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This study analysed the cat–human relationship paying attention to the quality of life (QoL) of 62 cats. QoL was assessed as being low, medium and high, using: (1) four questionnaires which investigated care, cat behaviour, cat and owner features, (2) a simple physical examination of the cat and (3) the Lexington attachment to pets scale (LAPS) test. The investigation revealed a medium QoL for about 87.2% of the pets. Although most of the cats received a good quality of care and were in good physical condition, only 16.1% did not show abnormal behaviour. The level of QoL results to be influenced by the cohabitation with conspecifics. The level of care given to the cat is greatly influenced by the gender, the education, the previous experience, the real ownership, the number of friends and of emotional bonds of the owner to people and by the gonadectomy (P

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... To facilitate comparison between dogs and cats, breed, age, the amount of time it had been left with the mother and age of acquisition were classified in categories as showed in Table S2. In order to define the dog's personality, we used 15 descriptors selected from the bibliography [5,6,8,9,11,19,21] rated on a 6-point scale from 0 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree): playful; loving; sociable; shy; aggressive; calm; independent; lazy; fearful; patient; hyperactive; noisy; territorial; protective; and jealous. • Section C contained the same questions as Section B, but about the cat. ...
... Moreover, there are different human perceptions and knowledge of dog and cat personalities. First, behavioural traits of dogs are widely recognised [9,17,35], while cats' personalities, behavioural needs, sociality, and cat-human communication are still poorly understood [9,19,36]. Cats may use different communication tools from dogs [20]. The latter may mislead the owner regarding the interpretation of behavioural traits of the two species. ...
... The latter may mislead the owner regarding the interpretation of behavioural traits of the two species. Cats may be more selective in social interactions, such as controlling the relationship with humans and may tend to look at the human less than dogs [19,20]. The owner could interpret these cat attitudes as a lack of sociability, opportunism, being timid, or independence. ...
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This study aims to define the personality traits perceived by the owners of multiple pets and to evaluate how they are modulated by experiential-environmental factors. A questionnaire was administered to 1270 owners of multiple pets (dogs and cats) to collect data on the demographics, management, and personality of their pets. Data were analysed by principal component analysis, bivariate, and multivariable models. Five personality traits emerged in dogs and cats: sociability, reactivity, protectiveness, neuroticism, and fearfulness. The owners perceived differences in the personality of their pet: dogs scored higher in sociability, protectiveness, and reactivity, while lower in the neuroticism dimension compared with cats (p < 0.001). Age similarly affected sociability (p < 0.01), and reactivity (p < 0.001) in both dogs and cats, while species-specific gender differences were found as to fearfulness (p < 0.05) and neuroticism (p < 0.001). The age of acquisition modulated several traits in dog personality, while living with conspecifics especially influenced cats. Physiological, behavioural, and evolutionary characteristics could explain species differences. Moreover, intrinsic and extrinsic factors modulated the five dimensions of dogs and cats in a diversified fashion, suggesting complex interactions between species and the environment. However, owners could have had different attitudes with their animals which could have influenced personality perception.
... Nine studies were cross-sectional surveys (the most common study design) and incorporated analytical and/or descriptive elements. 2,18,25,26,28,40,[44][45][46] Of the six remaining studies, four were observational analytic cohorts (comprising one exclusively survey-based study 47 and three including biological sampling [48][49][50]. The final two studies were retrospective and based on information gathered during behavioural consultations (one analytic 51 and one purely descriptive 52 ). ...
... Details reported for both humans and cats varied but were generally brief. Human demographic information *Reported links for one paper 52 were purely descriptive included the total numbers of individuals participating and their country of origin, with the exception of those 2,26,40,44,45 where additional information such as the proportion of male/female respondents, their age ranges, average number of cats owned and ownership period were also mentioned. In general, slightly more demographic information was provided for cats including their ages, sex, breed, neuter and health status, whether declawed and source of origin. ...
... 25,44,46 Collected measures relevant to the cat's social and physical environment also varied in nature and detail across studies, from a broad range of measures 45,46 to only a few. 25,40,49,51,52 Measures included the absolute number of cats and humans per household and also per m 2 within a household, neighbourhood cat density (known number of cats from other households in the immediate area), amount of human handling and time left alone each day, owner social behaviour and perceived quality Group sizes within 'multi-cat' groups that were compared with singly housed cats varied both within and across studies. For example, in one study, outcome measures for singly housed cats were compared with those from cats housed in pairs. 2 In another, measures for singly housed cats were compared with those from cats housed in multi-cat groups that ranged from two up to 30 cats per 'multi-cat' group. ...
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Objectives: The primary objective of this review was to conduct a systematic critical appraisal of published literature, in order to assess the evidence regarding the impact of cat group size on cat wellbeing in the domestic home. The secondary objectives were to: (i) identify additional social and environmental mediators of cat wellbeing in these contexts; and (ii) identify general limitations within the current evidence and provide recommendations for future studies. Methods: A systematic search of electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar) was conducted using targeted Boolean phrasing. Papers were retained for appraisal of full text where they included a comparison of both single (n = 1) and multi-cat (n ⩾2) domestic housing conditions and/or comparison of different multi-cat group sizes, within a single study; or where they compared outcome measures that were either behavioural and/or physiological and deemed as relevant indicators of cat wellbeing. Results: A total of 1334 unique papers were returned, 15 of which were retained. Of these papers, only four stated their primary aim to be an investigation of links between cat group size and cat wellbeing. Overall, the reviewed papers did not indicate consistent directions of effects regarding cat group size and outcome measures relevant to wellbeing. This was similar for the other social and environmental mediators identified. Conclusions and relevance: Inconsistency in results is likely due to the substantial methodological variation, limitations in measures used as indicators of wellbeing and limitations in general study designs and reporting. Results also highlight the complex, multifactorial relationships between cat wellbeing and various social and environmental factors. These may be as, if not more, important than absolute numbers of cats residing within a household. Due to the various limitations and general paucity of research, further studies are recommended to provide a suitable evidence base regarding impacts of multi-cat living on cat wellbeing in domestic environments.
... However, Rothman et al. (2013) argue that in such situations the results of the associated factors remain valid helping to seed hypotheses and give a push toward scientific understanding. Most of our owners were females, as observed in previous studies ( Adamelli et al., 2005 ;Lue et al., 2008 ;Ramón et al., 2010 ). As expected, the emotional closeness level was higher in females, which has already been extensively reported ( Adamelli et al., 2005 ;Lue et al., 2008 ;Ramón et al., 2010 ;Martins et al., 2014 ). ...
... Most of our owners were females, as observed in previous studies ( Adamelli et al., 2005 ;Lue et al., 2008 ;Ramón et al., 2010 ). As expected, the emotional closeness level was higher in females, which has already been extensively reported ( Adamelli et al., 2005 ;Lue et al., 2008 ;Ramón et al., 2010 ;Martins et al., 2014 ). Women seem to have a more intense relationship with cats than men ( Mertens, 1991 ;Adamelli et al., 2005 ). ...
... As expected, the emotional closeness level was higher in females, which has already been extensively reported ( Adamelli et al., 2005 ;Lue et al., 2008 ;Ramón et al., 2010 ;Martins et al., 2014 ). Women seem to have a more intense relationship with cats than men ( Mertens, 1991 ;Adamelli et al., 2005 ). In addition, women appear to be more concerned about their cats' physical and behavioral well-being, and usually spend more time interacting with their animals ( Heidenberger, 1997 ;Adamelli et al., 2005 ). ...
Article
Evidence supports that cats’ behavior influences the level of emotional closeness between the animals and the owners. In some circumstances, a bad relationship can result in neglecting, mistreating, or abandoning the animal. We aimed to assess the level of emotional closeness between the owners and their cats in Brazil, evaluate some specific human-cat interactions based on the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS), and to evaluate the association between the owner's level of emotional closeness and the presence of unacceptable behavior in Brazilian cats. A cross-sectional study design was used to selected Brazilian cat owners through snowball sampling in social networks. Owners answered an online survey adapted from the (CORS) containing additional questions regarding the cat-owner environment and behavior. Five hundred owners answered the survey, and the mean cat-owner level of emotional closeness in our population was 3.94 ± 0.66. Most of the interviewees were female, and the level of emotional closeness was higher in this group than in male owners. As expected, factors such as having other pets, attributing more characteristics to the animal, and frequent visits to the veterinarian were directly associated with a higher level of emotional closeness by the owner. No association was found between the owner's emotional closeness level and the presence of aggression, excessive vocalization, or inappropriate elimination in the cat. Surprisingly, owners of cats that do not scratch the furniture had a lower level of emotional closeness compared to those reporting this inappropriate behavior. In summary, the human-cat emotional bond in our Brazilian cohort was considered medium to high. Our study adds new insights into cat-human emotional bonds and confirms this interaction in Brazil.
... Females provide more caretaking behaviours to cats than males [20,32]. ...
... Females are reportedly more likely to be "cat people" [37] than males and are also reported to have more intense relationships with cats [30], suggesting that females are more likely to have a close relationship with a cat. G Women are more likely to be a cat's primary caregiver and to be sensitive to the cat's physical and ethological needs [32]. Females are more likely to be cat semi-owners or colony caretakers than males [12,21]. ...
... J Cat sociability and time spent with owner are increased with a female owner [32], implying that females interact with cats more than males. Therefore, females may be more likely to show more interaction behaviours towards a cat than males. ...
Article
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The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans' relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers' relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception). Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat's care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59%) fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception was proposed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. This model consisted of a set of variables proposed as directly or indirectly influencing ownership perception, with connecting arrows to indicate proposed causal relationships. Understanding ownership perception and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intake is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats.
... The general profile of the owners in this study was predominantly female, well educated, unmarried (i.e., 'single' or 'in a relationship'), with no children or other pets, and they had owned cats before. These findings are largely compatible with past surveys [34][35][36][37][38]. However, previous choices for 'marital status' were binary (either 'single' or 'married') [34,38], while the current respondents could also choose 'in a relationship', which many did, helping to debunk the cultural archetype of cat owners as lonely single women [39]. ...
... These findings are largely compatible with past surveys [34][35][36][37][38]. However, previous choices for 'marital status' were binary (either 'single' or 'married') [34,38], while the current respondents could also choose 'in a relationship', which many did, helping to debunk the cultural archetype of cat owners as lonely single women [39]. However, it also seems that women are often more likely to respond to surveys [40]. ...
... While the majority of owners in the current study were experienced cat owners, NP cat owners were more likely to be first-time owners compared to the other groups. This may be attributed to the more spontaneous nature of acquiring a NP cat, typically by rescuing it as a stray or by the cat 'adopting' the owner, without the owner necessarily intending to own a cat [34,44,45]. In comparison, to acquire a pedigree cat, owners are required to be more proactive, deciding on a specific breed, and the acquisition itself may require a more comprehensive process (i.e., being more likely to need pre-purchase visits to breeders, breed-specific rescues, or the need to save up to afford a particular breed). ...
Article
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Background: Cats are globally popular pets and pedigree cats are increasingly prevalent, with brachycephalic breeds being the most registered breeds. How owners decide upon and acquire their cats is poorly understood. Moreover, there are growing concerns about the health and welfare of brachycephalic (BC) dogs and recent studies are raising the awareness of health and welfare problems in BC cats. Methods: An online survey investigated owners’ motivations, perceptions and behaviours prior to, during and following acquisition of non-pedigree (NP), extreme brachycephalic pedigree (BC; i.e., Persian and Exotic Shorthair) and mild to non-BC pedigree (P) cats. Results: The survey received 1367 valid responses (NP n = 882, P n = 400, BC n = 85 (6.2%)). There were marked differences between NP, P and BC owners’ perception of their cats’ health and welfare, reason(s) for acquisition and its process. Owners of NP were less influenced by appearance, behaviour and other features than P or BC owners. In contrast, P and BC owners were highly influenced by appearance, with P owners also placing greater importance on good breed health than BC owners. BC owners were less likely to recommend their breeds to prospective cat owners, apparently concerned by high maintenance requirements. Conclusion: Further research is needed to determine how decision-making is constructed and how it may be improved, especially in respect of welfare outcomes for extreme BC cats given the increased weighting given to appearance over health.
... Nine papers considered multiple social relationships between humans, cats and/or dogs. The three papers covering cat, dog and human interaction used survey methodology to consider the overall home environment, which included cat-owner interaction and, briefly, the presence of other cats or dogs (Adamelli et al., 2005;Heidenberger, 1997;Shyan-Norwalt, 2005). ...
... This may be problematic as solely indoor cats do not have the opportunity to seek out provisions or items to meet their needs. Adamelli et al. (2005) found owner gender, education, previous experience and number of friends were major factors influencing the care provided for cats and thus the cat's quality of life. ...
... In addition to physical provisions and resources, there is a social relationship between the cat and the owner. This dyad has been suggested as more important than cat-cat dyads, or the physical environment in impacting welfare (Adamelli et al., 2005;Lichtsteiner and Turner, 2008;Ramos et al., 2012). The cat-owner relationship seems in many instances to be beneficial to the cat although this is not necessarily always the case (Finka et al., 2019). ...
Article
Cats are one of the world’s most populous companion animals, yet little is known about how the home environment is adapted relative to their needs. Outdoor access is thought to be beneficial for both the physical and mental wellbeing of cats, yet as urbanisation increases, reducing owner access to outdoor spaces, an increasing number of cats are kept strictly indoors. The impact of an indoor lifestyle on feline behaviour and welfare is little explored and poorly understood. This study used a systematic review to assess scientifically validated knowledge concerning social and physical environments and their implications for indoor cats. A total of 61 papers were analysed. Only n = 21 papers directly addressed at-home indoor scenarios with the remainder consisting of shelter/cattery (n = 27) or laboratory (n = 16) (some papers explored multiple environments). Across studies there was little evidence of rigour or systematically controlled approaches. Methods frequently used were cat-stress-scores (CSS) and ethograms, neither of which were consistently standardised, substantially reducing the ability to compare findings among studies. Numerous studies explored similar variables (i.e. provision of hiding space (n = 9)) yielding little additional knowledge. Measures of welfare and behaviour were often assessed using single parameters in controlled environments. Although this may be useful and applicable to cat experiences within shelters, catteries and laboratories, the findings do not necessarily translate to dynamic and variable household environments. Major findings include the benefits of enrichment such as hiding boxes and vertical resting spaces, as often recommended by veterinarians and feline charities. However, other advice provided, such as the provision of feeding enrichment for psychological welfare, although not necessarily disputed, appears to be scientifically untested. Additionally, despite the social environment being likely to have a substantial effect on cat welfare, it is particularly under-studied in the home, especially in terms of its complexity (e.g. presence of young children or dogs). Overall, the review identified substantial gaps relative to cat experiences and welfare in multifactorial home environments. Understanding the impact of indoor lifestyles and promoting mechanisms to minimise any negative impacts whilst promoting positive ones, remains an important, yet underexplored, area of research.
... Katter är normalt känsliga för förändringar (Adamelli et al., 2005). Det är därför logiskt att såväl ankomsten till Kattstallet som en senare adoption kan leda till oro hos de aktuella katterna. ...
... Det har tidigare föreslagits att skygga katter kan ha lättare för att anpassa sig i små hushåll (Turner, 2000). I en studie av Adamelli et al. (2005) återfanns också de mest sociala katterna i små hushåll utan barn. Däremot kunde det inte konstateras om detta fenomen berodde på att små hushåll har lättare för att skapa starkare band till sina katter eller om katterna trivdes bättre i en lugnare miljö (Adamelli et al., 2005). ...
... I en studie av Adamelli et al. (2005) återfanns också de mest sociala katterna i små hushåll utan barn. Däremot kunde det inte konstateras om detta fenomen berodde på att små hushåll har lättare för att skapa starkare band till sina katter eller om katterna trivdes bättre i en lugnare miljö (Adamelli et al., 2005). Inkomna enkätsvar i denna studie visar endast en väldigt knapp skillnad vad gäller såväl antalet personer i hushållet som antalet personer som deltagit i skötseln av katten under dess första tid i hemmet. ...
... Mental well-being: Many behavioural needs of cats, such as hunting, territorial patrolling and marking, roaming, and climbing may be more readily met in an outdoor environment [11]. Whilst owners may instead aim to meet their cat's behavioural needs indoors, studies suggest many cat owners may not provide adequate levels of enrichment to ensure high welfare for their cat [31][32][33]. Insufficient levels of enrichment and the inability to avoid stressful human-social environments indoors [34,35] may contribute towards the comparatively higher levels of undesirable and sickness behaviours observed in indoor-only cats, compared to indoor-outdoor cats [5,8,[36][37][38], although it has been reported in one instance that indoor-outdoor cats may display more undesirable behaviours [31]. With regards to owner attitudes, an Australian study revealed most indoor-outdoor cat owners felt wandering was natural and necessary for cats to be 'happy' [19]. ...
... A UK study found 63% of UK owners with indoor cats felt it was unsafe for their cat to be outdoors [52]. An Australian study found 75.4% of cat owners felt keeping cats contained was important to protect them from injury [33]. Whilst a New Zealand study found 45% of people who kept their cats indoors at night did so due to safety [53]. ...
... Consequently, in Australia and New Zealand, there are large feral populations which have been estimated as being more numerous than owned cat populations [59], and cats are classed as an invasive species [41]. Many studies in Australia and New Zealand have investigated the attitudes of both cat owners and non-owners towards wildlife depredation and have repeatedly found it is a concern for both [33,60,61]. The management of cats has previously been found to reflect this concern, with many owners in these regions restricting outdoor access entirely or at certain times of the day [33,51], echoing the findings of this study. ...
Article
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Outdoor access for owned domestic cats (Felis catus) is a divisive issue. Cat safety, mental and physical wellbeing, infectious diseases, and wildlife depredation are cited as factors influencing owners; however, the degree of consideration each factor receives has not been quantified. This study (i) analysed which demographic variables are associated with greater odds of cats having indoor or outdoor lifestyles, (ii) identified which factors owners consider when making a choice on lifestyle and any regional variations, and (iii) identified if owners consider the different lifestyle options available and recognise their associated benefits. A series of online surveys were used for data collection. Binary logistic regression models were used to generate odds ratios assessing if demographic variables were significantly associated with cat lifestyle. Quantitative analysis of factors considered when deciding on cat lifestyle was accompanied by a thematic analysis of rich-text open-ended responses, providing nuanced insight into the rationale and elucidating additional factors considered. Of the demographic variables tested, 10/12 were significantly associated with lifestyle. Variables with higher odds of indoor-only lifestyles were owners being 26-35 years old, multi-cat households,
... However, some of these studies involved cats living in groups rather than family pets , while others concentrated on specific behaviors belonging to a single scenario (such as feeding, Bradshaw and Cook, 1996); or to such, seemingly odd features (at least from the aspect of behavior/personality, as coat color (Delgado et al., 2012). In general, in the case of companion cats, there is a lack of larger scale assessments (but see Adamelli et al., 2005) that would include several aspects of the cat-owner interaction and the assessment of the cat's socio-cognitive capacities by the owner (unlike in dogs, where such questionnaires have been evaluated and published in the past (Hsu and Serpell, 2003;Turcsán et al., 2011). ...
... Although neutering/spaying did not have a significant effect on the friendliness of cats with strangers, this interaction with the owners' education level showed that in male cats neutering apparently resulted in higher friendliness scores. Other studies also showed that the behavior of male cats can change after neutering, meanwhile the behavior of females did not change significantly after spayingwith the exception of the estrus related behaviors (Adamelli et al., 2005). We can hypothesize that because the neutered male cats roam less (Adamelli et al., 2005;Hart and Barrett, 1973), their increased presence at home can make a friendlier impression. ...
... Other studies also showed that the behavior of male cats can change after neutering, meanwhile the behavior of females did not change significantly after spayingwith the exception of the estrus related behaviors (Adamelli et al., 2005). We can hypothesize that because the neutered male cats roam less (Adamelli et al., 2005;Hart and Barrett, 1973), their increased presence at home can make a friendlier impression. Additionally, people who regard the scent marking behavior in male cats as a nuisance, and opt for neutering the cat, may consider the changes in their cat's behavior as a positive consequence of the intervention. ...
Article
Although domestic cats are among the most common companion animals, we still know very little about the details of the cat-human relationship. With a questionnaire, we asked 157 Hungarian cat owners about their pet's behavior, cognitive abilities and social interactions. We analyzed the responses with PCA resulting in 11 traits. The effect of cats’ and owners’ demographic variables on the main components was further analyzed with GLM. The results showed strong similarity to the surveys performed with companion dogs, but we also found features that were mainly cat-specific. We found that women considered their cats to be more communicative and empathetic, than men did (p = 0.000). The higher education owners also considered their cat as being more communicative and empathetic (p = 0.000). We also found that owners use pointing signals more often if the cat is their only pet (p = 0.000), and otherwise they do not give verbal commands often to the cat (P = 0.001). Young owners imitated cat vocalization more often (p = 0.006); while emotional matching of the cat was more commonly reported by elderly owners (p = 0.001). The more an owner initiated playing with his/her cat, the imitation of cat vocalizations was also more common in his/her case (p = 0.001). Owners think that their cat shows stronger emotional matching if otherwise they experience human-like communicative capacity from the cat (p = 0.000). Owners use more pointing signals in the case of those cats that show attention-eliciting signals in more than one modality (p = 0.000). Owners who react to the meows of unfamiliar cats, initiated interactions more often with their own cats (p = 0.000). Owners also think that cats vocalize in every possible context, and this result was not affected significantly by any of the independent factors. Our results show that owners considered their cat as a family member, and they attributed well developed socio-cognitive skills to them. Because cats have an important role as a companion animal, it would be worthy to study cat behavior with similar thoroughness as with dogs. Our questionnaire may provide a good starting point for the empirical research of cat-human communication. The deeper understanding of cats’ socio-cognitive abilities may also help to improve cat welfare.
... Hence women seem to select cats for their companions more frequently. It is generally assumed that the cat-human relationship is more intense, when the human partner is female (Turner et al. 2003;Adamelli et al. 2005). Cats themselves contribute to the closeness of this bond. ...
... This is perhaps because usually women take care of the cats, and feed them (Bradshaw 1992). Nevertheless, this problem has not been sufficiently elucidated and the opinion of Adamelli et al. (2005) can be supported that it needs further investigation in order to clarify whether women are really more involved in interactions with cats than men. Apart from this, in our U households there were fewer other animals kept. ...
... As mulheres apresentaram menores escores, relacionando-as a maior grau de ape-go. Esse achado também foi obtido por Cohen (2002); Reid e Anderson (2009) e Miranda (2010, o que pode estar relacionado ao fato de as mulheres serem mais preocupadas com o bem-estar dos animais, com maiores escores de cuidado e atenção e também pelo instinto maternal (ADAMELLI et al., 2005). As mulheres apresentam grau mais elevado de familiaridade com cães e gatos quando comparadas aos homens, estas possuem também altos escores nas questões de relacionamentos humanos, enquanto os homens são mais analíticos em suas respostas (COHEN, 2002). ...
... A ausência de crianças na família pode estar relacionada ao aumento do apego aos animais (ADAMELLI et al., 2005). Pessoas jovens, que não estão prontas para assumir a educação de uma criança, muitas vezes optam por adotar um animal (WALSH, 2009a;WALSH, 2009b), entretanto, tal fato pode não estar correlacionado ao grau de apego destes proprietários aos animais (CANANI; FARACO, [2010]). ...
Article
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A avaliacao do grau de apego de proprietarios com os seus caes e gatos e um importante recurso para o estudo da influencia dos animais em diferentes fatores fisicos e psicossociais dos humanos. O presente trabalho empregou o teste LAPS (Lexington Attachment to Pets Scales) para a analise do grau de apego de proprietarios com os seus caes e gatos. O teste foi aplicado em 95 individuos, dos sexos masculino e feminino de diferentes faixas etarias, dos estados de Minas Gerais e Sao Paulo. A maior parte das questoes apresentou correlacao com o escore total (p < 0,0001). As mulheres apresentaram menores escores quando comparadas aos individuos do sexo masculino, assim como pessoas mais velhas em comparacao aos individuos mais jovens. Concluiu-se que tanto o genero como a faixa etaria apresentam diferencas para o grau de apego. O emprego de questoes negativas, em um teste composto em sua maior parte por questoes positivas, pode inibir as respostas dos entrevistados.
... Consequently, the life of an indoor cat is considerably affected by its owner as it was indicated by A d a m e l l i et al. [1] who investigated the cat -man relationship with respect to their quality of life in a group of 62 cats. The quality was evaluated by means of a questionnaire which focused on the care of the animal, its behaviour, characteristic features of the owner and his/her cat, simple physical examination of cat and Lexington's test of pet attachment. ...
... All analysed aspects (care, behaviour, physical condition) were eventually affected by the owners. Other characteristics (gonadectomy, age at obtaining the animal, coexistence with other cats) which affected the animals to a lesser but still significant extent, were determined by performed testing [1]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine whether behaviour problems in indoor cats depend on the number of cats in a household or rearing one or more cats in a household together with a dog. The study was carried out on animals which were divided for the purpose of this study into 4 groups: (1) households with one cat; (2) households with two cats; (3) households with three or more cats; (4) households with one or more cats and a dog. Altogether 91 cats were included in the study. The practical part of this investigation was based on a questionnaire. It was observed that the probability of behaviour problems was not related unambiguously to the number of cats in a household or the company of a dog. The percentage of the occurrence of changed behaviour did not differ significantly between the groups.
... However, systematic reviews on this topic highlight a lack of cross-study consensus within both the domestic home [38] and shelter environments [36]. In the home, for example, greater numbers of cohabiting cats have been significantly linked to greater rates of owner-reported 'behaviour problems' and anxiety [62] and increased house soiling [28,[63][64][65], but also fewer 'behaviour problems' [66], lower Cat Stress Scores or CSS (a posture and behaviour based scoring system) [67,68], and less negative interactions with humans [69][70][71]. Additionally, several studies have reported no significant links between cat group size and 'behaviour problems' [72], house soiling [69,71], obesity [71], or physiological stress [30,73]. ...
... Compared with their early domesticates, however, modern-day companion cats are likely to experience more socially complex and potentially challenging cat-caregiver dynamics [23,37,66,130]. Despite this, it is unclear whether much active selection for traits that enhance successful adaption to modern human-social relationships and domestic living have been undertaken [2]. For example, in domestic dogs, genetic signatures suggestive of intense selection for prosocial traits such as those associated with enhanced responsiveness towards humans, attention-seeking, and initiation of prolonged social contact are evident [131][132][133]. ...
Article
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Sociality can be broadly defined as the ability and tendency of individuals to reside in social groups with either conspecifics and/or other species. More specifically, sociability relates to the ability and tendency of individuals to display affiliative behaviours in such contexts. The domestic cat is one of the most globally popular companion animals and occupies a diverse range of lifestyles. Despite an arguably short period of domestication from an asocial progenitor, the domestic cat demonstrates an impressive capacity for both intra- and interspecific sociality and sociability. At the same time, however, large populations of domestic cats maintain various degrees of behavioural and reproductive autonomy and are capable of occupying solitary lifestyles away from humans and/or conspecifics. Within social groups, individuals can also vary in their tendency to engage in both affiliative and agonistic interactions, and this interindividual variation is present within free-living populations as well as those managed in confined environments by humans. Considerable scientific enquiry has focused on cats’ social behaviour towards humans (and conspecifics to a much lesser extent) in this latter context. Ontogeny and human selection, in addition to a range of proximate factors including social and environmental parameters and individual cat and human characteristics, have been highlighted as important moderators of cats’ sociability. Such factors may have important consequences regarding individuals’ adaptability to the diverse range of lifestyles that they may occupy. Where limitations to individuals’ social capacities do not enable sufficient e.g. adaption, compromises to their wellbeing may occur. This is most pertinent for cats managed by humans, given that the physical and social parameters of the cats’ environment are primarily dictated by people, but that positive human-selection for traits that enhance cats’ adaptability to such lifestyles appears to be limited. However, limitations in the availability and quality of evidence and equivocal findings may impede the current understanding of the role of certain factors in relation to cat sociability and associations with cat wellbeing, although such literature gaps also present important opportunities for further study. This review aims to summarise what is currently known about the various factors that may influence domestic cats’ sociality and sociability towards both humans and conspecifics, with a predominant focus on cats managed by humans in confined environments. Current limitations, knowledge gaps, and implications for cat wellbeing are also discussed.
... Most of the cat caretakers who showed high levels of both emotional attachment and technical caretaking in regard to their cats were either divorced, single, or described their current romantic relationship as "problematic." It has been shown that people who have fewer close human relationships, such as those who are divorced or single, are also those who display greater attachment to their pets (Archer 1997;Poresky and Daniels 1998;Stammbach and Turner 1999;Adamelli et al. 2005). It is possible that those caretakers in the present study who had fewer human attachments in their lives considered the cats as substitutes for humans in their social network (Stammbach and Turner 1999). ...
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Although the occurrence of cat-caretaking of free-roaming cats is widespread, particularly so in countries with a climate suitable for cats to reproduce year-round, our knowledge of this relationship is still incomplete. People who engage in daily activities of feeding and caring for groups of free-roaming cats (cat caretakers) are known to be devoted to their cats and invest considerable resources in their care, including neutering and veterinary care. These caretakers often encounter difficulties, such as resentment by neighbors and lack of cooperation or financing by the municipal veterinary services. Despite the fundamental understanding of these caretakers' high daily commitment, and sometimes strong bond with the cats, detailed knowledge is still lacking regarding the nature of this bond, the difficulties that ensue from this daily occupation, and the relationship between the two. The purpose of this study was thus to acquire a deeper understanding, by means of an in-depth interview with cat caretakers. The study has identified, for the first time, two distinct emotional approaches that accompany extensive caretaking for free-roaming cats: emotional attachment and emotional detachment. We show how these two different responses affect both social and financial aspects in the caretakers' lives, and report on the ways in which these individuals experience cat caretaking. Our findings provide a first systematic understanding of the relationship between the level of technical caretaking (feeding, medical care, etc.) and the level of emotional involvement, and reveal the ambivalence often inherent in human–animal relations in general and the caretaker–cat bond in particular. The understanding acquired here can be put into practice to reduce the emotional and technical difficulties experienced by cat caretakers, as well as to improve free-roaming cat management efforts and cat welfare. By increasing public and municipal awareness of the possible contribution of cat caretakers to cat management, and of the emotional and technical difficulties they experience, both the caretakers and other community members can benefit.
... However, further research is necessary to assess whether there is an association between adoption price paid and cat caretaking behaviours, as effect estimates and associated confidence intervals were not reported in the USA studies, and the effect estimates in our study were very imprecise. The quality of care provided to a pet has been found to be more influenced by owner characteristics-the owner's gender, level of education, previous cat and ownership experiences-than attachment and price paid for the pet [11,30,31] and is reportedly more reliant on the owner's willingness to spend money on the pet rather than on the income of the owner [23]. The kind of person adopting from a shelter may differ from those who obtain a cat from other sources [11], and this difference may be amplified by the screening process used by shelters to determine if a person is a suitable adopter. ...
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The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.
... In this sense, people with a low educational level cannot consider some actions related to punishment or deprivation as acts of aggression or child neglect (Choi and Thomas, 2015). In this way, pet neglect could be related to a lack of knowledge about animal welfare, animal care (Adamelli et al., 2005;Ramón et al., 2010;Yimer et al., 2012), as well as social and cultural acceptance of practices that inherently affect the quality of life of animals. Contrary, some studies have found a relationship between having higher education and provide poor care to companion animals (Marinelli et al., 2007). ...
Article
Dogs and cats are often abused within households. Despite this, little research has been developed to know the factors associated with this crime. The objective of this study was to identify the associated factors of companion animal neglect in the family environment. We followed up the records of animal abuse investigations of the Protection Animal Division of the city of Pinhais, Brazil. Socioeconomic factors about the owners and four types of indicators: nutritional, comfort, health and behavioral were considered. A binomial logistic regression model was fitted with the purpose of predicting the presence of animal neglect based on predictor variables. The number of animals in the household, disadvantageous economic conditions, the presence of disabled people and a low educational level of the owners were identified as associated factors of animal neglect. Understanding the factors related to the occurrence of animal neglect is fundamental for the development of multidisciplinary preventive strategies to reduce the occurrence of this crime.
... It has long been understood that in several respects, pet ownership resembles the parentoffspring (or alloparent-infant) relationship (Serpell 1996a;Serpell and Paul 2011), with kittens and puppies carrying many of the same cute facial features of human babies, and eliciting similar responses from adults (Sanefuji, Ohgami and Hashiya 2007;Sherman, Haidt and Coan 2009;Archer 2011). There is also a commonly held belief that pets are often viewed as baby surrogates (Crawford, Worsham and Swinehart 2006;Kurdek 2008;Paul 2011), andCollis, Bradshaw andCook (1998) found some empirical support for this, showing that cat-owning mothers reported least affection for their pets when they were pregnant or caring for young babies or toddlers (see also Adamelli et al. 2005). While such findings could represent examples of a generic link between sociality motivation and anthropomorphism, they may also reflect a more specific form pertaining to parenting-like relationships in particular. ...
Article
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Sociality motivation, the need to feel socially connected with others, has been proposed as an important determinant of individual variation in anthropomorphic thinking. Specifically, it has been suggested that people who are socially isolated or disconnected will tend to infer more human-like mental states in animals and other nonhuman agents (computers, robots, metaphysical beings, etc.), than those who have higher levels of contact with other people. We investigated this hypothesis in a community-based sample of cat and dog owners, measuring degree of anthropomorphism by asking them which emotions they believed their pet was capable of experiencing, how likely they were to rely on it for social support, and how attached they were to it. Structural measures of social disconnection, including the number of other adults living in the household and the number of social contacts outside the home, were not generally associated with the tendency to think anthropomorphically about pets. However, owners living in households with no children (under the age of 16 years) reported higher levels of attachment to their pet than did those with children (B = 1.678, p F (1,244) = 4.997, p 2 = 0.020). In addition, a trait-based indicator of social disconnection (self-reported anxiety about human social relationships) was associated with a heightened tendency for owners to report turning to their pet for support (F (1,244) = 19.617, p 2 = 0.074), and attributing more human-like emotions to it (F (1,244) = 8.354, p 2 = 0.033). These findings support a link between social disconnection and anthropomorphic thinking in a community setting; they also suggest that different forms of social disconnection (structural and trait-based) may generate different types of sociality motivation, and thereby influence different facets of anthropomorphic thinking.
... 30 The cat's QoL may be more influenced by the owner's characteristics than the cat's, which implies the owner's QoL could be of great importance when assessing the animal's QoL. 31 The CatQoL captures both the cat's and the owner's QoL by assessing the importance of each item, and realizing that every cat-human bond is different is important in interpreting the results of the questionnaire. From the human literature, parents seem to be more able to judge their child's externalizing problems (eg, aggressiveness) than their internalizing problems (eg, anxiety). ...
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Background: Numerous validated psychometric tools are available to assess impact of disease on a human's quality of life (QoL). To date, no psychometrically validated general health-related QoL tool exists for cats. Hypothesis/objectives: To develop and validate a tool for assessment of owner-perceived QoL in cats (CatQoL) and to use this tool to compare QoL between healthy cats and those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Animals/subjects: Total of 204 owners of young healthy cats (YH, n = 99; <9 years), older healthy cats (OH, n = 35), and cats diagnosed with CKD (CKD, n = 70) completed the CatQoL. Methods: Discussions with a focus group and 2 pilot surveys informed design of 16 QoL questions grouped into 4 domains. Each item scored according to frequency and importance, and item-weighted-impact-scores were calculated. The validity of the tool was assessed using principal components analysis and Cronbach's α. The average item-weighted-impact-score (AWIS) was compared among groups and domains. Results: Sixteen-item CatQoL showed good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α, 0.77) and unidimensionality with significant loadings (0.2-0.7) and communalities (>0.3). Young healthy cats had significantly higher AWIS (median [IQR], 1.25 [0.63, 1.88]) than OH (0.56 [-0.06, 1.00]) and CKD cats (-0.06 [-0.81, 0.88]), P < .001). CKD cats had significantly lower AWIS for eating domain (YH: 2.00 [1.00, 3.00]; OH: 2.00 [0.67, 3.00]; CKD : 1.00 [0.00, 2.67]) when compared with the YH group and OH group, and all groups differed significantly in their management domain (YH: -0.50 [-1.00, 0.00]; OH: -1.00 [-1.88, -0.50]; CKD : -1.50 [-2.50, -1.00], P < .001). Conclusions and clinical importance: The CatQoL was validated for use in cats, and can be used as additional assessment parameter in clinical and research settings.
... Some pet food manufacturers instead of pet they attracted the pet owners by spending a lot of money on advertisements and promote the idea to keep pets healthy because their product is a complete and balanced diet. But the truth is that they produced their product by unregulated operations (Adamelli et al., 2005). Pet food is a speciality food for domesticated animals that is formulated according to their nutritional needs. ...
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The meat processing industries contain a lot of buffalo meat by-products as waste materials which create several health hazards and environmental pollution. India rank first in buffalo meat in the word. The by products of buffalo meat contain vitamins and minerals, which makes it functional and nutritional. Investigations were carried out to study the effect of incorporation of tripe meal and rice flour on development, quality evaluation and storage stability of pet food under ambient condition. The quality of pet food was based on physicochemical characteristics namely moisture, ash, fat, protein content, pH, The Analysis using paired sample t-test for optimization. There was moisture content (8.211%), Ash content (3.571%), protein (17.85%), pH (6.688) and fat in the range (14.323%). The analysis model was found significant for protein, pH, ash and were not significant for moisture and fat.
... In terms of people's influence on cat behaviour and global levels of arousal and distress, little has been investigated scientifically. However, there is some evidence that cat behaviour is more dependent upon some owner/houserelated factors (eg owner age, presence of children) than to some cat ones (eg cat's sociability with people; Adamelli et al 2005). Frenetic environments (as opposed to calm ones) were identified as a risk factor for human-directed feline aggression (Ramos & Mills 2009). ...
Article
Domestic cats (Felis catus) are widely believed to be highly sensitive to the effects of social stress, especially when living in high density populations. Cats are capable of adapting to living in a group, but this will often require opportunities for escaping and hiding. In this pilot study, adrenocortical activity, as a valuable physiological indicator of arousal underpinning potential emotional stress, was evaluated through the measurement of mean faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (mGCM) in fourteen singly and sixteen group-housed cats. Living conditions and ratings of the owners' quality of life (evaluated from self-reported questionnaires) were used as factors associated with faecal glucocorticoid levels of the cats. A direct association between the scores of owners' social dimension of quality of life and the cats' mGCM was found for single cats only, with higher owner social scores associated with higher cat mGCM. No significant differences in mGCM were found between singly versus group-living cats. This suggests that the under-explored factor of owner lifestyle could play an important role in domestic cats' day-to-day levels of arousal, especially when kept as single pets.
... Autorii punctează că exclusivitatea în relația om-animal este asociată cu un nivel mai crescut al îngrijirii animalului și cu relații securizante de atașament din partea câinelui (Marinelli et al., 2007). Aceste rezultate relaționate cu exclusivitatea în relație și impactul caracteristicilor psiho-sociale ale stăpânilor asupra calității vieții animale nu au fost însă evidențiate în cazul pisicilor (Adamelli et al., 2005). Pisicile deținute de familii relativ numeroase erau mai sociabile cu stăpânul decât acelea care aparțineau oamenilor care locuiau singuri, iar stăpânii erau mai atașați de animal dacă aveau mai puțin de zece legături de tip prietenie/rudenie. ...
... The care that pet cats receive from owners may be influenced by owner features such as age, income, gender, education, previous experience owning pets, presence of children, and number of emotional bonds with friends [38,39]. However, we found that both free and normal-fee adopters were similar across 12 different demographic variables constructed from ABS suburb-scale data. ...
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Many healthy adult cats are euthanised annually in shelters, and novel approaches are required to reduce euthanasia rates. Waiving adoption fees is one such approach. However, concerns that less responsible owners will be attracted to free events persist among welfare groups. We evaluated evidence for differences in cat fate, health, and adherence to husbandry legislation via a case-study of a free adoption-drive for cats ≥1 year at a Western Australian shelter. Post-adoption outcomes were compared between free adopters and a control group of normal-fee adopters. The free adoption-drive rehomed 137 cats, increasing average weekly adoptions by 533%. First-time adopters were a significantly larger portion of the free cohort, as a result of mixed-media promotions. Both adopter groups selected cats of similar age; sex and pelage. Post-adoption, both groups retained >90% cats, reporting near identical incidences of medical and behavioural problems. Adopters did not differ in legislative compliance regarding fitting collars, registering cats, or allowing cats to roam. The shelter reported satisfaction with the adoption-drive, because in addition to relieving crowding of healthy adults, adoption of full-fee kittens increased 381%. Overall, we found no evidence for adverse outcomes associated with free adoptions. Shelters should not be dissuaded from occasional free adoption-drives during overflow periods.
... Finally, there have also been concerns about the behavioral development after PPG in cats. Because PPG is performed during the sensitive socialization period, which lasts until 9-10 weeks of age (McCune, 1995;Adamelli et al., 2005;Overall et al., 2005), this intervention might affect the behavioral development, resulting in behavior problems. ...
... The term 'quality of 57 life' broadly comprises all aspects of animal welfare, from preventing mistreatment to 58 improving living conditions (Bono, 2001). Two recent studies (Adamelli et al., 2005; 59 Marinelli et al., 2007) noted that pets quality of life depends on some of their owner's 60 characteristics, such as gender, education, and number of family members; moreover they 61 listed the diversity of owner-related factors which may affect the pet-owner bond and, in a 62 broader sense, the quality of life of pets of various species. ...
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The quality of life of pet dogs owned by elderlies depends on the living context, not on the owner's age The quality of life of pet dogs owned by elderlies depends on the living context, not on the owner's age, Journal of Veterinary Behavior (2014), doi: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.11.002. This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
... We propose that age at introduction alone is not sufficient to explain amicability, indeed cat housing status was also a significant factor contributing to the variance. When cats live alongside others in their household, they show greater amicable behaviors (Adamelli et al., 2005). Greater amicability when the cat lives indoors may reflect that the 2 species are then provided more opportunity to learn about each other through behavioral observations (Crowell-Davis et al., 2004;Slabbert & Rasa, 1997). ...
Article
The number of cats and dogs kept together in many parts of the industrialized world is increasing, but we know little about the typical interactions that occur between these 2 species when they live within the same home. Despite social differences, when conditions are correct, both species are capable of expressing amicability to one another. Although the age at which the 2 species are introduced to each other is thought to be important, there is little understanding of the range of factors that influence the success of cat-dog relationships. Using an online survey of mixed-species homes (n = 748), we assessed owners’ perceptions of their cat-dog relationship. Most owners believed that their cat and dog were comfortable in each other's presence and showed amicability in their relationship. Typically, the cat appeared to be the main controller in determining amicability in the cat-dog relationship. Regression analysis revealed that owners’ perceptions of amicability were more influenced by “cat factors” than “dog factors,” with variables such as the age at which the cat was introduced to the dog (younger age predicted greater perceived amicability), the cat sharing food with the dog and picking up a toy to show the dog (although the latter was observed by few owners) were included in the final model. In addition, comfortability of the cat was a stronger predictor of amicability than comfortability of the dog; frequency of the cat appearing uncomfortable with the dog was a better predictor for reduced amicability than the dog appearing uncomfortable in the presence of the cat. These results highlight the need to attend to the cat's behavior in particular, along with age of introduction, to promote positive cat-dog relationships.
... Physical contact plays an important role in the strength and longevity of the human-cat bond. 66,67 Many cat owners, and particularly female owners, also value their cat's cleanliness 60 ; understanding that grooming is an important aspect of cleanliness as well as a primary method for dispersion of cat allergens throughout the cat's hair and subsequently into the environment, this highly desired behavioral feature facilitates allergen exposure for allergic individuals. ...
Article
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Background: Allergies to cats are the most common animal-origin allergy, and affect approximately 1 in 5 adults worldwide. The prevalence of allergy to furry animals has been increasing, and allergy to cats is a major risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. The diagnosis of cat allergy is now well established. The exact significance of component-resolved diagnosis in the diagnosis of cat allergy remains to be fully understood. Allergen avoidance is effective but often has a psychologic impact. Allergen immunotherapy is not well demonstrated. There is a need for innovative approaches to better manage cat allergens. Next-generation care pathways for asthma and rhinitis will define the place of cat allergen avoidance. Methods and results: This manuscript, based on content presented at the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Congress 2019, provides information on the prevalence and impact of cat allergies and the molecular biology of Fel d 1, the major cat allergen. Discussion: The authors present the scientific basis of a novel care pathway that utilizes anti-Fel d 1 IgY antibodies to safely and effectively neutralize Fel d 1 after its production by the cat but before human exposure. Conclusion: Efficacy of a feline diet with an egg product ingredient containing anti-Fel d 1 IgY antibodies was demonstrated in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, and further validated by a pilot exposure study involving cat-allergic human participants.
... In addition, the knowledge about species-specific needs might have an impact on the provision of enrichment (Gazzano et al., 2015). Adamelli et al. (2005) examined effects of owner characteristics such as gender, education level, and previous experience on the level of care of cats, which included the provision of climbing and scratching possibilities, and the frequency of brushing. Grigg and Kogan (2019) found fewer behavioural problems in cats with carers having favourable attitudes towards cats, better knowledge about cats, and a closer bond to the cats (measured in more owner-act interactions and perceived costs associated with caring for their cat). ...
Article
Owners may enhance their cats’ welfare by social enrichment (e.g. positive human-animal interactions), and physical enrichment (e.g. play objects). The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between owner characteristics (e.g. attitudes, attachment), household characteristics (the keeping of one or more cats) and owner behaviours enriching their cats’ lives. Another aim was to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, using question sets targeting attitudes towards behaviours directed/activities provided to cats, normative and control beliefs) to identify predictors of owner behavior, represented by duration of a play session, number of toys constantly available/cat and frequency of outdoor access. Finally, we aimed to investigate associations between owner and cat behaviours. To this end, an online survey was conducted among cat owners. Questions assessing general attitudes, beliefs about cats’ needs, attachment, frequencies of owner-cat interactions, access to play opportunities and cat behaviour (play, unwanted behaviours) were summarised to components after principal component analyses. Owner attitudes and attachment systematically correlated with frequencies of human-cat interactions (e.g. tactile and non-tactile) and access to various play objects (p < 0.05). The general attitude that cats are ‘Beneficial’ and the TPB attitude ‘Important to play with cats’ were significant predictors of the duration of a play session (β = 0.15/0.14), accounting for 8% of the variance. Owner age, the husbandry decision to keep one or more cats and the TPB attitude ‘Important to offer different toys’ significantly predicted the number of toys constantly available/cat (β = -0.12/-0.47/0.45), accounting for 36% of the variance. Predictors of the frequency of outdoor access were the TPB attitude ‘Important to offer outdoor access’ and the control belief that the outdoors were too dangerous (β = 0.23/-0.60), accounting for 62% of the variance. According to structural models, an effect of attachment on owner behaviour is mediated by attitudes. Owner behaviours systematically correlated with cat play (p < 0.05) but not problem behaviours. The overall results suggest clearly identifiable relationships between attitudes, owner and animal behaviour. They provide insight into attitudes and owner behaviours to target when designing interventions to influence cat owner behaviour. Since positive owner–cat interactions were associated with cat play behaviour, a potential indicator of enhanced welfare, this study underlines the important role of the owner for cat welfare.
... The multivariate analyses showed several significant associations between the factors under study and relationship category. Consistent with other studies, we showed that characteristics of the owner have stronger associations with the perception of the human-cat relationship than characteristics of the cat [67,68,83,84]. Nevertheless, one cat characteristic, namely, being a pedigree, was related to owner's ideas about their cat. ...
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Describing the relationship with one’s cat in human terms might reflect an underlying anthropomorphic view of the relationship which might be associated with an owner’s behavior towards their cat and the cat’s living environment. Owners self-categorized the relationship with their cat as either a ‘member of the family’, ‘as a child’, ‘best friend’, or ‘a pet animal’. The extent to which owner- and cat-related factors influence these four relationship descriptions are examined in survey data of approximately 1800 cat owners. Differences in outdoor access, care during absence of the owner, and access to the bedroom are examined between the four relationship perceptions. The owner’s age and household composition, ideas about their cat’s equality, support, and dependency, and whether their cat is a pedigree were significantly associated with relationship description and explained 46% of the variance. Owners who perceive their cat as a child or best friend see their cat as loyal, empathetic, equal to family, and dependent on them for love and care. Their cats are less often left in the care of others, are allowed more often in the bedroom and have less often (unrestricted) outdoor access. Moreover, cats perceived as children are more likely to live in a multi-cat household. Our results provide insight in the factors that are related to different (anthropomorphic) perceptions of the human–cat relationship and how perceptions relate to the living environment of cats.
... Regression analyses were then conducted to explore the relationships between each of the psychopathy factors and cat-owner relationship quality, whilst controlling for the Feline Five (to assess whether the Feline Five and cat triarchic are distinct constructs). In the regression analyses, owner and cat age and sex were also controlled for as they have been found to affect the level of care, and attachment to the (Adamelli, et al., 2005). We also controlled for the existence of cat medical conditions, as they are likely to relate to the perceived costs of ownership (Howell et al., 2017). ...
Article
We operationalised the triarchic model of psychopathy (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition) in domestic cats using a cat triarchic (CAT-Tri) questionnaire. In study 1 (n = 549), we identified candidate items for CAT-Tri scales using thematically analysed cat owner questionnaire responses. In study 2 (n = 1463), owners completed a questionnaire battery; the preliminary CAT-Tri questionnaire, Feline Five, and Cat-Owner Relationship Subscales. In study 3 (n = 30), associations between feline daily activity and Cat-Tri scales were investigated. A five-factor cat triarchic plus (CAT-Tri+) solution emerged: boldness, disinhibition, meanness, pet-unfriendliness, and human-unfriendliness. Disinhibition and pet-unfriendliness predicted a higher quality cat-owner relationship; meanness and boldness predicted a lower quality relationship. Findings provide insight into the structure of triarchic psychopathy in cats.
... 97 In some situations environmental restriction might have important welfare implications for cats, potentially resulting in chronic frustration and behavioural issues that are risk factors for relinquishment. 111,112 Limiting physical contact with the cat may also negatively impact the human-cat bond, 113,114 and thus it would seem prudent to involve a veterinarian when such measures are being contemplated (with additional advice from a veterinary behaviourist if needed). ...
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Practical relevance: Human allergy to cats affects a substantial and growing proportion of the global population, and cat allergy is regarded as the third most common cause of human respiratory allergies, and the second most common indoor cause. Veterinarians will frequently encounter owners who are cat-allergic, and having an understanding of this disease and the methods available to help control the allergy will assist them in giving appropriate advice, alongside human healthcare professionals. Aim: The aim of this review is to summarise currently available data on the prevalence, causes, symptoms and control of human allergy to cats. In terms of managing cat allergy, the emphasis is on reviewing current and emerging modalities to reduce environmental exposure to cat allergens rather than on pharmacotherapy or immunotherapy, as it is in these areas in particular that the veterinarian may be able to offer help and advice to complement that of human healthcare professionals. Evidence base: The information in this review is drawn from the current and historical literature on human allergy to cats, and approaches to reduce exposure to cat allergens and manage symptoms of cat allergy.
... The literature also indicates that cat owners' personalities and the access to hiding and climbing spots can affect animal welfare [18][19][20], although cats' psychological welfare and the role of the social environment are largely understudied [20,21]. Additionally, the owners' age, gender, and family composition influence cats' QoL [22]. In dogs, QoL is positively affected by their bond with their owners and negatively affected by the pets' age [23,24]. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic caused lifestyle changes, with unknown effect on pets’ quality of life (QoL). Between May and July 2020, we distributed an online survey to investigate the role of several factors on feline and canine QoL, including lockdown-related factors. We used existing scales to measure human and pets’ personalities (Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Personality Questionnaire, RST-PQ; RST-Dog; RST-Cat) and the human–animal relationship (Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, LAPS) and the Milan Pet Quality of Life instrument (MPQL). Overall, 235 participants reported about 242 adult pets (Ncats = 78, Ndogs = 164). Factor analysis confirmed the structure and internal reliability of the existing scales (RST-PQ, RST-Dog, RST-Cat, LAPS) and suggested a four-factor structure for the MPQL (physical, psychological, social, environmental). The results indicate that the pets’ psysical QoL was largely explained by pet-related elements (pets’ demographics and life experience, and pets’ personality). Conversely, the pets’ psychological QoL was explained mostly by owner-related elements, such as the owners’ demographics, COVID-19-related changes, and the owners’ personality. Predictably, the pets’ environmental QoL is mostly explained by environmental factors, such as the outdoor access in the home environment and the country. Finally, the pets’ social QoL was explained by the larger combination of models: pets’ characteristics and personality, environment and COVID-19-related changes, and the pet–human relationship. These findings can be explained by two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms. The reported changes may be a by-product of the COVID-19 pandemic’s psychological and lifestyle effects on the owners, which in turn alter the way the owners interact with their pets and look after them. However, the owners’ characteristics and mood may bias their answers regarding their pets.
... In addition, the authors mention that the result obtained reflects the nature of the relationship between the owner and the cat to a certain extent. Adamelli et al. [92], who analysed the relationship between a person and a cat with an emphasis on quality of life in 62 animals, concluded that the QoL of a cat may be more influenced by the characteristics of the owner than the characteristics of the cat. QoL was rated low, moderate or high in this study using four questionnaires that analysed care, behaviour and characteristics of the cat and the owner, a simple physical examination and Lexington's attachment to pets scale (LAPS) test. ...
Article
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At any moment, there are millions of cats housed in foster care facilities for abandoned and stray animals for various reasons worldwide. Care, management and regulation among these facilities differ. Moreover, shelters can never substitute the full comfort of a good home for the animal, and the welfare of cats in shelters is a subject of discussion in many respects. Cats are animals sensitive to changes; for most of them, placement in a shelter is a stressful experience because of changes in routine, environment and the presence of other animals. Stress is reflected in changes in behaviour, causes fluctuations in physiological values and disrupts the immune system, which is a predisposition to the development or reactivation of disease. Evaluation of the presence and intensity of negative impacts is possible through the use of evaluation tools based on indicators that help set the environment and management of keeping so as to disrupt the quality of life as little as possible. Although a comprehensive and valid welfare tool that would evaluate animal-based and at the same time resource-based (or management-based) indicators of cats in shelters is not currently available, it is possible to use partial evaluation of individual welfare indicators to assess welfare. This review aims to provide the readers with an insight into current options of assessment of the welfare of cats in shelters with an emphasis on behavioural, physiological and health indicators with an application in both practical and scientific contexts.
... There is a need to educate these owners to prevent litters to born (New et al., 2000). The score was associated with owners having a cat in the moment they filled the questionnaire (p=0.002); it is possible that the basis for the knowledge was previous experience with pets (Adamelli et al., 2005). ...
... Regarding our second question (the familiarity of the human partner-a factor that has been unfortunately not tested in case of dogs and socialized wolves earlier), we predicted that cats will have a higher rate of perseverative errors when their owner acts as demonstrator. The average companion cat's acceptance level for strangers is lower than what we expect from dogs (Adamelli et al. 2005;Miklósi et al. 2005), which may predict a stronger response to the ostensive cues of the owner. Additionally, we also tested the possible effect of keeping conditions of the subjects (cats kept only outdoors; only indoors; outside/inside kept ones). ...
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It is an intriguing question whether cats’ social understanding capacity, including the sensitivity to ostensive signals (resulting in fast preferential learning of behavioural choices demonstrated by humans), would be comparable to that in dogs. In a series of A-not-B error tests, we investigated whether the ostensive or non-ostensive manner of human communication and the familiarity of the human demonstrator would affect the search error pattern in companion cats. Cats’ performance showed an almost completely different distribution of perseverative erring than earlier was shown in dogs and human infants. Cats demonstrated perseverative errors both during ostensive and non-ostensive cueing by the owner and also during non-ostensive cueing by the experimenter. However, unlike prior studies with dogs, they avoided perseverative errors during the experimenter ostensive cueing condition. We assume that the reliance on human ostensive signals may serve different purpose in companion dogs and cats—meanwhile in dogs, human ostension could support fast rule learning, in cats, it may have only a circumstantial attention-eliciting effect. Our results highlight the need of conducting further throughout experiments on the social cognition of cats, based on their own right beside the traditional cat–dog comparative approach.
... delivering pet food to reduce costs, creating educational groups on pet care) to enable older adults to pursue pet ownership and to age-in-place for as long as possible (Nunnelee, 2006). Moreover, pet care requirements may differ according to the characteristics of the environment, the person and the pet itself, which are important factors to consider for older adults who want to own or continue to own pets (Adamelli et al., 2005;Marinelli et al., 2007;Curb et al., 2013;Johnson and Bibbo, 2015). For example, the type, age and needs of the animal may influence the benefits and risks because the outcomes may depend on the type of animal involved as well as the activities carried out with them; dogs and cats both provide companionship but have different walking needs (Simons et al., 2000;Rijken and van Beek, 2011;Shibata et al., 2012;Gretebeck et al., 2013). ...
Article
Although community services support ageing-in-place, older adults often report feelings of loneliness and social isolation. Unmet emotional needs are associated with poorer health, reduced functional abilities and increased mortality in this population. Pet ownership is an avenue worth exploring to reduce these adverse outcomes. This scoping review maps main findings and identifies key gaps with respect to the pros and cons of pet ownership in community-dwelling older adults pertaining to psycho-social, physical and functional outcomes. Scientific and grey literature published from January 2000 to July 2018 was searched. Data selection and extraction were performed by the first author and a sub-sample was co-validated by two co-authors. A total of 62 sources were included for descriptive and thematic analysis. A variety of pros (increased physical activity, wellbeing) and cons (grief, risk of falls) pertaining to psycho-social and physical outcomes were identified. Not many functional outcomes (support for daily routines) were mentioned, and few studies explored the simultaneous balance between the pros and cons of pet care. Further research exploring both clinicians’ and older pet owners’ perspectives is needed to deepen our understanding of the importance of considering companion animals in older adults’ daily lives and to strike a balance between perceived risks and benefits.
... Contudo, em relação aos animais, os impactos da interação com os seres humanos ainda precisam ser melhor elucidados, revelando as influências, sejam elas positivas ou negativas, do convívio com o ser humano para o comportamento e bem-estar geral de cães e gatos (Adamelli, 2005;Almeida, 2015). O efeito das condições atuais de criação dos animais, e ainda, o que os tutores esperam dos mesmos, são aspectos fundamentais para uma convivência satisfatória entre ambos, influenciando diretamente no comportamento exibido pelos animais (Genaro, 2005;Almeida, 2015). ...
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Entende-se por síndrome de ansiedade por separação (SAS) o conjunto de respostas fisiológicas e comportamentais, exibidas isoladamente ou em associação, por um dado animal quando na ausência de uma figura de apego. A SAS tornou-se um problema comportamental comumente reportado nos animais de companhia, sendo descritos sérios impactos sobre a qualidade da interação humano-animal e o bem-estar animal, em especial, dos cães. Por sua vez, para os gatos, tal temática tem sido abordada ainda de forma muito tímida, embora existam relatos de sua ocorrência na literatura científica. Os sinais comportamentais frequentemente relacionados à SAS são: reatividade anômala, vocalização excessiva, eliminação de fezes e / ou de urina em locais inadequados, comportamentos destrutivos e autolimpeza excessiva. A identificação e compreensão dos sintomas relacionados a este distúrbio, bem como, dos fatores que predispõe os animais a desenvolverem SAS, são de suma importância. Neste artigo será apresentada uma revisão sobre os principais fatores de risco já relacionados com a ocorrência de ansiedade por separação em cães e gatos domésticos, dentre eles, algumas características do próprio animal, do tutor e do ambiente de criação. Serão apontadas lacunas no conhecimento atual sobre a SAS, a fim de estimular mais pesquisas sobre este tema, que possam contribuir para a melhoraria do bem-estar, tanto dos animais, quanto das pessoas que com eles convivem.
... QoL relates to an individual's mental state, experiences, and the causes of their experiences (56)(57)(58). Recommendations for QoL assessment in veterinary practice and in veterinary research have been made (59); owners' perceptions of their cat's QoL have been reported (60) and owner reported care and behavior, and physical examination have been used to derive a QoL score for cats (61). Nevertheless, to the authors' knowledge, there have been no appropriate, objective, and validated QoL assessments developed specifically for cats, particularly stray cats. ...
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Free-roaming cats are a polarizing issue in New Zealand and there is strong need for a comprehensive evaluation of their welfare to better inform population management decisions. In this study, a 5-component visual health-related welfare assessment scale was developed and piloted on a convenience sample of 213 free-roaming companion cats (CC), 210 managed stray cats (MS), and 253 unmanaged stray cats (UMS) from various locations in Auckland, New Zealand. The welfare assessment was performed through distance observation and consisted of body condition score (BCS); coat condition score; nose and eye discharge score; ear crusting score; and injury score. The majority of cats in all groups appeared generally healthy with no nose or eye discharge, ear crusting, or injuries. Although there were no appreciable differences in the apparent welfare of CC and MS cats, future studies with more robust sampling designs are needed to draw accurate inferences. The scale also requires further validation by comparing the visual observations against more detailed physical examination and biochemical data. Nonetheless, the results from this study provide preliminary information about assessing the health and welfare of stray cats as well as considerations for developing and implementing robust assessment scales.
... In a study of cats in Italy, the owner's gender influenced the cat's time spent with the owner: cats spent more time with women than men (40). The composition of the family influenced the cat's behavior toward the owner and the time spent with the owner. ...
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Although studies involving pet dogs and cats, and human adults and children, have been reported, the specific interactions between cats and children have not. This study sought information from parents about the cat's role in families that have at least one child 3–12 years of age and at least one cat. Demographic data on cat source, breed, gender/neuter status, was sought as well as information on adults and children in the families and on affectionate, aggressive, fearful, and playful responses of the cats to children. A convenience sample was recruited via listservs for pet owners and parents. Using a pilot tested web survey, descriptive statistics were based on 865 respondents. Multi-variate statistical analyses were conducted on data from 665 respondents with complete responses for all items, including respondents' locations and whether cats were adopted as kittens. Multi-variate analyses included consideration of demographic data, geographic region of respondents, behavioral characteristics of the cats, and responses of the children to the cats. From descriptive statistics, cats' affection was more typical with adults than young children. Neuter status or gender was unrelated to cats' aggression or affection. Being the family's only cat was associated with heightened aggression and reduced affection. Younger cats were more likely to be affectionate. Multivariate analysis revealed three primary factors accounting for children's compatibility with the specified cat: positive interactions of the cat, aggression/fearfulness of cat, and the cat's playfulness and children's reaction to the cats. Positive child-cat relationships were more typical with two or more adults and multiple cats in the home. Old cats were the least satisfactory. A breeder or shelter was a better source than as a feral, from a newspaper ad, or another source. European respondents rated their cats' interactions with children more favorably than in U.S./Canada. This difference may reflect the European adoptions more frequently being of kittens, often purebred, assuring more early handling within the family. A noteworthy finding was that all family participants, humans, and pets alike, affect the cat-child relationship, and these results reveal that many variables can play a role in achieving a desirable relationship for a cat and child.
Chapter
The next two chapters focus on the relationship older adults, and men in particular, have with their companion animals including the benefits, the challenges, and the programs designed to help preserve this bond. This chapter provides background on older adults - who they are and the challenges they face. It then explores the psychological and physiological benefits of pet ownership for this population. The chapter ends with challenges of pet ownership for older adults; providing the background for the next chapter that describes intergenerational service learning and one example, Pets Forever, a course designed to support pet ownership for older adults.
Article
This paper explores how perspectives on the appropriate place of the dog in the family shape the practice and experience of dog adoption. This research is based on a comparative case study of a traditional shelter and an independent animal rescue organization. The data were collected through participant observation and interviews with directors and volunteers at these organizations, and with people who adopted dogs through shelter or independent animal rescue organizations. The independent rescue organizations tended to use “dog-centric” discourse to describe the relationship between the dog and its prospective family, while the traditional animal shelter and some adoptive families used “human-centric” discourse. These perspectives were tied to the adoption practices of the organizations and individuals’ experiences while adopting a dog. The implications of these findings for the practice of dog adoption are discussed, and suggestions for shelters and animal rescue organizations are presented.
Te evaluation of the degree of attachment of owners to pets is an important resource to study the influence of the pets to diferent physical and psychosocial factors to humans. Te current study applied the LAPS (Lexington Attachment to Pets Scales) test to evaluate attachment degree of owners to their pets. Te test was performed in 95 subjects, males and females from diferent age groups, in Minas Gerais and São Paulo state. Most of the questions were correlated to the total score (p < 0.0001). Women and elderly subjects had lower scores, demonstrating a greater degree of attachment when compared to males and younger individuals, respectively. In conclusion, the age and gender differ to the degree of attachment. Te use of negative questions in a test composed mostly by positive issues may inhibit the interviewer responses.
Article
Behavior problems in companion animals are common reasons for relinquishment or euthanasia. Insight into the risk factors for problem behaviors will facilitate the construction of strategies for solutions. We identified risk factors for behavior problems in domestic cats whose owners contacted a companion animal behavior clinic in Brisbane, Australia. Owners of 1,556 cats reported on their cats’ behavior problem, breed, sex and age, and owner’s postcodes and work-routine were also recorded. Risk factors were determined from proportional morbidities for the behavior problem that each cat was reported as having. Breed effects were also assessed by comparing the numbers of cats in each breed group with the breeds of registered cats in a part of the catchment area. Behavior problems in domestic cats where the owners sought professional advice were mostly (71% of all cats) related to house soiling, usually urination, and aggression, especially to familiar people. Persian and similar breeds were at reduced risk of aggression to familiar cats but increased risk of house soiling, compared to other breed groups. Overall, Persian, Siamese, Burmese and similar breeds had more behavior problems than companion cat breeds. Older cats showed increasing tolerance of familiar people but reduced tolerance of other cats. Males were more likely to present with excessive vocalisation and house soiling with urine and less likely to present with aggression between familiar cats. We conclude that cat breed, age and sex, and social advantage of the area in which the cat lives are risk factors for specific behavior problems.
Article
Quality of life (QoL) is an important parameter to assess in cats, as it can be pivotal to important decision-making. Research reports that owners of cats with heart disease would trade longevity for QoL, and treatment associated improvement in QoL is very important for cats with chronic kidney disease. This systematic review aimed to explore the published literature to identify the number and range of QoL assessment tools available to researchers and veterinary professionals, by discovering tools which have already been used in published studies. Medline and CAB Abstracts were searched in March 2018, using terms relevant to cats and QoL or well-being. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied and information on uniqueness, validation and a short description of each tool extracted. A total of 1138 manuscripts were identified, of which 96 met all criteria. Forty of 96 manuscripts contained an assessment of QoL, using one of 32 unique tools identified. Sixteen of the tools identified were structured, making detailed patient assessments. Only eight of the structured tools were validated, and of these, three could be applied to healthy cats; the remainder being specific to a disease or being hospitalised. Some validated tools appeared in more than one manuscript. Overall, 12 manuscripts used a validated tool. In the 16 unstructured tools, five tools assessed QoL by assigning a single word (e.g. ‘poor’). Eight tools assessed QoL on a single Likert scale (e.g. a number between 1 and 5). This work identifies the tools that are currently available for the assessment of QoL by researchers and veterinary professionals. Additionally, it demonstrates that many are not validated or lack detailed animal assessment, highlighting that further work in this important area is needed.
Article
The study of personality or temperament is well developed in many species, but in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) it has lagged behind. We applied one common methodology, subjective surveys, performed by their owners, to investigate the dimensions of cat temperament. To do this, we developed an eighteen question survey covering common behavioral traits of cats, and had the evaluators rank their cat on a seven point Likert scale for trait. The responses were analyzed with factor analysis, and resulted in six significant dimensions of temperament across the 251 surveys. The six dimensions, in order of importance, are: Cat Social, Active, Human Nonsocial, Human Aggressive, and Intense. Supplemental questions were also included in all the surveys, and MANOVA analysis of these showed that outdoor usage, feeding style (ad-lib vs. meal fed), living with other cats, sex, duration of ownership, and previous history as a stray all had effects on at least one of the dimensions of cat temperament. Future work is clearly needed to fully validate our model and to further investigate our findings.
Article
Due to their intimate relationship with human beings, animals can experience abuse, especially in the family environment. Research on the variables involved in this topic is scarce in Latin America. The objective of this study was to identify the main types of animal abuse in Brazilian municipalities and to characterize animals and perpetrators in addition to identifying the socioeconomic factors associated with the incidents. The occurrences of animal abuse were analyzed from the records of the Police Station Specialized in Fauna Crimes Investigation Department of the Civil Police of Minas Gerais operating in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from September 2016 to September 2018. Events involving cruelty to animals were categorized as active maltreatment, while acts of omission, which refer to neglected animals, were categorized as passive maltreatment, defined according to sets of nutritional, health, behavioral, and comfort indicators. Cruel crimes were the most frequently registered (45.7 %, 101/221), with intoxication and aggression being the most common types. Active maltreatment generated more deaths compared to passive maltreatment (OR: 3.900, 95 % CI: 1.873–8.588, p<0.05). Regarding abuse, dogs were the most affected animals (59.7 %, 132/221), followed by felines (14.9 %, 33/221), equine (5.4 %, 12/221), birds (5.8 %, 13/221), poultry (2.7 %, 6/221), reptiles (2.2 %, 5/221), and other groups of animals (9.0 %, 20/221). Adults were the most frequently reported (55.2 %, 122/221) age of abused animals. Cats were the main cruelty victims, with the highest chance of death (OR: 6.829, 95 %CI: 2.916–16.696, p<0.05) and were those who suffered most from intoxication abuse (OR: 4.72, 95 % CI 1.585–14.996, p=0.001). The perpetrators of abuse were predominantly males (66.8 %, 137/205) aged between 40 and 59 years (38.6 %, 53/137). Perpetrators of committing animal cruelty were 3.57 times more likely to be male and 2.5 times more likely to have no college education. The perpetrators of animal abandonment had a 25 times greater chance of being between 18 and 24 years old compared to the category between 40 and 59 years old and perpetrators of animal intoxication had 5 times greater chance of being also between 18 and 24 years old. Among all victimized animals, dogs and cats were the most affected, probably due to their close relationships with humans. Understanding the profile of victims and suspects involved in neglect maltreatment and cruelty to animals is fundamental to the establishment of policies and strategies to prevent and restrain these activities.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the behavioral development of cats. Evolving from solitary predators, the communication behavior of cats has functioned to maintain comfortable spacing with their conspecifics. The process of domestication and the tendency for cats to gather in greater density around reliable sources of food and shelter has modified some of these behaviors as domestic cats have evolved a more flexible social structure. Aspects of cat behavior are a result of descent from a solitary carnivore that has undergone selection to evolve as a domestic animal with a flexible social structure. Their social structure is flexible based on the circumstances and a range of agonistic, defensive, and affiliative behaviors are employed to manage access to resources and contact with other cats. The chapter presents some common situations where cats may engage in aggressive behavior toward other cats, other animals, or humans, focusing on the various types of aggression of cats.
Article
Promotion of positive experiences in companion animals is essential for maximising good welfare. However, the dearth of published literature on the experience and expression of positive emotional states in companion dogs suggests they are less well understood than negative emotions. Owner knowledge can provide a basis for generating hypotheses for experimental research, and can inform education initiatives. An online survey of 445 dog (Canis familiaris) owners in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland was used to identify key contexts and behaviours perceived by owners to be associated with positive emotions for companion dogs, and to examine factors which influence owner reports of key behaviours. The contexts most commonly associated with positive high arousal (PHA; happy and excited) were anticipation of walks or food and with positive low arousal (PLA; happy and relaxed) were resting and gentle stroking. Respondents behavioural profile for canine PHA involved barking, head held high, wide open and bright eyes, ears pricked, tail wagging, mouth open, and active, playful behaviour. For PLA, respondents collectively described their dogs as silent, head resting, eyes closed or slightly closed, ears down, mouth closed and a calm/relaxed activity level. Notably, PLA states were described in less detail than PHA, suggesting the former may be less well understood or difficult to interpret. Dog breed and age, and owner experience and level of attachment to their pet significantly influenced respondents likelihood to report certain behavioural indicators, and may influence assessments of pet behaviour and underlying emotion. Further work is required to determine the validity of the behavioural expression and contexts perceived to be associated with positive experiences in dogs.
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Although cats are extremely common, pet owners seem to have a poor understanding of their natural behaviour and needs and a large number end up in cat shelters. In Sweden, no records exist of the number of cat shelters or their activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of cat shelters in Sweden. We found 62 cat shelters during 2006; the year in which this study was conducted. Questionnaires were sent to these shelters with questions concerning: received animals, reasons for relinquishing cats, cat husbandry and how the shelter was run. The most common reason for relinquishing a cat was that the cat was homeless; another common reason was that the owner had an allergy to cats. The shelters had, on average, space for 29 cats, but this varied from six-to-100, and they received on average ten cats per month. This means that a total of around 7,400 cats enter the 62 shelters in Sweden each year. On average, the cats stayed more than three months in the shelter. Less than 10% of the relinquished cats were euthanised. Our study reveals that there are shelters that continuously receive unwanted cats. The majority of these cats are said to be homeless, therefore in order to minimise the number of cats in shelters in Sweden, the focus should be on reducing the number of homeless cats.
Article
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affected not only the physical and emotional health of human beings but also cats. Restrictions put into effect during the pandemic resulted in changes in the daily routine of pet cats and the number of new pet owners. The current study aimed to evaluate the diseases induced by stress in cats, such as gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and urinary tract diseases. To this end, the study evaluated the pre-pandemic (n: 52) (March 2019-Feb 2020) and pandemic (n: 95) (March 2020-March 2021) diagnosis data of cats (n: 147) with gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and urinary system diseases admitted to the Internal Medicine Department of Hatay Mustafa Kemal University Veterinary Health, Practice and Research Center between March 2019 and March 2021. There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes of the cats admitted to the clinic in both periods. There was a significant change in cat breeds during the pandemic, except for the mixed-breed and Ankara breeds. The age (mean ± SEM) of the cats admitted to the clinic was 30.14 ± 4.24 months before the pandemic and 30.45 ± 3.43 during the pandemic. Distributions of gastrointestinal diseases in the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods were determined as 35.7% and 64.3%, respectively. During the pandemic, the number of gastritis cases was lower than that in the pre-pandemic period, and the number of gastroenteritis cases was higher than that in the pre-pandemic period. Except for gastrointestinal diseases (P<0.05), a statistical difference between the periods was not found. The changes, especially influencing the daily routine of cats and causing stress, seem to have had significant effects on the gastrointestinal health of domestic cats.
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Despite the popular idea that dog owners are often responsible in some way for their animals' behaviour problems, the scientific evidence is scarce and contradictory. Some studies have failed to detect any links between the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the occurrence of behaviour problems, while others suggest that some behaviour problems may be associated with certain aspects of owner personality, attitudes and/or behaviour.Using retrospective data from a sample of 737 dogs, the present study investigated the association between the prevalence of different behaviour problems and various aspects of either owner behaviour or owner-dog interactions. A number of statistically significant associations were detected: (a) between obedience training and reduced prevalence of competitive aggression (P < 0.02), separation-related problems (P < 0.001), and escaping and roaming (P < 0.05); (b) between the timing of the dogs' meal times and the occurrence of territorial-type aggression (P < 0.01); (c) between sleeping close to the owner and increased prevalence of competitive aggression (P < 0.01) and separation-related problems (P < 0.01); (d) between first-time ownership and the prevalence of dominance-type aggression (P < 0.001), separation-related problems (P < 0.05), fear of loud noises (P < 0.001), and various manifestations of overexcitability (P < 0.001); (e) between owners' initial reasons for acquiring a dog and the prevalence of dominance-type (P < 0.001), competitive (P < 0.01) and territorial aggression (P < 0.01). The possible practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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The possible relationship between companion animal behavior and owner attachment levels has received surprisingly little attention in the literature on human-companion animal interactions, despite its relevance to our understanding of the potential benefits of pet ownership, and the problems associated with pet loss, or the premature abandonment and disposal of companion animals. The present study describes a preliminary investigation of this topic involving a questionnaire survey of 37 dog owners and 47 cat owners exactly 1 year after they acquired pets from animal shelters. The results demonstrate a number of highly significant differences in owners' assessments of the behavior of dogs and cats, particularly with respect to playfulness (Mann-Whitney U Test, P = 0.125), confidence (P < 0.001), affection (P = 0.002), excitability (P = 0.018), activity (P = 0.002), friendliness to strangers (P < 0.001), intelligence (P = 0.02), and owner-directed aggression (P = 0.002). However, few differences were noted between dog and cat owners in terms of their perceptions of what constitutes ‘ideal’ pet behavior. The findings also suggest that dog owners who report weaker attachments for their pets are consistently less satisfied with most aspects of their dogs' behavior compared with those who report stronger attachments. Weakly attached cat owners are significantly more dissatisfied with the levels of affection shown by their pets (P = 0.0186), but in other respects they are far less consistent than dog owners.
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A developmental study in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) examined the interaction of their early socialisation and the friendliness of their father and its consequences on their later friendliness to people. Kittens were either handled between 2 and 12 weeks of age (socialised) or received no handling (unsocialised) during this period. These kittens were the offspring of either a ‘friendly’ father or an ‘unfriendly’ father. When 1 year old, these cats went through a series of three experiments: (1) response to a familiar person; (2) response to a stranger; and (3) response to a novel object. Cats socialised or from the friendly father were quicker to approach, touch and rub a test person, were more vocal and spent a greater total time within 1 m of them. Differences in the cats' response to a novel object could not be accounted for by differences in early socialisation. However, cats from the friendly father were quicker to approach, touch, explore and remain in close contact with the novel object than were cats from the unfriendly father. The genetic contribution to friendliness towards people in cats was reinterpreted as boldness; a general response to unfamiliar or novel objects irrespective of whether or not the objects are people. The socialisation effect was specific to the cats' response to people. Socialised cats and friendly-fathered cats were not only friendlier to unfamiliar people but less distressed when approached and handled by them.
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Unmanipulated human-cat interactions in established relationships and in the common but very complex home setting are described and analyzed quantitatively. Fifty-one cat-owning Swiss families were visited in their homes. In a total of 504 hours of observation, the interspecific interactions of 162 persons and 72 cats were recorded. Quantitatively, the interactive behavior of both partners in a human-cat dyad increases with increasing duration of human presence at home: this independent variable is largest in adult women and smallest in adult men, while children and juveniles show intermediate values. Therefore, adult women are generally predestined to be the main human partner in human-cat relationships. Even so, when based on mean duration of human presence, effects of human sex and age can still be found for some human and cat behavior. Judged by the amount and reciprocity of interactions, woman-cat dyads have the best and juvenile-cat dyads the worst relationships. Cat behavior toward individual family members not only depends upon characteristics of the human (availability, sex, and age) but also upon characteristics of the whole family, such as family size and number of cats living in the household (negative correlation for both factors). Cat housing condition (indoor versus outdoor) appears to be unimportant in the human-cat relationship, although it affects the duration of a cat's presence at home. The results show the complexity of human-cat relationships in the privacy of the home. The list of factors shown to influence such relationships was increased by several variables. Thus, observation of unmanipulated interspecific interactions was useful despite problems inherent to most field studies.
Article
A questionnaire was sent to the owners of 95 bitches and 162 queens, that had undergone ovariectomy or ovariohysterectomy at the authors' hospital during the past 9 years (8 years in queens).As a result, it was clearly shown that there was a lower frequency of pyometra (0% in both aminals), and mammary gland tumor (1.6% in bitches, 2.0% in queens) after spaying. A fair proportion of spayed animals showed a tendency to develop obesity, alopecia, cutaneous diseases and urinary incontinence. Especially in 10.9% of bitches and 6.7% of queens, body weight after the operation increased over 1.5 times as much as that before the operation. It was also markedly shown that many owners were dejected because of the impossible desire to have puppies of spayed animals (19.4% in spayed bitchs and 9.4% in queens).
Article
This paper reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of a scale for assessing emotional attachment of individuals to their pets. Previous attachment scales have suffered variously from low internal consistency and reliance on small or nonrepresentative samples for their development. Telephone interviews of a random, representative sample of 412 pet owners in Fayette County, Kentucky, were completed in September 1990; a 69.5 percent response rate was achieved. From a preliminary set of 42 questions, a final 23-question instrument, the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale (LAPS), was developed, having excellent psychometric properties. The scale is suitable for use with dog and cat owners. Data on internal consistency, factor structure, and item response theory (IRT) modeling are presented, along with correlations between the LAPS and several domains of variables known to relate to pet attachment.
Article
Comparative behavioural observations were made in the home setting in order to analyze the ethology of the human-cat relationship. Factors postulated, and indeed, found to influence that relationship included marital status of the human (women living alone, with a partner or with a partner and children), housing conditions of the cat (indoor vs. outdoor access), number of cats kept (one vs. more than one), and to a very minor extent, pedigree of the cat (purebred vs. domestic mixture). Various measures of success at both the interactional, and the relationship level were examined and yielded the following results: 1) The more successful the person is in initiating interactions with the cat, the shorter, the total interaction time with the pet. 2) The higher the proportion of all successful intents to interact that were due to the cat, the more time spent interacting. 3) Willingness to comply with the partner's wishes to interact is positively correlated between the cat and the human over all pairs examined--which helps explain the widespread popularity of cats, as pets.
Article
Body condition was assessed by owners and veterinarians for over 2000 cats presented to 31 private veterinary hospitals in the Northeastern United States. Each owner completed a questionnaire querying potential factors associated with his/her cat's body condition. Veterinarians reported twenty-five percent of cats were overweight (heavy or obese), while owners estimated 29% of their pets were overweight. Apartment dwelling, inactivity, middle age, being male, neutered, of mixed breeding, and certain dietary factors were associated with being overweight.
Article
To use indirect calorimetry to compare heat production between gonadectomized and sexually intact male and female cats. Male (n = 6) and female (n = 6) kittens were gonadectomized at 7 weeks or 7 months of age, or left sexually intact. Body heat production was measured by indirect calorimetry in all cats at 12, 18, and 24 months of age. 18 male and 18 female clinically normal domestic shorthair cats. Heat production was measured, using an open-circuit, respiratory, indirect calorimeter. All cats underwent calorimetry at 12, 18, and 24 months of age. The heat coefficient, a measure of resting metabolic rate, was calculated for each cat at each test; heat coefficient is defined as logarithm of heat (kcal/h) divided by logarithm of body weight (kg). Heat production did not vary with age in male or female cats. Heat coefficient was higher in sexually intact male and female cats than in gonadectomized male and female cats at 12, 18, and 24 months of age (12 months, females, P < 0.01, males, P = 0.04; 18 months, females, P < 0.01, males, P = 0.02; and 24 months, females and males, P < 0.01). These data suggest that resting metabolic rate in cats decreases after gonadectomy. A decrease in metabolic rate is synonymous with a decrease in caloric requirements. Gonadectomized animals fed in a manner similar to sexually intact animals may be predisposed to obesity and its sequelae.
Mammary tumors in cats—epidemiologic and histologic features in 2386 cases
  • M Kessler
  • D Vonbomhard
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