit to a patient, as reported by the owner and/or caregiver, while the patient was receiving a placebo. This effect is not unique to this trial and has been noted in studies of other treatments for orthopedic disease (Conzemius and Evans, 2012;Malek et al., 2012;Gruen et al., 2017) as well as trials for behavioral therapies (King et al., 2000;Simpson et al., 2007;Cottam and Dodman, 2009). Strictly speaking, the caregiver placebo effect on subjective outcome measures, as reported by the owner and/or caregiver, would be accompanied by a lack of significant improvement on an objective outcome measure (Conzemius and Evans, 2012). ...
... In that study, both the lined cape and the unlined (placebo) cape resulted in improvement on a global assessment of dogs' behavior. The authors postulated that one contributing cause could be a change in owner expectations and thus their body language and behavior, resulting in a change in the dogs' behavior (Cottam and Dodman, 2009). ...
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Trazodone hydrochloride is an atypical antidepressant that has entered clinical use for dogs and cats for a variety of indications. These include management of anxiety disorders, facilitation of travel and veterinary examinations, and facilitation of calm behavior in hospitalized and postoperative patients. Despite the increasingly common use of trazodone in dogs, very little literature exists evaluating trazodone's efficacy against a placebo control. The aim of the study reported here was to evaluate trazodone in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial for use in facilitating calmness and ease of confinement in postoperative dogs. The study enrolled 29 dogs (14 in the trazodone group and 15 in the placebo group) and followed them during 4 postoperative weeks. Trazodone was well tolerated by dogs in the trazodone group. Although dogs in both groups were rated as improved on some behavioral measures, no difference was found between the trazodone and placebo groups in efficacy, with more than 70% of owners in both groups rating the test article (trazodone or placebo) as moderately or extremely helpful for facilitating both calming and crating of their dog. This observed lack of efficacy, over placebo, may be attributed to one or more of several factors that include features about the trial itself and the trial population, a caregiver or placebo-by-proxy effect, a lack of sensitive outcome measures for assessment, or a lack of true efficacy for the medication. It is concluded that future work will be needed to address these factors, and this report aims to provide not only results but lessons learned from the conduct of the described trial.
... Although there are efficacious pharmacological treatments for canine ThP (Crowell-Davis et al., 2003), not all owners want to rely on using medication. One nonpharmacological treatment option, Storm Defender, which has supposed antistatic properties, was already tested and found to be efficacious (Cottam and Dodman, 2009), but an additional efficacious nonpharmacological treatment for this condition would provide yet another option. ...
... The percent reduction in clinical signs and owner satisfaction rating of the Anxiety Wrap are most similar to the findings of Crowell-Davis et al., (2003) who tested the efficacy of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification in treating ThP and reported a 52% decrease in a ThP anxiety score (that was generated in a similar fashion to the anxiety score used in this trial), and 94% of owners reported some degree of behavioral improvement. In the only other study that looked at treatment effectiveness for canine ThP, the Storm Defender (Storm Defender, LLC, Fairfield, OH) was associated with a 63% reduction in an anxiety score by the fourth use of the product (however, this was not statistically different from the percent reduction associated with the use of a placebo Storm Defender [without the antistatic lining], which was 36% at fourth use), and 70% of owners reported improvement to some degree (Cottam and Dodman, 2009). ...
... A range of interventions of varying efficacy have been used primarily focused on desensitisation and counterconditioning combined with one or both of psychotropic drugs and natural products, such as pheromones (Crowell-Davis and others 2003, Mills and others 2003, Sheppard and Mills 2003, Levine and others 2007, Levine and Mills 2008, Sherman and Mills 2008. Several non-pharmacological treatments, such as the Storm Defender Cape (Cottam and Dodman, 2009), Anxiety Wrap (Cottam and others 2013) and Harmonease (DePorter and others 2012), have been studied for the management of storm-related disorders in dogs. Importantly, many of the studies using drugs or natural therapeutics in veterinary behavioural medicine do not include placebo control. ...
... In fact, during the course of the thunder exposure, dogs may shift between the two strategies. These behaviours are consistent with avoidance and freezing signs displayed by pet dogs when exposed to fear-evoking sounds (Cottam and Dodman 2009, Cracknell and Mills 2011, Blackwell and others 2013. Variability in response may reflect individual differences related to personality, previous experience and age, with young dogs, especially those that are naïve to the thunder model, being more likely to respond with increased activity than older dogs. ...
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The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. British Veterinary Association.
... Interpretations of dog behavior are also common in the growing number of studies on dog cognition and behavior, as well as clinical veterinary studies and behavior genetics studies (e.g. Cottam & Dodman, 2009;Kubinyi et al., in preparation;Vas, Topál, Gácsi, Miklósi, & Csányi, 2005 ...
... The use of owner ratings is common in studies related to the efficacy of treatment for behavioral problems of companion animal (Sheppard and Mills, 2003;Gaultier et al., 2005;Cottam and Dodman, 2009;Irimajiri et al., 2009), and have certain benefits to researchers. The researchers can produce a large amount of information in a short period and at a relatively low cost, which is advantageous when trying to generate adequate sample sizes for statistical power (Meagher, 2009). ...
Article
A blinded and randomized study was carried out to investigate whether dog owners would report different treatment effects depending on whether they knew they might be administering a placebo, versus if they knew they were definitely administering a homeopathic remedy. A secondary aim was to determine the consistency of owner reports of treatment effect across multiple trial periods. A total of 73 dogs with a stable, predictable, and easily assessable response to firework noises were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive 1 of the 2 homeopathic preparations along with a basic behavior modification program. Treatment A was a homeopathic treatment formulated for firework noise sensitivity that had previously been tested in a placebo-controlled study by the authors, and Treatment B was a different formulation for the same condition. The same allocated treatment was trialed on 2 occasions by all participants to allow assessment of owner-report reliability. It was found that knowledge of participating in a placebo-controlled trial had no effect on the owners’ perception of treatment effect, and that their reports of effect were consistent across both trial periods. No specific effect of homeopathic treatment was found in this study; however, it was observed that the reported behavioral effects that followed each treatment were similar across the 2 firework periods, but that there was a consistently different pattern of behavioral effects reported between Treatment groups A and B. These results might be ascribed to either a treatment or population effect. We suggest that examination of the consistency of owner-reported effects within and between treatments may be used as part of the suite of methodologies available to investigate whether any specific effect can be ascribed to homeopathic interventions.
... The potential placebo effect noted in this study is observed in many blind and double-blind studies in which owners are advised of what they might expect to see if their dog is in the active treatment group (Dodman et al., 2004;Cottam and Dodman, 2009). This powerful effect clouds the data acquired and decreases the power of the analysis. ...
... 9,10,28-30 Physical: Wraps that apply pressure around the dog's body use a swaddling effect that may be calming. 31,32 Dietary: Low-protein (18%) diet and/or tryptophan supplementation may reduce some forms of aggression. 12 Nutraceutical supplements, such as L-theanine 14 or alpha-casozepine, or a commercial diet containing both alpha-casozepine and tryptophan, 14 S-Adenosyl methionine (SAM-e), or melatonin may reduce aggression. ...
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This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided.
... Por su parte, Mugford (2007) indica que un gran número de problemas de conducta se relaciona con la fobia y la ansiedad. las fobias más comunes son las asociadas a ruidos intensos como los disparos, fuegos artificiales (pirotecnia) o truenos (Cottam & Dodman, 2009). Comprenden un temor desproporcionado en relación con el peligro que los estímulos representan y generalmente aumentan a medida que se incrementa la intensidad del estímulo que las provoca (overall, Dunham & Frank, 2001). ...
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Coexistence between humans and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) can be affected by the presence of behavioural problems. These mainly relate to aggression, fear and separation anxiety, and to a lesser extent to compulsive disorders. Alterations associated with aggression are the most socially worrying because of the risk to humans. In this review the behavioural pattern of each type of alteration as well as some of the factors that are associated with their development are described. Finally, evidence from various behavioural treatments is reviewed and possible contributions from psychological science are discussed.
... On this basis, a fourth paper (Fish et al., 2017) that looked at the effect of fitting a telemetry vest (the authors report snuggly fitting these spandex vests) on physiological and behavioural parameters of dogs exposed to a stressor was also included. A fifth paper (Cottam and Dodman, 2009) was identified that also used an item of torso clothing (a cape) to use reduce stress in dogs naturalistically exposed to thunderstorms. However, this study was devised to examine the effects of an anti-static lining, and both the control and the experimental dogs wore capes (both of which reduced the anxiety levels of dogs exposed to thunderstorms). ...
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strong>PICO question In fearful or anxious dogs does wearing a pressure vest, compared to not wearing one, result in reduced behavioural and physiological signs of stress? Clinical bottom line Four studies of variable quality and limitations were identified that investigated the use of pressure vests, using various physiological and behavioural proxy measures of anxiety. Most behavioural outcome measures associated with a positive effect were subjective assessments, with unblinded assessors. Subjectively, many of the owners believed that pressure vests had a positive effect on their dogs’ anxiety levels. The take home message for the veterinary professional is that pressure vests may have small but beneficial effects on canine anxiety and that habituating the dog to the vest, assessing for comfort and using repeatedly may improve the likelihood of any benefit. However, the owner should be cautioned that they should not expect their dog’s anxiety to be fully alleviated or prevented, and it may have no beneficial effect at all. </p
... The information collected through the diagnosis records should help determine the risk that the animal represents to the family and the community and to decide on the treatment of the biting animal. General treatment recommendations for human-directed canine aggression must include client education, avoidance of situations that trigger aggressive behavior, communication, positive reinforcement training, response substitution, consistent positive and predictable interactions, desensitizationecounter conditioning (DCC), avoidance of positive punishment, appropriate use of negative punishment, anxiolytics such as pheromones (Gaultier and Peageat, 2003;Tod et al., 2005;Mills et al., 2006;Levine et al., 2006;Kim et al., 2010), physical activity (Cottam and Dodman, 2009;Cottam and Dodman, 2013), dietary supplements (Dodman et al., 1996;Araujo et al., 2010;Dodman et al., 2013), pharmaceutical therapy, acupuncture, music therapy, aromatherapy (Wells, 2006), homeopathy (Cracknell and Mills, 2008;DePorter et al., 2012), grooming (McGreevy et al., 2005, herbal preparations (Fugh-Berman and Ernst, 2001), castration (Neilson et al., 1997), and ovariohysterectomy (O'Farrell and Peachey, 1990;Kim et al., 2006). ...
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Incidence of Fear-Related Behavior Problems Assessment and Evaluation of Fear-Related Problems Contributions of Learning What is Fear? Innate and Acquired Fear Fear and Conditioning Anxiety Phobia Expectancy Bias Prediction and Control Efficacy Expectancies Primal Sensory Modalities Mediating Attraction and Aversion Play and Fear References
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The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of two self-help CD based desensitization and counter-conditioning programmes with the use of Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) for the treatment of firework fears in dogs and to evaluate the training progress and owner compliance. Fifty-four individuals were recruited for an 8-week period of training between August and October 2004. The dogs were separated into two treatment groups, each using a different CD based programme. After implementing the CD programme for the 8-week period without any personalized instruction, two telephone follow-up interviews were completed after periods during which fireworks are commonly used (November and January). Forty-two individuals completed the first 4 weeks of training and 38 completed the 8-week training period. Thirty-six individuals completed the first follow-up interview with 29 completing the second follow-up interview. Assessment of efficacy was measured using both owner reports of its natural response (i.e. the dog's behaviour in the home) and video footage of behaviour in response to a novel recording of the problem sound (i.e. the dog's behaviour in the behaviour clinic) pre- and post-treatment.
Article
The Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training series provides a coherent and integrated approach to understanding and controlling dog behavior. In Volume 3, various themes introduced in Volumes 1 and 2 are expanded upon, especially causally significant social, biological, and behavioral influences that impact on the etiology of behavior problems and their treatment. Ethological observations, relevant behavioral and neurobiological research, and dog behavior clinical findings are reviewed and critiqued in detail. Many of the training concepts, procedures, and protocols described have not been previously published, making this book a unique contribution to dog behavior and training literature.
Article
Placebos have doubtless been used for centuries by wise physicians as well as by quacks, but it is only recently that recognition of an enquiring kind has been given the clinical circumstance where the use of this tool is essential "... to distinguish pharmacological effects from the effects of suggestion, and... to obtain an unbiased assessment of the result of experiment." It is interesting that Pepper could say as recently as 10 years ago "apparently there has never been a paper published discussing [primarily] the important subject of the placebo." In 1953 Gaddum1 said: Such tablets are sometimes called placebos, but it is better to call them dummies. According to the Shorter Oxford Dictionary the word placebo has been used since 1811 to mean a medicine given more to please than to benefit the patient. Dummy tablets are not particularly noted for the pleasure which they give to their recipients.
Article
Companion dogs commonly experience states of anxiety, fears, and phobias. Separation anxiety and noise aversions, as discussed in this article, are especially prevalent. Veterinarians are encouraged to recognize and treat such conditions on first presentation to address welfare issues and optimize successful management. New data suggest new treatment modalities, including behavioral management, pharmacotherapy, and species-specific pheromone use. Failure to treat can result in disruption of the human-animal bond and subsequent abandonment, relinquishment, or even euthanasia of the affected dog.
Article
Fear is a whole body response that may result in behavioral, physiologic, and emotional adaptations that function to protect the animal. Adaptive fear responses occur in the context of threat and are appropriate for the particular response requirements of the fear-provoking situation. Maladaptive fear responses occur out of context or in excess of the demands of the situation. Recent evidence implicates dysregulation of the brain noradrenergic system in the pathophysiology of fear disorders. Noise phobias in dogs meet the criteria of a phobia. Clinical and early laboratory findings suggest there may be inherent individual predispositions in dogs for the development of these disorders. It has been suggested that noise phobic dogs have a auditory sensitivity to particular sounds. Treatment of noise phobias should focus on reducing the response to the phobic sound rather than on the behaviors exhibited during the fear response.
Article
Twenty, 6 to 9 kg Yorkshire piglets were used in 2 trials. Ten piglets received an IM injection of naltrexone at a dose of 1 to 1.3 mg/kg. Ten control pigs received saline. Blind behavioral testing in a "squeeze chute" was conducted 40 minutes after injection. The "squeeze chute" consists of two padded plywood panels hinged on a base to form a V. Each pig was squeezed for 60 seconds. After release, each pig remained in the padded V for 10 minutes. There was sufficient room for the pigs to walk a few steps. Both naltrexone- and saline-treated pigs eventually crouched down in the chute and relaxed against the padded sides of the V. Naltrexone-pretreated pigs had a longer latency to achieve relaxation--311.8 +/- 47.8 seconds vs. 161.8 +/- 30.38 seconds (SE) (p less than 0.02). Each stage of relaxation at induction was rated on a 1-4 scale (1 = squealing and jumping, 4 = relaxed quietly). Naltrexone-treated pigs had significantly lower relaxation ratings than saline-treated pigs (1.90 vs. 3.20) (p less than 0.01). Treatment had no effect on the final degree of relaxation. Naltrexone partially blocked the relaxation response.
Article
One symptom common to many persons with autism is a high arousal or anxiety level. This study investigated the effects of deep pressure on arousal and anxiety reduction in autism with Grandin's Hug Machine, a device that allows self-administration of lateral body pressure. Twelve children with autism were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (receiving deep pressure) or a placebo group (not receiving deep pressure but in the disengaged Hug Machine). All children received two 20-min sessions a week over a 6-week period. Arousal was measured behaviorally with the Conners Parent Rating Scale and physiologically with galvanic skin response (GSR) readings. Behavioral results indicated a significant reduction in tension and a marginally significant reduction in anxiety for children who received the deep pressure compared with the children who did not. Additionally, children in the experimental group, whose GSR measures decreased, on average, after deep pressure, were somewhat more likely to have higher GSR arousal a priori. These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that deep pressure may have a calming effect for persons with autism, especially those with high levels of arousal or anxiety.
Article
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a treatment protocol for obsessive-compulsive disorder, separation anxiety and noise phobia in dogs. A study was undertaken to assess clinical responses in 24 dogs diagnosed with one or more of three behavioural disorders stated above to a treatment regimen that included clomipramine and behaviour modification. A detailed behavioural and clinical history was obtained for each dog. Obsessive-compulsive disorder was diagnosed in nine cases: primary presenting complaints were tail-chasing, shadow-chasing, circling and chewing; one case was diagnosed with concurrent separation anxiety. Separation anxiety was diagnosed in 14 cases: presenting complaints included destruction, vocalisation and escaping in the absence of the owner; four cases also exhibited noise phobia. The study also included one dog diagnosed with noise phobia only and another with inappropriate fear responses. Clomipramine was administered orally twice daily. The starting dose was 1 to 2 mg/kg bodyweight. The dose was increased incrementally to a maximum of 4 mg/kg if needed. A behaviour modification program was designed and the owner instructed on its implementation. Dogs continued medication for at least 1 month after clinical signs disappeared or were acceptably reduced, then withdrawal of medication was attempted by decreasing drug dosage at weekly intervals while behaviour modification continued. The presenting clinical sign was largely improved or disappeared in 16 dogs, 5 demonstrated slight to moderate improvement and the behaviour was unchanged in 3. Clomipramine withdrawal was attempted in nine cases: this was successful in five. Clomipramine was effective and well-tolerated in controlling signs of obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or separation anxiety and/or noise phobia in 16 of 24 assessable cases, when used in combination with behaviour modification, and improvement in clinical signs was noted in 5 others.
Article
NOISE fears are a common behavioural problem in dogs ([Overall 1997][1], [2002][2], [Beaver 1999][3], [Landsberg and others 2003][4]) that can reduce the animal's welfare significantly ([Beerda and others 1997][5], [Ladewig 2000][6], [Dreschel 2004][7], [Hydbring-Sandberg and others 2004][8], [
An analysis of the relationship between the history of development of sensitivity to loud noises and behavioural signs in domestic dogs
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Iimura, K., Mills, D.S., Levine, E., 2007. An analysis of the relationship between the history of development of sensitivity to loud noises and behavioural signs in domestic dogs. In: Landsberg, G., Mattiello, S., Mills, D. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Veterinary Behaviour Meeting and European College of Veterinary Behavioural Medicine-Companion Animals and European Society of Veterinary Clinical Ethology, Fondazionne Iniziative Zooprofilattiche e Zootechniche, Brescia, pp. 70-71.
Thunderstruck. In: The Dog Who Loved Too Much, Bantam Books
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Dodman, N.H., 1996. Thunderstruck. In: The Dog Who Loved Too Much, Bantam Books, NY, pp. 123–144.
Placebo response in studies of major depression
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Walsh, T.B., Seidman, S.N., Sysko, R., Gould, M., 2002. Placebo response in studies of major depression. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 1480-1487.
An analysis of the relationship between the history of development of sensitivity to loud noises and behavioural signs in domestic dogs
  • Iimura
Fears and phobias (Chapter 3)
  • Lindsay
Placebo response in studies of major depression
  • Walsh