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Der Wespenbussard ( Pernis apivorus L.)

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... Schon vor vielen Jahrzehnten ist das Verhalten von Wespenbussarden am Horst beobachtet worden (Gentz 1935, Wendland 1935, Holstein 1944, Gerber 1949. Damals war es nur möglich, das Geschehen aus einem Versteck im Nachbarbaum oder vom Boden aus persönlich zu beobachten und Ausschnitte fotografisch festzuhalten. ...
... Auch Bijlsma (1993) Ei nach einzelnen Beobachtungen von Holstein (1944) schon ein bis drei bzw. zwei Tage (Heinroth & Heinroth 1928, Wendland 1935, Gerber 1949) nach dem ersten schlüpfen kann, erscheint ein berechneter Schlupfabstand von vier Tagen recht groß. Nicht auszuschließen ist deshalb, dass der ältere Jungvogel schneller wuchs, weil er bei den Fütterungen bevorzugt wurde, wie es Thompson (2007, zitiert in Roberts & Law 2014 bei Videoauswertungen feststellte. ...
... Das galt sowohl für Wespenlarven, die nur aus den Waben zu nehmen und weiterzureichen waren, als auch für schwieriger zu zerteilende Beute wie Frösche und Vögel. Wendland (1935) hingegen sah nur die Weibchen die Jungen füttern, nennt aber auch Beobachter, die andere Erfahrungen gemacht haben. ...
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Ziesemer, F., M. Schlüter & T. Grünkorn 2021. Video-Beobachtungen an Horsten des Wespenbussards Pernis apivorus in Schleswig-Holstein. Corax 24: 369-380. We analyzed data from two nests, each with two nest- lings aged about three weeks until after fledging. Videos (with audio at one nest) and some photos were taken by day and by night, with some gaps due to technical issues. All young fledged. Both females spent the nights on the nests until the nestlings left to adjacent branches. Females fed the young until they were 45 to 53 days old. Males continued to feed for another four to five days. After a further one to three days, the young came to the nests for the last time. At both nests 77 % of the food items were wasp combs, the rest were frogs and nestling passerines, most of them thrushes, and a single bumblebee nest. The young obviously preferred wasp grubs and seemed to treat birds indifferently whereas, at least in one nest, they disliked frogs. Males supplied most of the prey items, with 71 resp. 81 % of all food items, with frogs and birds being over- represented in comparison to females. It is assumed that males tend to switch to alternative prey, when, during the summer, wasp nests become less available. Males that defend territories tend to stay closer to the nest whereas females, by extending their home ranges, can stick to wasp nests, their preferred prey. The nestlings were remarkably good-natured toward their siblings. If they struggled in an attempt to secure a food item they concentrated on the object, not on their rival. A nestling took up a twig and rearranged it (nest building behaviour) for the first time at nearly four weeks old. Scratching in the nest bowl, an indication of digging behaviour, occurred at an age of 32 to 39 days. At an age of 37 to 41 days the nestlings visited branches adjacent to the nest. Later, when the young temporarily left the surroundings of the nest, the adults would melo- diously call them to take over prey. Three adults were repeatedly observed to probe deep in the nest bowl by day and by night, thereby turning the head, seemingly pursuing and eating insect larvae (wasp grubs, maggots, beetle larvae?) which they may have heard moving in the nest construction. Gender roles may differ between pairs. The same is true for food provided for the nestlings. Its composition can be recorded reliably by video observation, whereas traditional methods, like sampling prey remains from the nest, may give biased results.
... Previous research has suggested that Honey Buzzards nest preferentially at sites with a high proportion of deciduous trees at the micro-habitat and nest-site level (Wendland 1971(Wendland , G€ ottgens 1984. However, these studies did not provide details of the forest composition in their study areas. ...
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The selection of a suitable nest-site is critical for successful reproduction. Species' preferences for nest-sites have presumably evolved in relation to local habitat resources and/or interactions with other species. The importance of these two components in the nest-site selection of the Eurasian Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus was assessed in two study areas in eastern Austria. There was almost no difference in macro- and micro-habitat features between nest-sites and random plots, suggesting that Honey Buzzards did not base their choice of nest-site on habitat characteristics. However, nests were placed significantly further from nests of Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis than would be expected if nest-sites had been chosen at random. Furthermore, in one study area Honey Buzzards appeared to favour areas close to human settlements, perhaps indicating a mechanism to avoid Goshawks, which tend to avoid the proximity of humans. No habitat variable was significantly associated with the loss of Honey Buzzard young, but predation was higher in territories closer to breeding pairs of Goshawks at both study sites. Although Honey Buzzards are restricted to nesting in forests, their choice of nest-site therefore appears to be largely dictated by the distribution of predators. Studies of habitat association may yield misleading results if the effects of predation risk on distribution are not considered.
... Viele Studien an dieser Art dokumentieren seine Ernährungsweise und Brutbiologie (z.B. Harisson 1931, Gentz 1935, Wendland 1935, Thiede 1938, Holstein 1944, Loppenthin 1945, Rode 1955, Irons 1980, Looft & Busche 1981, Göttgens 1984, Bijlsma 1986), sowie die Siedlungsdichte in verschiedenen Teilen seines Verbreitungsgebietes (Mebs & Link 1969, Hummitzsch & UI bricht 1981, Kostrzewa 1985, Schindler 1997. Gelegentlich finden sich auch anekdotische Schilderungen über jagende Wespenbussarde (Trap-Lind 1962, Blanc 1957, Hauri 1955, Rifdel 1960, Wendland 1971, Högstedt 1976, Cobb 1979, M. Tjernberg in Wirdheim 1993, Bijlsma 1998. ...
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Is the European Honey-buzzard (Pemis apivorus) a feeding specialist? The influence of social hymenoptera on habitat selection and home range size In the years 1984-88 and 1996-98 a long-term study of the food specialist European Honey-buzzard (Pernis apivorus) was conducted in southern 8urgenland, Austria. The study examined the influence of social Hymenoptera, in particular of wasps of the genus Vespidae, on habitat selection and home range size. (1) 404 prey items were collected at 56 nest sites and the occurrence of Hymenoptera in the nests was compared with their abundance (Iine transects, wasp nest density) in the environment. A few hymenoptera species comprised 81,8 % of prey items found (76,4 % wasps, 5,4 % bumblebees). Less abundant were frogs at 7,5 %, birds at 6,3 %, lizards at 1,1 % and various invertebrates at 3,3 % (Fig. 2). In comparison to their abundance large colonies of Vespula-species (V. vulgaris and V. germanica) were definitely prefered, whereas hornets (Vespa crabro) and field wasps (Pofistes spp.) were rather avoided. The frequency of Dolichovespula-species found as prey was similar to their occurrence in the environment. (2) In examining habitat utilization more than 2/3 of all observations (n := 157) occured in forests. Of 8 habitat types distinguished in the study area, mature and medium-aged forests, orchards, and small wetlands were preferred. Monocultures of arable fields, hay meadows and dense young wood stands were avoided by foraging European Honey-buzzards (Fig. 4). In habitats with the highest Hymenoptera density the hunting success (excavated nests) was highest (Fig. 6) and therefore they are the most important on es for the spedes. (3) Individual birds could be identified according to plumage characteristics. Altogether 45 home ranges (18 females and 27 males, minimum convex polygon) were analysed. Three different phases of the breeding cycle were analysed: (A) arrival start of breeding, (8) incubation, and (C) rearing time -independence of young, according to which 3 partial home ranges were calculated (Tab. 1). Home ranges were smallest (females 2,6 km2, males 3,2 km2) in phase (A) and largest in Phase (C) (females 14,6 km2, males 15,4 km2). Only during (8) incubation did the home ranges of females (3,7 km2) and males (7,2 km2) differ to a large extent. years when Hymenoptera were abundant, home range size varied between 7,9 and 16 km2 in poor Hymenoptera years between 16 and 25 km2• About 50 % of all observations of females (n 267) took place less than 1 km from the nest site; in contrast almost 50 % of all hunting males (n =622) were observed between 1 and 2 km (Fig. 8) from the nest. Most birds hunted within a radius of 3 km ot the nest site. Maximum distances from the nest for females were > 6 km, and for males> 7 km. When data from both sexes were pooled, significant differences in ranging behaviour in relation to Hymenoptera density were found. In years with abundant Hymenoptera, observations were concentrated within a radius of 1 km from the nest. In years with lower numbers of Hymenoptera birds flew for larger distances (observation peak 1-2 km, Fig. 9) when searching for food.
... Previous research has suggested that Honey Buzzards nest preferentially at sites with a high proportion of deciduous trees at the micro-habitat and nest-site level (Wendland 1971(Wendland , G€ ottgens 1984. However, these studies did not provide details of the forest composition in their study areas. ...
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Home range and behaviour of Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus) during brood-rearing and at the begin of autumn migration - a radio telemetry study 2 male and 2 female Honey Buzzards were radio-tracked in 3 study areas in the period 1993-1995 in Schleswig-Holstein. All birds produced fledglings. Home ranges of females were larger (4,350 resp. 4,500 ha) than those of males (1,700 resp. 2,200 ha). The tracked birds preferred forests, agricultural areas with hedgebanks, and bogs where they searched for prey mainly from perches. Identified prey items were 1 bumblebee and 64 wasp nests (Table 3). This sample is, however, not considered to be representative. Normally, each bird went hunting on its own. Sometimes, however, a bird was followed by its partner. 3 times a male seems to have partaken at its female’s wasp nests. Both sexes supplied the nestlings with food, but females retained from this until the young were nearly 3 resp. 4 weeks old. A male which fed 2 nestlings spent progressively 35 to 58 % of observation time hunting. The males defended territories of not less than 640 and 380 ha, respectively, which they marked by quivering flights and surveyed them during extended gliding flights. One male spent 6-7 %, the other (depending on weather conditions) 14-23 % of the observation time on such surveillance flights. Home ranges of neighbouring pairs overlapped widely. Even territory boundaries were often trespassed. Females did not show territorial behaviour. This may have allowed them to extend their home ranges much further than males which tended to keep to their territories. The adult breeding birds started autumn migration alone, without their partners, when the fledglings had reached an age of at least 53 days. It was the female in 1993 and the male in 1995 which was the first to migrate. Their resp. partners remained to feed the young 3 or more days. On their day of departure the males migrated ca. 133 km SSE resp. ca. 210 km SW. Length and direction of migration were strongly influenced by weather conditions.
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