Article

Climate change mitigation and co-benefits of feasible transport demand policies in Beijing

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Abstract

Urban car transportation is a cause of climate change but is also associated with additional burdens such as traffic congestion and air pollution. Studies of external costs and potential impacts of travel demand management help to define policy instruments that mitigate the damaging impact of transportation. Here, we analyze different externalities of car transportation in Beijing and show that social costs induced by motorized transportation are equivalent to about 7.5–15.0% of Beijing’s GDP. Congestion and air pollution contribute the most with climate change costs being the most uncertain. We show that a road charge could not only address congestion but also has environmental benefits. The paper investigates the role of demand elasticities and demonstrates that joint demand and supply-side policies provide considerable synergies.

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... Globally, urban motorized transport emits almost 3 Gt CO 2 in 2010, accounting for 40% of the transport sector's total emissions [1]. Climate change is not the only negative externality resulting from transportation, but air pollution, noise, road damage, accidents, and congestion are also generating social costs [2][3][4][5][6]. While the effect of climate change is global and mainly independent of the originating location, the other externalities are strongly dependent on location. ...
... Shared mobility has become increasingly popular since there are important positive effects: (1) People become less dependent on their cars that can be substituted by healthier modes of transport such as on-foot or cycling that pollute less and become more interactive with each other along the way [11]. (2) People can save money by sharing rides from their underused cars that are sitting idle in the parking space [12] and simultaneously save time stuck in traffic that will lead to less congestion [13] and less frustration. (3) Finally, higher vehicle occupancy is one of the key measures to increase efficiency of vehicle use and decrease GHG emissions [14]. ...
... Here, we aim (1) to explain the influential factors determining the mode choice behavior of Bangkok commuters, (2) to identify potential commuters that are ready to make the shift to shared mobility, and (3) to estimate the sensitivity of trip attributes on mode choice probability. Our survey covers various districts of Bangkok that represent different income classes and areas of public transit coverage, including a unique private paratransit service in Thailand which is called the "motorcycle taxi" that is popularly used in narrow streets (called "soi"). ...
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Article
Individual motorized vehicles in urban environments are inefficiently oversupplied both from the perspective of transport system efficiency and from the perspective of local and global environmental externalities. Shared mobility offers the promise of more efficient use of four-wheeler vehicles, while maintaining flexible routing. Here, we aim to understand the travel mode choices of commuters in Bangkok and explore the potential demand for shared mobility through examining both revealed and stated choices, based on our survey (n = 1239) and a systematic comparison of mode choice situations. Our multinomial logistic regression analysis indicates that commuters value time in their vehicles and accept fuel costs, but that they dislike wasting time walking, waiting, and searching for parking or pay for road use and parking. Our model results imply that shared taxi has a higher chance of being used as a door-to-door mode rather than as a competitor to motorcycle taxis as a feeder to the metro stations. Ride sharing gains substantial potential when private motorized cars are charged with the social external costs they cause via congestion charges and parking fees. Replacing cars with shared taxis as the daily choice for those living in detached houses will result in a 24–36% reduction of car trips on Bangkok roads.
... Attempts to empirically evaluate external costs in middle income countries with similar levels of motorization rate to Thailand include Chile (I. Parry & Strand, 2012;Rizzi and De La Maza, 2017) and Mexico (Parry and Timilsina, 2010), and in capital cities in the two most populated countries -China and India (Creutzig and He, 2009;Sen et al., 2010). The vehicle groups, cost categories, and methods used vary depending on interest and data availability. ...
... Social gain depends on the demand elasticity of road usage. The more elastic the demand, the larger the gain (Creutzig and He, 2009). ...
... From Fig. 4 and Table A4, our annual external cost estimates differ from those in Santiago (Rizzi & De La Maza, 2017), Delhi (Sen et al., 2010), and Beijing (Creutzig and He, 2009) where air pollution is the second costliest externality. However, Bangkok's marginal air pollution cost is in the range of those cities. ...
Article
The current state of inner city car transport is highly inefficient, producing congestion, air and noise pollution, accidents, and contributing to global warming. We evaluate the environmental and social costs of motorized transport in Bangkok that turned in the last 25 years from a bus and motorcycle to a car-traffic dominated city, one of the world’s most congested. We find that total external costs burden Bangkok’s economy by about 7% – 10.8% of the GRP, almost half originating in congestion. We evaluate optimal Pigouvian taxation of driving a vehicle in Bangkok and calculate the costs of on-street parking in the inner city. Optimal congestion charging is about $2.3, optimal road toll is about $2.7, and optimal inner city parking is about $3.2 per hour. Our results imply that urban mobility would profit most from a combination of congestion and parking pricing, maintaining most of the flexibility of transport, e.g., by incentivizing shared pooled mobility, while also improving urban quality of life. Better parking management and inner city tolls would benefit most cities in rapidly urbanizing and motorizing Southeast Asia.
... Vehicular pollution is the major contributor to worsening of air quality in Delhi, India, with 64% contribution to total pollution in the city in 1991 and 70% in 2000-2001 [9] . In China, outdoor air pollution, for which the major cause is transportation activities, has become the leading cause of more than 400,000 premature deaths each year [10] . Alongside environmental problems, urban transportation activities are the major source of road accidents and fatalities and accident-related health problems, especially in developing countries. ...
... For instance in Chiang Mai, Thailand, the number of registered passenger cars and motorcycles increased 20-fold between 1970 and 2000, despite the two-fold increase in population [13] . In Beijing, where 1% of China's population drives 10% of China's vehicles, number of vehicles increased from 1.2 million in 2000 to 3.5 million in 2008 [10] . Considering the current rates of urbanization, rising incomes and availability of cheaper vehicles in developing countries, it is obvious that transportation-related challenges in cities of developing countries will be intense and severe in the near future [14] . ...
... Sumida Ward, Tokyo, Personal Communication, August 2010.10 These "Developmental states" have three characteristics in common; (1) the state or the ethnic group, (not individual, households, firms, communities) is thought as a unit of development,(2) The state, including the military in charge of public safety and national defense, intervene into the economy and the society to a large extent and (3) Economic development is set as a primary national target[39] .11 ...
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Conference Paper
Challenges and Opportunities towards Achieving Environmental Co-benefits through Land Use Planning and Management: Experiences from Asian Metropolitan Cities
... For example, Mensink et al. (2000) established the urban transportation carbon emission model through the "bottom-up" method in the early stage and took the Antwerp region as a research object to measure the transportation carbon emissions. Later scholars (Creutzig and He, 2009;Liu et al., 2015) established the carbon emission model of urban transportation by the "top-down" or "bottom-up" methods, which mainly include variables such as the vehicle volume, vehicle mileage, vehicle fuel consumption, and energy carbon emission factor. Other studies used two methods to measure the traffic carbon emissions of regional roads (Saija and Romano, 2002;Zuo et al., 2018). ...
... Based on the carbon emission analysis of the energy consumption, another research approach is to calculate and analyze the carbon emissions of different types of transportation models, including passenger and freight transportation (Creutzig and He, 2009;Liu et al., 2015;Palencia et al., 2017;Wang et al., 2012b), private automobiles (Creutzig and He, 2009), and public transportation . Taking Beijing as an example, the "bottom-up" method was used to calculate the total carbon emissions from the transportation industry, and it was found that freight transportation and passenger cars were the main sources of the increase in carbon emissions (Creutzig and He, 2009). ...
... Based on the carbon emission analysis of the energy consumption, another research approach is to calculate and analyze the carbon emissions of different types of transportation models, including passenger and freight transportation (Creutzig and He, 2009;Liu et al., 2015;Palencia et al., 2017;Wang et al., 2012b), private automobiles (Creutzig and He, 2009), and public transportation . Taking Beijing as an example, the "bottom-up" method was used to calculate the total carbon emissions from the transportation industry, and it was found that freight transportation and passenger cars were the main sources of the increase in carbon emissions (Creutzig and He, 2009). ...
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Article
With the increasing international consensus concerning the negative effects of climate change, reducing greenhouse gases has become a higher priority in government policies and research committees. The transportation sector generates approximately 29% of the total greenhouse gas emissions and 25% of the global energy related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Thus, it is essential to understand the influencing factors of vehicle emissions and establish a corresponding evaluation model for the emission estimation of operating vehicles. This paper reviews different methods of measuring vehicle emissions, including laboratory measurements, on-road measurements, and tunnel measurements. Then, we summarize the factors affecting the emission evaluation of operating vehicles based on the vehicle operating features and road environment. Finally, the applications of vehicle emission evaluation models are analyzed, including the emission assessment of the vehicles operating at road segments and intersections. Based on this review, one can conclude that selecting different measurements will significantly impact the assessment of the vehicle emission results and the applicable scope of the measurements. Considering the different influencing factors of the operating vehicle emissions will have an impact on the model application of the vehicle emission evaluation. Moreover, several analysis methods for new technology vehicles can compensate for the potential lack in connectedness with the rapid development of new energy vehicle technology and the improvement of intelligent transportation systems (ITS).
... Normal P-P plot of regression standardized residual for model Eq. (4) Fig. 4. 7 Education level over the drive mode share Fig. 4. 8 Distribution of the analyzed cities (white = small cities, green = mature cities, red = metropolises) Fig. 4. 9 Multi variant diagram of metropolises. Congestion level (ADETT) over road infrastructure accessibility (IA); the bubble size is proportional to the population density; the filled color indicates Train IA, the bubble border color indicates Cycle IA, the color of the starred city labels indicates bus-rapid transit (BRT) IA Fig. 4. 10 Multi variant diagram of large cities. ...
... (5) Table 4. 8 Pearson correlation coefficient between the travel mode choices and urban indicators. Table 4. 9 Results of linear function model Eq. (6) Table 4. 10 Results of linear function model Eq. ...
... (9) for cities with population densities above 1,500 per km 2 Table 4. 14 The calibration results of linear function model Eq. (9) for cities with population densities below 1,500 per km 2 Table 4.15 Scaling of multi-variant graphs in Figs. 4.9-4.11 ...
Thesis
This double degree doctorate thesis presents a worldwide analysis of urban mobility systems to provide a holistic view for urban planners, policy-makers, and local governments. Worldwide analysis and comparison of urban areas are of paramount importance in order to draft or reassess a supportive and integrated socio-technical scheme. This is the first, systematic multivariate transport indicator-analysis using recent, observable open-source data from different urban areas around the world. Around 200 cities which are distributed over 55 countries are examined under different analysis in the present thesis.
... The problem is especially acute in developing megacities such as Istanbul, Sao Paulo, New Delhi, etc. where rapid population growth and rising transport demand are key urban problems due to inefficient and insufficient urban transport. The results of these urban problems cause chronic traffic jams, air and noise pollution, crowded and unreliable public transport [6][7][8][9]. Insufficient public transport supply, heavy reliance on private cars and the lack of effective and consistent transport policies add to these urban problems, making the cities unsustainable in terms of economic, social, and environmental outcomes. ...
... Solving the model (16) or (17) are obtained weight coefficients of criteria by experts. By applying TrFNDBM operator (9), it is performed the aggregation of the weight coefficients ...
... By solving fuzzy nonlinear models, the average value of the OMC χ ≈ 0.07 is obtained, which shows high consistency of the obtained values of the weights of the criteria. Using TrFNDBM operator (9), it is performed the aggregation of the weight coefficients and final optimal values of the weight coefficients of the criteria are obtained (w 1 ,w 2 , . . . ,w n ) T , as shown in Table 8. ...
Article
The selection and prioritization of appropriate Transportation Demand Management (TDM) measures is a common problem faced by transport planners and decision makers. The problem involves many uncertainties due to changing economic conditions, uncertainty in project success, changes in mobility and population characteristics etc. In this study, the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) based fuzzy Full Consistency Method-Dombi-Bonferroni (fuzzy FUCOM-D’Bonferroni) model is proposed for a case study in Istanbul’s urban mobility system. Istanbul’s historical peninsula is considered to be a pilot area for the implementation of TDM projects by the local government. The proposed model is compared with other well-known four MCDM methods in order to show its validity and consistency. The results show that public transport capacity improvements is the best alternative among the other TDM measures.
... For example, China is the main global carbon emitter (IEA 2007;Eichhorst and Bongardt 2009). In Beijing alone, air pollution has become one of the leading causes of deaths, and its cost is estimated from 7.5% to 15% of the city's GDP (Creutzig and He 2009). Economic problems associated with climate change have prompted the Chinese government to prioritize energy efficiency. ...
... It is striking to note that China depends on local management of climate change (Creutzig and He 2009). This is demonstrated in the contracts between the Chinese government and provincial officers on energy efficiency and pollution reduction targets (Yuan 2007). ...
Chapter
The adoption of the Zimbabwean Constitution (Amendment No. 20) in 2013 availed a great opportunity for the country to start on a new slate. The Constitu�tion contains a repertoire of critical aspects of development including environ�mental rights, governance, and related aspects. In the labyrinth and maze of issues of the constitution, climate change management and a developmental challenge are implied including its funding. The chapter examines how climate change could and should be part of the agenda of the devolution and transformative agenda that the government has been trying to push for since 2018 when President Emmerson Mnangagwa came into power. Zimbabwe’s socioeconomic development is reliant on God-given resources. The effects of climate change happen and impact the livelihood of communities such as flooding of fields, damaging roads, drought, poor waste management, and human-wildlife conflicts. Accordingly, devolution is crucial to unlocking the potential of local government to contain the effects of climate change. The chapter engages literature and document analysis to examine the constructs around the debate. It crystallizes some of the matters through case studies to provide an in-depth analysis of how local-level initiatives are manifesting.
... The continuous urbanization process, associated motor vehicle use, fast-growing travel demand, and imperfect public transport systems have brought huge challenges to urban transport worldwide but especially in China, for example burdening Beijing's economy by 7.5%-15% of GDP (Creutzig & He, 2009). Although expanding vehicle ownership can meet mobility demand, it is accompanied by congestion, pollution, energy consumption, and carbon emissions (Maibach et al., 2008;Wu et al., 2019;Yu et al., 2020). ...
... Congestion, green house gas (GHG) emissions, and sustained growth of local air pollution will become increasingly problematic. While a combination of congestion charges, regulation, and expansion of public transit has been suggested as main solution (Creutzig & He, 2009), the advance of shared mobility offers an innovation and modal choice somewhere located between private motorized transport, individual active mobility (in the case of bike sharing), and public transit (in the case of ride railing and pooling, and car sharing). ...
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Article
The last decade witnessed a rapid rise in shared mobility in China. However, there is lack of understanding how the shared mobility market developed, how shared mobility reshapes daily travel patterns, and what shared mobility contributes, if at all, to environmental goals, and in particular climate change mitigation. Here, we systematically review the state of shared mobility in China, scoping 2541 English paper and 12,140 Chinese research papers. We differentiate between ride hailing, car sharing, and bike sharing and analyze the factors shaping shared mobility patterns from the four perspectives of consumers, service providers, the government, and the environment. We also elaborate on governance measures guiding shared mobility and investigate the impact of future shared mobility on a potential low-carbon transportation system transition, highlighting the key role of bike sharing and shared pooled mobility. We show that COVID-19 reduced demand for car hailing, but rendered bike sharing more popular. This work provides a systematic guidance for the future development of shared mobility, and its possibility to contribute to climate change mitigation.
... Consequently, substantial reductions in CO 2 emissions from passenger cars are required, and various countermeasures are expected to reduce these emissions. The countermeasures include reducing carbon intensity [3,4], improving the energy efficiency of vehicles [5][6][7][8], electrification of vehicles [9,10], and reducing vehicle weights [11], as well as demand management measures, such as traffic control and modal shift policies [12][13][14][15] and urban compaction [16][17][18][19][20][21]. ...
... Here, we assume that technological progress is disseminated to all municipalities at once. Substituting Equation (15) into Equation (1), we can estimate the CO 2 emissions reflecting technological progress and travel speed change. ...
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Article
Climate policy requires substantial reductions in long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including in the transportation sector. As passenger cars are one of the dominant CO2 emitters in the transport sector, governments and the automobile industry have implemented various countermeasures, including decarbonization of fuels, more energy efficient vehicles, and transport demand management. However, the total impact of these measures in the long term remains unclear. This study aims to clarify the CO2 emissions reductions from passenger cars by 2050 in 1727 municipalities in Japan under a declining population. To estimate CO2 emissions, we model travel behavior and traffic situations reflecting the regional conditions of the municipalities, including population density and accessibility to public transport for the base year 2010. Assuming plausible scenarios for future populations and automobile technologies, we estimate CO2 emissions from passenger cars. We estimate that CO2 emissions will decline by 64–70% between 2010 and 2050, with automobile technologies playing the largest role. We find that the impact of urban compaction is marginal at the national level but varies by municipality. These results imply that, given regional variations, all countermeasures, including technology and demand management, must be used to achieve the long-term target of CO2 emissions reductions.
... While often (ref. 12 ), which is similar to both congestion and air pollution costs, while costs of urban accidents and noise are slightly below these climate change costs 11 . In other cities like Barcelona, the health-related costs of noise pollution from road transport, including motorcycles, can also be similar to the costs of climate change 13 . ...
... Expanded and more frequent public transit and safe cycling lanes induce a further modal shift and reductions in congestion, thereby cutting down time costs for both public transit users and car drivers. For example, calibrated to the external costs of Beijing (congestion, air pollution, climate change, noise and accidents), the difference between hardly any public transit and high-quality public transit translates into overall reduction of car drivers' net costs induced by a city toll by 45% 11 . The financing of better and cleaner public transit is a salient goal of direct interest to considerable parts of the electorate. ...
Article
Synergistically addressing local and global environmental damages rather than optimizing a specific aspect of the policy conundrum helps to effectively foster climate action in road transport while maintaining public acceptance and socially fair outcomes.
... A modeling study on optimal multi-objective pricing of private motorized transport in Beijing reveals that marginal pricing can be slashed by 30%-50% (while maintaining the same effect) if alternative infrastructures for bus rapid-transit systems are counterfactually provided. 30 The optimal infrastructure provision is also a function of urban form if utilization of transport mode depends on population density: the municipal government optimally invests into public transport networks where population density and ridership are sufficiently high to ensure financial viability. 31 Interestingly, urban form itself depends on the marginal costs of the low-cost transport mode (because of time costs, this is car transportation). ...
... The combination of low-carbon infrastructures and carbon pricing will in most circumstances also deliver substantial co-benefits, which could locally outweigh climate benefits by an order of magnitude, notably by reducing air pollution, alleviating congestion, and improving energy security. 30,59,60 The proposed policy architecture has to overcome several barriers that are deeply entwined with the political economy of climate policies. First, carbon pricing is politically difficult because it targets the powerful few organized interests, such as oil producers, while the benefits are distributed indirectly to everyone. ...
Article
Climate-change mitigation is a global collective-action problem of high urgency and is required for stabilizing the Earth system. But, the global coordination of credible policies to mitigate climate change is hampered by heterogonous nation states diverging in both capabilities and domestic economic interests. To make mitigation more attractive, and ensure automatic escalation in ambition, I suggest mutually reinforcing climate policies that are linked via public finance: pricing carbon within an expanding climate coalition, using the revenues to build infrastructures to accommodate low-carbon technologies and systems, and applying normative pressure to divest from fossil fuels. An algorithmic strategy based on auctioning would guarantee efficiency and escalate mitigation. Together, carbon pricing, infrastructure investment, and morally motivated collective action constitute the mitigation trinity.
... In particular, air pollution is a major motivation, as 660 million Indians are estimated to live in areas with health-unsecure levels air fine particulate matter, reducing life expectance in averagy by more than 3 years (Greenstone, Nilekani et al. 2015). Often these co-benefits outweigh the benefits of decarbonization in transportation's sector (Creutzig and He 2009, Schipper, Deakin et al. 2011, World Health Organization 2011, Creutzig, Mühlhoff et al. 2012) . ...
... Delhi's higher socio-economic status and heavy reliance on private travel modes ( Fig. 2 and 5) led to higher commuting emissions than in other megacities. This may also be an effect of being the center of government; similarly, as capital of China, Beijing's emissions from car transport exceed those of Shanghai (Liu, He et al. 2007, Creutzig andHe 2009). Delhi is also one of the most air-polluted cities in India. ...
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Article
India's land transport GHG emissions are small in international comparison, but growing exponentially. Understanding of geographically-specific determinants of GHG emissions is crucial to devise low-carbon sustainable development strategies. However, previous studies on transport patterns have been limited to socio-economic context in linear and stationary settings, and with limited spatial scope. Here, we use a machine learning tool to develop a nested typology that categorizes all 640 Indian districts according to the econometrically identified drivers of their commuting emissions. Results reveal that per capita commuting emissions significantly vary over space, after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, and are strongly influenced by built environment (e.g. urbanization, and road density), and mobility-related variables (e.g. travel distance and travel modes). The commuting emissions of districts are characterized by unique, place-specific combinations of drivers. We find that income and urbanization are dominant classifiers of commuting emissions, while we explain more fine-grained patterns with mode choice and travel distance. Surprisingly the most urbanized areas with highest population density are also associated with the highest transport GHG emissions, a result that is explained by high car ownership. This result contrasts with insights from OECD countries, where commuting emissions are associated with low-density urban sprawl. Our findings demonstrate that low-carbon commuting in India is best advanced with spatially differentiated strategies.
... Measures to increase active travel (such as walking, cycling and use of public transport) that increase physical activity are identified for their zero-carbon emissions, less air pollution and a wide range of health benefits such as reduced obesity; reduced non-communicable diseases, improved mental health and associated savings in health care costs [63]. The expansion of public transport is found to save human lives because it involves less deadly and non-fatal injuries [64]. ...
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Chapter
This paper focuses on the development and implementation of government planning policies on climate action, which are found to have wide-ranging non-climate-related benefits including significant health benefits that contribute to healthy ageing. This focus is defined by terming these additional benefits of climate action policies as ‘co-benefits’. These co-benefits motivate governments to frame climate change mitigation in a positive light to operationalise broader economic, social, health and environmental benefits of low-carbon policies within the concept of sustainable development. This holistic approach has been globally formalised through the UN Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs). The objectives of this paper are to highlight the awareness of the importance of climate action in healthy ageing and how that can be implemented in a holistic manner through low-carbon planning of sustainable development.
... Meanwhile, India and China also greatly contribute to the AEI of global transport sector, and the AEI of their transport sector is largely contributed by land transport. The result may occur for that their global largest population can significantly increase the transportation demands [63,64]. Their rapid urbanization can significantly increase the demands for land transport [65]. ...
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Article
Transport sector is one of the main global carbon emitters. Its production-side aggregated carbon intensity (i.e., the ratio of carbon emissions to GDP, AI) has been well explored, but its demand-side aggregated embodied carbon intensity (i.e., the ratio of embodied emissions to embodied value added, AEI) is always ignored, which is not conducive to improving its demand-side emissions reduction performance. Thus, using the latest world input–output table from EXIOBASE, this paper adopts the environmentally extended multi-regional input–output model and the structural path analysis model to investigate this issue from the views of globe, region, transmission layer, and final demand structure, respectively. The results indicate that: first, the AEI and AI of global transport sector contribute to global AI with 4.2% and 6.7%, respectively. The AI of global transport sector is chiefly contributed by water transport and air transport, followed by land transport, while its AEI is mainly contributed by land transport, followed by water transport and air transport. Second, transport sector highly contributing to regional AEI are mostly from the developed regions in Europe. Land transport, water transport, and air transport highly contributing to the AEI of regional transport sector are generally from the regions with low AEI of transport sector, the coastal regions, and the developed regions in Europe, respectively. Finally, the critical transmission layers of the AEI of regional transport sector have great differences in various regions, but their critical final demands are similar.
... Urban transport comprises a significant portion of GHG emissions (Creutzig and He, 2009;Dulal et al., 2011). According to intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC, 2014), the transport sector comprised 14% of total global emissions in 2010. ...
... Despite the concept's prevalence, neither is there a fixed definition of what counts as a 'co-benefit' nor does the concept have clearly identifiable boundaries [6]. Substantial methodological complications remain, including difficulties in monetizing several types of co-benefits [9], accounting for different beneficiaries and avoiding double counting [10], and establishing a causality between policy programs and co-benefits [6]. The concept is often claimed to be linked to incremental measures that do not address the root causes of climate change and are, therefore, labeled as insufficient to effectively respond to the climate crisis [5,6]. ...
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Article
What drives countries to realize more integrated policymaking? The co-benefits concept highlights the win–win situations that can arise if one policy measure addresses two or more policy goals, e.g., air quality and health benefits resulting from a climate policy. Scholars have suggested that decision makers, if confronted with the evidence of co-benefits, would update their beliefs and adopt stronger or more ambitious climate policies. In other words, a learning process takes place. This paper looks at the policy processes in two countries, Mexico and Nigeria, as part of the Supporting National Action and Planning (SNAP) initiative under the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC). The SNAP initiative supports governments with policymaking and implementation for a reduction in short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This paper seeks to reveal how learning processes and their outcomes are influenced by co-benefits as a specific type of information. Looking at an example of how the co-benefits concept is applied in political practice offers valuable insights into how learning is part of the policymaking process and can shape its outcomes, such as national (climate) action plans.
... Similarly, as far as the second point is concerned, the synergistic effects caused by pollutant control have attracted many scholars' attention. Creutzig and He (2009) analyzed the co-benefit of air pollutants along with congestion from the perspective of demand price elasticity and road pricing. Zhang et al. (2014b) estimated the historic and future trends in vehicle emissions (CO, total hydro carbons (THC), NO x and PM 2.5 ) of Beijing from 1998 to 2020. ...
Article
The transport sector has been one of the largest source of carbon emission and urban air pollutants. The research on the coordinated development of pollutant and carbon emission reduction in transport industry is helpful to the realization of urban pollutant prevention and carbon emission reduction, especially in big cities. Thus, a multi-period bottom-up vehicle development mathematical model is proposed to analyze the technology development path, emission path and energy structure adjustment path, and the synergistic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction under a expected air pollution emission standard. Four pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM), generated from the vehicle are considered in this model. Then, the proposed model is used to analyze the related vehicle structure and energy consumption under the expected emission standards for Beijing during 2020 and 2035. The technology development path, emission path and energy structure adjustment path are examined, and the synergistic benefits of CO2 emission reduction are also studied. Some important implication are found as follows: (1) Even with the goal of environmental pollution control only, new energy vehicles will have an explosive growth period, starting from about 2025. (2) Strict air pollution emission policies do not always lead to the rapid development of new energy vehicles before 2025. (3) The four main pollutants show different levels of synergistic effect among which CO on HC and NOx on PM are obvious, respectively. (4) Even under the control of the air pollution policy, the synergistic effect to CO2 emission reduction is also obvious. Compared to the baseline case, the reduction benefit from the MILD and STRICT environmental policies are 30 and 70 million yuan, respectively.
... The differences in national climate policies are often explained in the literature by referring to macrolevel economic and political structures, such as a country's dependency on fossil fuels, its vulnerability to climate change, its wealth or its administrative capacity (Fisher, 2006). From this perspective, climate policy leaders tend to be those countries that stand to gain from adopting climate change mitigation policies (Creutzig & He, 2009;Nemet, Holloway, & Meier, 2010) or are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change (Tubi, Fischhendler, & Feitelson, 2012). In contrast, laggard countries tend to be highly dependent on fossil fuels and have high levels of GHG emissions per capita. ...
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Article
en Explaining collaboration between actors involved in policy processes is crucial for understanding these processes and their outcomes. The policy science literature has advanced several hypotheses explicating what enables or hinders collaboration. However, only a handful of studies compare these factors across different policy contexts. This paper investigates the role of beliefs and influence in shaping collaboration under conditions of high and low conflict by estimating Exponential Random Graph Models using network survey data on the climate policy domains in four countries. Results show that both beliefs and influence are associated with the formation of collaboration ties in the high conflict contexts of South Korea and the United States, whereas neither are significant in the low conflict contexts of Sweden and Switzerland. By considering the level of conflict, our findings provide a more nuanced understanding of when beliefs and influence shape collaboration patterns. 摘要 zh 解释政策过程中行动者之间的协作对理解政策过程和结果而言至关重要。政策科学文献已提出几个假设,阐明协作的驱动因素和阻碍因素。然而,仅有少量研究将这些因素在不同政策背景之间进行比较。通过使用指数随机图模型分析有关四个国家的气候政策领域的网络调查数据,本文研究了高度冲突和低度冲突条件下信念和影响力在影响行动者协作一事中发挥的作用。结果显示,在韩国和美国的高度冲突背景中,信念和影响力与协作关系的形成相关,而在瑞典和瑞士的低度冲突背景中,信念和影响力都不与协作关系的形成存在显著关系。通过衡量冲突程度,我们的研究发现对“信念和影响力何时影响协作模式”提供了更细微的理解。 Resumen es Explicar la colaboración entre los actores involucrados en los procesos de políticas es crucial para comprender estos procesos y sus resultados. La literatura sobre ciencia de las políticas ha propuesto varias hipótesis que explican lo que permite o dificulta la colaboración. Sin embargo, solo unos pocos estudios comparan estos factores en diferentes contextos políticos. Este artículo investiga el papel de las creencias y la influencia en la configuración de la colaboración en condiciones de alto y bajo conflicto mediante la estimación de modelos de gráficos aleatorios exponenciales utilizando datos de encuestas en red sobre los dominios de la política climática en cuatro países. Los resultados muestran que tanto las creencias como la influencia están asociadas con la formación de lazos de colaboración en los contextos de alto conflicto de Corea del Sur y Estados Unidos, mientras que ninguno es significativo en los contextos de bajo conflicto de Suecia y Suiza. Al considerar el nivel de conflicto, nuestros hallazgos brindan una comprensión más matizada de cuándo las creencias y la influencia dan forma a los patrones de colaboración.
... The government designates key schools at different education levels, centralizes educational resources within its administrative region, and admits students based on 1 Representative surveys of this literature include Handy (2005) for the cost of extra time and fuel in the 471 U.S. urban areas was $160 billion in 2014, which is about 3.8 time the cost in 1982 (Schrank et al., 2015). Estimations in Beijing, China by Creutzig and He (2009) show that the value-of-time lost due to car congestion amounts to 4%-7% of municipal gross domestic product (GDP). Currie and Walker (2011) estimate that prenatal exposure to traffic congestion alone reduces welfare in the United States by $557 million per year. ...
Article
It is widely believed that school runs generate urban traffic congestion. In this paper, we present credible evidence for this causal link using unique panel data that monitor traffic conditions in Beijing from 2015 to 2016. We adopt a triple difference strategy that utilizes three variations in traffic flows on the roads by school days and school holidays, by roads near and further away from schools, and by hours of school runs and other hours. We find that school runs increase the probability of road congestion by 4.5 percentage points. The impact is larger in the morning than that in the afternoon. Moreover, traffic congestion is more severe around schools that are larger, better, public rather than private, in more expensive neighborhoods, or with no student accommodation. Further analyses reveal that staggered school hours and provision of school buses can reduce congestion and improve social welfare.
... The application of inadequate, outdated or geographically differing concepts, methods, approaches or paradigms (Andersen, 2017;Balbus et al., 2014;Workman et al., 2018), as well as lack of knowledge, quantification and monetization (Creutzig & He, 2009;Mendez, 2015;Rashidi et al., 2017;Rennkamp & Boulle, 2018;Ščasný et al., 2015) are also referred to as reasons for non-uptake of co-benefits in policy. ...
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Article
Concern over mitigation costs impedes the adoption of the climate policies needed to achieve agreed global warming targets. While costs are important to consider, so are benefits. However, the evidence for climate policy co-benefits, that is, the benefits in addition to avoided climate change costs, is commonly overlooked in policy-making. In many areas, the research is limited and not comprehensively synthesised. This article counters that problem and reviews 239 peer-reviewed articles, selected from 1,749 hits from a literature search covering ‘co-benefits’ and related terms. Aiming to aid policy-makers and to identify research gaps, we structure, describe, analyse and synthesize the rapidly expanding knowledge on climate policy co-benefits. Improved air quality is the co-benefit category dominating the literature, but studies covering a broad geographic range also focus on diet, physical activity, soil and water quality, biodiversity, economic performance, and energy security. In these areas, co-benefits are shown to be of substantial economic value, regarding air quality often of the same order of magnitude as mitigation costs, in some instances even larger. However, the share of studies quantifying or monetizing co-benefits is limited, and the empirical evidence is small, in particular for areas besides air quality and health. Furthermore, the knowledge is seldom used in policy-making, meaning that decision-making is often biased and overly concerned with costs, leading to suboptimal climate policies and goal failures. Evidently, more research is needed, as well as improved decision-making. Understanding and acting on climate policy co-benefits can promote policies that better mitigate climate change and improve overall welfare. Key policy insights • Climate policy co-benefits in well-researched fields such as air quality and health are large, often equalling or exceeding mitigation costs. • Despite their significance, co-benefits are seldom considered in decision-making, leading to biased policies and goal failures. • In several areas, such as diet and energy security, co-benefits are sparsely researched, but emerging evidence points to high values. • More research is needed, including on how to describe the total value of different co-benefits. • Improved processes, documentation requirements and criteria in decision-making are needed, in order to ensure that political decision-makers consider co-benefits.
... This distinction may be explained by the contextual difference. First, compared to most Western countries, traffic congestion and smog problem in Chinese cities are more severe (Creutzig and He 2009;Wang 2015). Although more popular use of active modes in China can theoretically improve the SWB of China's urban residents, heavy smog and severe traffic congestion in many Chinese cities may exert a bad influence on commuters' health (Chen et al. 2013), and limit the positive effects of an active commute. ...
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Article
Previous research on the role of commute duration in subjective well-being (SWB) has paid little attention to developing countries and the possible pathways determining the relationship between them. In this study, we construct a conceptual framework, identifying the possible pathways through which commute duration may affect SWB. Next, we empirically analyse some of these pathways in the context of urban China. We find that although the direct effects of commute duration on life satisfaction and emotional well-being are insignificant, prolonged commute duration has significant and negative indirect effects on life satisfaction and emotional well-being through lowering health, job satisfaction, and community-based social capital. In addition, compared with people who commute by public transport, those who use private cars are more satisfied with their lives. Urban policymakers should give more consideration to reducing traffic congestion, to promoting the housing and labour market, as well as public transport, to reduce the negative influences of commute duration on SWB.
... The coupling of motorization and urbanization has brought about enormous environmental and economic problems, particularly in cities of emerging economies. Such as in Beijing, the number of motor vehicles increased from 1.2 million in 2000 to 5.6 million in 2015; and social costs including the costs of congestion and pollution that induced by motorized transportation are equivalent to about 7.5% -15.0% of Beijing's GDP (Creutzig and He, 2009). At the same time, although local industrial pollution has been well controlled, due to the uneven development of the surrounding area, Beijing's air quality is still severely affected by the transmission of industrial pollution in the region. ...
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Article
As a market-based instrument of transportation demand management, congestion charge can not only effectively reduce traffic congestion, but also has the side effect of improving air quality. However, due to its low public acceptability, this policy only has a few urban practices. As one of the fast-growing metropolises in emerging economies that are facing both traffic congestion and industrial pollution problems, Beijing is now considering the feasibility of implementing congestion charging. Some researchers address that though people with strong environmental concerns are more prone to support congestion charges, the associations between environmental concerns and support for congestion charges are context-dependent. A survey was conducted in Beijing in 2016 to understand how the pollution context in cities of emerging economies affects the association between environmental concerns and public acceptability of congestion charging. We find that the acceptability in Beijing is 33%, and expected policy effects and environmental concerns are the most important impact factors. Due to the influence of the regional industrial pollution context, most residents in Beijing do not consider congestion charge to be an effective way to tackle air pollution. Under these circumstances, even if the public environmental concerns, in general, are high and congestion charges are “marketed” as environmental policies, there is no guarantee that policy support will rise.
... New mobility solutions such as carsharing, city tolls or autonomous vehicles are widely discussed in terms of their potential contribution to less car traffic (Liljamo et al. 2018;Machado et al. 2018;Milakis et al. 2017), decreased CO 2 emissions (Briggs and Sundaram 2016;Creutzig and He 2009), or a better quality of life (Glotz-Richter 2016). Furthermore, the acceptance of these solutions by the general public has been investigated by many scholars (Burghard and Dütschke 2019;Gu et al. 2018;Nordhoff et al. 2018;Stoiber et al. 2019;Zmud et al. 2016). ...
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Article
New technologies and services can support sustainable mobility if they are successfully integrated into the given mobility system. Decision-makers play a decisive role as ‘enablers’ for such commodities. To find out how a transformation towards sustainable commuting can be forced by implementing innovative solutions like carsharing, Mobility as a Service, or autonomous vehicles, relevant stakeholders were identified for three European case studies. Their perspectives and openness towards trends and new solutions were researched in an online survey. In addition, five expert interviews and two workshops in Switzerland deepened the understanding of how new mobility services could be incorporated into companies through mobility management. Results reflect a strong distinction of stakeholders by their national borders and responsibilities. As new mobility technologies and solutions require collaboration, the acts of supporting strong cross-border and cross-disciplinary cooperation, as well as developing joint interests and work processes beyond traditional ones, are suggested as important starting points. The study reveals a high openness of important stakeholders towards new mobility services and discusses the experience of experts in company mobility management.
... The co-benefits in various dimensions are mostly in a qualitative pattern. Currently, the planners and decision-makers have not well acknowledged the significance of co-benefits during policy design, becoming difficulties to monetise social benefits (Creutzig and He, 2009). The co-benefits have been criticised for the uncertainties and risks when sacrificing the benefits of a specific project for another one, at which time the 'win-win' strategies may be insufficient to address any one of them (Mayrhofer and Gupta, 2016). ...
Article
Climate change and its impacts cannot be addressed once for all due to internal complexity. Some implemented strategies may only be capable of dealing with a cluster of problems while leaving many others untouched. The co-benefits approach, however, opens up a ‘window of opportunity’ via achieving multi-goals simultaneously. Based on this, this paper aims to unpack the interrelationship between the struggling urban heat island (UHI) issue and the already ongoing sponge city (SPC) projects in China. Specifically, the co-benefits are investigated from technical, financial, institutional and social perspectives, after which pathways to implementation are presented. In these aspects, the co-benefits approach can bring opportunities for implementing SPC and UHI mitigation. The inclusion of UHI mitigation into SPC construction can enhance public participation and thereby consolidate the public-private partnership model for funds. During the co-benefits approach implementation, the weights of different authorities can be rebalanced to promote institutional transitions. SPC-derived UHI mitigation approach, potentially realising synergies of urban flooding and UHI mitigation, can be a model for countries which have already released low-impact development water management practices, and may also provide references for other projects such as green building, low-carbon eco-city, smart city, forest city and haze treatment for UHI mitigation.
... Heat waves are a lethal danger to livelihoods in many African countries and South Asia [Mora et al. , 2017]. Cities like Beijing are studied intensively both from the perspective of transport GHG emissions and urban heat island effect [Miao et al. , 2009, Creutzig & He, 2009, Wang et al. , 2016. Hence, there is considerable attention and motivation to alleviate the urban climate challenges. ...
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Article
To deal with climate change, cities must reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and at the same time mitigate climate impacts associated with the physical infrastructure of the built environment. One strand of literature demonstrates that compact cities of sufficient density result in lower GHG emissions in the transport and the buildings sectors compared to sprawled cities. Another strand of literature, however, reveals that compactness hinders climate adaptation by amplifying the urban heat island (UHI) effect. As a result, mitigation and adaptation objectives of cities appear to contradict each other. Here, we develop a geometrical optimization framework and model of a three-dimensional city that minimizes this conflict. It makes use of the observation that low-carbon efficient transport can be realized via linear public transport axes, and that GHG emissions and UHI effects scale differently with varying geometric properties, thus enabling design that reflects both the economics and the climate of cities. We find that star-shaped cities, in contrast to radially symmetric cities, are well suited to alleviate the problematic trade-off. We also demonstrate that urban design considerations depend on transport fuel prices. The results are of particular importance for city planners of rapidly urbanizing cities in Asia and Africa who still have the potential to shape urban layout.
... The average number of persons per car in Beijing is 1.26 (Creutzig and He, 2009). Results for metro travel are therefore multiplied with 1.26 to take account for this. ...
Article
Research has shown, that the replacement of conventional vehicles (CVs) by electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce urban heat island intensity (UHII). This leads not only to a more comfortable climate during summer but also to a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from the vehicles themselves and to a reduction in the need for air conditioning (AC) and associated emissions. The current study examines to what extent a range of different mobility concepts, can lead to a reduction in urban heat island intensity and carbon dioxide emissions in the city of Beijing, China. For this purpose, the impact that electric vehicles fuelled with the average energy mix, hydrogen vehicles (HyVs) fuelled with hydrogen from electrolysis from the regular energy mix, HyVs fuelled with hydrogen produced through wind power, energy efficient CVs, EVs fuelled with wind power and energy efficient metro light railway (metro) travel have on summer heat island intensity (SHII) and CO2-emissions is analysed. The lowest SHII mitigation effect was found for a replacement of CVs with fuel efficient diesel cars while hydrogen cars that are fuelled with hydrogen generated from the average electricity mix even leads to higher SHII and higher CO2 emissions. The largest SHII mitigation effect was found for a scenario where conventional vehicles are replaced with energy efficient metro travel. The CO2 saving potential is highest for EVs which are powered with electricity generated from wind turbines, closely followed by HyVs that are fuelled with hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water using wind electricity. The paper helps policymakers and consumers to make the right choices when it comes to environmentally friendly mobility options.
... First, 21 st urbanization is heavily dominated by Asian cities, and future urban greenhouse gas emissions will be shaped by the specific urbanization trajectories taken in South Asia, South-East Asia, and East Asia (Ahmad et al., 2015;Creutzig et al., 2016). Second, because of high population density, transport related issues like air pollution, public health, and congestion are most problematic in Asian cities (Creutzig and He, 2009, Puppim de Oliveira et al., 2013, Bongardt et al 2013Ahmad et al., 2017). MaaS and specifically ride-sharing offers are suggested to offer potential benefits, such as such as reduced congestion, by offering an alternative to car ownership, and by complementing existing public transport services (Chin et al. 2017). ...
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Article
On-demand mobility services gain traction worldwide, but studies so far have focussed on the technologically competitive US market and other advanced economies. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) in Asian megacities might bring significant urban benefits, as city inhabitants spend a large fraction of their day in commute and congestion and improvements in mobility could translate in relevant improvements in mobility quality boosting urban economies. Efficiency gains by MaaS also hold the promise of reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sustainability gains. Here, we solicited travel surveys to investigate the introduction of online ojek in Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA), and to specifically analyse resulting modal shifts and carbon footprints across different segments of the population. We find that commuters in our sample choose online ojek substituting for a diverse set of other modes, especially minibuses. The results of our survey show that reduction in GHG emissions from mode shift towards online ojek are negligible once pick-up distance of motorcycles is included. Both an electrification of the motorcycle fleet and pricing car travel (parking management or congestion charges) could help to establish a more sustainable transport system.
... The co-benefits in various dimensions are mostly in a qualitative pattern. Currently, the planners and decision-makers have not well acknowledged the significance of co-benefits during policy design, becoming difficulties to monetise social benefits (Creutzig and He, 2009). The co-benefits have been criticised for the uncertainties and risks when sacrificing the benefits of a specific project for another one, at which time the 'win-win' strategies may be insufficient to address any one of them (Mayrhofer and Gupta, 2016). ...
Article
Climate change and its impacts cannot be addressed once for all due to internal complexity. Some implemented strategies may only be capable of dealing with a cluster of problems while leaving many others untouched. The co-benefits approach, however, opens up a ‘window of opportunity’ via achieving multi-goals simultaneously. Based on this, this paper aims to unpack the interrelationship between the struggling urban heat island (UHI) issue and the already ongoing sponge city (SPC) projects in China. Specifically, the co-benefits are investigated from technical, financial, institutional and social perspectives, after which pathways to implementation are presented. In these aspects, the co-benefits approach can bring opportunities for implementing SPC and UHI mitigation. The inclusion of UHI mitigation into SPC construction can enhance public participation and thereby consolidate the public-private partnership model for funds. During the co-benefits approach implementation, the weights of different authorities can be rebalanced to promote institutional transitions. SPC-derived UHI mitigation approach, potentially realising synergies of urban flooding and UHI mitigation, can be a model for countries which have already released low-impact development water management practices, and may also provide references for other projects such as green building, low-carbon eco-city, smart city, forest city and haze treatment for UHI mitigation.
... This national policy has quickly enhanced urban motorization and has stimulated, especially, a rapid growth in the use of private cars, causing a series of traffic problems in small, underdeveloped cities. The contextual factors of small, underdeveloped cities-such as economic development, urban form and infrastructure construction-are also different from those of large cities [12,13]. Therefore, the behavior of residents in these cities is unique. ...
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Article
In small, underdeveloped Chinese cities, residents have few options for transportation and travel service problems have not received enough attention from the authorities. This study examines residents’ preferred mode of travel in Lhasa and Yushu, China, two small and underdeveloped cities in which travelers tend to be economically disadvantaged. Travel data from different regions was analyzed to explore their commonalities. A structural equation model with latent variables is proposed to capture the heterogeneity not observed in the selection process. Results indicate that four of the six latent variables—preference for comfort, preference for reliability, preference for convenience and safety consciousness—are more helpful than preferences for flexibility and environmental awareness in explaining transportation utility, which could reflect residents’ travel behavior. Based on the results, respondents were divided into five groups with similar travel preferences through the k-means clustering method. The findings show that ensuring high comfort and convenience and moderate safety and reliability is conducive to increasing residents’ use of public transport. Furthermore, an examination of residents’ sociodemographic differences reflects that, in the future, active transport demand management should focus on trying to satisfy the preferences of female, low-income and elderly travelers.
... Global and conceptual approaches (Newman & Kenworthy, 1989;Glaeser & Kahn, 2010;Creutzig, 2014Creutzig, , 2016Creutzig et al., 2015 b) Case studies, e.g., on Asian cities (Creutzig & He, 2009;Rode et al., 2017). ...
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Article
Non-technical summary Manhattan, Berlin and New Delhi all need to take action to adapt to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While case studies on these cities provide valuable insights, comparability and scalability remain sidelined. It is therefore timely to review the state-of-the-art in data infrastructures, including earth observations, social media data, and how they could be better integrated to advance climate change science in cities and urban areas. We present three routes for expanding knowledge on global urban areas: mainstreaming data collections, amplifying the use of big data and taking further advantage of computational methods to analyse qualitative data to gain new insights. These data-based approaches have the potential to upscale urban climate solutions and effect change at the global scale.
... Some of the negative effects of air pollution on human health are exacerbation of Asthma, impaired lung function, cardiovascular diseases etc. The economic losses due to such negative effects can sum up to significant share of country's gross domestic product (GDP) (Creutzig and He, 2009;van Essen et al., 2011). In urban agglomerations, travelers as well as people doing activities indoor are also exposed to bad air quality. ...
Article
Bicycle is not only a sustainable mode of transport but also health benefits of bicycling due to increased physical activities are well cited. However, in urban agglomerations, on-road air pollution exposure to cyclists/pedestrians is a matter of concern which is understudied. This study proposes an approach to calculate the on-road air pollution exposure for drivers of different vehicles in an agent-based simulation framework. In the proposed approach, the breathing rate of different drivers, penetration rate, vehicle-occupancy and background concentration are taken into consideration. The approach is applied to a real-world scenario of Patna, India where non-motorized modes are in abundance. A comparison of total inhaled mass per trip for drivers of different vehicles is made and it is found that cyclists are most exposed user group. An analysis for various background concentrations for different days of the year shows that the contribution of the background concentration has a major effect on the air pollution exposure level. The outcome is spatially analyzed to identify the locations of most affected user groups mapped to their home locations. Further, the on-road air pollution exposure of business-as-usual scenario is compared with a policy case and it is found that a dedicated bicycle track can increase the exposure per trip to cyclists by 40 %.
Chapter
According to the current situation, certain undeveloped world areas are electrified, but with contamination‐generating energy sources. In contrast to individual renewable energy sources, contamination‐generating energy sources have the advantage of providing a consistent supply of electricity. As a result, they are used in a variety of locations around the world. The majority of these locations have the potential to generate renewable energy. Renewable resources, on the other hand, are irregular. As a result, the only alternative for replacing these polluting energy sources is a hybrid system based on renewable energy. Because a hybrid system produces electricity from different energy sources, it helps to ensure power supply reliability. Accordingly, this chapter contains a detailed discussion about environmental change. Moreover, it discusses the concept of a hybrid system and its role in minimizing the dangerous impacts of environmental change. In this chapter, a grid‐connected solar‐wind‐diesel generator‐based hybrid energy framework is developed. The hybrid energy system that is designed here gives more significance to the AC (Alternating Current) generation; however, DC (Direct Current) also comes into the act. Under all the operating conditions for meeting the load demand, the hybrid energy system has been designed to provide the output power at its maximum level. A diesel generator was connected to support the uninterrupted supply in load power if one of these two generation systems were to fail, and it works as a backup supply of power. The proposed hybrid system framework is simulated so that if two energy generation systems fail, then the diesel generator and grid satisfy the load demand. The simulation results show that this grid‐connected renewable energy‐based hybrid model successfully solved power generation utilizing renewable energy base sources and helps reduce pollution.
Article
Vehicle ownership restrictions have the potential to address multiple automobile-related externalities, including congestion, pollution, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We estimate the impacts of these restrictions in Chinese cities on the number of new cars sold, fuel consumption, and tailpipe GHG emissions. We apply synthetic control, regression discontinuity, and dynamic panel analysis to new car registrations and usage data in Chinese cities. Without restrictions, the number of new cars sold between 2011 and 2015 would have been 72% higher, while gasoline consumption and tailpipe GHG emissions would have been 50% higher in the restricting cities. We find the restriction-implied price per unit of externality produced to be high, roughly comparable to the price of gasoline in China but within the range of externality cost estimates reported in the literature. The findings are relevant to policymakers worldwide who may consider license restrictions to reduce automobile-related externalities.
Article
Municipalities are increasingly acknowledging the importance of urban form interventions that can reduce intra-city car travel in achieving more sustainable cities. Current academic knowledge for supporting such policies falls short in providing the spatial details required to plan specific interventions. Here, we develop an explainable machine learning framework to identify location-specific relevance of built environment for urban motorised travel, using a sample of 3.5 million car commutes over one year in Berlin and high-resolution urban form data. Results demonstrate that subcenters play a vital role in reducing commuting-related travel distance, giving support to the 15-minute city hypothesis. Observed threshold effects of induced CO2 emissions require low-carbon-policies targeted towards densifying the inner city while releasing peripheral low income communities from car dependence. This research provides a starting point for increasingly rich big data analyses of urban form for creating low-carbon and inclusive urban planning strategies.
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Smart and shared mobility, from e-scooters to pool-riding services, reshape mobility in cities worldwide. While there is wide scope for new business opportunity in mobility, administrations remain unclear of how to manage and organize shared mobility and the big data underpinning shared mobility to serve the public good, in particular by reducing congestion and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we suggest that management of smart mobility data constitutes a new layer of urban infrastructure that is integral to reaching sustainability goals. We investigate how integrated data management can realize the benefits of big data applications, while effectively managing risks, exemplifying our argument for the case of shared mobility in Israel. We argue that shared mobility and associated data management is neither necessary nor sufficient condition for sustainable mobility. However, given the current trend towards digitalization, data rentiership and surveillance capitalism, we suggest that institutionalizing data management of smart and shared mobility as a public good is a wise move that protects mobility users and facilitates efforts to steer shared mobility systems to low-carbon, low-congestion, and inclusive mobility. We develop a typology of six data platforms and find that integrated data platforms offer an opportunity to leverage benefits if three key design principles are followed: (1) open (but not necessarily free) data access; (2) maintaining the privacy, agency and participation of individuals, users, and the public; and (3) tailoring mobility services to meet well-defined goals of public policy.
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Sustainable urban mobility is an essential component of sustainable development but requires careful planning in rapidly growing urban areas. This paper investigates the value and limitations of Big Data for evaluating transport policies, plans, and projects in Hubballi-Dharwad, India. Results show how Big Data can enable the outcomes of transport interventions to be evaluated more readily than conventional transport analysis. However, the analysis also found that this data may be less able to detect the impacts of travel behaviours in informal settlements, and the impact of extreme weather events. These potential shortcomings, as well as a lack of transparency around the methodology and data sources used by sources of Big Data, could generate unintended consequences and biases in transport planning. Reflecting on these challenges, and the wider implications for urban governance, we conclude that there is an urgent need for Big Data and other technical advances in urban modelling to be seen as compliments to, rather than substitutes for, wider methods of knowledge generation in urban areas.
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Preprint
In 2016, air pollution from oil & gas (O&G) production in the U.S. resulted in 7,500 (95% CI: 4,500 - 12,000) excess deaths among many other health impacts, valued at $77 billion ($2016 USD) (95% CI: $27 billion - $170 billion). An ambitious methane reduction policy in 2028 would result in 1,400 (820 - 2,300) deaths compared to 2028 business as usual, while other policies would have modest effects. Regions without O&G activity experienced impact from the sector and benefits from emissions reductions. On a per ton basis, the health co-benefits per methane reduction from each policy were ~5x lower than health co-impacts from the whole production sector, since policies only apply to specific O&G production processes. We show that there are still substantial health co-benefits to policies that reduce methane emissions, however the health co-benefits can be enhanced if emissions reduction policies cover more components of O&G production.
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Research
This policy brief presents lessons from Mexico City and Guadalajara, where pioneering urban cycling schemes are redefining mobility and liveability in urban Mexico. Through an inclusive approach that recognises the diverse needs of its citizens, and the varied barriers to active transport that they face, policy-makers in Mexico City and Guadalajara are helping to maximise the benefits of urban cycling. Although public bicycle-sharing schemes (PBSSs) in both cities cover a relatively small part of the metropolitan areas (3% and 5% respectively), analysis here shows that they are a critical piece of urban transport infrastructure that complement the public transport network.
Article
High transition costs remain a major barrier to deeply decarbonizing sectors such as transport in many developing countries. Choice of mode and complementary policies are critical to shaping the costs of climate mitigation in the transport sector. This paper investigates the potentials offered by combined technological and behavioural changes stimulated by strategic infrastructure deployment that can facilitate decarbonization of transport in China. Our study is carried out using IMACLIM-R, a state-of-the-art integrated assessment model, which includes a detailed representation of transport dynamics by incorporating the behavioural determinants of mobility in a standard transport modelling framework. More specifically, this behavioural representation considers (i) the spatial organization of residential dwellings and industrial production, (ii) modal shift induced by transport infrastructure deployment and (iii) the intensity of freight transport production and distribution processes. It is found that supplementing carbon pricing with behavioural measures and a decoupling of economic activity from mobility needs can efficiently promote a modal shift towards low-carbon transport modes and reallocate the sectoral distribution of mitigation efforts. This in turn would significantly reduce the macro-economic impacts of deeply decarbonizing Chinese transport activities over the next decades. Complementary policies should focus on infrastructure, fiscal incentives, land-use, building regulations and other policies affecting the ways urban activities are distributed within the city’s boundary, along with industrial policies and other regulations that affect where firms choose to locate. Key policy insights • To decarbonize China’s transport sector an integrated approach is needed due to strong inertia and distributional effects. • Complementary policies have to focus on transport infrastructure, fiscal incentives, land-use and building regulations, as well as spatial organization. • Transport-related climate policies interconnect with the ways in which urban activities are distributed within the city’s boundary, but also with industrial policies and other regulations that affect where firms choose to locate. • A suite of policy instruments is required, including larger institutional incentives and greater financial leverage supporting innovations in the transport sector.
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Fossil fuel (FF) burning, the main energy source of the modern world’s economy, remains the major source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and pollutants in the atmosphere. Based on 18 years (2001–2018) of aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite, FFCO2 emissions from the Open-Data Inventory for Anthropogenic Carbon dioxide, and gross domestic product (GDP) data from the World Bank, we found that air quality, FF consumption, and economy are strongly bonded at the continental scale but decoupled at the national level under favorable policies. The comparison of AOD vs PM2.5 and NO2 over urbanized areas shows that the pollutants leading to the AOD load can vary significantly by country. A strong connection between GDP and FFCO2 emissions indicates that economic growth deeply replies on FF consumption in most countries. Meanwhile, air pollution is more associated with the growing trend than the level of development of a country. With more mature technologies and renewable energy, economies can keep growing without compromising their environment and population health.
Article
The Dieselgate has changed the public view of diesel powertrains and local authorities have issued first driving bans on diesel cars in Germany. Nevertheless, a systematic calculation of the external costs of the Dieselgate considering different car models and a variety of emissions has not yet been conducted. We compare the results, which reflect emissions under test bench conditions, with those of diesel cars under the assumption that NOX emissions reflect realistic driving behavior. We find that diesel cars with idealized emissions are superior to petrol cars with regard to external costs and that electric cars have only partially lower external costs than diesel cars. However, when realistic driving behaviors are considered, diesel engines constitute the worst powertrain in all cases. Our results show that the Dieselgate has led to substantially higher external costs than cars which would comply with environmental regulations under realistic driving conditions.
Article
In this paper, we use a ten-region model of the world economy to analyze the economic and environmental outcomes that are likely to result from the Paris Climate Agreement. To construct our modeling scenario, we first convert the Agreement's disparate Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) pledges into equivalent reductions in CO2 emissions relative to a baseline scenario without the Agreement. We then model the Agreement by solving for a CO2 price path in each region that would gradually fulfill the region's NDC pledge by its target date. The resulting paths are quite different across regions, indicating significant differences in marginal abatement costs. We also find that if all regions achieve their NDCs, the Agreement significantly reduces CO2 emissions relative to baseline. However, global emissions would not decline in absolute terms relative to 2015 levels, let alone follow a path consistent with a 2 °C stabilization scenario. We then construct additional scenarios to explore how the outcomes of the Agreement would change if particular countries (the United States, China, and Australia) were to unilaterally withdraw from it without undertaking alternative climate policies. We find that leaving the Agreement raises GDP for the country that leaves, but it also sharply reduces the domestic co-benefits the country receives as a side effect of controlling CO2. For each country we consider, the net effect of withdrawing is negative: the loss of co-benefits exceeds the gain in GDP. That is, we show that when co-benefits are considered, it is in each country's self-interest to remain in the Agreement.
Article
The Chinese government aims to mitigate climate change while also reducing local air pollution; this requires co-control of greenhouse gases and pollutants. Here, we develop a method combining an elasticity analysis and a multi-regional input–output model, to measure changes in the emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants and corresponding socio-economic costs caused by the adjustments in intermediate input, inter-regional trade, and final demand transactions for 30 provinces in China. A filter framework is proposed to identify the key structural transactions that can significantly co-control both emission types with small socio-economic impacts. The results show that 13 effective co-control spots can simultaneously reduce greenhouse gases and pollutants. Among these, eight co-controls are associated with low economic costs, which we refer to as ‘sweet spots’. Sweet spots cover agricultural inputs in the food and tobacco sectors of Inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Liaoning, and Hubei; self-inputs in the agriculture of Henan; self-inputs in the food and tobacco sector of Shandong; fixed capital formation of agriculture in Hebei; and urban household consumption of agricultural products in Guangdong. This finding is important, as climate measures mostly side-line the agricultural sector so far, both in China and in other parts of the world.
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China’s development strategy has been remarkably successful, driving one of the most significant economic transformations the world has ever seen. Currently three out of every five of China’s residents live in urban areas, with most population and economic growth concentrated in the megacities on the east coast. Fiscal reforms have driven China’s development. They have strengthened national fiscal institutions, increased the tax-to-GDP ratio sufficiently to meet basic services and infrastructure needs, and created millions of manufacturing jobs in China’s coastal cities. At the same time, inequality in China has increased and local governments have vast spending responsibilities, with many turning to land sales and debt-financing using off-budget local financing vehicles to borrow. The concentration of production in coastal megacities has exacerbated severe pollution and environmental degradation. Given their central role in the economy, cities are at the heart of the challenge ahead. China needs to transform its established urban areas into more compact, connected and clean cities while simultaneously steering future urbanisation towards sustainable hubs in its interior. Fiscal policy has a crucial role to play. This paper recommends that provincial and city governments should: - Tackle inequality through a piggy-back on the personal income tax; - Tackle air pollution and climate change through a piggy-back on a national carbon tax; - Tackle urban sprawl and environmental vulnerability by introducing a beneficial property tax at the city level; and - Urgently incorporate full information on liabilities into their balance sheets.
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Article
Reliable, affordable and safe transport is key to making cities sustainable. At present, however, many cities are beset by congestion, inadequate connectivity, wasted public space and poor air quality. This policy brief presents lessons from Shanghai, where the world’s largest bicycle-sharing scheme has been implemented to address the challenges presented by inadequate current transport networks and climate change.
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Data governance, smart mobility, sustainability.
Chapter
Emerging economies face multiple development challenges—rapid economic growth, proliferation of urban centers, environmental degradation, and growing infrastructure demand in an increasingly warming world. This is further accentuated by low performance of their cities on parameters of social development, equity, functional autonomy, and financial capacity. In the last decade or so, co-benefits approach has proved to be a key mechanism that provides both vertical cross-linkages between institutions (global, national, and local objectives) on the one end and horizontal interactions between development, environment, and climate policies. It thus becomes crucial to assess the relevance of co-benefits in emerging economies and draw from their early experiments. This investigation analyses the assessment tools, lessons learned, and knowledge gaps with the overarching aim to discern policy imperatives that moderate current unsustainable pathways of urbanization. Adopting a case study methodology, the chapter tests the applicability of urban co-benefits as an approach in India, China, Brazil, and Turkey, which together comprise about half of global urban population, underpinning how to promote concerted climate action based on scientific principles and specific contextual needs.
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Article
Klimaschutz hat für die Bürgerinnen und Bürger eine sehr hohe Priorität. Dies zeigt sich nicht nur regelmäßig in Befragungen, sondern auch durch die politische Bewegung „Fridays for Future“ bzw. „Klimastreik“. Dennoch bleiben die Anstrengungen, Treibhausgasemissionen zu reduzieren, unzureichend. Ein wesentlicher Grund für das Missverhältnis von Überzeugung und kollektivem Handeln liegt darin, dass Treibhausgase, insbesondere in Deutschland und Österreich, keinen angemessenen Preis haben. Klimaschädigendes Verhalten ist häufig zu preiswert, klimaschonende Alternativen sind meist finanziell wenig attraktiv. Das gilt für alle: Unternehmen, Bürgerinnen, Bürger und die öffentliche Hand. Da im Pariser Klimaabkommen 2015 vereinbart wurde, den Temperaturanstieg deutlich unter 2°C zu halten und Anstrengungen zu unternehmen, den Temperaturanstieg auf 1.5°C zu begrenzen, ist der für weitere Treibhausgase verbleibende Platz in der Atmosphäre sehr knapp. Knappe Güter sollten in einer Marktwirtschaft teuer sein – ansonsten kommt es zu einem Marktversagen. Treibhausgase sind jedoch bisher nicht angemessen bepreist.
Article
Grandes espaços urbanos, como são as megacidades, têm lidado com inúmeros problemas ambientais, que poderão ser acentuados ainda mais com o avanço da mudança no clima. Na década de 2000, Pequim e São Paulo aprovaram suas políticas climáticas em contextos bastante específicos. Isto é, o caminho até a aprovação e os avanços e barreiras posteriores reuniram diferentes motivações, ordens, focos e atores envolvidos. A aprovação de uma política climática é um momento específico de um longo processo. Desse modo, a capacidade de governança urbana para o enfrentamento das mudanças climáticas é uma das principais alternativas a serem negociadas em meio ao constante conflito de interesses. Este artigo visa abordar esses desafios para a efetividade, a partir de um aprofundamento nos padrões de governança dos dois casos, sugerindo algumas possibilidades e procurando responder à pergunta: o que garante a continuidade de uma política pública para o clima?
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Article
This paper summarises price elasticities and cross elasticities for use in public transit planning. It describes how elasticities are used, and summarizes previous research on transit elasticities. Commonly used transit elasticity values are largely based on studies of short and medium run impacts performed decades ago when real incomes were lower and a larger portion of the population was transit dependent. As a result, they tend to be lower than appropriate to model long-run impacts. Analysis based on these elasticity values tends to understate the potential of transit fare reductions and service improvements to reduce problems such as traffic congestion and vehicle pollution, land understate the long-term negative impacts that fare increases and service cuts will have on transit ridership, transit revenue, traffic congestion and pollution emissions.
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Land saving in the process of rapid urbanization is critical to the long-term sustainability of China. Compact cities, characterized by relative high density, mixed land-use and pedestrian-oriented habitation, have been proposed as one solution for sustainable urban planning. However, given the fact that Chinese cities are characterized by high population densities, the applicability of a more compact solution to expanding cities in China remains questionable. Essential to the decision-making is a deeper understanding about the relationship between urban compactness and the sustainable performance of the cities. This study is proposed for a quantitative evaluation about the costs and benefits of cities’ compaction in Chinese context from environmental perspective, especially with respect to “facility availability, infrastructure efficiency, public transport, domestic energy and resources consumption and environmental externalities.” 45 core Chinese cities are selected for the detailed illustration.
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Article
For many years experimental observations have raised questions about the rationality of economic agents--for example, the Allais Paradox or the Equity Premium Puzzle. The problem is a narrow notion of rationality that disregards fear. This article extends the notion of rationality with new axioms of choice under uncertainty and the decision criteria they imply (Chichilnisky, G., 1996a. An axiomatic approach to sustainable development. Social Choice andWelfare 13, 257-321; Chichilnisky, G., 2000. An axiomatic approach to choice under uncertainty with Catastrophic risks. Resource and Energy Economics; Chichilnisky, G., 2002. Catastrophical Risk. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics, vol. 1. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chicester). In the absence of catastrophes, the old and the new approach coincide, and both lead to standard expected utility. A sharp difference emerges when facing rare events with important consequences, or catastrophes. Theorem 1 establishes that a classic axiom of choice under uncertainty - Arrow's Monotone Continuity axiom, or its relatives introduced by DeGroot, Villegas, Hernstein and Milnor - postulate rational behavior that is [`]insensitive' to rare events as defined in (Chichilnisky, G., 1996a. An axiomatic approach to sustainable development. Social Choice andWelfare 13, 257-321; Chichilnisky, G., 2000. An axiomatic approach to choice under uncertainty with Catastrophic risks. Resource and Energy Economics; Chichilnisky, G., 2002. Catastrophical Risk. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics, vol. 1. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chicester). Theorem 2 replaces this axiom with another that allows extreme responses to extreme events, and characterizes the implied decision criteria as a combination of expected utility with extremal responses. Theorems 1 and 2 offer a new understanding of rationality consistent with previously unexplained observations about decisions involving rare and catastrophic events, decisions involving fear, the Equity Premium Puzzle, [`]jump di
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Article
Paleoclimate data show that climate sensitivity is ~3 deg-C for doubled CO2, including only fast feedback processes. Equilibrium sensitivity, including slower surface albedo feedbacks, is ~6 deg-C for doubled CO2 for the range of climate states between glacial conditions and ice-free Antarctica. Decreasing CO2 was the main cause of a cooling trend that began 50 million years ago, large scale glaciation occurring when CO2 fell to 450 +/- 100 ppm, a level that will be exceeded within decades, barring prompt policy changes. If humanity wishes to preserve a planet similar to that on which civilization developed and to which life on Earth is adapted, paleoclimate evidence and ongoing climate change suggest that CO2 will need to be reduced from its current 385 ppm to at most 350 ppm. The largest uncertainty in the target arises from possible changes of non-CO2 forcings. An initial 350 ppm CO2 target may be achievable by phasing out coal use except where CO2 is captured and adopting agricultural and forestry practices that sequester carbon. If the present overshoot of this target CO2 is not brief, there is a possibility of seeding irreversible catastrophic effects.
Article
Current driving cycles used in China are not able to accurately assess vehicle emissions due to their inadequate representation of real-world driving. We in this study analyzed the driving characteristics and developed the driving cycles in Chinese cities, then compared them to the European test cycle and the American Federal Test Procedure. Eleven cities were selected, covering different city sizes and geographical locations. Car chasing technique was employed in each city to collect speed–time data on freeways, arterials, and residential roads during traffic peak and non-peak periods. The data collected were adjusted by the traffic adjustment factors to reflect the overall traffic. Eleven driving parameters were used to characterize driving characteristics and develop driving cycles. The results indicate that city size, local road infrastructure, and driving behavior are the most important factors that lead to the significant differences in vehicle driving patterns among the cities. The comparison with the European and US cycles suggests that the emission factors produced from the European or US cycles-based tests could be significantly different than those from the driving cycles in China.
Article
Price and service elasticities of passenger car travel are estimated using stated preference and sample enumeration methodology. Moreover, the effects of hypothetical travel demand management policies are analyzed by changes on modal share using the elasticity estimates. The elasticity of passenger car travel with fuel price is estimated to be within the range of -0.078 to -0.171. The parameter estimate of the fare variable is estimated to be statistically insignificant in every subgroup of car users. This finding suggests that fare policies are relatively ineffective for increasing transit modal shares in Korea. Meanwhile, car users' responsiveness to changes in parking costs is estimated to be much higher than for fuel cost. This suggests that parking regulations or pricing policies may be effective in reducing travel by passenger car. The elasticity with in-vehicle time, which is a key attribute of public transport amenities, is estimated to be particularly high, implying that policy measures such as introducing express buses or express urban trains could be effective in reducing passenger car travel. The demand elasticity of service levels of mass transit represented by the degree-of-crowdedness proxy turns out to be very high. Reducing crowdedness in public transit can be very effective in attracting more passengers, or at least in retaining current patronage.
Article
This paper reviews the empirical evidence relating to the impact of parking policy measures on the demand for parking and for travel. Disaggregate modal choice models, disaggregate parking location models and site‐specific studies of parking behaviour are examined. With regard to modal choice models, it is concluded that few studies deal adequately with parking factors, but that there is some support for the view that parking policy measures are a relatively important influence on modal choice. When parking location models are examined parking policy variables are shown to have a substantial impact on choice of parking location. With regard to site‐specific studies, the paper concludes that there is a great variation in the parking price elasticities quoted, which reflects partly the methodological problems associated with such studies. Suggestions to improve model specification are made.
Article
A brief summary of road traffic‐related elasticity estimates as reported in the international literature is given. An indication of the orders of magnitude of these elasticities is outlined and the variation in estimates commonly found is emphasized. The results of previous extensive surveys are collated, but a wider scope of traffic‐related research is provided by reviewing recent work and including research that has received less attention. A variety of elasticity measures related to car travel, car ownership, freight traffic and fuel demand are reported. Based on the review, some important themes underpinning the demand for road traffic are revealed.
Article
Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the “willingness-to-pay” metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the use of advanced coal gasification technology. Without such controls, the impacts of air pollution on public health, presently considerable, will increase substantially by 2020.
Article
The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of motor vehicles in China. Motor vehicles have become an increasingly important contributor to air pollution in major Chinese cities. While research interest in vehicular pollution in China has increased in recent years, there is little research on evaluating monetary costs of this pollution. This paper uses Beijing as a case study to evaluate the magnitudes of air pollution concerning motor vehicles. A monetary estimation of air pollution in regard to motor vehicles is presented on the basis of data for Beijing in 2000. Two methods—willingness-to-pay and human capital methods—are used to analyse the high and low points of estimation.
Article
Pre-charge and post-charge data (particularly on speed and road usage) in the London congestion charge zone is used to estimate demand and cost curves for road usage. Pre-charge congestion costs are estimated, and shown to be small (0.1% of the area GDP). They are largely (90%) eliminated by the charge, which produces an economic benefit. Charge proceeds are about three times larger than the value of the congestion. Unfortunately, the yearly amortisation and operation costs of the charge system appear to be significantly higher than the economic benefit produced by the system. The London congestion charge, which is a great technical and political success, seems to be an economic failure. It could be defined as mini Concorde.
Article
In China, 76% of all energy comes from coal consumption, which is the major cause of air pollution. One of the major barriers to developing sound policies for controlling air pollution is the lack of information related to the value of the health consequences of air pollution. We conducted a willingness-to-pay (WTP) study using contingent valuation (CV) methods in Chongqing, China to estimate the economic value of saving one statistical life through improving air quality. A sample of 500residents was chosen based on multistage sampling methods. A face-to-face household interview was conducted using a series of hypothetical, open-ended scenarios followed by bidding game questions designed to elicit the respondents' WTP for air pollution reduction. The Two-Part Model was used for estimations. The results show that 96% of respondents were able to express their WTP. Their mean annual income is $490. Their WTP to save one statistical life is $34,458. Marginal increases for saving one statistical life is $240 with 1year age increase, $14,434 with 100yuan monthly income increase, and $1590 with 1year education increase. Unlike developed country, clean air may still be considered as a "luxury" good in China based on the estimation of income elasticity.
Article
Particulate air pollution is a serious problem in Beijing. The annual concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM(10)), ranging from 141 to 166 microg m(-3) in 2000-2004, could be very harmful to human health. In this paper, we presented the mortality and morbidity effects of PM(10) pollution based on statistical data and the epidemiological exposure-response function. The economic costs to health during the 5 years were estimated to lie between US$1670 and $3655 million annually, accounting for about 6.55% of Beijing's gross domestic product each year. The total costs were apportioned into two parts caused by: the local emissions and long-range transported pollution. The contribution from local emissions dominated the total costs, accounting on average for 3.60% of GDP. However, the contributions from transported pollution cannot be neglected, and the relative percentage to the total costs from the other regions could account for about 45%. An energy policy and effective measures should be proposed to reduce particulate matter, especially PM(2.5) pollution in Beijing to protect public health. The Beijing government also needs to cooperate with the other local governments to reduce high background level of particulate air pollution.
Policy incentives to change behaviour in passenger transport. OECD International Transport Forum Road traffic demand elasticity estimates: a review
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