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Bassanite from Salvadora persica : A new evaporitic biomineral

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Abstract

For centuries, stems ofSalvadora persica have been commonly used as a chewing stick or a natural toothbrush in many parts of the world, including Saudi Arabia, Africa, and India. We report, for the first time, the existence of a new biomineral, “bassanite”, extracted from the stems ofSalvadora persica. Detailed scanning electron microscopy and thin window energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed to document the crystal morphology and to determine the elemental composition of the bassanite. Comparison of the powder X-ray diffraction data of the biomineral found inSalvadora persica with that of a synthetic bassanite confirmed the identity of the biomineral as bassanite. The bassanite reported herein is quite different than the fibrous nature of the non-biogenic mineral bassanite.
... A characteristic amorphous hump was observed around 2q ¼ 15 and 25 , which present the cellulose. 21 It has been shown that the bassanite, also called, plaster of Paris, is safe and effective for a variety of clinical applications, such as medical and dental orthopedics. 22 Moreover, the XRD of S. persica powder showed the presence of characteristic peaks of brushite (CaHPO 4 Á2H 2 O) at 21 , 29.18 , and 31.5 corresponding to Miller indices (12-1), (14-1), and (21-1), respectively. ...
... Furthermore, it is important to point out the presence of some crystals in the S. persica powder (Figure 3(a)) and in the resulting composite (Figure 3(b)) corresponding to bassanite (calcium sulfate hemihydrate: CaSO 4 Á½H 2 O) crystals of biogenic origin ranged from 10 mm to 20 mm in size. 21 The existence of this biomineral, extracted from the stems of S. persica, was already confirmed by the powder XRD analysis. The use of a thin window energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) enabled the detection of oxygen (O), and the EDS data showed that the mineral was composed of Ca, S, and O (Table 3). ...
... According to Dogan et al., the beneficiary effects of S. persica are the biomineral bassanite. 21 Figure 3(b) demonstrates a good adhesion between PMMA and S. persica and proves the presence of pores, which locate in the matrix and not in the interface between matrix and filler. The pores can be taken into account for the stress concentration, which plays an important role in the mechanical properties. ...
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A novel biocomposite with poly(methyl methacrylate) as resin containing Salvadora persica powders was elaborated. In this study, for the first time, S. persica was used to enhance the bioactive performance of dental restoration materials. Material characterization was carried out both on bare materials and on the elaborated biocomposite (30 wt% of S. persica). X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques were conducted to perform material characterization. The obtained results linked to dental material showed the presence of the organic chemical compounds of S. persica, which are responsible for biological activities, and the presence of mineral chemical compounds of S. persica, which are useful for dental applications and health. They also revealed the absence of toxic residual monomers. In addition, they proved the antioxidant activities proof of elaborated composite related to total polyphenol flavonoid content. Finally, they exhibited the antibacterial activity of S. persica and the composite.
... Calcium sulfate hemihydrate has been reported from the wood of the tree Salvadora persica which is used as a "natural toothbrush" in many different countries [18]. The crystals are very similar in both size and shape to the crystals found in T. aphylla. ...
... The crystals are very similar in both size and shape to the crystals found in T. aphylla. For more information on the natural occurrence of geogenic calcium sulfate hemihydrate (bassanite) see Dogan et al. [18]. ...
Article
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The most abundant mineral produced in the wood and leaves of trees is calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite), and after burning the wood the ash obtained is calcite. In the case of the Tamarix sp. tree, the freshly prepared ash is calcium sulfate (anhydrite). The aim of this study is to determine the calcium sulfate mineral phase in the fresh wood of Tamarix aphylla prior to burning. SEM images of the crystals show that they express smooth faces, are about 5–15 microns in their longest dimensions and are located in the ray cells. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman microspectroscopy of the crystals in the wood and after extraction, both showed that the crystals are composed of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (bassanite). As elemental analyses of the crystals showed that in addition to calcium and sulfur, around 20 atom percent of the cations are sodium and potassium, we also obtained an X-ray powder diffraction pattern. This pattern excluded the possibility that the crystals are composed of another related mineral, and confirmed that, indeed, the crystals in the T. aphylla wood are composed of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (bassanite).
... Studies have also shown that the use of chewing sticks have a high efficacy compared to the conventional toothbrushes without toothpaste (Wu, 2001). There are around 173 different types of plant species, which can be used as chewing sticks, belonging to the families Fabaceae, Combretaceae, Icacinaceae and Rhamnaceae (Dogan et al, 2005). It has also been suggested that antimicrobial substances that naturally protect plants against various invading microorganisms or other parasites may leach out into the oral cavity and that these compounds may benefit the users by protection against carcinogenic and periodontopathic bacteria. ...
Article
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In India, plant twigs are being used as toothbrush by the people since antiquity as mentioned in ancient scriptures and Ayurveda and large number of rural population still use locally available plants as toothbrush. The present paper highlight the plants used as toothbrush.
... ferent types of trees that are used as chewing sticks. They belong to various species that include Acacia Fabaceae, Terminalia, Combretaceae, Lasianthera, Icacinaceae, Gouania, and Rhamnaceae [3,4]. The antimicrobial action of these chewing sticks mainly to naturally protect the plants from parasites that attacks them. ...
... Storey and Thomson, 1994), longleaf pine seedlings (Pritchard et al., 2000) and desert shrub of north-western Australia (He et al., 2012). Bassanite has been detected in the so-called "toothbrush" tree in Africa (Dongan et al., 2005). Although very little is known about the role of calcium sulfate crystals in plants, a variety of functions have been proposed including the removal of excess calcium and sulfur, protection against herbivores and detoxification of aluminium and heavy metals (Storey and Thomson, 1994;Pritchard et al., 2000;He et al., 2012). ...
Article
The solution-mediated formation of calcium sulfate minerals, i.e. gypsum, anhydrite and bassanite, is a common process in both natural and engineered settings. It plays a key role in the global sulfur cycle and serves as an indicator of past environmental conditions on Earth and Mars. Products relying on the crystallization of these minerals have been employed since antiquity, and today they are an essential part of a wide array of industrial applications. Accordingly, the fundamental aspects of calcium sulfate mineralization have been the focus of intensive research during the past century. However, a recent flurry of studies addressing alternative, i.e. non-classical, nucleation and growth mechanisms has spurred a revisit of the precipitation pathway of the most common phase, gypsum. The newly obtained data sketch a far more complex picture of the mineralization process than previously assumed. This has important consequences for the interpretation of calcium sulfate deposits, both from a geochemical and industrial point of view. In order to shed light on this issue, we discuss in this review both recent and long-standing observations of abiotic formation routes of calcium sulfate minerals as a function of the physicochemical solution properties. By integrating both the classical and non-classical perspectives on crystallization we put forward a unified model for calcium sulfate crystallization. Using this model, we (re)-evaluate the phase stability and transformations taking place in the CaSO4-H2O system. Next, we look into the formation of calcium sulfate minerals occurring in close association with the biosphere. Employing the abiotic case scenario as a benchmarking tool, the possible influence and/or control exerted by biological activity (and its byproducts) on the precipitation pathway is critically reviewed. Finally, we point out the central issues that need to be resolved if we wish to fully understand, and control, the formation of calcium sulfate solids in natural and engineered environments.
... In addition to the geological occurrences mentioned above, calcium sulfates can also be found as structural components associated with living organisms. For example, two classes of medusae (Scyphozoa and Cubozoa) use bassanite for gravitational sensing (Tienmann et al. 2002;Becker et al. 2005;Boßelmann et al. 2007), and there is evidence for the presence of bassanite in the so-called "toothbrush" tree in Africa (Dongan et al. 2005). Also noteworthy is the frequent occurrence of gypsum-rich microbialites (e.g., stromatolites), both in past-and present-day evaporitic environments (Rouchy and Monty 2000). ...
Book
In the last decade, numerous studies have demonstrated the existence of alternative pathways to nucleation and crystallisation that oppose the classical view. Such proposed scenarios include multistage reactions proceeding via various precursor species and/or intermediate phases. The aim of this book is to review and discuss these recent advances in our understanding of the early stages of mineralisation through a series of contributions that address both experimental and theoretical studies about the formation and nature of initial precursor species (e.g., prenucleation clusters, dense liquid phases, amorphous nanoparticles, etc.) as well as their transformations leading to the stable mineral phase. Several chapters are devoted to cutting-edge analytical techniques used for investigating the above processes in situ, in real time and at conditions relevant to both natural and industrial processes. At the end of the book, the editors summarize the key questions that still need to be addressed in order to establish a complete picture of the nucleation and growth processes involved during the formation of minerals
... In addition to the geological occurrences mentioned above, calcium sulfates can also be found as structural components associated with living organisms. For example, two classes of medusae (Scyphozoa and Cubozoa) use bassanite for gravitational sensing (Tienmann et al. 2002;Becker et al. 2005;Boßelmann et al. 2007), and there is evidence for the presence of bassanite in the so-called "toothbrush" tree in Africa (Dongan et al. 2005). Also noteworthy is the frequent occurrence of gypsum-rich microbialites (e.g., stromatolites), both in past-and present-day evaporitic environments (Rouchy and Monty 2000). ...
Chapter
Calcium sulfate phases are among the most dominant evaporitic minerals and occur in large amounts both on Earth and Mars. In addition, they find broad application across various fields of industrial relevance. Despite its obvious significance, the CaSO4–H2O system has received surprisingly little attention in the recent flurry of studies addressing alternative mechanisms of solution-mediated nucleation and growth. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that distinct precursors and temporary intermediates may also occur on the way to the final stable phase, suggesting a rather complex mineralization process along with time- and size-dependent changes in solid composition and structure. In this chapter, we first review the current state of knowledge on the CaSO4–H2O phase diagram, including a detailed account of the respective transition temperatures and the influence of salinity on relative stability fields. Subsequently, we summarize both long-standing and more recent observations on the possible pathways that lead to the precipitation of the different CaSO4 phases from solution under various conditions. In particular, the effects of temperature, ionic strength, solvent polarity and additives on precipitation dynamics and phase stability are addressed. Based on all this evidence, we propose a tentative unified model for calcium sulfate crystallization across the CaSO4–H2O phase diagram and identify water activity and corresponding changes in the hydration of CaSO4 precursors as key aspects during phase selection. Finally, we highlight the central questions that, according to our opinion, still need to be resolved before a complete picture of the nucleation, growth, and transformation mechanisms of solid phases in the CaSO4–H2O system is attained.
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Salvadora persica L. also known as ‘Miswak’, Peelu and Arak is use traditionally as a source of food, cosmetic, fuel and medicine. Most common traditional use of Salvadora persica sticks is tooth cleaning. Other traditional use of Salvadora persica are in diabetes, arthritis, constipation, fever, cold, malaria, viral infection, gonorrhea, worms, antidotes, stimulators, laxative and in various veterinary problems such as poor milk production, abdominal disorder, diarrhea etc. Now traditional uses of Salvadora persica have scientifically proved in modern research. Various pharmacological activities of Salvadora persica reported in modern research were anti-microbial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, antifertility, wound healing, anthelmintic, antidepressant, anticancer etc. these pharmacological activities are due to present of many phytochemicals in Salvadora persica. Phytochemicals present in Salvadora persica are alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, Flavonoids, proteins, terpenoids and sterols. Aim of this review to provide various traditional use of Salvadora persica proved by modern research and highlighting its pharmacological activity and phytochemicals. This review article may be used to set a new research hypothesis with reference of traditional use.
Article
Objective: To review the interest in the use of natural tooth brushes as environment friendly and cheap tool for dental care and oral hygiene. Methods: The role of natural tooth brushes obtained from Gum Arabic tree, Meswak, Banyan, Neem, Apple, Mangosteen, Licorice, Olive, etc. versus modern tothbrushes in controlling oral microbial flora were reviewed from available literature. Result: Natural toothbrushes reported dental protection similar to modern toothbrushes. They are more ecological in its life-cycle, lower cost (0-16% of the cost of a toothbrush). They require no tooth paste, maintenance and can combat bad breath. Conclusion: Using Natural toothbrushes will be more beneficial to our oral hygiene than modern brushing techniques in controlling oral microbial flora. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.
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Biominerals are a subset of the mineral kingdom, those created by living creatures. In spite of usually fine grain size and intimate association with organic materials, biominerals are readily identified as common mineral species. Iron hydroxides and oxyhydroxides, calcium carbonates and calcium phosphates from uni- and multi-cellular species are presented as examples of biominerals, and biomineralization processes. Their special morphological, and crystal chemical, characteristics provide unique structural contributions to the life forms that create them. Investigations of novel habitats should present opportunities to expand the number of biominerals and their potential for industrial applications.
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