Article

Web-based Destination Marketing Systems: Assessing the Critical Factors for Management and Implementation

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Abstract

The Web-based destination marketing system (DMS) has been widely used as a distribution channel and marketing tool by destination marketing organisations (DMOs) at different levels in the promotion and management of tourism destinations. However, successful Web marketing requires a systematic approach in understanding key factors supporting the management and implementation of the DMS both from business and technical perspectives. The purpose of this study is to assess the critical factors of the Web-based DMS used by DMOs in the USA on the following five areas: website function design, website promotion, Website-performance measurement, Web-marketing impact assessment and organisation technology environment. Discussions of the study results and implications for Internet destination marketing and management are also provided. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Wang and Russo (2007) suggest that DMSs should encompass four dimensions of functionalities in order to be considered as such: informational, communicational, relational, and transactional. Such dimensions have been considered in previous research, namely in the evaluation of DMO traditional web platforms and DMSs (Estêvão, Carneiro, & Teixeira, 2011Wang, 2008;Wang & Russo, 2007). However, previous research provides only a partial perspective on the functionalities of these systems and leads us to further analyze and discuss the functionalities that really characterize DMSs and that differentiate these systems from more DMO traditional web platforms. ...
... Indeed, most traditional DMO web platforms are but informational, resembling online brochures conveying one-direction and relatively static data about the destination. DMSs differ from these platforms by emphasizing the other three dimensions (Wang, 2008). ...
... The predominance of DMSs providing site membership and content personalization/customization as well as travel planning capabilities seems to corroborate previous research on DMSs, which tends to consider such functions as relevant features of these systems (Bédard & Louillet, 2011;Wang, 2008). However, it is observed that the extent to which the interactive CGR functionalities were integrated in DMSs is quite diverse. ...
Article
Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) have been taking advantage of technologies in order to manage destinations in a more successful way. Previous research on tourism destination online platforms has proclaimed Destination Management Systems (DMSs) as their most advanced version, mostly by giving visitors the ability to accomplish most of their travel arrangements through a reliable official platform integrating several destination components. However, most of the academic research on DMSs is conceptual and/or lacks a holistic perspective of the functionalities that characterize such systems and does not provide an overview of the functionalities that differentiate these systems from more traditional DMOs’ web platforms. The present paper intends to contribute to fill these gaps, namely to identify the functionalities that differentiate these systems by confronting previous research that focuses on potential DMS functionalities with the results of an empirical study encompassing a content analysis of 23 DMS and interviews with both DMS’s developers and DMO officials. The findings suggest a considerable mismatch between the functionalities conveyed by existing DMSs and previous research either theoretical or empirical that rely on the analysis of few DMSs. The paper ends with conclusions and suggestions regarding the development of DMSs.
... 2). The Internet opens up major opportunities for DMOs to advance reservations of accommodation, events, and other travel activities (Choi, Lehto, & Oleary, 2007;Wang, 2008). DMO websites can contribute to economic sustainability by generating sales as well as supporting local products via an online shop for local sustainable fair-trade products (ME.EC.3) and direct reservation capabilities such as for green tours and eco-events (ME.EC.4). ...
... DMO websites can contribute to economic sustainability by generating sales as well as supporting local products via an online shop for local sustainable fair-trade products (ME.EC.3) and direct reservation capabilities such as for green tours and eco-events (ME.EC.4). Wang (2008) argued that proper communication mechanisms have to be offered on destination websites to enhance understanding between stakeholders. DMOs can thus initiate a dialogue about sustainability among stakeholders, such as by employing forums and blogs (ME.SO.5 (motivate and engage in socio-cultural sustainability)) (Joseph et al., 2014). ...
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Article
This study investigated sustainability communication through destination websites. In particular, it suggested an online sustainability communication checklist (OSC-Checklist) that informs, motivates, and engages stakeholders to contribute towards the development of environmental, sociocultural, and economic sustainability. The OSC-Checklist was applied to the official websites of the top 50 competitive destinations with the aim of evaluating the extent to which each destination communicates sustainability on its website. The results indicated that the sample destinations lack an appropriate online approach to communicate sustainability. The results also revealed that the less developed and competitive destinations scored higher in terms of communicating sustainability than other more competitive developed destinations. Theoretical and practical implications are also provided.
... 2). The Internet opens up major opportunities for DMOs to advance reservations of accommodation, events, and other travel activities (Choi, Lehto, & Oleary, 2007;Wang, 2008). DMO websites can contribute to economic sustainability by generating sales as well as supporting local products via an online shop for local sustainable fair-trade products (ME.EC.3) and direct reservation capabilities such as for green tours and eco-events (ME.EC.4). ...
... DMO websites can contribute to economic sustainability by generating sales as well as supporting local products via an online shop for local sustainable fair-trade products (ME.EC.3) and direct reservation capabilities such as for green tours and eco-events (ME.EC.4). Wang (2008) argued that proper communication mechanisms have to be offered on destination websites to enhance understanding between stakeholders. DMOs can thus initiate a dialogue about sustainability among stakeholders, such as by employing forums and blogs (ME.SO.5 (motivate and engage in socio-cultural sustainability)) (Joseph et al., 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Discourse Analysis (DA) is a useful research tool which is widely used among psychology and linguistic researchers. Yet, various tourism scholars are also employing the tool in their work but many other researchers are finding it difficult and complex; especially when the tool is employed differently in different piece of research. This paper discusses different ways of conceptualizing and using DA; particularly, it highlights the use of DA as a methodology and as a method. The paper reviews the types of DA and elaborates on one type which is not commonly applied in tourism and Information System (IS) research (i.e. Meso-level of DA). The discussion throughout the paper is guided by two practical studies in tourism and IS; each has used and conceptualized DA in a different way; as a method and as a methodology. This paper does not seek to promote a particular type of DA or a set of procedures to follow; rather, it tries to move a further step towards the understanding and practical usage of DA. Indeed, we think this paper provides a rigor and logic sequence of using the tool and facilitates future applications by tourism scholars in different disciplines.
... However, other researchers and organizations (Presenza et al., 2005;Volgger and Pechlaner, 2014;World Tourism Organization, 2007) remark that DMOs have increasingly assumed a more prominent role, acting as catalysts and facilitators of tourism development. Some literature highlights the new role that DMOs should play in the management of destinations, which includes having a more active role in attracting increasingly demanding and experienced consumers, where information and communications technologies (ICTs) play a central role (Buhalis and Egger, 2008;King, 2002;Lee, 2013;Munar, 2012;Pan et al., 2011;Petti and Passiante, 2009;Wang, 2008;Ivars-Baidal et al., 2018;Ammirato et al., 2018). The use of technologies has major impacts on a wide range of sectors at the international, level but is particularly prominent in the case of products with a high degree of intangibility (Morrison and King, 2002). ...
Article
Purpose Destination management organizations perform a very important role regarding the management of tourism destinations. Destination management systems are a key technological infrastructure for these organizations. However, in the literature, it is not clear what are the factors that promote the implementation of these systems, neither what are the factors that contribute to their success. This study aims to propose and test two research models to overcome these research gaps. Design/methodology/approach The first model refers to the determinants of the implementation of destination management systems, and the second model refers to the determinants of the success of those systems. The models are tested with data collected through a questionnaire survey from destination management organizations of five European countries, which are among the leaders in international tourism receipts. Findings Concerning the factors that promote the implementation of destination management systems, this study reveals the importance of the diversity of partnerships that the private sector establishes in the destination, of advantages resulting from governance and of partners' involvement in the functions of destination management organizations. Concerning the factors that promote the success of these systems, this study highlights the importance of a phased implementation, the fact that a high number of functionalities in the system prevents success and the importance of having a revenue model that can support financial and operating costs. Originality/value The study provides important theoretical and practical contributions to the successful implementation of destination management systems by destination management organizations.
... (Rust, Lemon, and Zeithaml, 2004) estimated the effects of individual customer equity drivers that allowed projecting the return on investment occurred from expenditures. Wang, (2007) concluded that fundamental and marketing strategies related to customer equity theory increased attitudinal and behavioral loyalty. Customer experiences inner fairness when customers outcomeinput ratio match up to customers own reference outcome -input ratio (Oliver, 2008). ...
... (Rust, Lemon, and Zeithaml, 2004) estimated the effects of individual customer equity drivers that allowed projecting the return on investment occurred from expenditures. Wang, (2007) concluded that fundamental and marketing strategies related to customer equity theory increased attitudinal and behavioral loyalty. Customer experiences inner fairness when customers outcomeinput ratio match up to customers own reference outcome -input ratio (Oliver, 2008). ...
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Article
Different companies adopt different mechanisms to measure customer satisfaction and gain competitive edge. Principal component analysis identified five constructs which were found to influence respondents' decision to purchase: value, physical appearance, usage, prior experience and promotion. To achieve customer satisfaction therefore, most large firms are grappling to balance both the tangible and intangible consumer previous experience in order to maintain a destination of choice for its target audience. Customer service and firm level characteristics remain crucial elements of the retail mix that are of great significance to supermarket operations. Empirical review widely links the two aspects with customer satisfaction and that they are important for organization performance, growth, and sustainability amidst competition. However, previous studies have analyzed each aspect separately or looked at the variables independently which is a fact to be established in this study. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of customer service and firm level characteristics on customer satisfaction among large retail supermarkets in Kenya. The study tested a conceptual framework of six variables which links customer service and firm level characteristics to customer satisfaction; customer loyalty card initiative; supermarket ambience; operation schedule; supermarket pricing differentiation; supermarket image; and supermarket location.
... Rust, Lemon, and Zeithaml, (2004) estimated the effects of individual customer equity drivers that allowed projecting the return on investment occurred from expenditures. Wang (2007) concluded that fundamental and marketing strategies related to customer equity theory increased attitudinal and behavioral loyalty. Customer experiences inner fairness when customers' outcome -input ratio match up to customers' own reference outcome -input ratio (Oliver & Yau, 2008). ...
Full-text available
Article
Price is defined as the money charged on the commodity or service received. Pricing, therefore, plays a key role in creating customer value and building customer relationships, thus regarded as one of the most important elements in the company's marketing strategy. Defined as a positioning strategy, pricing differentiation in large retail supermarkets in Kenya, sub divided the retail market into sub retails with homogeneous characteristics in terms of their customer disposal income, purchasing power and or location. Thus, different supermarkets having different objectives and/or abilities, attempts to apply different pricing techniques as positioning strategies to try meet, satisfy and exceed customer expectations. This study established that pricing differentiation in large retail supermarkets in Kenya undertook careful market segmentation, targeted valued customers and positioned their strategy as high-end, medium or low-end. Carried out in all large retail supermarkets in Kenya, a sample of 336 customers and 31 branch managers spread within the 8 regions were engaged. It was concluded that pricing differentiation is significant and considered as a very important influence on customer satisfaction. In addition, it was concluded that customers buy value in the product not the product in itself. This means that the customers stay loyal to products if it meets and exceed their expectation, in terms of quality and quantity at the point of consumption. Therefore, any firm that adopts a customer value oriented approach in pricing will have a competitive edge since it defines the product's market, the competition experienced and product design therein.
... Previous studies have highlighted the importance of information and communication technology (ICT) in the tourism and hospitality industry (Andrlić, 2007;Šerić, Gil Saura, 2012;Sigala, 2003;Pitoska, 2013). They were mainly focused on the role and importance of websites in the marketing of a tourist destination (Govers, 2004;Wang, 2008;Woodside et al., 2011), the importance of social media for destination marketing organizations (Ružić & Biloš, 2010), and destination choice (Tham et al., 2013). Mohamed (2011) examines managers' perceptions of the impact of the Internet on key marketing activities: changes in the conceptualization of the marketing activity, changes in market definition and value creation.El-Gohary (2012)stated that small tourism organizations in Egypt use five basic e-marketing tools such as Internet marketing, e-mail marketing, mobile marketing, intranet marketing and extranet marketing, as well as different e-marketing forms-Business to Business Marketing (B2B), Business to Consumer Marketing (B2C) and Business to Government Marketing (B2G).Dina and Nensi (2015)recommended that hotels need to improve the quality of their websites and update content continually, use mobile applications and online booking to a greater extent, use email marketing, foster a personalized relationship and adjust supply to customer requirements, apply social networks.Xu et al., (2015)examined US hotels website marketing activities, they also focus on information dissemination. ...
... Other barriers to technology adoption in the hospitality industry are related to financial constraints of an organization. Research has shown that regardless of the benefits gained from adopting a new technology in the hospitality industry, budgetary restraints will dictate whether or not an organization allocates its financial resources (Wang, 2008). Compatibility issues are related to budgetary restraints, as hospitality firms must allocate a budget to maintain hardware and software systems across the organization (Wang and Qualls, 2007). ...
Article
Hospitality organizations utilize a variety of selection tools to hire the best candidates. Traditionally, hospitality recruiters have relied on face-to-face interviews for choosing the most qualified candidates to represent the firm. While real-time Internet-based interviewing platforms are increasingly utilized among hospitality organizations, a cutting edge technology-based interviewing phenomenon has emerged: the use of asynchronous video interviews (AVIs). In order to conduct this modality of interviews, employers send text-based questions electronically and the candidate records his or her responses using a webcam via various proprietary software platforms. Following the promise of reduced costs and increased efficiencies, many organizations have adopted this modality of interviews; however, little research has been conducted regarding their effectiveness among both providers and users. Additionally, the appropriateness and alignment of AVI in the hospitality industry for the use of selecting service representatives should be investigated. In light of this, the present research examines the literature on interviewing modalities, predictive validity of selection tools, and electronic Human Resources and presents several propositions as well as an agenda for future research. Furthermore, the present research presents a conceptual model for AVI using the literature on electronic Human Resources as a backdrop.
... La ricerca sul campo della visibilità on-line delle strutture alberghiere (con la quale si è testato l'IVOH) è stata effettuata utilizzando la tecnica dell'analisi documentale (Wang, 2008;Morrison et al., 2004;Tierney, 2000). I dati provengono dalle fonti digitali ufficiali delle aziende (Sito internet, profili di social network generici quali Facebook, Twitter, Google+ e Youtube) dell'intero universo di riferimento (227 hotel su 227) e dalle fonti on-line turistiche (Tripadvisor, Trivago, Booking, Expedia, Venere). ...
Article
In a tourist scenario profoundly transformed by the advent of new online players, hotel companies are called today to exploit the online communication tools in a more and more conscious way. In this context, for hotel SMEs, it becomes fundamental to achieve a correct perception of the online presence in order to intervene in real time with specific web marketing actions. The research objectives are 1) to explore the firms’ online presence through an economic literature review 2) to define an online visibility measurement indicator. The research has provided for three sequential phases: 1) the economic literature analysis (to explore the online presence issue/ its principal dimensions) 2) creation of an Index of Online Visibility of Hotel 3) test through three successive measurements of the online visibility of all 227 Hotels of Cattolica. The research has produced three mutually coherent online visibility charts, showing, albeit with some limitations, the validity of the Index.
... Assim, a usabilidade de um sistema segundo Nilawati et al.(2012), com uma determinada funcionalidade, é a variedade e o grau pelos quais o sistema pode ser utilizado de forma eficiente e adequadamente para realizar certos objetivos para determinados utilizadores. Deste modo, só há eficácia real nos sistemas quando se regista um equilíbrio entre a funcionalidade e a usabilidade.Embora existam muitos estudos prévios sobre a análise de sites de turismo, apenas alguns deles estão focados na avaliação de usabilidade website ou no DMS -Sistemas de Marketing de um Destino(Wang, 2008). Para preencher esta lacuna da investigação, pretendemos incluir neste estudo uma lista de critérios para avaliar a usabilidade do site de uma DMO, possibilitando assim um conjunto de padrões de aferição da usabilidade para quem construir futuramente sites destas organizações. ...
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Thesis
It is currently unquestionable the influence of internet in the tourism industry, and it is already acknowledged the existence of a “digital” tourism market. However, it is noticeable that the tourist destinations have different levels of development of ICT - Information and Communication Technologies. Through the combination of these factors, the tourism marketing - in particular its digital dimension - is assuming an increasingly prominent role in organizations. The aim of this study is to determine whether, in addition to the constraints inherent to the technological conditions, the Destination Management Organization (DMO) website usability can influence its demand, and if there are different levels of digital satisfaction. From a qualitative and quantitative assessment, it was determined how the factors that limit the usability of a website can be overcome adjusting it to the needs and desires of consumers; recommendations are presented to promote improvements in the websites usability of destination management organizations, as well as ways to improve digital satisfaction. As a result of the research that was made it can be concluded that at the initial stage of preparation of the trip or vacation the website usability influences the search for a tourist destination. It was also concluded that the TDDSI - Tourism Destination Digital Satisfaction Index calculation methodology will enable through benchmarking the improvement in websites usability and the outlining of new marketing strategies for the digital market. Keywords: Usability, Digital Divide, Tourism Marketing Unesco Codes: 531290, 531105
... Previous studies have highlighted the importance of ICT in the tourism and hospitality industry (Andrlić, 2007;Šerić, Gil Saura, 2012;Sigala, 2003;Pitoska, 2013). They were mainly focused on the role and importance of websites in the marketing of a tourist destination (Govers, Go, 2004;Wang, 2008;Woodside et al. 2011), the importance of social media for destination marketing organisations (Ružić, Biloš, 2010), and destination choice (Tham et al. 2013) etc. In addition, 1 previous studies cover topics related to the application of e-marketing in hospitality such as the effect of e-marketing on consumer behaviour (Andrlić, Ružić, 2010), the application of e-mail marketing (Dobrača, 2011) and web promotion in the hospitality industry (Ružić et al. 2011). ...
Full-text available
Article
Information and communication technology (ICT) has penetrated many spheres of life and work. Recognizing the potential of this new technology, marketers have readily accepted ICT and turned the marketing concept into e-marketing. The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of implementation of e-marketing practice in the hotel industry. The paper is based on empirical research conducted in Istria County, the most developed tourist county in Croatia. The research was conducted using a survey method. The research results show that hotel companies in Istria County have achieved a medium or even high level of implementation of e-marketing practice. The companies with a higher level of e-marketing practice also achieve better business performance. However, the survey also revealed the constraints to the widespread application of e-marketing in the hotel industry.
... A -Internet 1. Risultati di ricerca Google "nome hotel" 2. Posizionamento sui motori di ricerca (google) in associazione al nome della località nella graduatoria non sponsorizzata con la parola chiave "Albergo Cattolica"; 3. Posizionamento sui motori di ricerca (google) in associazione al nome della località nella graduatoria non sponsorizzata con la parola chiave "Hotel Cattolica"; L'impatto del Web 2.0 Sul marketing delle piccole imprese alberghiere di Tonino Pencarelli, Marco Cioppi, Fabio Forlani Ogni indicatore misura la prestazione (posizione di notorietà) della struttura alberghiera esaminata rispetto alla migliore prestazione ottenuta in quella specifica dimensione (0 non presente e 1 miglior risultato) fra tutti gli hotels oggetto di studio. A tutti i 9 indicatori è stato dato un identico peso (valore 1) ed è stato assegnato un valore massimo di 1, in modo che dalla loro somma si ottenga un indice complesso di secondo livello (INOH) avente un valore compreso da 0 a 9. La ricerca è stata quindi effettuata sull'intero universo di riferimento (227 hotels su 227 della città di Cattolica) avvalendosi dell'analisi documentale (Tierney, 2000; Morrison et al. 2004;Wang, 2008) delle fonti on-line ufficiali delle aziende (sito internet, profili di social network generici quali facebook, twitter, google+ e youtube) e delle fonti on-line turistiche (Tripadvisor, Trivago, Booking, Expedia, Venere). ...
Article
The tourism sector is undergoing an important evolution with the development and dissemination of web 2.0 technologies. For this reason, it is useful to understand how social networks (that permit sharing, joint planning and customers and stakeholders’ participation in value creation) are changing marketing processes of small businesses. This article investigates adoption and utilization of Web 2.0 in small hotels located in an Italian seaside destination. Research was conducted through a qualitative analysis of 8 case studies selected according to their on-line reputation defined by a specific indicator (INOH). The multicase study analysis allows to investigate the impact of Web 2.0 on marketing processes of small business hotels, with particular attention to the role played by the entrepreneur. He adopts an entrepreneurial approach to marketing that involves the use of social media, even in cases when he does not master the technology. The instinct, intuition and social skills of entrepreneurs allow them to use Web 2.0 as a platform to manage marketing processes according to a strategic and holistic perspective, although often in a non-systematic and not professional manner. Therefore, it could be argued that are many opportunities for improvement the use of web 2.0 in marketing processes of small hotels. Il comparto turistico sta subendo una importante evoluzione a seguito dello sviluppo e della diffusione delle tecnologie web 2.0. Pertanto è utile comprendere come i social networks, che prevedono la condivisione, la co-progettazione e la partecipazione dei clienti e degli stakeholders alla creazione di valore, stiano impattando sui processi di marketing delle piccole imprese. L’articolo indaga la diffusione e le modalità di utilizzo del web 2.0 nelle piccole imprese alberghiere di una località balneare italiana. La ricerca è stata condotta attraverso un’analisi qualitativa di 8 casi studio selezionati sulla base loro notorietà on-line definita mediante uno specifico indicatore (INOH). La multicases studies analysis ha permesso di approfondire l’impatto del web 2.0 sui processi di marketing delle piccole imprese alberghiere, con particolare attenzione al ruolo giocato dall’imprenditore. Dallo studio risulta che l’imprenditore gioca un ruolo critico: egli adotta un approccio di marketing imprenditoriale che prevede il ricorso ai social media anche nei casi in cui egli non ne conosce completamente le tecniche. Il fiuto, l’intuito e le capacità relazionali degli imprenditori consentono di utilizzare il web 2.0 come piattaforma per gestire i processi di marketing secondo una prospettiva strategica ed olistica, sebbene in modo non sistematico e non sempre professionale. Risultano quindi ampi spazi di miglioramento nell’utilizzo del web 2.0 nei processi di marketing.
... La ricerca sul campo della visibilità on-line delle strutture alberghiere (con la quale si è testato l'IVOH) è stata effettuata utilizzando la tecnica dell'analisi documentale (Wang, 2008;Morrison et al., 2004;Tierney, 2000). I dati provengono dalle fonti digitali ufficiali delle aziende (Sito internet, profili di social network generici quali Facebook, Twitter, Google+ e Youtube) dell'intero universo di riferimento (227 hotel su 227) e dalle fonti on-line turistiche (Tripadvisor, Trivago, Booking, Expedia, Venere). ...
Conference Paper
In presenza di uno scenario competitivo del comparto turistico profondamente trasformato dall’avvento dei nuovi attori on-line, le aziende alberghiere sono chiamate, oggi, ad utilizzare in maniera sempre più consapevole gli strumenti di comunicazione web based. In questa situazione risulta strategico per le piccole e medie imprese alberghiere avere una corretta percezione della propria presenza on-line sia per monitorare che per intervenire in tempo reale con specifiche azioni di web marketing. Il paper si pone come primo obiettivo di ricerca quello di esplorare il tema della presenza online delle imprese attraverso una review della letteratura economico/aziendale. Il secondo obiettivo è quello di definire, sulla base dell'analisi della letteratura svolta, un indicatore di misura della visibilità online. La ricerca ha previsto tre fasi distinte e sequenziali: nella prima fase si è analizzata la letteratura economico- aziendale al fine di esplorare il tema della presenza on-line per evidenziarne le dimensioni significative. Nella seconda fase, sulla base delle dimensioni estratte dalla letteratura, si è costruito un Indice della Visibilità On- line degli Hotel (IVOH). Nella terza fase si è testato l'indice attraverso tre successive misurazioni (ottobre 2013, agosto 2014 e ottobre 2014) della visibilità on-line di tutte le 227 strutture alberghiere della località turistica di Cattolica (RN). La ricerca ha generato tre classifiche di visibilità on-line (una per periodo) tra loro coerenti dimostrando, pur con alcuni limiti, la validità e l'utilità dell'indice costruito. In a tourist competitive scenario profoundly transformed by the advent of new online players, hotel companies are called today to exploit the web based communication tools in a more and more conscious way. In this context, for small and medium sized hotel companies, it becomes fundamental to achieve a correct perception of their online presence in order to monitor and intervene in real time with specific actions of web marketing. The first research objective of this paper is to explore the firms’ online presence theme through a review of the economic and business literature. Based on this prior literature analysis, the second aim is the definition of an online visibility measurement indicator. The research has provided three distinct and sequential phases: in the first one, the paper analyses the economic and business literature in order to explore the issue of the online presence, underling, at the same time, its principal dimensions. In a second step, starting from the dimensions emerged from the literature, an Index of the Online Visibility of Hotel (IVOH) has been created. In the third and last phase, the Index has been tested through three successive measurements (October 2013, August 2014 and October 2014) of the online visibility of all 227 Hotels of the tourist resort of Cattolica. The research has produced three mutually coherent online visibility charts (one for period), showing in this way, albeit with some limitations, the validity and usefulness of the created Index.
... From this point of view, it is necessary to involve local tourist offices and associations that are able to increase the visibility and reputation of places without generating confusion for users. DMOs have to think carefully about the activities previously undertaken ( Hays et al., 2013;Wang, 2008), especially because of the birth of new spaces, the evolution of existing ones, and the deterioration of some of them (i.e. Friendfeed). ...
Article
Web 2.0 influences the relationship between supply and demand even in the tourism sector, forcing those who manage destinations (destination management organizations, DMOs) to review the ways in which they enhance a territory's assets. As an exploratory contribution, this paper aims to answer two research questions: are the daily activities on social networks able to influence the marketing approach of DMOs, and in what ways and to what extent can the daily activities on social networks enhance the brand equity of destinations? This study aims to achieve this goal by analysing the digital marketing activities of one of the top Italian destinations (case study method). This paper shows that Web 2.0 offers many opportunities for value creation and promotion, but it also presents important challenges.
... The role of a DMO is crucial for the tourism industry, as it represents a key success factor for a country as a whole, as well as for regions and cities, thanks to its efforts to reach global audience (Buhalis, 2003). DMOs are primarily marketing organizations, in particular dedicated to the development of a place image, and to coordinate internal stakeholders for providing tourism products and services to the visitors Wang, 2008). According to Bronhorst et al. (2010) is possible to summarize the DMOs' main activities as following: (i) shareholders coordination (including the political and business industry representatives); (ii) leadership role and advocacy for tourism within the local community, in order to create awareness among the residents on the relevance of the tourism industry; (iii) support on the development of tourism facilities and attractiveness; (iv) information supporting of the tourist before and during their visit; (v) assistance to third parties such as tour operators and travel agents. ...
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Chapter
Thanks to the opportunities offered by Social Media, tourist experiences are shared pre-, during-, and post visit; tourists as well as prospects do not rely solely on official sources, but take advantage from what is shared by other tourists (e-Word-of-Mouth, eWoM). The understanding and the management of this phenomenon is a strategic need in the Hospitality and Tourism industry. This research presents how three Italian DMOs are dealing with the eWoM, measuring their awareness and their capability of managing it, using an ad-hoc created eWOM maturity model. Results are then compared with the actual importance of eWoM as assessed through a survey done in 2011 with a representative sample of the Italian population in the framework of an international research project (World Internet Project).
... In the extant studies on the use of the Internet by DMOs, different approaches have been applied, such as the modified Balanced Score Card (BSC) (Feng et al., 2003;Ismail, Labropoulos, Mills, & Morrison, 2002;Morrison, Taylor, Morrison, & Morrison, 1999;Myung, Morrison, & Taylor, 2005;So & Morrison, 2004), the extended Model of Internet Commerce Adoption (eMICA) (Doolin, Burgess, & Cooper, 2002), the ICTR (Information, Communication, Transaction and Relationship) model (Wang, 2008a;Wang, 2008b;Wang & Russo, 2007) and the ICTRT (Information, Communication, Transaction, Relationship and Technical merit) model (Li & Wang, 2010). ...
Article
This study attempts to apply the ICTRT model proposed by Li and Wang (2010) to American context and assess the effectiveness of American Destination Marketing Organizations' (DMOs') websites from functional perspective, i.e., information, communication, transaction, relationship and technical merit. The objectives of the research are achieved by content analysis of all fifty official state tourism websites regarding the five functions by expert valuators. The results manifested State Tourism Offices' (STOs') inability to effectively adopt and manage information technology to support more sophisticated operations. Most STOs focused mainly on the information dimension. Applications at both the transaction and relationship dimensions are not being widely deployed. Suggestions and implications are provided and discussed.
... A -Internet 1. Risultati di ricerca Google "nome hotel" 2. Posizionamento sui motori di ricerca (google) in associazione al nome della località nella graduatoria non sponsorizzata con la parola chiave "Albergo Cattolica"; 3. Posizionamento sui motori di ricerca (google) in associazione al nome della località nella graduatoria non sponsorizzata con la parola chiave "Hotel Cattolica"; L'impatto del Web 2.0 Sul marketing delle piccole imprese alberghiere di Tonino Pencarelli, Marco Cioppi, Fabio Forlani Ogni indicatore misura la prestazione (posizione di notorietà) della struttura alberghiera esaminata rispetto alla migliore prestazione ottenuta in quella specifica dimensione (0 non presente e 1 miglior risultato) fra tutti gli hotels oggetto di studio. A tutti i 9 indicatori è stato dato un identico peso (valore 1) ed è stato assegnato un valore massimo di 1, in modo che dalla loro somma si ottenga un indice complesso di secondo livello (INOH) avente un valore compreso da 0 a 9. La ricerca è stata quindi effettuata sull'intero universo di riferimento (227 hotels su 227 della città di Cattolica) avvalendosi dell'analisi documentale (Tierney, 2000; Morrison et al. 2004;Wang, 2008) delle fonti on-line ufficiali delle aziende (sito internet, profili di social network generici quali facebook, twitter, google+ e youtube) e delle fonti on-line turistiche (Tripadvisor, Trivago, Booking, Expedia, Venere). ...
Conference Paper
La ricerca vuole verificare se ed in che modo il web 2.0 (O'Reilly, 2005; O'Reilly, 2007) e le logiche della rete che prevedono la condivisione, la co-progettazione e la partecipazione dei clienti (e più in generale degli stakeholders) alla creazione di contenuti (Forlani, 2009) abbiano modificato e stiano modificando gli approcci di marketing delle imprese turistiche. In particolare, dopo un inquadramento del framework concettuale entro cui il fenomeno si colloca nell'ambito della letteratura di marketing, lo studio si prefigge di affrontare il tema “Web 2.0 e turismo: un nuovo paradigma di marketing?” attraverso le seguenti domande di ricerca (RQ): a) Le imprese alberghiere utilizzano consapevolmente le logiche del web 2.0? (RQ1); b) Le imprese alberghiere, che dichiarano di utilizzare un approccio di marketing che fa propri i principi del web 2.0, si limitano a utilizzare nuove strategie, nuovi strumenti e nuovi mezzi di comunicazione o la partecipazione, la condivisione e la co-progettazione degli utenti va ad incidere significativamente nella definizione delle strategie di marketing? (RQ2); c) Un eventuale differente marketing (marketing 2.0) va concepito come evoluzione del marketing management oppure l'applicazione del web 2.0 porta ad un superamento del paradigma tradizionale? (RQ3); d) Ci sono correlazioni significative fra le performance ottenute dalle imprese alberghiere in termini di notorietà on-line e le logiche di comunicazione e marketing utilizzate? (RQ4); e) Le imprese alberghiere che hanno migliori performance in termini di notorietà on-line hanno anche migliori performance di produttività (trend di occupazione camere, fatturato e personale) rispetto alle altre imprese della località? (RQ5). Per rispondere alle domande poste ci si avvale di una indagine empirica, sulle strategie e sulle politiche di marketing implementate dagli hotel, la cui metodologia è spiegata nel §3. Attraverso l'analisi empirica dei comportamenti delle imprese sarà, inoltre, possibile riflettere circa la fondatezza delle ipotesi che si espongono nel framework concettuale.
... Other stream of research aims to assess the relevance of functionalities for different types of actors. Indeed, in order to assess the importance given by DMO CEOs to different DMS functionalities, Wang (2008) proposed a conceptual model classifying them into four dimensions according to their role: 'information'; 'communication'; 'transaction'; and 'relationship'. Similarly to Doolin et al.'s extended eMICA model, the Wang's dimensions not only represent different sets of tasks performed by the website, but also additional levels of functionalities' sophistication, complexity and interactivity (Wang and Russo, 2007). ...
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Considering the important role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in tourism, a growing number of destination management organisations (DMOs) have been adopting more complex destination web-applications/websites to tourism destinations - destination management systems (DMSs). However, the concept of DMS is far from being consensual. The present study aims to clarify the concept of DMS by identifying the main differences between DMS and other DMO web-applications/websites regarding functionalities targeted at potential visitors of destinations. This study is carried out based on a comparison between DMS-specific and DMS-non-specific sources (papers and book chapters). The results suggest that the major difference between DMS and more traditional DMO websites relies in the transaction dimension. While DMS-non-specific reviewed sources tend to focus more on informational functionalities, DMS-specific studies clearly highlight transaction tools. The study highlights the need to develop DMS including a more varied range of transactional and communication/relationship functionalities.
... They have ready access to a large volume of Internet digital information, provided mainly by the government and non-government organisations, which are rich in contents and free-of-charge. Web-based information also offers the main resource for American tourists, who invest much time reviewing the information before their trips (Wang 2008). However, Hoctor (2001 indicated that digital information was not as important as the conventional printed form. ...
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The nascent ecotourism market in Hong Kong has much potential for development which could benefit from research findings. This study evaluated the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for ecotourism activities in protected conservation areas and assessed the potential for ecotourism development in Hong Kong. Our questionnaire surveys gathered data from 960 general tourists at four popular tourism hotspots and 456 nature tourists at four ecotourism hotspots. Both groups were willing to pay more for ecotourism activities in the protected areas. Nature tourists would pay 40% more than general tourists and preferred high-quality products. The mean WTP of general tourists and nature tourists was, respectively, HK$167.3 and HK$223.6 (US$1.00 = HK$7.80) to participate in ecotourism activities, being 39% and 86% above the average price of a general tour (HK$120) offered by travel agents. Younger tourists, better education, and higher income raised the WTP for ecotours. The results were compared and contrasted with cognate overseas studies. The findings highlighted the need to improve service quality, pricing structure, and product differentiation. They allowed ecotourism operators to understand the market, formulate development strategies, and optimize the service to meet divergent and changing client expectations. The income generated by ecotourism services could enhance protected area management and conservation.
... They have ready access to a large volume of Internet digital information, provided mainly by the government and non-government organisations, which are rich in contents and free-of-charge. Web-based information also offers the main resource for American tourists, who invest much time reviewing the information before their trips (Wang 2008). However, Hoctor (2001) indicated that digital information was not as important as the conventional printed form. ...
Article
The embryonic development of ecotourism demands proper planning and management to avoid common pitfalls. The recent ecotourism initiative in Hong Kong calls for understanding of the resource base and visitor attitude and expectation. Preferences for ecotourism services were evaluated by 456 questionnaire surveys at four remote ecotourism hot spots. In choosing ecotourism products, respondents preferred good-quality information and tour guides and low-impact activities. Destination selection was influenced by high ecological value and good site management; site facilities and accessibility were accorded less importance. Education and income correlated positively with preference for good-quality guides. Females preferred low-impact activities more than males. Young ecotourists expressed stronger preference for low-impact activities and sites of high ecological value. Elderly respondents were more concerned about good facilities and accessibility. The results were compared and contrasted with cognate overseas studies. A typology of ecotourists classified them into knowledge seeker, leisure traveller and nature lover. A survey of local ecotourism policies and operations highlighted room for improvement. The findings could help to steer the incipient ecotourism development on a sustainable, environmentally friendly and user-relevant track. The urge to increase local and overseas ecotourist patronage could be accompanied by optimising resource usage, minimising deleterious impacts and raising the quality of ecotourists, guides and operators. Relevant policies and strategies could be moulded to match genuine ecotourists’ preferences and fit local natural and socioeconomic conditions.
... Website service quality Efficiency and ease of completion are the dimensions of website service quality that most influence the users' perceptions of value and convenience, as well as their intentions to use and recommend the website to their peers (Wang, 2008;Chiou et al., 2011). A previous research argued that website service quality and information safety are positively related to customer satisfaction and loyalty (Khare and Khare, 2010;Kah et al., 2010). ...
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The research goal of this study was to investigate how website design quality and website service quality affect participation behavior in the online travel community by moderating tacit knowledge and commitment. The design of the questionnaire linked it to the invitation message on the three travel communities, of which 235 were returned completed. The finding of the study shows that an online travel community that allows quick manipulation capabilities is likely to attract its members. To succeed, online travel communities have to rethink the way in which they embrace a new art of dialog and collaboration with their members. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... The literature on destination management has tended to focus either on the nature of collaboration (Palmer and Bejou 1995;Selin 1993;Wang and Krakover 2008;Watkins and Bell 2002) or specifically on strategic marketing (Baker and Cameron 2008;Pike 2008;Wang 2008). However, destination management may fall to single organizations, especially in smaller communities, where collaborative destination management has less meaning. ...
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Local arts agencies have entered the local ecology of destination management in the United States as part of the network of organizations seeking to attract cultural tourists. This role has been virtually ignored in both the tourism and the community arts literatures. A national survey of local arts agencies reflects a substantial proportion that report involvement in cultural tourism development. Narrative analysis of descriptions of cultural tourism strategy reveals a range of activities, especially strategic marketing, development of products, and organizational learning through collaborative partnerships. Unexpected among destination management organizations, we learn that local arts agencies are substantially involved in the development of cultural products geared toward facilitating tourism. We propose that future research on destination management should recognize the position and value of local arts agencies in community-level development of cultural tourism.
... Key trends driving this transformat ion include technological advancemen ts (Cardoso & Lange, 2007;Fodor & Werthne r, 2004; Akoumianaki s, 2010b ) but also new business models for customer-relati onship management, such as e-shop, e-mall, e-auction, e-procurement , e-marketplace, e-communities, e-brokers and eintermediar ies (Timmers, 1998;Stockdale & Borovick a, 2006 ) and novel forms of online marketing, destination branding and consumption (Aschoff & Schwabe, 2009;Blain, Levy, & Brent Ritchie, 2005;Stockdale , 2007;Walsh & Gwinner, 2009;Werthner & Ricci, 2004). Furthermore, the emergence of Web 2.0 has created new opportun ities for user involvement and innovation (Cardoso & Lange, 2007;Sigala, 2012;Wang, 2008;Wang & Fesenmaier, 2003). There is also evidence, but very sparse and limited, of research efforts focusing on the knowled ge exchanges that drive new product/servi ce development in tourism and the various modalitie s through which these are manifested i.e., design contests (Bullinger, Neyer, Rass, et al., 2010;Faullant, Krajger, & Zanker, 2012) and practice-or iented toolkits (Akoumianaki s, 2009(Akoumianaki s, , 2010b. ...
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The paper presents intrinsic properties of cross-organizational collaboration in shared information spaces and motivates the concept of ambient communities with particular reference to the tourism sector.Our approach is informed by an ethnographic analysis of assembling innovative information-based products for tourists.Qualitative data collection methods combined with online ‘tells’reveal that in cross-organizational settings togetherness stems from ambient affiliates’recurrent co-engagement in computer-mediated distributed collective practices.Intriguing aspects of such practices are its boundary function,an underlying emergent knowledge process and its entanglement with socio-material realities of partners.
... III, Issue 3 June 2013 products), giving enterprises located far from the main commercial areas access to direct and short commercial channels and visibility with the evergrowing public of web surfers. As recognized by Canavari et al. [32] Italian agrifood companies although recognizing that Internet increases their visibility in the world markets, have yet to exploit it as a relational tool to increase competitiveness, or better, they must invest more in websites that are more coherent with more general communication and promotional strategies. Among the latter, averages or the new opportunities of exploiting knowledge and information offered by the Web 2.0, blogs, forums, online videos, are innovative web marketing tools. ...
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Well-being of the territorial systems with rural vocation can be compromised by climate change, but they also can influence, both positively than negatively, the factors that determine climate change. Starting from this dichotomous vision of the relationship between climate change and rural development, this study focuses on the role that Internet and the web mar-kiting strategies can develop in the mitigation and in the adaptation to climate change trough the spread of information on virtuous behaviour by individuals and firms. In such optics, the study provides a survey to evaluate the propensity of firms to use the web in order to promote responsible behaviour among the users of websites (suggesting virtuous behaviours) or to valorise their commitment in the fight against climate change.
... Providing a business with higher competitiveness depends to a large extent on the permanent incorporation of technological innovations (Okumus and Hemmington, 1998;Camisón, 2000;Ottenbacher and Gnoth, 2005;Karanasios and Burgess, 2008), the most outstanding of which are Internet and other forms of ICT. Several studies have shown that ICT deploy-ment helps the development of competitive actions in tourist businesses: Buhalis (1998), Camisón (2000), Ekeledo and Sivakumar (2004), Garau and Orfi la (2004), Scarone (2004), Sunil and Islam (2005), Willians et al. (2006), Luque-Martínez et al. (2007), Karanasios and Burgess (2008) and Wang (2008). Given the importance of ICT for competitiveness of the tourism sector, its deployment can be considered an appropriate strategy for the rural tourism sector. ...
Article
The deployment of information and communication technologies (ICT) is crucial for the competitiveness of rural tourism businesses. It is therefore important to know the relation between a firm's characteristics and ICT deployment. This study makes two hierarchical segmentations to predict the behaviour of these firms when deploying the Web and e-mail. This work determines which characteristics are related to ICT deployment. Activity and category are the two characteristics that most effectively predict a firm's behaviour, whereas location and size are less effective. These results have implications for entrepreneurial behaviour and for public agents working in rural tourism. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Abstract Human Resource Management Practices (HRMP) has essentially five broad activities that constitute an integrated system: staffing, retention, development, adjustment, and managing change (Cascio, 2001). According to the author´s big ‘picture’ overview, the field has strongly evolved in the last decades, with new approaches since its early days of file maintenance (1960s) to strategic partnerships and sustaining competitive advantage (present) (Cascio, 2001). Conversely, Tourism in Portugal is a growing field and has long been considered a strategic economic activity. A technical report by Alves (2016) accounts that it is “the largest export activity (46% of total exports of services), contributing to a better balance of payments, in addition to generating upstream economic activities […]generating employment, being a factor of regional development” (p. 1). Its evolution is undenied: in 2015, 1,184 million foreign tourists arrivals was recorded, 50 million more than in 2014 (+ 4.4%), the sixth consecutive year of above-average growth, with international arrivals increasing by 4% or more each year since 2010. Being such a strategic growing sector, human capital is becoming essential, and so, this research aims to investigate which Human Resources Management Practices (HRMP) are being implemented and scientifically studied, in tourism sector in Portugal. Regarding methods, a ‘state-of-the-art’ systematic review (SR) was used (Grant & Booth, 2009), as this subtype of SR addresses current matters and aims for comprehensive searching of current literature, to present current state of knowledge and priorities. PRISMA orientations for SR’s were followed (Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, & Altman, 2009). Three main research questions were postulated: (RQ1) In which geographical locations is HRMP researched in Portugal? (RQ2) Which HRMP in Tourism are being implemented in Portugal? (RQ3) Which are the main results and possibly, most successful HRM Practices in Tourism sector in Portugal? Several versions of Key words “Human resources+practices+ Tourism were used in Ebsco, Scielo, RedalYnc database And B-On between 23rd and 24th December 2020. Further attempts included other key-words like Employer branding, internal marketing talent retention and attraction, organizacional happiness and Workplace well-being, with zero results. Criteria were: Research articles, book sections and thesis, from the last 10 years (2010- to 2020) published in any language which included data on HRMP in tourism sector were included. Out- of-Portugal research and unrelated research was excluded. Forty two (42) publications were retrieved, from which 20 were excluded: 3 repeated, 7 no data about tourism and 10 out of portugal. Therefore, 22 publications were included in this review (Cabrita, 2020; Costa, 2017; C. Costa, 2019; Eurico, Silva, & Valle, 2012; Fernandes, 2005; Ferreira, 2016; Fonseca, 2017; Furtado, 2014; Garcia, 2016; Godinho, 2018; Marques, 2019; Matias, 2017; Milho, 2017; Mira, Mónico, & Moura, 2017; Moniz, 2016; Noite, 2016; Oliveira, 2019; Pedro, 2010; Pereira, 2014; Santos, 2013; Silva & Martins, 2016; Urbano, 2012). The main conclusions are: (a) Thesis had to be included, so, there is scarce published research and almost inexistent journal articles in indexed journals (3 Journal Articles); (b) Different sciences contribute: psychology, sociology, Internal-Marketing, education, management, amongst others; (c) Regarding RQ1, there’s representation from several geographical locations: Porto, Lisboa, Algarve, Fátima, Evora and Islands (Azores, Madeira), 4 with national data collection; Portugal’s Interior less represented; (d) Overall, HRMP studied were: Skills & profiles, Recruitment and Selection, Internal Communication, Motivation/Satisfaction, Professional Training, Performance evaluation, career Management, organizational climate, Generational Differences and HR Marketing. Limitations include key words chosen, and the fact that no paid databases were used, which should be the next step for future investigations. The potential of Portugal’s tourism is known and identified, but human capital is at the core of every organization, so HRMP should update and transform for the new coming challenges.
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The purpose of this research is to study the impact of Egyptian hotels' websites marketing on customer e-satisfaction and how to achieve e-loyalty through focusing on e-satisfaction success factors (website information quality, system convenience, system safety, service quality, expectations and perceptions for hotel services and facilities, and intention to revisit) This questionnaire included items pertaining to the customer satisfaction success factors (website information quality, system convening Egyptian hotels' websites marketing. The study focused on five star hotels. Most of the customers were dissatisfied about websites marketing in the Egyptian hotels. Enhancing quality of the marketing websites in the hospitality business leads to sustaining hotel-customer relationship, customers E-satisfaction, E-loyalty, increasing the number of new customers, improving the brand image of the Egyptian hotels, and consequently achieve profitability.
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This study employs an integrated approach based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) to examine online experience by combining design features and social factors. It also explores the interrelationships between online experience and smartphone users’ destination image. A pretest was conducted to examine the internal construct structure through exploratory factor analysis. In the main field test, a survey company distributed online questionnaires to recruited smartphone users. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to confirm reliability and validity, and a structural equation modeling test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to identify the relationships among the constructs. The results suggest that perceived usefulness and ease of use are important factors that enhanced users’ online experience with smartphone applications. Positive relationships exist between users' online experiences and cognitive and affective image. Furthermore, both of these factors positively contribute to overall destination image. This study contributes to the extant literature by identifying the momentous impact of mobile technology on destination image formation, and a new perspective of extending the TAM by measuring users’ online experience of smartphone applications is provided for the future studies. Marketing implications and limitations are discussed.
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The Development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has recently been changing almost every aspect of society and economy. Within the new technologies, Internet with has impacted the interactivity between people and the variety of products and brands. When the discussion is not simply about a common product/service, but about a tourist destination, the concepts of marketing and ICTs are even more intertwined. An important aspect of tourist destination marketing is its branding. Destination Branding concept is very important because it make possible for a destination to differentiate from competitors through an unique name and identification in the perception that the target market will have. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact that Internet has in destination branding, especially for relatively new destinations. The role of Internet is present through a variety of tools, such as web-sites, e-mail, social networks, blogging etc. We will bring the Albanian Case as a new destination to illustrate how the use of Internet and its related tools has helped in constructing a good brand image. Nowadays people find themselves firstly searching for information online about the destinations they want to visit, through Internet and the various platforms, so they are becoming very important as means for branding a destination. Many Internet elements can make a difference in branding if included as needed in the e-marketing strategy of companies that are making the important work about destination branding. The most important elements that have a positive impact in Albania, are content and keywords of Websites and a good level of sharing with social media. While there is much more to do with forms such as blogging, very important tools in SEO and the use of the right elements to raise brand awareness and differentiation. DOI: 10.5901/ajis.2017.v6n1p45
Chapter
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Chapter
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The paper presents intrinsic properties of cross-organizational collaboration in shared information spaces and motivates the concept of ambient communities with particular reference to the tourism sector. Our approach is informed by an ethnographic analysis of assembling innovative information-based products for tourists. Qualitative data collection methods combined with online 'tells' reveal that in cross-organizational settings togetherness stems from ambient affiliates' recurrent co-engagement in computer-mediated distributed collective practices. Intriguing aspects of such practices are its boundary function, an underlying emergent knowledge process and its entanglement with socio-material realities of partners.
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Mobile communication is experiencing significant growth: the domain has been completely reshaped since the launch of the Apple iPhone June 2007 and the ensuing development of so-called "smart phones". Furthermore, together with the expansion of new mobile artifacts, mobile application markets such as Apple iTunes Store and Android Google Play market have contributed to the diffusion of new forms of communication within different sectors and domains. Tourism is being very much exposed to the advent of mobile applications as tools for communication and assistance during the consumption of touristic experiences. By examining a case from the tourism industry, this research highlights the importance of the usability of mobile communication in this mobile tourism mTourism context. mTourism usability can be achieved by emphasizing the importance of fast and reliable access to content, as well as the quality-particularly conciseness, accuracy and coverage-of the relevant information.
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Measuring national tourism organization (NTO) abroad office competitiveness is crucial because of the hypercompetitive international tourism market. This study used focus group interviews and snowball sampling techniques to identify and apply competitiveness measurement criteria. An analytic hierarchy process model was then used to evaluate the weights of the criteria. Finally, this study examined and identified the overall global-competitiveness scores of different types of NTO abroad offices in Taiwan. The results contribute to a comprehensive and systematic framework of competitiveness measurement for different types of NTO abroad offices in an international, politically sensitive environment and their competitive performance. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Everything flows (Heraclit, 540 - 480 AC) Everything flows - everything changes. Heraclit's aphorism summarizes this book and its content in several ways. Flow refers to things passing by, it alludes to the intangible and immaterial, which is the essence of information technology. But flow also refers to move, which is the core of tourism. Both, the tourist and the information are traveling: the tourist is traveling to the destination, the information about the tourism product is traveling to the consumer. Finally, the aphorism refers to permanent change. Industries, the IT as well as the travel and tourism industry, are constantly changing our way of life, our views and perceptions of life. Moreover, these industries themselves undergo a permanent change. There are other parallels: both industries are not only growing above average, they will also be among the most important industries in the next century. In addition to these similarities, both industries are closely interrelated and intertwined. This interrelationship is not a recent phenomenon, even though it has not been explicitly observed before. It started in the early days of computing, and is becoming increasingly intense, up to the point, where IT is probably the strongest driving force for changes within the tourism industry. At the step to the next millennium, mankind is witnessing rapidly evolving technological progress, together with huge changes in human society. We live in the „information society„ (Bell 1973), where information has become as important as capital and labor. The invention of the computing machine has been the starting point of the profound and ongoing changes, which happen at the intersection of two technological developments. In the first area, which is related to human labor and its material conditions, the computer and its basic technology represents the so-called third industrial-technological revolution. The first revolution, which marked the beginning of modern society, took place on three different levels: a) mechanical systems replaced human capabilities; b) inanimate force, especially steam engine, replaced human and animal force; and c) production processes were radically improved (Landes 1968). The second revolution was set in motion by the invention of electrical power and the motor car. The second technological development concerns the role of human beings as symbol and information processors. The computer, which is, in contrast to all former and other machines, a symbol manipulator and transformer, partially models and simulates the human mental capabilities. Thus, its invention is also a revolution in information processing. Furthermore, the computer, since it is programmable and can refer to its internal status, is both an integration and a control device of other machines and further technical infrastructures. Nowadays, linked with telecommunication devices the computer represents a worldwide communication machine. In this way the computer marks the intersection of two developments, which drastically have and will change the physical and mental relationship of mankind to its physical as well as social environment. However, this technological as well as the related social development path neither was nor is not straightforward. It is rather a dialectic process, accompanied by great disturbances and contradictions. Together with other factors, it produced widespread, up to now unknown material wealth and, simultaneously, regional and individual poverty. This development also has led to an ecological situation which is not only potentially dangerous to the entire mankind but is also characterized by growing social frictions and often coincides with a paralysis in (political) decision making. The phenomena of mass tourism can be related to these social as well as technological developments. The latter provided both the social wealth, which has enabled a growing part of the society to have leisure time and money needed for traveling, and the necessary artifacts and infrastructures which enable travel. Following Guariso and Werthner (1989), a tentative list of generic phenomena can be given to describe the changing context in which travel and tourism is developing: • Acceleration of change: Today mankind is witnessing rapidly evolving technological progress; a major feature of this progress is the steadily shrinking time interval between the introduction of new inventions and innovative products and their replacement by even newer ones. A brief look at the field of microcomputers may illustrate this process. Eight-bit processors, which formed the basis for modern personal computers at the end of the seventies, which radically changed the habits of computer scientists and lead also to a broad diffusion of these machines, are now outmoded, they are already special objects of historic interest, suitable for museums. Such frontiers as limited memory capacity or speed of "early" personal computing have been passed over within a short period, e.g., the processing cost of one instruction per second has fallen from 100 USD in 1975 to 0,01 USD in 1995. • Knowledge-based economies: This is paralleled by the growth of the so-called knowledge based industries (e.g., high technology manufacturing, communication and IT services, finance). This term emphasizes innovation, information and technology, where knowledge has become a critical factor and source of competition. Knowledge is acquired through investments in research and development, innovation and education. As a matter of fact, international R&D spending has grown over the last 15 years and R&D oriented companies have shown a strong performance. Major challenges are how to codify knowledge and turn it into a strategic advantage, and how to transform a company into a learning organization that values, develops and rewards knowledge. Given the rapidly growing number of scientific results, technological changes and new products, potential users are confronted with the problem of monitoring developments and using them for their own needs. Even the specialist has difficulties to remain abreast of innovations in the field and to evaluate seriously all or only a major part of them. Bibliographical databases are almost exploding, and it is quite impossible to read all new publications in even one area of research. An original description of the problem of keeping up with publications in a limited field is given in Schwendter (1982). The problem of information overload has become exacerbated with the growth of the World Wide Web, where the amount of available information is growing so fast, that it is already hard for experts to find their information. Society will be differentiated into those who are able to use the information provided and those, who are overtaxed by this development, creating a new distinction between winners and losers. • Man - machine systems: Modern society can be characterized by the importance or even dominance of man - machine systems. We live in a technical and man-made environment and nearly all interactions between a person and his environment are carried out via or with the help of instruments. It seems adequate to use the term "system" for this type of interaction. Technical artifacts are an important requisite for the development of tourism, enabling traveling. Historically, the mechanical parts of a system had a subordinate role; they were controlled by the human. But technology liberated human beings from certain physical tasks and efforts. In current man - machine systems, both for material and information processing, machines play a more important role and are no longer restricted to physical work. They may also be responsible for controlling tasks in the complicated interaction between humans and the environment. In fact, the impression may be evoked that machines might, sooner or later, liberate themselves from control by human beings. This latter development is caused prominently by the computer. A computer can store, display and transform information, therefore differing significantly from all other information-handling machines, i.e., telephones, television, photography, etc. Its ability to transform data from one representation to another, to store the description of a data transformation in the same way and form as the data themselves, gives the computer the power to model partially the human brain and some of its tasks. Originally developed for freeing human beings from repetitive calculation tasks (Goldstine 1971), its capacity for storing vast amounts of data and for controlling the work of other machines was soon recognized. In a sense a computer can be seen as a general-purpose machine which needs only some extremities for fulfilling specific tasks. Computers are more than very fast calculators for repetitive or complex operations and storage devices for vast amounts of data. With progress in such fields as Artificial Intelligence (AI), they show even more significantly their capacity to support or to replace humans in their traditional area of creative or analytic thinking. Nowadays, they invade nearly all spheres of human life, and even if not all-technical forecasts have become true, they can give some indication about the future progress of man - machine systems. However, this is a pure engineering perspective and approach. Again we face a dialectic situation: producing everything that can be done we inevitably result in social and political movements questioning such a progress. Experiences from biology and ecology suggest to be cautious about second order effects and unintended side effects in complex systems. • Convergence: In a technical perspective, different technologies can be integrated by the means of computing technology, e.g.. computers guide vehicles, control power plant and airplanes, they integrate other artifacts into becoming one big machine. Computers enable by the means of digitization the convergence of different media such as video, graphics, text and sound. From a processing point of view digital media are all the same. In some cases the digital representation is so perfect that the human perception cannot draw any distinction. This might lead to a „loss„ of reality, what is the difference between the simulation and the object shown. Tourists experience their vacation site through the frame obtained by viewing an interactive video and the model obtained from it. Real or virtual things, we are already so much used to both that we might have severe problems to identify the difference. The loss of boundaries can be also seen in the area of social differentiation, where no clear distinction exists anymore between different groups. We are belonging to the various groups at the same time with varying degrees of membership. Democratic processes have to be reviewed. For example, with the growing number of Internet users and participants in electronic discussion groups, these groups without national boundaries are becoming increasingly important, influencing political and economic processes. The story about a bug in the Intel Pentium processor illustrates the power of virtual communities. The bug was initially reported to Intel, which did however not admit the severity of the problem until after a storm of protest was raised by Internet discussion groups. The similar dialectic process of blurring national boundaries can be observed, e.g., in the ongoing political unification of Europe. Political boarders can not easily be removed, and, in the period of decreasing sociological differentiation, the difference between rich and poor is becoming even more important. This process raises the question of identity, creating or enforcing the need for local as well as social and cultural self-determination. We are witnessing this every day on TV. Which again raises, however, the issue of distance, being close to processes we could not observe in the past. This is again related to the problem of reality, the picture we see is at the best an approximation, created by a mainly technically determined environment. • Globalization, organization and complexity: Modern society can also be described with the notion of complexity. In trying to identify single aspects of society by using a social, economic, ecological, or cultural point of view, one realizes an ongoing trend towards organization with a simultaneous growth of interdependencies. Phenomenologically, large-scale, international and globally acting organizations can be taken as evidence for this process. They might be subdivided into several divisions, each existing and working independently, but on an overall level they have manifold and strong connections. Underlying this observable growth of organizations is the process of globalization, where transglobal companies have revenues exceeding the GDP of small countries. Increasingly dense and complex international inter-firm collaborations (i.e., joint ventures, participations) can be observed. For example, the annual number of new collaboration agreements has doubled in the 1980s; they enable firms to do projects, which exceed individual technical and financial resources. This is especially true for R&D agreements. In general, there seems to be a correlation between the growth of such organizations on the one hand, and complexity, on the other. From a historical point of view, large-scale organizations with a parallel high degree of interrelationships represent a new development. As in the case of the above-mentioned progress in technology and information processing, they are at the same time causes and results of industrial changes. Another important feature is related to the growing size and interdependence of organizations. Large organizations are also large information processing systems. The ability to digest information is one of the preconditions for their functioning. In fact, the work of most of them is predominantly in information processing. The complexity of today's society is correlated with the information processing machinery, which also produces too much information. In that sense modern information processing applications increase complexity as well as uncertainty. The most recent example is the World Wide Web. It enables a well-organized description and representation on a micro level and at the same time it is nearly impossible to structure properly the billions of loosely related documents and to query this information cloud. And yet, information and its management appear to be the only means to reduce uncertainty, implying IT applications. Together with education and formation it may support human beings to reduce complexity and to understand the world and its phenomena, thus, providing orientation and improving decision processes. This is also important for tourism, to which all the previous features can be applied. In order to enable sustainable growth, to guarantee a healthy physical and human environment, a satisfied and well-served tourist, the industry has to understand these issues. IT may help to ease some of the problems by appropriate information processing and dissemination. Let us give a brief remark related to Orwell’s 1984 and the respective discussion about a computer-controlled society. Although these fears cannot be put away, a fairly different development can be observed: • The Internet represents a worldwide electronic network with free, uncontrolled and cheap access, although up to now the Northern and Western Hemisphere have benefited the most. The network has no central controlling institution. The decentralized, federalistic one might even say anarchic form of organization, where everybody can do what he/she wants, enabled its fast growth, but has led also to problems with unstructured and sometimes also offensive information content. New forms of communications and group building, crossing any borders, can be observed, creating new democratic processes, orthogonal to the classical ones defined along geographical boarders. • This new networked infrastructure runs contrary to the classical host determined and centralized networks of the past. PC based distributed software enables autonomous work for the individual, cooperation is enabled; for example, by Computer Supported Cooperative Work tools (CACM 1991). Also in the software production process one can find such developments as participatory design approaches, putting emphasis on the empowerment of the future users, integrating them already in the design phase of a software product (CACM 1993). • Easy-to-use devices enable an easier access for households and small companies, which were previously excluded from this form of infrastructure, thus, creating a comparative advantage for small entities. This is especially important for tourism with its huge number of small enterprises - within the EU 95% of the hotel and restaurant sector are small and medium enterprises (SMEs) - and its worldwide consumer community - estimates say that there will be approx. 700 Mn tourists in the year 2000. However, we want to underline that the positive, enabling effects are only one side of the coin. IT can also be used to control human beings, their life and work, and thus, contribute to a repressive society. But it possesses inherent features, which may contribute to an open society. This, however, depends on the human beings that are developing and using it. Although the ongoing changes in the tourism industry can be observed, the entire situation is rather chaotic. Only few quantitative empirical data are available about, for example, new entrants in the tourism market or the modified roles of existing players. It is thus the purpose of this work to provide a common methodological approach and to create awareness of a new research field. This has not been sufficiently recognized up to now, which is also reflected in the literature. Only few books exist which deal with this topic, articles are spread over different fields with their own journals and conferences. But this is changing. The number of conferences and workshops is increasing, e.g., the international conference on IT and tourism, ENTER, is now already in its sixth year. Numerous other conferences followed. Several newsgroups in the Internet deal with that topic; among the most prominent is infotec-travel, moderated by Marcus Endicott. International associations and bodies start to occupy themselves with the topic, and a special federation - IFITT (International Federation for Information Technology and Tourism) has been founded. Moreover, a number of books have been recently published, e.g. Inkpen (1998) and Sheldon (1997). The book is synthesizing and analyzing the current situation, trying to set the stage and to show ways of future research. A common methodological approach and framework should enable the analysis of the ongoing processes and the underlying trends. Both, from a technological as well as from a management point of view, the work is focusing on interorganizational processes and information systems, it takes a network oriented approach, corresponding with the fact that travel and tourism is an interorganizational business. In order to provide a coherent picture, the work is located within a multi-disciplinary triangle of the scientific fields such as • tourism research, • information technology and computer science, and • management science. Based on these scientific fields, different perspectives will be pursued and integrated: • a market and industry perspective, looking at trends in the tourism industry, • an analysis of the value chain and its redesign induced by modern information and communications technologies, • a discussion of organizational impacts and the implications on management strategies, focusing on a business (network) redesign. Following this industry and network perspective a further differentiation will be used, creating a multidimensional framework. The differentiation regards • a structural / functional view identifying  the stakeholders,  their relationships and the network, and  phases of transactions, tasks and processes, • the information needs with respect to time, both from the consumers' as well as the suppliers' side  before travel,  during vacation, and  after travel, • different planning perspectives  long term planning and product creation, and  short term utilization and yield management. Taking into consideration widely unavailable quantitative data, we take a rather qualitative and exploratory methodological approach, working with analogies, based on general trends, and using empirical evidence and case studies where possible in order to underline our arguments. Moreover, we take a bottom up as well top down approach, looking on one side at the tourism industry, identifying its structure, nature and needs. On the other side we use the technology and management science field to draw conclusions and to identify possible future developments within the tourism industry. We are aware of the fact that this approach cannot provide a formal proof of our arguments, as, for example, in formal sciences. However, by putting all the different ingredients into a common framework we hope to provide a comprehensive and consistent picture. The multidisciplinary framework of our approach is shown in the following figure. Fig. 1: Conceptual framework The structure of the book follows this approach; it contains several chapters dealing with IT and its trends as well as management science in order to provide basic methods for an analysis of the tourism industry and its ongoing changes. It should be noted, however, that these chapters only give general overviews and no in-depth insights. Extensive literature references provide the reader with information for a more detailed follow up. Thus, this work is also an invitation to others active in the field for further research. In this way, we hope to contribute to the process of theory building in the field and to extend the related knowledge base. Chapter 1 gives a general introduction and provides some empirical evidence of the ongoing changes within the travel and tourism industry, referring also to overall economic trends. Chapter 2 has to be seen as a structural view of the tourism industry, identifying the different types of players, the nature of the tourism business and tourism product. Chapter 3 discusses major trends in information technology as well as in computer science. It shows the role of information systems within and between companies. Major developments in both the hardware and the software domain are reviewed; subchapters deal with different types of networks including and leading to the Internet and the Web, data modeling and software engineering, intelligent applications, and possible means of integration. Chapter 4 represents a toolbox of different management science methods, enabling the understanding of ongoing structural changes and the formulation of business strategies. Chapter 5 refers to case studies, providing empirical evidence of our arguments. It discusses several IT applications in travel and tourism, including CRS/GDS, electronic destinations and on-line servers. Chapter 6 deals with management implications, the problem of decision-making and the alignment of strategies. The target audience of this book, which is both practical and theoretical by building a framework based on real cases and practical examples, is at the interface between tourism and IT as well as between industry and academia. It is directed towards the IT sector in discussing the structure and the dynamics of the tourism sector, and in presenting its challenges for the IT field, both on a technical as well as an implementation level. Another target group is the tourism community, consisting of the private industry, public institutions and consulting companies, since we discuss the dynamics of IT and its impact on tourism. Students in both fields should also read it. This emerging discipline should be included in both curricula, since a main obstacle for the development, implementation and operation of successful IT applications in tourism is the missing interdisciplinary and interrelated know how. We hope that at the end the readers will also be able to understand that the processes described are neither inevitable nor deterministic, induced by some exogenous forces which can not be influenced, but that the management, both from private companies as well as from public institutions, has not only ways and means to influence these processes but is also responsible for the ways in which they appropriate IT. Acknowledgments Special thanks goes to our home institutions, the Institute for Statistics, Operations Research and Computer Methods at the University of Vienna, Austria, and the Institute for Information Systems at the University of Münster, Germany, for giving us the time, the infrastructure as well as the intellectual support necessary to do this research. We are grateful to IFITT and the TIS company (Tourism Information System) and the Tirol Tourist Board, Austria, which were at the forefront of this development. They enabled us to evaluate our theories and ideas within real life testbeds, sometimes correcting - in a nice way and with an attitude of friendship - our academic ignorance and too abstract view of real life problems. The emergence of this book was influenced by our contacts with many colleagues. Many of the insights presented are results of discussions and exchange of ideas with them. Without these contacts, especially in a field that is interdisciplinary by its nature, the book wouldn’t have been possible. Those who contributed include J. Broukal, D. Buhalis, R. Carter, A. Ebner, M. Endicott, P. Fankhauser, D. Fesenmaier, E. Fleisch, K. Fröschl, A. Göldi, P. Hart, M. Hitz, J. Jafari, K. Kärcher, J. Küng, S. Lanfranco, M. Lindemann, J. Margreiter, S. Meis, L. Nell, J. Oliver, K. Plankensteiner, L. Press, B. Pröll, J. Rafferty, H. Schad, W. Schertler, B. Schmid, P. Schubert, D. Selz, G. Simonitsch, I. Starry, O. Stock, A. Tjoa, N. Tschanz, M. Uysal, S. Wayne, K. Wöber. Thanks go to C. Böckers for administrative and logistical support. We are grateful to S. Schilgerius from Springer Verlag, both for her patience and persuasiveness. Our special thanks go to also to Springer Verlag for prove-reading the manuscript. We are, however, the only responsible for any errors and misunderstanding this work may still contain.
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This article provides guidelines for the establishment of a comprehensive state/provincial destination marketing information system (DMIS). More specifically, it describes the process by which the tourism industry in Alberta, Canada developed a framework for the acquisition of timely research and intelligence to maintain and enhance its competitiveness as a travel destination. In keeping with a government mandate for greater public–private sector partnership, consideration was given to two equally important, but functionally distinct end users: (1) Travel Alberta, the province's destination marketing organization, which uses information to guide strategic marketing priorities and create cooperative marketing opportunities for industry, and (2) local tourism operators, who demand information to improve their marketing decisions in service of individual business objectives. The needs of these key audience groups were identified and addressed using a comprehensive three-step approach: (1) Interviews were conducted with key industry players to identify research and intelligence needs, (2) information sources were sought to respond to the identified needs, and (3) solutions were identified to deliver high-quality information at an affordable cost. The end result of this process is a framework that can serve as a useful model for other jurisdictions seeking to develop a DMIS. While the Alberta framework will require ongoing evaluation to ensure its validity and accuracy, it possesses an important quality frequently lacking in this type of endeavor: the broad-based endorsement of tourism operators.
Article
American convention and visitors bureaus are trying to adjust their marketing strategy to incorporate the Internet but have achieved mixed results. This study examines the factors affecting the success of Web-based marketing strategies by American convention and visitors bureaus. The results of this study indicate that successful Web marketing strategies require the integration and coordination of three complementary aspects of the Internet marketing efforts as well as favorable organization and technology environment and innovative approaches. Discussion and implications are provided based on the results of the study.
Article
Adoption and diffusion theories are used to explain key factors affecting the use of Internet technology by American convention and visitors bureaus. Organizational properties, leader characteristics, and technology-activity fit are assumed to determine the extent and length of information technology (IT) use. A survey conducted among American convention and visitors bureaus indicates that bureaus can be classified into five adopter groups (laggards, sophisticated followers, knowledge adopters, early light adopters, and late light adopters), which follow two different paths of technology implementation and use. Bureaus along these paths differ substantially in terms of their use of applications, their perceptions of IT, and the impacts of IT on their activities. Education and knowledge of bureau leaders and the perceived usefulness of IT also affect the bureaus’ potential to become knowledge adopters.
Article
This research attempts to propose a conceptual framework in relation to the functions of destination marketing systems (DMS). In addition, efforts are also made to evaluate the effectiveness of each of the functions of the DMS. The objectives of the research are achieved by taking web-based marketing systems of convention and visitor bureaus in the USA as the focus of investigation. It is proposed that a DMS should be composed of four interrelated components: virtual information space (VIS), virtual communication space (VCS), virtual transaction space (VTS), and virtual relationship space (VRS), alternatively termed as the ICTR model. The analysis of the applications in the four components of DMS seems to suggest that destination marketing systems are still in the preliminary stages of development, showing a hierarchical progression of usage and sophistication. It appears that convention and visitor bureaus (CVBs) are performing well in providing and incorporating information-oriented applications but are weak in applications related to transaction and relationship building. The effectiveness analysis of the applications in the four components has also raised issues of serious concern. Suggestions and implications are provided and discussed.
Article
Despite the exponential growth of e-commerce on the Internet, little is still known on how the new medium is transforming marketing concepts/practices and their effectiveness. This empirical study aims to fill in this gap. This article first analyzes the Internet's capabilities and features as well as the new virtual market space that Internet advances have fostered. After reviewing models and strategies for Internet marketing, an Internet marketing mix is proposed based on the Internet strategies of hotels in Greece that were investigated. Using a nonparametric technique, the data envelopment analysis (DEA), Internet strategies were also benchmarked to identify best practices and provide suggestions on the development of effective Internet marketing strategies.
Article
In today′s competitive environment technology plays an important role. Diffusion theory offers useful insights into how to manage and market products based on new technology most effectively. However, the current diffusion model leaves much unsaid with regards to the adoption and diffusion of innovations among organizations owing to the fact that relevant research findings have not been incorporated in the diffusion model. Integrates these findings into the diffusion model.
Article
In recent years, hospitality and tourism researchers have presented their findings of many studies on website performance and evaluations. Although these prior studies have achieved a certain degree of success for assisting industrial practitioners to develop and maintain their websites, it remains largely unknown how consumers find a specific travel or hotel website. This paper reports a study that investigated the perceived importance of different channels for finding travel or hotel websites from an international travelers' perspective. Empirical results from 153 travel or hotel website users indicated that the Google search engine was the only channel that was perceived as important, and 47.4% of the respondents viewed up to three screens in the list of search results when using search engines. The paper should be of interest to industrial practitioners and academic researchers to understand better the behavior of users of travel and hotel websites during their website search procedure.
Article
Advertisers are recognizing the World Wide Web as a valuable addition to their “tool box” of advertising media. However, whether traditional advertising relates creatively to communication efforts on the Web have yet to be assessed. This study explores the extent to which advertisers integrate messages between traditional advertisements and websites. Since consumers are exposed to a product or service initially through an “offline” method, it would appear beneficial for the communication potential of the offline advertisement to be carried to the online message. This study investigated the print advertisements and websites of over 180 advertisers. To do so, the study used principles found in the literature of Integrated Marketing Communications to assess the current status of integration between the print advertisements and websites. The study identified elements that advertisers appear to successfully integrate between the two media as well as areas where advertisers need to focus on improving the integration. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and Direct Marketing Educational Foundation, Inc.
Article
The World Wide Web has received considerable media attention in recent times. Little is known concerning the technology’s appeal for commercial applications, and the topic deserves investigation. This study aims to analyze the differences between adopter and non‐adopter businesses according to their organizational characteristics. Six characteristics consistently associated with the adoption of technology, business size, age, industry, use of an IT support unit and IT budget, and degree of technology experience, are selected from the literature. A sample of 245 adopter businesses is gathered using on‐line directories and “keyword” searches of the World Wide Web. A sample of 245 non‐adopter businesses is obtained from the state business telephone directory. The study finds a number of interesting associations. No significant relationship is found between business size and World Wide Web adoption. Adopters tend to be younger yet more experienced with technology than non‐adopters. Businesses that made use of IT budgets and IT support units also tended to be adopters, however adoption did not rely on the existence of these two factors. The study raises a number of additional findings that are of interest but are not directly related to this work. These findings merit further research.
Article
This paper develops a conceptual framework that describes the impact of information technology (IT) on service management and transaction costs in full service hotel firms. It details how IT would help such firms to lower operations-related transaction costs. Further, the underpinnings of how IT would impact service management in full service hotel firms is discussed more specifically from a customer satisfaction point of view while focusing on two aspects, i.e. managing customer delight and the customer's role as a co-producer. Propositions are developed and a discussion on the impact of IT on firm profitability from a transaction cost perspective ensues while concluding with managerial implications.
Article
The importance of information and efficient information management is steadily increasing due to the evolution of new technologies and high-capacity storage media but also because growing market dynamics raise information needs. A marketing decision support system (MDSS) can be of particular importance as it supports organizations in collecting, storing, processing, and disseminating information, and in the decision-making process by providing forecasts and decision models (Little, 1979). The following article provides insights into a successful implementation of a MDSS in tourism. Based on findings on the analysis of the system's protocol files, it discusses the information needs in tourism management.
Article
The advent of networked economy calls for new understanding of business, and it is evidenced by the visible trend of traditional businesses either migrating to e-business or expanding to embrace electronic commerce. Constant change in the environment means continually evolving strategies, new products, new processes and new technologies to adopt. E-business metrics are needed to measure performance with the firm’s strategic focus in mind, and they must go beyond the Web metrics that are discussed in the usual electronic commerce context. The basic objective of this paper is to present a framework for developing performance measurement metrics in the e-business environment. The proposed framework, designed by incorporating the balanced scorecard methodology with existing taxonomies of e-business models and the theories behind them, is intended to enable firms to develop new metrics that are needed to implement e-business strategies and tactics.
Article
This paper illustrates a systematic approach to the analysis and classification of business-related Internet strategies, as well as a framework to guide the strategy-building process of companies aiming at redesigning or innovating their products and services in the light of new opportunities and competitive pressures generated by the spread of the Internet. First, the paper shows that current strategies adopted by large and small companies worldwide have been generally based on a narrow, unidimensional interpretation of the Internet, as either an Information, a Communication, a Distribution or a Transaction channel (ICDT Model). The model is then used as a systematic framework guiding (1) the analysis of how traditional products and services are redesigned in the light of the Internet, and (2) the identification of organisational adjustments companies need to undergo in order to fully exploit the business opportunities created by the Internet.
Article
The information-intensive nature of the tourism industry suggests an important role for the Internet and Web technology in the promotion and marketing of destinations. This paper uses the extended Model of Internet Commerce Adoption to evaluate the level of Web site development in New Zealand's Regional Tourism Organisations. The paper highlights the utility of using interactivity to measure the relative maturity of tourism Web sites.
Article
Web sites provide the key interface for consumer use of the Internet. This research reports on a series of three studies that developand validate Web site usability, design and performance metrics, including download delay, navigability, site content, interactivity, and responsiveness. The performance metric that was developed includes the subconstructs user satisfaction, the likelihood of return, and the frequency of use. Data was collected in 1997, 1999, and 2000 from corporate Web sites via three methods, namely, a jury, third-party ratings, and a software agent. Significant associations between Web site design elements and Web site performance indicate that the constructs demonstrate good nomological validity. Together, the three studies provide a set of measures with acceptable validity and reliability. The findings also suggest lack of significant common methods biases across the jury-collected data, third-party data, and agent-collected data. Results suggest that Web site success is a first-order construct. Moreover, Web site success is significantly associated with Web site download delay (speed of access and display rate within the Web site), navigation (organization, arrangement, layout, and sequencing), content (amount and variety of product information), interactivity (customization and interactivity), and responsiveness (feedback options and FAQs).
Article
The authors propose a communication-based model of relationship marketing and discuss how communication (rather than persuasion) is the foundation of the "new" customer-focused marketing efforts. The authors trace recent parallel shifts in communication and marketing theory and show the intersections between communication and marketing. Although communication always has been a critical element in marketing, the authors show how the increase in interactivity makes communication an even more valuable element of marketing by identifying those many points that link the two disciplines. Using the three key points at which the two disciplines intersect - messages, stakeholders, and interactivity - the authors develop a communication-based model of marketing. They demonstrate how interactive communication at three levels - corporate, marketing, and marketing communication - leads to the brand relationships that drive brand value.
Article
This paper contributes to the study of information sourcing behavior in the travel decision process. It focuses on the differences between information sourcing before and after a definite trip decision (characterized either by an irreversible choice with regard to destination or by a legal contract such as a reservation or purchase of one or multiple elements of a trip). The study identifies typical patterns of information search behavior for different travel types, grouped by means of clusters along two stages of the information sourcing process, thus forming paths of information sourcing. The data is representative for the case of Switzerland, serving as a model for a well developed travel market. Descriptors such as type of trip, degree of packaging, choice of destination, and choice of accommodation showed significant explanatory power, while socio-demographic variables proved to be of less value. The results give industry the possibility of improving information distribution systems throughout the travel decision process. Key words: Information sourcing, consumer behavior, market segmentation, ser-vice chain, buying process.
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Gold rush in cyberspace
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