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The Research Art in Sociology: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods

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... ZFPR jest partnerem europejskiej organizacji zrzeszającej krajowe związki PR (International Communications Consultancy Organisation -ICCO), co gwarantuje obecność Polski w międzynarodowych zestawieniach porównawczych i dostęp do aktualnych trendów branżowych. Związek współpracuje także z Polską Konfederacją Pracodawców Prywatnych Lewiatan, co jest gwarantem zabezpieczenia interesów całej krajowej grupy zawodowej specjalistów PR (wspominając chociażby o wpisaniu na ministerialną listę zawodów) 21 , oraz z Radą Reklamy. Związek działa w oparciu o standardy etyczne zgodne z dokumentacją Kodeksu Dobrych Praktyk ZFPR, Kodeksu Etyki PR, Deklaracji Sztokholmskiej ICCO i Deklaracji Helsińskiej ICCO. ...
... Norman Denzin wyróżnił cztery rodzaje triangulacji, tj. danych, badaczy, teorii i metodologiczną 21 . Autor publikacji bazował głównie na ostatniej z wymienionych, która pozwoliła zestawić kilka metod w przekroju problematyki działań agencji public relations w kontekście ich sposobu zorganizowania oraz świadczenia usług związanych z zarządzaniem kryzysowym. ...
... Im więcej lat przepracowanych w zawodzie PR-owca, tym częściej zarządzanie kryzysowe było wymieniane jako wiodąca specjalizacja agencji 17 ; ▶ wraz ze wzrostem zatrudnienia zwiększa się obecność zarządzania kryzysowego wśród głównych specjalizacji agencji 18 . W formie ciekawostki warto dopowiedzieć, że jeszcze tylko w przypadku relacji z influencerami można mówić o podobnym i istotnym trendzie (im więcej pracowników ma agencja, tym częściej współpracuje z influencerami 19 ); ▶ im dłużej agencja prowadzi działalność na rynku, tym częściej specjalizuje się w kryzysowym public relations 20 oraz w relacjach inwestorskich 21 . Rzadziej natomiast skupia się na obszarze digital PR 22 . ...
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Książka jest próbą nakreślenia panoramy polskiego rynku usług public relations, które świadczą wyspecjalizowane agencje ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem zarządzania kryzysowego.
... The third type of materials used in this paper includes articles, book chapters and monographs on triangulation as a concept used by social science researchers since the mid 20 th century [4,11,14,[26][27][28][29][30]. Connecting the concepts of social sciences and mathematics education intends to demonstrate that while the need for rigor was one of the main reasons for introducing the concept of triangulation into the former disciplines' research, the rigor is necessary for the success of learning mathematics and understanding its concepts in the age of technology both in contextual and decontextual situations. ...
... As will be shown below through the discussion of Problems 1 and 2, each of the three methods used in problem solving -symbolic, visual, experimental -may have different forms thereby allowing learners of mathematics to become familiar with multiple techniques within a single method. A teacher who believes that teaching multiple methods of solution of a single problem leads to confusion of students, especially those (sometimes mistakenly) identified as lower-ability learners of mathematics [41], is similar to what a sociologist refers to as a participant observer who may not be aware of rival factors, both external and internal [28]. ...
... It is through the idea of triangulation in mathematics education as using more than one way of solving a problem and more than one tool in support of problem solving that this (seemingly 'simple') question would be answered below (Remark 1) by the recourse to ACU, thus leading to a new insight through an intelligent reflection on the pretty routine problem-solving method. As Denzin [28], in the context of social science research, put it, "Problems and questions, not theory, create new perspectives" (p. 55). ...
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The paper suggests interpreting the term triangulation, commonly used in social science research, as multiple ways of solving a problem in the context of mathematics education. The availability of different technological tools provides new perspectives on problem solving as modeling from where ideas for problem posing stem. Using topics from geometry and trigonometry, triangulation is considered through lens of teacher education. Reflections by teacher candidates on activities which are shared and reviewed in the paper indicate future teachers’ readiness to implement the pedagogy of triangulated perspectives on problem solving and posing in their own mathematics classrooms.
... The research has adopted a high level of critical practitioner reflection, with evaluative questionnaires and learning journals completed by students to provide a comparative and further illuminative element, and to also provide validity through triangulation of methods (Denzin, 1970). Reflection enables ideas, skills and insights learned in the classroom to be tested and experienced in practice. ...
... This is in line with Yin's (1994) suggestion that the case study should be part of the total approach when a problem is to be defined broadly, when contextual conditions need to be included and where multiple sources of data 59 are to be relied upon. Triangulation (Denzin, 1970) of methods enables the case to be viewed from various view points and to correlate methods with perspectives (McKeman, 1996). ...
Thesis
p>The research illuminates current practice and the potential of higher education to educate the individual with regard to their awareness and understanding of their own learning through exploration of the tutor-student relationship. Within conventional tutor-student relations the tutor holds the authority. The research has explored that for students to increase responsibility for their learning, an 'adjustment of authority' needs to occur. Case study data has been explored in line with a critically reflective action research approach with tutor as researcher in order to gain insight to the student experience of the 'adjustment of authority'. Examination of the data has resulted in the emergence of principles to practice that recognise the relational nature of authority and responsibility and which indicate the need for the development of an appropriate context in order that students are able to increase responsibility for their learning. The research has also resulted in the nature of the practitioner being challenged and reconstructed through the continual exploration of practice. The practitioner is able to learn about their practice, whilst remaining open to further learning and whilst mindful of their situatedness. Through critical reflexivity this research attempts to move beyond the limitations of practice and focus on the personal research journey which provides a dynamic structure for understanding the experiences offered within the research.</p
... Triangulation was a key aim in undertaking four distinct studies, two quantitative and two qualitative, each with a unique research method. Specifically, conducting multiple different studies has allowed between-methods triangulation, compensating for some of the limitations of each method in each study through the deployment of others (Denzin, 1970 "This aim is pursued via more adequacy and comprehensiveness in grasping the issue under study and not by a unilateral or mutual validation of the single-method results." (Flick, 2018, p. 16) As such, I did not seek congruence in my results, but rather a convergence towards a way of answering my overall research questions, elaborating upon my hypotheses, and ...
... Though Flick has criticised Denzin's (1970) view that different methods can compensate for each other's limitations, I take the stance that their positions can be reconciled; I do not take the balancing of limitations to be a gap-filling exercise in completing a picture of a single phenomenon, rather I treat the knowledge extension granted through additional methods as the means of addressing limitations in the bounded nature of any single method alone. ...
Thesis
This thesis presents research into the relationship between reading fiction, as distinct from nonfiction, and critical thinking. Critical thinking is framed in the context of information literacy research. Prior research has shown increased fiction reading to be associated with social (Mumper & Gerrig, 2017), as well as cognitive and imaginative (Black et al., 2018; Oatley, 2011), capacities. These capacities are also associated with critical thinking (Byrne, 2016; R. H. Ennis, 2015; Thayer-Bacon, 2000). Thus, reading fiction may increase factors which in turn yield changes to critical thinking. To explore this potential relationship both normatively and subjectively, a sequential mixed methods approach was adopted. Four studies were conducted: one, an observational survey study assessing correlations between reading and factors associated with critical thinking; two, a reading log with pre- and post- critical thinking assessment, and experimental manipulation of assigned reading, testing a causal relationship; three, a reader interview study exploring experiences of reading and critical thought; four, a reading diary study exploring the day-to-day interplay of reading and critical thinking experiences. In conjunction, the four studies revealed: fiction reading was associated with experiential engagement in critical thought, while nonfiction was connected to the building of knowledge and procedure of critical thinking; fiction reading was predictive of disposition towards, change in, and improvement to critical thinking; nonfiction reading in long sessions was associated with improvement, but many short engagements were detrimental to critical thinking; assigning fiction reading to nonfiction readers was shown to be an efficacious critical thinking intervention. These findings suggest fiction is a utile resource for developing critical thinking, and as such imply that the inclusion of fiction as part of information literacy and wider arts and humanities education, and across society through public library provision, is valuable.
... The quantitative data did not capture the full annual picture of a centre's performance. In addition, data examining tutor centres' performance over time could be used as an aspect of external validity for data triangulation or as a unit of analysis (Denzin, 1970). As an aspect of external validity, additional sources of data would not only reduce investigator bias but also add additional angles with which to examine the phenomenon. ...
... Future work can collect centre data over several semesters in order to both elaborate on the findings of this study and expand the work to demonstrate who longitudinal within centre data can aid in performance assessment. In addition, future work can examine the unit of analysis to be the broader university, conducting a case study on the collective (Denzin, 1970). Tutor centres do not exist within a vacuum and are subject to institutional and societal influences. ...
Article
Evaluation has become a common, and even an expected, practice across undergraduate mathematics tutoring centres in the USA, UK and other countries. However, these evaluation efforts could benefit greatly from leveraging organizational theory research. In this study, we situate mathematics tutoring centres as non-profit organizations (NPOs) to consider how an organization performance assessment framework can be adapted to study mathematics tutoring centre data and characteristics. We use qualitative and quantitative data, collected from six mathematics tutoring centres and adapt Lee & Nowell’s (2015, Am. J. Eval., 36, 299–319) NPO performance framework to situate our study. Using thematic analysis, the research team underwent iterative cycles of data collection and analysis to code for alignment with Lee and Nowell’s framework. By adapting Lee and Nowell’s framework to mathematics centres, each of the six centres was given a more relevant lens to consider its performance. Regardless of the university setting, previous evaluations for centres have focused primarily on outputs (e.g., number of visits), behavioural change outcomes (e.g., correlating visits to grades) and client satisfaction outcomes (e.g., student surveys) that ignore the particular context of a centre. However, Lee and Nowell’s framework takes into account additional performance indicators that provide a more nuanced understanding of a centre’s performance by bringing to light the interplay among its various dimensions. Lee and Nowell’s framework allows centres to look beyond outputs and outcomes to understand why these outputs and outcomes come to be. The use of this adapted performance framework, for the six mathematics centres in this study, allows an interpretation on a variety of dimensions using relevant data while indicating possible areas for change for each centre.
... To ensure a high level of validity of the results (Denzin, 1970), we applied triangulation in several ways by gaining data from several sources. First, we conducted an extensive literature review and combined existing approaches to digitalization to utilize advantages and insight from existing knowledge (Denzin, 1970). ...
... To ensure a high level of validity of the results (Denzin, 1970), we applied triangulation in several ways by gaining data from several sources. First, we conducted an extensive literature review and combined existing approaches to digitalization to utilize advantages and insight from existing knowledge (Denzin, 1970). Second, we applied six semistructured interviews to gain insights from experts on digitalization. ...
Conference Paper
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In the new global digital economy, a holistic view of digitalization has become central for all non-profit and for-profit institutions. Recent developments in digital initiatives have heightened the need to investigate holistic digitalization. This paper aims to develop a holistic view to digitalization consisting of several fundamental levels for strategically oriented digitalization. These include digital strategy, digital transformation of business models, and digital implementation. Each level consists of an approach including a procedure model and main content. Combined with our previous work, we applied semi-structured interviews to develop an initial, grounded theory for a holistic view to digitalization. The paper offers a relevant concept and outlines an appropriate research methodology to advance this research field. This closes an existing research gap regarding the holistic view to digitalization.
... Fruto da análise ao problema e da literatura, surgem as seguintes questões, por sua vez com origem em algumas lacunas de investigação devida e seguidamente identificadas. A investigação em empreendedorismo deve contribuir para a melhoria da sua prática, assim como desenvolver teoria com base em métodos empíricos (Bygrave, 2007 (Denzin, 1978), a qual tem paralelamente suscitado intensos debates sobre a sua adequação. Já nos anos 80 se afirmava que o investigador poderia enveredar por uma combinação de atributos associados a ambos os paradigmas metodológicos (Cook & Reichardt, 1986). ...
... Dentro dos modelos mistos, são definidos quatro tipos de integração -paralelo, sequencial, conversão e totalmente integrado -que têm a ver com o tipo de processo de implementação ao longo da implementação do estudo, sendo sugerido que sejam geradas perguntas de investigação específicas para ambas as abordagens -quantitativa e qualitativa (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009a A fase de análise de dados, seguindo uma estratégia de métodos mistos, envolve uma combinação de técnicas, como a triangulação e a conversão de dados. A triangulação consiste em combinações e comparações de múltiplas fontes de dados, procedimentos de recolha de dados, métodos, investigadores e inferências (Denzin, 1978). Já na conversão de dados, esta ocorre quando há uma chamada quantificação dos dados (Miles & Huberman, 1984), ou no caso quando se pretende converter dados qualitativos em números. ...
Thesis
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The aging of the population has fuelled the debate around current social and economic models. Senior entrepreneurship has gained political and scientific prominence, as an option for prolonging the active life of citizens. The objective of this work is to understand which factors influence the process of choosing entrepreneurship in people over 50 years old. It was intended to acknowledge the motivations, and the conditions associated with the process, including aspects such as career history, the way of doing business and the context. The data, collected through an on-line survey and interviews with a group of senior entrepreneurs in Portugal, revealed that intrinsic factors (pull) are more important than extrinsic in this process. The search for personal satisfaction, the sense of social responsibility, and the desire to create, are the motivational ‘drivers’ of senior entrepreneurs that hence discover a new purpose in life. The experience in large organizations proved to be preponderant for the acquisition of skills and a culture of permanent challenge, that are determinant for an entrepreneurial transition, as well as human capital revealed its importance for reducing risk and generating opportunities. Overall, senior entrepreneurs have high levels of self-confidence and focus, expectations for growth, and a willingness to adopt new technologies in their businesses, as well as a strong ethical sense. The influence of networks for company growth was confirmed. There is, therefore, evidence that at least a fraction of older entrepreneurs can make an important contribution to the economy.
... The measurement of selfregulated learning is an important area of research and due to the complexity of this research field, the types of assessment methods are diverse (Panadero, Klug, & Järvelä, 2016;Roth et al., 2016). Denzin (1978) has likened self-regulated learning methods to a kaleidoscope; depending on how they are approached, held, and acted toward, different observations will be revealed. ...
... As Denzin (1978) states, has self-regulated learning methods are like a kaleidoscope; ...
Thesis
Taking the form of a portfolio of papers written across my six-year research journey, this professional doctoral thesis presents the findings of a discipline-independent curriculum intervention designed to improve students’ self-regulated learning skills. The study also examines the relationship between students’ self-regulated learning skills and their academic achievement. Research suggests that discipline-independent training interventions improve students’ self-regulated learning skills, also having a major impact on students’ academic achievement across childhood and adolescence. Founded on Zimmerman's (2000) cyclic model of self-regulated learning, the 10-week discipline-independent intervention underpinning this research was designed and implemented to support the development of Year 9 (13-14 year old) students’ self-regulated learning skills. Following a pre-test post-test non-equivalent group design, participants were divided into two groups by way of purposeful sampling, with each group receiving the training intervention consecutively during the academic year 2017/18. Data was collected at three timepoints (before the start of Phase 1, at the end of Phase 1, and at the end of Phase 2) using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and an original and tailored instrument created specifically for this research; the Self-Regulated Learning Experimental Design Survey (SRLEDS). Forming a significant contribution to the field, this instrument was validated using the MSLQ. Results show that although students’ self-regulated learning skills and academic achievement improved across timepoint, there were not any significant differences between group and nor did students’ self-regulated learning skills predict their level of academic achievement. In light of this, the discussion focuses on providing context to these results, exploring local changes within the research setting that account for the findings before outlining the implications of this study for both research and practice. In addition to the development and validation of the SRLEDS, this study also contributes to the fields of research and practice by offering a critical reflection on the challenges of using control groups within a live school research setting. In response to this, an alternative research design is proposed as well as a range of future research directions, with implications for practice highlighted and discussed.
... Apart from generating an etic and emic perspective on the given context -desirable for qualitative research (Olive, 2014)applying triangulation is believed to counterbalance flaws inherent in one method by the strengths of another (e.g. Denzin, 1970, Jack & Raturi, 2006, Mathison, 1988, Thurmond, 2001. ...
... Dabei handelt es sich um den Einsatz von mehr als einer Datenerhebungsmethode, um die Ergebnisse zu legitimieren und das Verständnis der mittels Eye-Tracking erhobenen quantitativen Ergebnisse zu festigen, wenn eine konkrete Forschungsfrage untersucht wird (vgl. Denzin, 1973). Häufig werden die Eye-Tracking Daten dabei mit einem Fragebogen, Interviews oder der Methode Lautes Denken kombiniert (vgl. ...
... The data in this study are described descriptively. The analysis used in this study is qualitative analysis, using data triangulation firstly coined by Denzin [29], and elaborated by Noble and Heale [30]. ...
Mining, along with plantations, is one of the main economic backbones of the Indonesian provinces of Kalimantan. The main concern of extractive economics is deforestation and environmental damage that threatens natural sustainability. Most of the previous research focused on the issue of environmental sustainability in the industrial context and regional spatial planning. To fill this void, this study originally aims to analyze how local wisdom is useful in managing ex-mining reclamation practices. This research was conducted in Margahayu, Kutai Kertanegara, East Kalimantan Province. The method used in this research is empirical legal research by adopting a data-based approach. The results show that ex-mining reclamation in Margahayu aims to restore the land use according to its function and is beneficial for agriculture and small-scale plantations. The findings underline that the participation of local communities is very useful in restoring the function of the ex-mining land, due to their interest in rehabilitating spatial planning and ecological supports that are useful for their livelihoods. In this context, this finding requires inclusion of local interest-based participation as an important social infrastructure in reforestation and mine land reclamation in Kalimantan.
... To ensure a high level of validity of the results (Denzin, 1970), we applied triangulation by gaining data from several sources. First, we applied the didactic concept for holistic digitalisation in 3 separate lectures and in 14 separate teams applying case-based learning. ...
Conference Paper
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A holistic view on digitalisation is relevant in most areas of society today and, thus, is a relevant topic in higher education. Holistic digitalisation consists of digital strategy, digital transformation, digital implementation, and digital maturity. Considering future skills of students, competencies such as approaching complex challenges, critical thinking and problem solving, creativity, communication, and collaboration are essential. In addition, practical skills of students are increasingly relevant to companies. This paper aims to present an integrated didactic concept based on action learning and following several steps. Our research is based on our previous work on holistic digitalisation. We also provide an example for one module with a theoretical basis, an example, the task, and results generated by the application. The paper outlines an appropriate research methodology to advance this research field. The insights are relevant for lecturers and trainers. This closes an existing research gap regarding the application of holistic digitalisation in higher education.
... We have further triangulated the observations for reliability (Denzin 1975;Rock 2001;Tiainen & Koivunen 2006), with our own informal experiences and multiple data sources such as: ...
Article
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COVID19 forced most education institutions to move their education provisions to digital platforms almost overnight to ensure continued learning for students. Variable factors relating to educational technologies, ease of use, accessibility and funding meant the process was more challenging for some than others. However even the most agile and well-prepared educational institutions faced a hurdle during remote learning when it came to integrity in assessing students online. This article tracks the efforts by one western university in a Middle Eastern country, tracing back the systemic changes, evolution of policies and procedures that culminated into a campus-wide response that helped redesign assessments, increased awareness among faculty towards recognising and reporting cases, and the implementation of integrity pledges. It is believed this article presents a well-rounded case study as a good practice guide for other tertiary institutions on the importance of building a culture of integrity prior to any crisis, that can help whether such situations need to arrive in the future.
... With data triangulation (Denzin, 1970), different methods can be used to investigate a certain domain of social reality from different viewpoints or angles, as Erzberger and Kelle (2003) put it. These viewpoints provide different pictures of that reality that might not validate each other but that might yield a fuller and more complete picture of the phenomenon concerned if brought together (Erzberger & Kelle, 2003). ...
Article
Background: We analysed illicit stimulant use in Finland by comparing three separate datasets collected at the same time. Methods: The data used were wastewater analysis (2014 and 2018), population-based drug surveys (2014 and 2018) and European Web Survey on Drugs (2018, Finnish data). Proportions, prevalence levels and trends of stimulant use as well as their consumption were measured. Factors associated with stimulant use were assessed for past-year stimulant or amphetamine use as an outcome measure in regression analyses. Results: Both population-based drug survey and wastewater data showed that stimulant use has increased in Finland between 2014 and 2018. Disadvantaged socio-demographic background and other substance use were associated with past-year stimulant use, with no geographical variation in Finland. The socio-demographics of those reporting amphetamine use differed between population-based drug survey and web survey. In the web survey, infrequent and occasional users of amphetamine were quite alike, whereas frequent users were more likely to be unemployed or use injection as the route of administration. Conclusion: Analysis of three different data revealed findings that would have been missed and conclusions that could not have been made by using only one dataset. Putting findings from different methods into dialogue raises new questions and opens new interpretations. This analysis emphasises the importance of the prevention of frequent use and associated harm, as well as the impact of versatile drug treatment and harm reduction services on it.
... This ensured triangulation, with complementarity of the different instruments and the data they generated. Denzin (1970Denzin ( , 2015 proposes four types of triangulation: data, investigator, theoretical and methodological. Primary qualitative data such as actor roles in the implementation of local plans and the enforcement of planning laws were collected through interviews. ...
Preprint
This paper examines the perspectives of multiple actors on increasing peri-urbanisation and the role of urban planning laws to promote well-planned urban areas. The paper is based on extensive desk-top review of recent urban planning laws in Ghana and interviews with planners, traditional authorities, and peri-urban developers in the peri-urban settlement of Abuakwa in the Greater Kumasi Metropolitan Spatial Area, and Adomako, peripheral to Sunyani. Findings of the paper showed that physical development was rapid but largely did not comply with applicable planning laws. The prescribed development controls stipulated in urban planning laws seemed to have failed to regulate physical development in the case study settlements. Implementation of development controls in the case study settlements remained a key challenge as interviewees with physical planning officials reported that interferences from 'powerful' people in society rendered them ineffective in the discharge of their functions prescribed by urban planning laws of the state. First, the paper highlights the central role of planning law to ensuring well planned areas. Second, the paper sheds light on the constraints of local planning authorities to enforce development controls.
... Although there is no agreement on the genesis of MMR, the promotion of the use of multiple quantitative methods in determining a psychological construct by Campbell and Fiske (1959) and the subsequent development of triangulation by proponents such as Denzin (1970) were the most important harbingers of mixed methods. The 'paradigm of choices' that rejected methodological dogmatism and acknowledged that research questions determine the different methods used in research strengthened the move towards the use of multimethods (Patton 1990). ...
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Orientation: In 2015, a study was conducted to explore the prevalence of mixed methods research (MMR) in the South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences (SAJEMS) between 2003 and 2011. This study builds upon that study to establish the extent to which the use of MMR has developed in SAJEMS. Research purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore and compare the levels of adoption of MMR in the present study to the one reported in the study of 2015. Motivation for the study: This study goes beyond the one of 2015 by exploring methodological transparency in the use of MMR by contributors to the Journal and answers the question: are we there yet? Research design, approach and method: The study analysed the methodology used by articles published in SAJEMS from 2012 to 2019. Content analysis was conducted on a total of 362 articles published in SAJEMS. Each of the nine articles identified as utilising MMR was analysed based on the indicators of use of MMR in the extant literature. Main findings: The findings show that studies neither stated the appropriateness of mixed methods nor specified the designs. Integration was done by a few articles in a limited way. The passing of 8 years has not brought about any difference in the results of the use of MMR in SAJEMS. The use of MMR remains underrepresented. It is evident that SAJEMS is not there yet. Practical/managerial implications: This article raises the need for methodological pluralism as an alternative to quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Contribution/value-add: Researchers are informed of the advantages of using MMR and incorporating the third methodological movement to obtain superior results.
... In sum, this study will take advantage of the above characteristics of qualitative observational research despite the disadvantages that "ethnographic research is time consuming, potentially expensive, and requires a well trained researcher" (Lauer & Asher 1988 Berkenkotter, et al. 1988;Bongartz & Schneider 2003;Kaste 2004). To get reliable and valid data by promoting triangulation, a multi-modal approach of data collection should be chosen rather than a single-mode method (refer to Denzin 1970;Simons 1982;Linclon & Cuba 1985;Merriam 1985;Hammersley 1992;Silverman 1993;Scheurich 1995;Cohen, et al. 2000;Brown & Rodgers 2002). ...
Thesis
p> The purpose of this study is to describe the second language learning experience of a young Korean-English learner living in the UK and attending primary school, but with very limited English ability at the start of the study (two months after her arrival). The study focused on the child’s home reading activities and play at home from a Vygotskian sociocultural perspective, exploring family scaffolding, motivation, learning opportunities, and appropriation of English as a second language (ESL) in developing her communicative competence. The study provides thick descriptions of the Korean child’s utterances in the informal context. The data used in the study include six different types of home reading and other six play activities, mother’s observational journal as a participant and researcher, the child’s English writing, and teacher interviews about her settlement in the classroom. The study documented family scaffolding practices for children’s ESL learning. Through home reading activities, the monolingual grandmother’s encouragement and questioning contributed to appropriation of vocabulary in both L1 and L2 via self-regulation. Mother’s instructional interactions activated the child’s ZPD and led to voluntary role-plays among siblings, which contributed to the children’s confidence in ESL use through mutual scaffolding. The children’s willingness to join in different types of play at home also fostered mutual scaffolding for English use and increased learning opportunities within their ZPD, as seen for example in imitation or self-regulatory private speech use. Play props served to promote communicative competence. Further research is recommended about ESL children in mainstream schools in the U.K. and their socialization process in mastering English. </p
... In the research, these methods helped to establish the real picture of strategy practice and strategic actors' contributions (Pettigrew, 1992) and provided more data on emerging concepts (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). At the same time, the combination of research methods can also be used to avoid single data source bias (Denzin, 1989;Eisenhardt, 1989), particularly where retrospective analysis is involved (Golden, 1992). Multiple sources also provide the valuable information needed to develop a relatively holistic picture of strategy as practice (Jick, 1979;Pettigrew, 1990). ...
Thesis
p>This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of middle managers’ roles in Chinese enterprises’ strategic change through the use of two related perspectives: the learning perspective and the power perspective. This understanding is particularly significant for managing successful strategic changes in Chinese enterprises, and for assisting Western enterprise to succeed in the Chinese market. In order to achieve the research aim, an interpretive paradigm (Burrell and Morgan, 1993; Easterby-Smith et al. 1991 and 2002) and a multiple case study method (Eisenhardt, 1989; Yin, 1994) were employed to guide the whole research process. Data were collected through interviews, observations and document studies in three Chinese enterprises over a period of more than 2 years. Miles and Huberman’s (1994) methods were used to analyse the qualitative data. The research revealed two roles, ‘strategists in the middle’ and ‘implementers’, played by middle managers in the three cases. Two theoretical models, a communication model and an interpretation model, were constructed to explain both roles. Finally, a ‘guanxi’-centred explanation network was developed to explain the differences in middle managers’ roles across cases. It was argued that middle managers could only become ‘strategists in the middle’ by actively exploring the interactions of knowledge and power. Formal and informal communication was widely employed by ‘strategists in the middle’. A trust and balanced ‘guanxi’ between middle mangers and senior managers was critical for middle managers to play a proactive role. These findings contribute to remedying the current lack of knowledge about middle managers’ roles in strategic change. They also enhance our insights into the relationship between organizational learning and power. Relevant implications for strategic change management are also provided for both Chinese enterprises and Western enterprises.</p
... ical Imagination, London: Prentice Hall· Denzin, N. (1970). The Research Act in Sociology: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Method, London: Butterworth. 105. Anderson, G. (1990). Fundamentals of Educational Research, Bristol: Falmer Press. 106. Cohen, L. & Manion, L. (2002). Μεθοδολογία εκπαιδευτικής έρευνας, σ. 321, Αθήνα: Μεταίχμιο.107.Denzin, N. (1970). The Research Act in Sociology: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Method, London: Butterworth. ...
... We resolved eligibility disagreements among the reviewers in Zoom meetings by presenting and discussing the rationales for the assigned classifications. This kind of researcher triangulation is essential to increase validity and decrease biases [27,28]. ...
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Background: The increase of forcibly displaced people worldwide is a challenge for health systems and their ability to provide access and equity in Health as a universal right. In the case of migrants and refugees, their journey exacerbates this challenge, as they go through diverse countries, camps, and humanitarian teams. Hence, the collection and analysis of health data are essential in providing quality care. The scientific community has been studying health digital technologies to answer health data consolidation, transparency, and global surveillance efficiency issues. Observing some empirical experiments with Blockchain in migrants and refugee health, we assessed the state-of-the-art by conducting a literature review. Methods: Blockchain applications are still emerging, which means that peer-reviewed literature may still be scarce in life science databases. Therefore, to gather the most appropriate available evidence, we used a diverse and balanced set of databases that compile articles and journals from different fields. We used a multi-step scoping review to refine search keywords and analyse the literature. We included studies between 2008 and 2021 that reported value, utility, or use cases of Blockchain in support of migrant and refugee health. Results: We identified a total of 69 articles, with 22 retained for full-text analysis and 8 of those being relevant. We employed Rayyan application to manage and evaluate the references by two researchers working independently. We identified two main uses of Blockchain technology to support migrant and refugee health: mitigate the lack of personal identification and make health records available. Blockchain also promotes data reliability in humanitarian aid, academic certificates, legal contracts, and financial transactions. Conclusions: The availability of reliable information about individuals facilitates universal health coverage, improves cooperation between diaspora-related countries, and supports global health efficiency in line with the third goal of the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 agenda. Given its characteristics of decentralization, resilience, transparency, and auditability, Blockchain remains a promising avenue for future research in migrant and refugee health.
... Secondly, on many occasions the approach to a research topic must be polyhedral. This is the foundation of methodological principles such as triangulation, which DENZIN (1970, apud HERREROS MARCILLA, 2020 68) defines as "the combination of two or more theories, data sources, research methods, in the study of a singular phenomenon". The starting point is that studies that use a single methodological strategy are more vulnerable to bias, so triangulation offers the alternative of approaching a certain phenomenon from different angles in search of a more objective point of view. ...
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This paper investigates the various sources that can serve as a starting point for the study of anthroponomastic processes. We examine two types of resources for this kind of research. On the one hand, we can access more or less established repertoires, as is the case of the database provided by public institutions in different countries (censuses, registers, statistical agencies, among others), whose purpose as a public service is open and multifunctional. On the other hand, this list can be complemented by other compilations of very different origin and purpose that can be used in a subsidiary manner. These corpora are mostly compiled by the onomastics researcher himself, who uses tools such as interviews, surveys or other mechanisms from which onomastic catalogues can be established, as well as gathering other relevant information in the processes that take place to determine the impact of certain parameters in the attribution processes, specifically in that which affects personal names.
... In other words, it is this equivalence of meaning that generates the same questions in the same order with every respondent, which indicates the differences can only exist in the answers. This helped the researcher to standardise the semi-structured interview and facilitate comparability, which ensures reliability and validity for this study (Denzin, 1989;Smith, 1975). ...
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Existing research posits that there are tensions in addressing divergent sustainability issues which need to be managed and embraced by firms. However, if these tensions cannot be addressed adequately, it will not only have negative impacts on individuals' interests but also on the development of organisations and ultimately the prosperity of the society, ultimately resulting in unethical consequences. Hence, this paper empirically examines tensions in addressing divergent sustainability issues and how to manage them between Chinese and New Zealand firms in business partnerships. Guided by an interpretivist philosophy, this research adopts a qualitative and abductive approach as the preferred research method. In doing so, 33 in‐depth individual interviews alongside one informal group discussion were carried out at 16 relatively large Chinese and New Zealand firms known for their commitment to sustainability that are in business partnerships. Interestingly, we find that these companies are faced with complex and multiple sustainability tensions. In order to better manage these tensions, we found that these firms adopt integrative approaches with opening, surfacing, collaborative and synergistic strategies which can help these companies to enhance their organisational ambidexterity.
... This involved iterative coding to further validate the focus group and interview findings (Cross and Gilly, 2017). Document analysis is typically used in combination with other qualitative methods to explore the same phenomenon and to triangulate themes from other data sources (Denzin, 1970). The relevant visitor book comments were recorded in an Excel spreadsheet for analysis. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to elucidate the value creation process within a culturally diversified museum (CDM), which aims to achieve social inclusion, i.e. bridging the social divide between mainstream and minority communities, through the integration of CDM’s and visitors’ resources. Using service logic (SL) theory as the theoretical lens, we aim to unveil the CDM’s unique service provider and customer (visitor) resources, the corresponding resource integration process that explains value co-creation and co-destruction and the resultant value outcomes for social inclusion. Design/methodology/approach A case study of an Australian CDM is used, involving various qualitative data sources, including depth interviews, focus groups, visitor book content analysis, on-site observation and participation in the CDM’s events and forums. Findings The findings provide insights into the unique CDM and visitor resources that are integrated to achieve value outcomes that foster social inclusion. However, the results suggest that alongside value co-creation, co-destruction can unfold, causing a (mis)alignment with the aim of the CDM to bridge the social divide between mainstream and minority communities. Practical implications This study’s findings offer salient implications for CDMs and similar service providers that enables social inclusion and policymakers. Originality/value This study contributes to the service domain by highlighting the importance of the alignment between provider and customer resources to co-create value within a culturally diversified context. That is, CDMs can learn from the misalignment of their resources and those of their visitors to improve their resource offerings and achieve greater social inclusion outcomes in the future.
... As suggested by Denzin (2009), to ensure the validity and reliability of a study, a special emphasis should be put on the triangulation of data sources and methodologieswhich means that two or more research methods should be used to examine certain aspects. Following this recommendation, to examine vocabulary acquisition among research participants, two instruments, i.e., vocabulary test (for testing participants՚ declarative knowledge) and speaking test (for testing participants՚ procedural knowledge) were used. ...
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This book focuses on the topic of positive emotions in the context of foreign language learning. The main objective of this publication is to offer an overview of both theoretical knowledge and research findings from the field of general psychology, positive psychology, and neuroscience, and to present and apply them in the educational context. This work is divided into two main parts. The first part deals with emotions as such, their definitions, classifications, as well as with the emotion-cognition relationship. Furthermore, several neuroscientific, psychological, and cognitive concepts are discussed in this context. In addition, teaching approaches and memory aids, which are especially beneficial in terms of enhancement of memory, retention, and recall of the information, are discussed from the didactic point of view in the context of foreign language vocabulary learning. The second part of this publication presents the research conducted by the authors. The experimental research strategy was of mixed quantitative-qualitative nature and its main objective was to find out whether the positive emotional stimuli increase the retention of the new foreign language vocabulary. Moreover, in the beginning and in the end of the experiment, the emotional status of research participants and their autonomic stress responses were monitored. The quantitative research data, together with the research participants’ reflections of the learning process and the implemented positive emotional stimuli, are presented and discussed with regard to the theoretical concepts presented in the first part of this publication. With regard to the emotion-cognition relationship, in the course of the reading of this book, the reader will get not only an overview of research done in the field of general psychology, positive psychology, neuroscience, and education, but will be also presented a number of recommendations for pedagogical practice – with regard to foreign language education and education as such. We hope that this publication will enrich every reader and shed light on the previously unknown areas in the foreign language pedagogy.
... Se utilizó la triangulación metodológica (Denzin, 1970), la cual consiste en aplicar al menos dos métodos, usualmente cualitativos y cuantitativos, con el objetivo de dimensionar el mismo problema de investigación permitiendo obtener una perspectiva más amplia en cuanto a la interpretación del tema en estudio (Morse, 1991;Benavides & Gómez-Restrepo, 2005). ...
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Grasshoppers are among the dominant insects in most grassland systems. These insects’ communities tend to exhibit temporal variations in the distribution and abundance of their species, and during outbreak years cause important economic loss in both implanted pastures and crops. In the study area, Laprida county, as well as in other areas of Buenos Aires province, this pest problem has been recognized since last century. The aim of this study was to analyze the pest management of grasshoppers made by farmers and related institutions in Laprida using both qualitative (interviews and documentary observation) and quantitative methods (surveys). About 80% of surveyed farmers considered that grasshoppers are the main pest in the region, and 60% of them apply chemical insecticides against this pest, mainly on crops. Besides, only 12.8% of surveyed farmers are aware of nonchemical alternatives for pest control, such us biological control and natural enemies. Most of the interviewed farmers acknowledged the importance of preventive management through systematic grasshopper monitoring and spot treatments in risky areas. Additionally, farmers showed interest in the implementation of more environmentally-safer strategies such as biological control.
... As such, the methodological approach goes beyond a mere triangulation of findings (Denzin, 1970;Nielsen et al., 2020) as it combines methods to illuminate different aspects of our conceptual framework. ...
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Socio-technical regimes are potentially global sets of highly institutionalized rationalities that have co-evolved with actors, technologies and institutions. Transition studies features an extensive focus on regimes dynamics within specific territorial contexts. However, we know surprisingly little of how regime rationalities are constructed, diffused and reproduced across geographical contexts. This is a key gap in the literature on the geography of sustainability transitions, in explaining why transitions happen in some places and not in others. This paper introduces a conceptual model to analyze transformative opportunities in regions and how regime actors strategically diffuse and implement regime solutions through combinations of discursive-and system building activities. The empirical analysis draws upon a combination of Socio-Technical Configuration Analysis (STCA) of 354 newspaper articles and 10 in-depth interviews to illuminate how regime actors prevailed in diffusing and legitimizing the water sector's dominant socio-technical configuration in San Diego during a period of substantial transformation pressure.
... Nach Lucius-Hoene und Deppermann gilt die Analysegruppe als "unverzichtbare Ressource" (2002: 322) im Prozess der rekonstruktiven Analyse qualitativer Interviews. Sie ermöglicht in Anlehnung an Denzin (1970) eine "Forscher/innen-Triangulation" (Kruse 2014: 569) im Sinne einer kollegialen Validierung von Interpretationsansätzen durch die Einbindung verschiedener subjektiver Perspektiven. So entgehe man der Gefahr, "sich in selbstbestätigenden Leseroutinen zu verlieren, die jedoch in einem gemeinsamen Analyseprozess aufgedeckt und refokussiert werden können" (ebd.). ...
... Although there were very few refusals, a number of interviews were brief as interlocutors were hesitant to disclose what they feared might be politically compromising information. Semi-structured interviews were propelled by a topic guide, encouraging expression of subjective experience while guaranteeing that all respondents were exposed to the same questions, thus enabling comparisons among responses (Denzin 1970). Questions covered topics including: motivation to commemorate/or abstain from commemoration at local public/collective sites of memory in past and future; alternative forms of domestic or religious commemoration of the familial and collective genocide dead; religious, cosmological or spiritual values and beliefs that shape interpretations of the Genocide; perception of and involvement in global/local NGOs, traditional/ EW therapeutic practices or transitional justice apparatus. ...
Article
Problematising the vernacularisation of key mechanisms in post-conflict Human Rights (HR) regimes, ethnographic interviews with Cambodian interlocutors present resistance to victim-perpetrator outreach and reconciliation, truth telling, and memorialisation. Resistance stems from the incommensurability between Buddhist present and future-focused perspectives and Euro Western (EW) past-focused memory work so central to the above mechanisms of post-conflict reconciliation. The vernacularisation of EW memory work is not only perceived as culturally incongruent, but appears to threaten a resurgence of genocide-related distress and strife that the HR regime hoped to assuage. Rather than calling for improved cultural competency of vernacularised memory work, accounts disclose the incommensurability of the taken for granted core EW mnemonic axiom (and scenario) that retrieval of the painful past and its public representation may somehow promote healing, rehabilitation and future conflict prevention. As common denominator embedded within multiple mechanisms of the HR model of conflict prevention, this axiom will be epistemically and historically contextualised in HR discourse on memorialisation. Implications will be considered for the future of globalised practices of memorialisation, conflict prevention and the HR regime sustaining axiomatic violence.
... To mitigate all of the aforementioned threats, we also utilized investigator, data source, and method triangulation (Denzin 1970;Cook and Campbell 1979;Jick 1979;Davison et al. 2004). Three different investigators collected the data from three different companies using interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, and participant observations. ...
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In today’s fast-paced world of rapid technological change, software development teams need to constantly revise their work practices. Not surprisingly, regular reflection on how to become more effective is perceived as one of the most important principles of Agile Software Development. Nevertheless, running an effective and enjoyable retrospective meeting is still a challenge in real environments. As reported by several studies, the Sprint Retrospective is an agile practice most likely to be implemented improperly or sacrificed when teams perform under pressure to deliver. To facilitate the implementation of the practice, some agile coaches have proposed to set up retrospective meetings in the form of retrospective games. However, there has been little research-based evidence to support the positive effects of retrospective games. Our aim is to investigate whether the adoption of retrospective games can improve retrospective meetings in general and lead to positive societal outcomes. In this paper, we report on an Action Research project in which we implemented six retrospective games in six Scrum teams that had experienced common retrospective problems. The received feedback indicates that the approach helped the teams to mitigate many of the “accidental difficulties” pertaining to the Sprint Retrospective, such as lack of structure, dullness, too many complaints, or unequal participation and made the meetings more productive to some degree. Moreover, depending on their individual preferences, different participants perceived different games as having a positive impact on their communication, motivation-and-involvement, and/or creativity, even though there were others, less numerous, who had an opposite view. The advantages and disadvantages of each game as well as eight lessons learned are presented in the paper.
... Los principios éticos se observaron desde el inicio del estudio, cuidándose especialmente la protección, confidencialidad, respeto y equidad sobre los participantes, la recogida de información, el análisis de datos, las entrevistas y cuestionario, bajo la condición y aceptación del consentimiento informado de los participantes. Junto a ello, esta investigación parte de los criterios de calidad en función de la credibilidad, transferibilidad, dependencia y confirmabilidad del estudio (Guba, 1989;Stake, 2010;Taylor & Bogdan, 1986), mediante la triangulación de datos extraída (Denzin, 1970) de todos los documentos, técnicas y fuentes. Se realizó un análisis del contenido en base a la codificación de datos de forma secuencial, comenzando con una codificación abierta, para pasar a la codificación axial y finalmente selectiva sobre el objeto de análisis (Sabariego et al., 2014;Strauss & Corbin 2002). ...
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This study analyzes how students with special educational needs can improve their social skills through better learning when working with the cooperative learning methodology in the classroom. The research was carried out as part of the Online Cooperative Learning Expert training program at the University of Alcalá, in Spain. The methodology used was qualitative based on a case study design developed over 6 years (2011 to 2017). The participants were 176 teachers from Spanish educational centers who met the requirements. The actions carried out involved a total of 3,964 students, of which 406 had some type of specific need. The results reflect the influence on the social skills of the students with needs when working with the cooperative learning methodology. It is concluded that for the improvement of the social skills of students with needs, it is necessary for the teacher to make use of actions that promote the social skills of these students through cooperative learning and diversified proposals, planned and adjusted to their specific needs, giving them the opportunity to work together with their peers. KEYWORDS Cooperative learning; Inclusive education; Teacher training; Social skills; Student with special needs
... The study employed "mixed methods," i.e., quantitative and qualitative methods were used to verify the research problem ( The triangulation of research methods allowed for a multidimensional view of the problem under study and the elimination of potential errors of individual methods (Denzin 1978;Kostera 2010). Such an approach is used in the fields of management and quality sciences and psychology, as exemplified precisely by the implementation of a psychological questionnaire (quantitative method) followed by in-depth interviews (qualitative method) with the study participants, which allows for an in-depth understanding of the process generating the results obtained (Kawalec 2014;Jick 1979). ...
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The aim of the article is to explore the field of prison management based on pilot studies carried out among the heads of selected prisons. The subject of the research is management styles and personality aspects of top-level managers in prisons, important in the context of efficient professional functioning. The authors conducted an interdisciplinary study using research tools and techniques applied to management sciences, legal sciences, and psychology, using in-depth interviews, the Bochum Inventory of Personality Determinants of Work by Rudiger Hossiep and Michael Paschen (BIP), elements of observation, and desk research. The greatest differences between the respondents were obtained in the areas of Social Sensitivity, Openness to Relationships, and Sociability, while the most consistent results were observed in the area of Assertiveness. It has been observed that most heads try to depart from the autocratic style of management towards a humanistic one, oriented at building interpersonal relations.
... Following the idea of triangulation, we combined several methods of data collection (Denzin, 1970). In order to map the local governance contexts, we conducted desk research and document analysis. ...
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The recent literature on intermediaries in urban sustainability transitions has studied their role as a translator between innovative niches and incumbent regimes. In urban sustainability transitions, intermediaries from both civil society and public institutions seek to bridge diverging world views and communicate innovative lessons learned back to the incumbent regime. How these intermediaries are embedded in local governance contexts and how the political dynamics inherent to urban sustainability transitions play out remains a research gap. As these transitions require political consensus-building, we explore the interaction between Transition Town Initiatives (TTIs) as niche intermediaries seeking to transform society from below, and regime-based transition intermediaries operating from above. In a comparative study of four German cities, we analyse why and how niche and regime intermediaries build partnerships for urban transitions towards sustainability. While Transition Town Hannover and Bluepingu in Nuremberg have successfully established partnerships with the municipalities, Transition Town Göttingen and Transition Town Kassel have struggled in their efforts to do so. These differences can be explained by the interactions between structural conditions, political priorities and institution-building, as well as the proficiency of transition intermediaries.
... Nachdem der Ansatz der Triangulation, welcher ursprünglich aus der Landvermessung stammt, durch die Arbeiten von Campbell und Fiske (1959) sowie Webb et al. (1966) in die Methodendiskussion eingeführt wurde, erhielt die Diskussion durch die Arbeiten von Denzin (1970) größere Aufmerksamkeit (Flick, 2010(Flick, , 2011 (Conley et al., 2004) 26 ...
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Im Bereich der Wissenschaftskommunikation sind mittlerweile zahlreiche Initiativen und Angebote zur Förderung eines Dialogs zwischen Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft entstanden. Dennoch gibt es bislang nur wenige empirische Studien, welche die einzelnen Formate hinsichtlich ihrer Effektivität evaluiert haben. Aus diesem Grund wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit exemplarisch das Format des Schülerlabors untersucht. Das Vorhaben verteilt sich auf die Schwerpunkte Entwicklung und Forschung. Es wurde ein Angebot für das Schülerlabor zu den aktuellen biomedizinischen Forschungsthemen Antibiotikaresistenz und Mukoviszidose konzipiert, welches Lernenden authentische Einblicke in aktuelle biomedizinische Forschung ermöglicht. Das entwickelte Angebot wurde anschließend in einer Interventionsstudie untersucht, wobei der Forschungsfokus auf den epistemischen Überzeugungen der Lernenden in Bezug zur Biomedizin lag. Aufgrund des komplexen Charakters des Konstrukts wurden eine Kombination quantitativer und qualitativer Methoden und ein personenzentrierter Analyseansatz verwendet. Die Ergebnisse der Arbeit zeigen, dass sowohl der kombinierte Einsatz quantitativer (Fragebögen) und qualitativer Methoden (Concept Cartoons und Gruppendiskussionen) zur Erfassung epistemischer Überzeugungen, als auch die Anwendung des personenzentrierten Ansatzes (latente Profil- und Transitionsanalyse) tiefgehende Einblicke in das Konstrukt und die Veränderungsprozesse gewähren. So ermöglicht es der Einsatz von Concept Cartoons, auch abwägende Haltungen von Lernenden zu erfassen. Die Anwendung des personenzentrierten Ansatzes erlaubt des Weiteren eine Identifizierung von Sub- und Risikogruppen, für die in Zukunft entsprechend geeignete Instruktions- und Unterstützungsmaßnahmen konzipiert werden können. Die Untersuchung von Veränderungsprozessen mittels der latenten Transitionsanalyse stellt eine Erweiterung bisheriger Interventionsstudien dar und ermöglicht eine Betrachtung individueller Veränderungsprozesse in größeren Stichproben. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse sind für das (außer)schulische Lernen und die Wissenschaftskommunikation gleichermaßen relevant, um insbesondere bei kontroversen wissenschaftlichen Themen vorhandene Vorstellungen zu naturwissenschaftlichem Wissen und zum Prozess der naturwissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisgewinnung einzubeziehen und eine zielgruppenadäquate Wissenschaftskommunikation zu ermöglichen. QUELLE: Kapitza, Martina (2020): Wissenschaftskommunikation im Schülerlabor: Eine Interventionsstudie zu epistemischen Überzeugungen über aktuelle biomedizinische Forschung. Online unter: https://macau.uni-kiel.de/receive/macau_mods_00001478.
... The survey questionnaire generated another information layer to triangulate the insights obtained through individual presentations, FGD and stakeholder interviews -the so called data triangulation (See Denzin, 1970). The survey contained 20 questions comprising 7 profile questions and 13 specific questions as per TORs of the evaluation ( Table 2). ...
Article
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On job training serves as one of the prime tools of staff capacity development and talent management in any public or corporate entity including the power sector distribution companies (DISCOs) in Pakistan. This DISCOs used this approach to train more than 400 officials at Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, hoping it to improve their performance in addressing Pakistan’s power sector crisis. This paper evaluates this capacity-building intervention by gathering the perceptions of trainees and top management to understand the ways this multi-level, integrated capacity-building program enhanced the professional quality of customer services. The question that emerges in backdrop of such initiatives is whether this and other similar investments in human resource development (through effective, innovative and relevant teaching) can improve efficient services delivery. The paper presents a thematic analysis of qualitative and descriptive data collected from randomly selected participants and reviews their feedback on this question. The results suggest a thorough examination of the relationship between human development and organizational capacity-building with indicators of service quality in Pakistan's power sector. Keywords: Innovative teaching, Training, Capacity Building; Transmission and Distribution Efficiency; Power Management
... According to the typology of case study designs present by Robert Yin ( This study triangulated its methods of data generation (Denzin, 1989 ...
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Bangladesh has been part of the globalized ready made garment (RMG) industry since the early 1980s. In 2008-09 there were 4,825 RMG factories in Bangladesh employing 3.1 million people. This workforce included 2.38 million women and is an illustration of a globalization process termed the feminization of labour. Bangladesh's RMG industry has flourished because its workers are among the lowest paid garment workers in the world. This dissertation 1s a longitudinal case study of labour umons and labour movements in the RMG industry in Bangladesh between 1980 and 2009. The research and analysis are informed by insights from classical Marxist theory, world-systems theory, and Ronaldo Munck's influential "globalization and labour" thesis. In the early years of the RMG industry there was relatively little resistance by the workers to their abject exploitation. The reasons that workers failed to resist included the harsh tactics of factory owners who would terminate, sue or arrange to have local leaders assaulted by paid thugs or the state police; the failure of civil society organizations, with the exception of a few leftist unions, to support the workers' struggles; and the fact that the garment workers were 'first generation' rural migrants to the city who lacked any knowledge of workers' rights. In May 2006 there was a massive protest by RMG workers that secured a significant increase in the minimum wage and the first tripartite agreement in the industry's history. This victory for workers was partially undermined by unions that work collaboratively with the employers ' association. Nevertheless the May 2006 upsurge changed the terrain of struggle as evidenced by the 2007 concession that legalized labour unions organizing in the export producing zones. My conclusion is that until the state changes its elite-centered policy, until the owners change their feudal mindset and abide by the labour laws and ILO conventions, and until international labour organizations are free from any hidden, protectionist agendas, militant labour movements are the only way that Bangladesh's RMG workers will be able to successfully pursue their demands.
Chapter
Das Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es, einen integrierten Ansatz zur Messung und Verbesserung des digitalen Reifegrads zu entwickeln. Der integrierte Ansatz besteht aus drei grundlegenden Ebenen für eine strategie-orientierte Digitalisierung. Dazu gehören digitale Strategie, digitale Transformation und digitale Umsetzung. Der Ansatz besteht auch aus drei relevanten Schritten: einer initialen Analyse des digitalen Reifegrads, einer detaillierten Analyse und der Ableitung von Maßnahmen. Aufbauend auf unserer bisherigen Forschung (z. B. der Analyse von 25 Reifegradmodellen) haben wir semi-strukturierte Interviews eingesetzt, um einen Ansatz für die Messung des digitalen Reifegrads zu entwickeln. Der Beitrag bietet ein Ansatz zur Messung des digitalen Reifegrads und skizziert eine geeignete Forschungsmethodik, um diesen Forschungsbereich voranzubringen. Damit schließt sich eine bestehende Forschungslücke in Bezug auf die Messung und Verbesserung des digitalen Reifegrads.
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The aim of this research is to examine the metaphorical perceptions of the students of the faculty of sports sciences towards the concepts of play and physical activity. In the results of the analysis, metaphors for the concept of game consist of nine metaphors, namely, repressive activity, physical well-being, life phenomenon, social and emotional needs, academic development, psychological well-being, eating-drinking, past and nature, while metaphors for the concept of physical activity are the phenomenon of life, psychological well-being, physical well-being, recreational activity, health, nature, education, quality life, negative situation is seen in the form of work. As a result, as a result of the metaphorical perceptions of the students of the faculty of sports sciences towards the concepts of game and physical activity; Regarding the concept of game, the majority of the participants for the concept of recreational activity, physical well-being, vital phenomenon, social and emotional needs, academic development, psychological well-being, eating-drinking and physical activity as the past.
Chapter
Combining quantitative and qualitative data has been common in the study of families and the communities in which they live for nearly a century, beginning with Lynd and Lynd’s classic study of Middletown (1929) and Warner and colleagues’ study of Yankee City (Warner & Lunt, 1941) in the 1920s and 1930s. However, it is only in the past few decades that this approach gained sufficient momentum to be identified as a specific methodological approach with its own title. Even in those more recent decades, many studies of families that combined quantitative and qualitative data were not identified as “mixed methods” (cf. Carr, 2005; Cherlin & Furstenberg, 1986; Fowlkes, 1980; Newman, 2013; Suitor et al., 2018; Umberson, 1995).
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Common in the language classroom is that the ability to fluently and autonomously write is among the most valuable benefits students aim to gain from language study. Such an outcome, however, needs to be planned for in advance in language teaching rather than left to chance. Although teachers spend more time, efforts and energy, students still encounter difficulties when writing. This requires finding an innovative and practical strategy. This study provides a detailed account of the actual practices of writing from Algerian EFL teachers and, then, it examines the extent to which teaching rhetorical canons: invention, organization and style, can enhance EFL students’ writing performance. To attain these objectives, a blend of qualitative/quantitative methods was employed. First, an interview was administered to four (4) teachers, selected by means of purposive sampling, who teach writing at English Department at Kasdi Merbah University, chosen via purposive sampling. Second, writing test, distributed in two stages, was given to thirty (30) second year students, chosen via convenience sampling, at the same department. The aim of writing test was to quantitatively measure the students’ writing performance at content, organization and style levels. The qualitative analysis of the data gathered through interview show that both teachers and students encounter difficulties when approaching writing. Concerning writing test, the results obtained from pre-test were compared to the results attained from the post-test. This comparison confirms that teaching rhetorical canons can enhance EFL students’ writing performance. The research findings suggest a reconsideration of the rhetorical canons in writing class.
Article
Given the growth of Latinx populations and the increasing significance of creating more inclusive higher education environments, it is vital to explore the importance of how Latinx bilingual faculty develop and teach transcultural content. The present research was a qualitative case study based on interviews with three Latina faculty at a newly designated Hispanic Service Institute University in the Northeast of the U.S. Via thematic analysis, findings revealed a range of processes related to creating safe spaces for both students and faculty, along with developing a class centered on the co-creation of knowledge. In particular, three Latina faculty described the challenges and opportunities of developing a bilingual and transcultural curriculum. This description may help other minoritized faculty members to propose new classes designed and delivered in a bilingual way to enhance the students’ educational experiences in higher education. Implications for minoritized faculty developing similar curricula in higher education are addressed.
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Este trabajo indaga en las diversas fuentes que pueden servir de punto de partida para el estudio de los procesos antroponomásticos. Examinamos dos tipos de recursos para este tipo de investigaciones. Por una parte, podemos acceder a repertorios más o menos establecidos, como es el caso de la base de datos proporcionada por instituciones públicas en diferentes países (censos, padrones, organismos de carácter estadístico, entre otros), cuyo objetivo como servicio público es de carácter abierto y plurifuncional. Por otra parte, este elenco puede complementarse con otras compilaciones de muy diverso origen y cometido que pueden emplearse de manera subsidiaria. Se trata de corpus elaborados mayoritariamente por el propio investigador en onomástica, que recurre a herramientas como entrevistas, encuestas u otros mecanismos a partir de los cuales pueden establecerse catálogos onomásticos, así como hacer acopio de otra información relevante en los procesos que se suceden para determinar el impacto de determinados parámetros en los procesos de atribución, concretamente en la que afecta a los nombres de persona.
Chapter
There has been an abundance of research into teacher cognition in the field of teacher education since this line of research was put to limelight in the 1980a. This research activity has also been closely followed up in the field of language teacher education for three decades. Much research into how language teachers think about teaching language skills has also been carried out. The insightful findings have helped many teacher educators deepen their understanding of teacher thinking about how to teach the language skills. Despite this, teacher cognition about EFL writing has not been well researched, especially with regard to EFL teachers in China. The first chapter explains the research aims and rationale and describes the methodological approach. At the end of the chapter, an overview of the book is presented.
Book
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This book reviews 50 years of studies of familiar language, including formulaic expressions, lexical bundles, and collocations, providing a psycholinguistic and neurological model of familiar and novel language processing. This dual model proposes separate brain systems for familiar and novel language. Classification systems, definitions, myriad examples, and models are presented.
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Libya is a country which is trying to find its place in the international community. It has a mainly youthful population of about 5.6 million with a median age of 24.8 years and large numbers of young people are accessing university courses. This creates a demand for university places which is increasingly difficult to meet. The recent political changes in Libya have compounded these difficulties. This study investigates the challenges of teaching English in Libyan Higher Education as the country prepares its young people for living and working in a global environment where the English language is predominant. The investigation finds that there is recognition of the importance of English, but the level of language skills of students entering university is well below an acceptable standard, and both teachers and students advocate an early start for learning English in schools. Within the universities the curriculum is not consistent and leads to graduates in English having a limited command of the language. Some evidence suggests that students are not motivated to study English and often choose the programme simply as a means of guaranteeing them a job in the future, or because it is at the most convenient location for them. There is a lack of resources and facilities, with large classes and few rooms for teaching, limited internet and communication technology, and little access to libraries. Teachers are not prepared well for their teaching roles nor supported with development activities, and there are few opportunities for teachers or students to practise their English. The thesis makes a number of recommendations including running summer schools in English speaking countries, online courses with native English speakers, and exchange programmes where teachers can benefit from updating their methodology as well as their language skills. Further recommendations are for the Ministry of Education to have overall control of the curriculum, and for the Libyan government to continue its building programme and prioritise access to technology. One year exchange programmes with English speaking countries would enable native English speakers to be available in all university English departments. It is also recommended that students are motivated by providing courses relevant to them, and that more workshops and activities such as competitions and monthly magazines written by students and teachers are used to encourage involvement. iii
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Thesis
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