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Essential oil constituents of somePiper species

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Abstract

The chemical compositions of essential oils of some Piper species were determined by capillary GC and capillary GC–MS. Elemol (11.5%) constituted the most abundant component of Piper nigrum leaf oil, β-Caryophyllene (13%) was the major constituent of P. attenuatum leaf oil, whereas β-cubebene (10%) was the major constituent of P. attenuatum berry oil. Cubebol (23.6%) was the major component of P. cubeba berry oil. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Martins et al. (1998) reported the most important constituents in P. nigrum essential oil as limonene, b-caryophyllene , sabinene and b-pinene. Elemol was identified as the most abundant constituent of P. nigrum leaf oil by Sumathykutty et al. (1999). Jirovetz et al. (2002 found germacrene-D, limonene, bpinene , a-pinene and b-ocimine as major constituents of black pepper. ...
... rry piperine., 2008). Menon et al. (2000 Menon et al. ( , 2002 Menon et al. ( , 2003) and Menon and Padmakumari (2005) demonstrated variability in volatile constituents in many popular black pepper cultivars. Utpala et al. (2008a) also showed presence of b-caryophyllene and nerolidol and absence of certain constituents in leaf samples of P. nigrum. Sumathykutty et al. (1999) reported elemol as the major constituent of leaf oil while in the present study germacrene-D also was found to be an important constituent of leaf oil. William et al. (2008) reported 43.5% germacrene-D in Talauma gloriensis P (Magnoliaceae) leaf essential oil. Reports are available indicating presence of germacrene-D in leaf oils of Mur ...
Article
The biochemical component which attribute pungency to black pepper (Piper nigrum) is mainly the alkaloid piperine, the aroma and flavour are attributed by components like α- and β-pinenes, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, camphene, etc. Our study revealed that the biochemical profile varies in the leaf and berries of black pepper. Total phenols, total starch, total carbohydrate and protein content from leaves and berries of selected 26 black pepper cultivars were evaluated. The concentration of oil, oleoresin, piperine and the essential oil constituents from both leaves and berries were also compared in these cultivars. Germacrene-D and elemol were found to be the major constituents of leaf oil. β-Caryophyllene was high in berries and it showed more variability in berries compared to leaf samples. Berry oil constituents namely, pinene, sabinene, myrcene and limonene were not detected in the leaf oil. Different leaf metabolites showed cumulative direct effect on berry constituents.
... The oleoresin showed ( Table 1) the presence of 32 components with cubebol as the major component along with significant amounts of β-cubebene (12.3%), germacrene-D (8.3%), α-copaene (6.2%), sabinene (5.8%) and a cubebol stereoisomer (5.6%). Although chemical studies on several piper species are extent (Srinivas and Madusudana, 1999;Tsukamoto et al., 2002;Singh et al., 2004) there is no much detailed investigation on Piper cubeba berry oil (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). Our results on the essential oil composition show some resemblance but also significant differences with the composition previously reported (Sumathykutty et al., 1999) which most likely are due to the unknown origin of the berries (cultivar, variety, etc.) which were purchased from local markets. ...
... Although chemical studies on several piper species are extent (Srinivas and Madusudana, 1999;Tsukamoto et al., 2002;Singh et al., 2004) there is no much detailed investigation on Piper cubeba berry oil (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). Our results on the essential oil composition show some resemblance but also significant differences with the composition previously reported (Sumathykutty et al., 1999) which most likely are due to the unknown origin of the berries (cultivar, variety, etc.) which were purchased from local markets. On the other hand, we found no reports on the chemical composition of tailed pepper acetone oleoresin. ...
Article
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The antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of hydrodistilled essential oil and oleoresin (obtained using acetone as a solvent) of tailed pepper were carried out by different techniques. The results obtained from antioxidant activity measurements of essential oil and oleoresin against mustard oil were measured for duration of 28 days in terms of peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, total carbonyl and p-anisidine values. The results obtained from butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was similar to both the oleoresin and essential oil. In addition, the inhibitory action in linoleic acid system was studied by monitoring accumulation of perox-ide concentration. The radical scavenging capacity of both essential oil and oleoresin on 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical were (71.2%) and (69.77%) respectively at 25 µL/mL. It was relatively lower in comparison with synthetic antioxidants (BHA-96.41%; BHT-95.91%). The results obtained from reducing power, chelating effect and hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was also supported the antioxidant of essential oil and oleoresin. The tailed pepper essential oil and oleoresin showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against Penicillium viridicatum at 3000 and 2000 ppm respectively in the poison food method. It is interesting to note that the essential oil revealed 100% clear zone inhibition against Aspergillus flavus at all tested concentrations. The chemical characterization of tailed pepper essential oil by GC and GC-MS resulted in the identification of 44 components accounting for 97.8% of the oil.
... The oleoresin showed ( Table 1) the presence of 32 components with cubebol as the major component along with significant amounts of β-cubebene (12.3%), germacrene-D (8.3%), α-copaene (6.2%), sabinene (5.8%) and a cubebol stereoisomer (5.6%). Although chemical studies on several piper species are extent (Srinivas and Madusudana, 1999;Tsukamoto et al., 2002;Singh et al., 2004) there is no much detailed investigation on Piper cubeba berry oil (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). Our results on the essential oil composition show some resemblance but also significant differences with the composition previously reported (Sumathykutty et al., 1999) which most likely are due to the unknown origin of the berries (cultivar, variety, etc.) which were purchased from local markets. ...
... Although chemical studies on several piper species are extent (Srinivas and Madusudana, 1999;Tsukamoto et al., 2002;Singh et al., 2004) there is no much detailed investigation on Piper cubeba berry oil (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). Our results on the essential oil composition show some resemblance but also significant differences with the composition previously reported (Sumathykutty et al., 1999) which most likely are due to the unknown origin of the berries (cultivar, variety, etc.) which were purchased from local markets. On the other hand, we found no reports on the chemical composition of tailed pepper acetone oleoresin. ...
Article
Full-text available
The antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of hydrodistilled essential oil and oleoresin (obtained using acetone as a solvent) of tailed pepper were carried out by different techniques. The results obtained from antioxidant activity measurements of essential oil and oleoresin against mustard oil were measured for duration of 28 days in terms of peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, total carbonyl and p-anisidine values. The results obtained from butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was similar to both the oleoresin and essential oil. In addition, the inhibitory action in linoleic acid system was studied by monitoring accumulation of peroxide concentration. The radical scavenging capacity of both essential oil and oleoresin on 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical were (71.2%) and (69.77%) respectively at 25 mu L/mL. It was relatively lower in comparison with synthetic antioxidants (BHA-96.41%; BHT-95.91%). The results obtained from reducing power, chelating effect and hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was also supported the antioxidant of essential oil and oleoresin. The tailed pepper essential oil and oleoresin showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against Penicillium viridicatum at 3000 and 2000 ppm respectively in the poison food method. It is interesting to note that the essential oil revealed 100% clear zone inhibition against Aspergillus flavus at all tested concentrations. The chemical characterization of tailed pepper essential oil by GC and GC-MS resulted in the identification of 44 components accounting for 97.8% of the oil.
... Le grain de poivre est de forme ronde (figure 2). Il peut être décomposé en trois parties : le mésocarpe (1,2,3,4), le péricarpe (mésocarpe + 5, 6) et la graine (7,8,9) proprement dite. (Pham, 2007). ...
... The genus Piper belongs to the family Piperaceae and comprises more than 700 species distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world [3]. Among this huge diversity, one species, Piper nigrum, represents the vast majority of the 435,000 t of pepper (Piper spp.) produced in the world in 2011 for a value of 900 M$ 1 . ...
Thesis
L’objectif de cette thèse était d’acquérir des connaissances nouvelles sur les caractéristiques des poivres sauvages malgaches (Tsiperifery) et réunionnais (Piper borbonense) et d’étudier l’impact des procédés de transformation sur leur qualité, évaluée à travers le piquant, l’arôme et la couleur. L’enjeu étant, grâce aux résultats obtenus, de pouvoir proposer un ou plusieurs procédés de transformation revisités permettant de valoriser la qualité de ces poivres. Ce travail de thèse a consisté dans un premier temps à étudier les procédés traditionnels de transformation du poivre sauvage mis en œuvre à Madagascar. Deux procédés de transformation distincts ont été identifiés: une « voie sèche » consistant en un simple séchage et une « voie humide » incluant blanchiment et étuvage avant séchage. Ensuite, des expérimentations ont été menées en conditions maîtrisées à la Réunion sur du poivre Piper borbonense. Ainsi, la morphologie, l’anatomie et la composition biochimique du poivre sauvage réunionnais ont été caractérisées. Enfin, dans la mesure où c’est la couleur, rouge, du poivre sauvage, qui est la plus affectée, les mécanismes impliqués dans l’altération de la couleur ont été analysés. Le Piper borbonense de la Réunion se distingue du Piper nigrum par sa très faible teneur en pipérine (0,2 % bs), sa forte teneur en huile essentielle (9,8 % bs), la présence d’un pédicelle solidaire du grain ainsi que par sa forme ovoïde. Il se différentie aussi des poivres sauvages malgaches, notamment par sa teneur en pipérine deux fois plus faible. Les composés d’arômes principaux mesurés sont le limonène, l’α-phellandrène et l’asaricin qui représentent à eux trois 50 % du total de l’huile essentielle. C’est à pleine maturité, lorsque le Piper borbonense est de couleur rouge vif, qu’il est préférable de le récolter pour maximiser le rendement massique. Le blanchiment, l’étuvage et le séchage ont peu d’impact sur le piquant et l’arôme mais dégradent significativement la couleur du poivre. Les oxydations chimiques des polyphénols qui semblent prépondérantes dans le brunissement du poivre s’avèrent délicates à contrôler. Le blanchiment présente de nombreux avantages : il nettoie et décontamine le poivre, augmente la vitesse du séchage et limite le brunissement enzymatique. L’étuvage est à bannir car il dégrade la couleur et augmente les risques microbiens. Le séchage par entrainement bien qu’il impacte négativement la couleur reste indispensable pour stabiliser le poivre. Plutôt qu’un procédé universel, une « voie sèche » (séchage direct) et une « voie humide » (intégrant blanchiment et séchage) sont proposées. Le choix d’en appliquer l’une ou l’autre est à raisonner par rapport à la qualité de la matière première d’une part et en fonction du contexte, c’est-à-dire selon des critères économiques, environnementaux voire même sociaux d’autre part.
... The leaves are considered aperitive, carminative and eupeptic. They are also used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, intestinal diseases and rheumatism (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). ...
... The leaves are considered aperitive, carminative and eupeptic. They are also used for the treatment of cough and bronchitis, (Martins et al., 1998) intestinal diseases and rheumatism (Sumathykutty et al., 1999;Saganuwana, 2009;Ogbole et al., 2010). The seeds and leaves are used as spices in various African dishes. ...
Article
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Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of Xylopia aethiopica, Aframomum melegueta and Piper guineense fruits were assayed against fourteen (14) microorganisms commonly associated with food poisoning and/or food spoilage. The microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis IAM1069, Bacillus cereus IFO 13494, Staphylococcus aureus FDA 209p, Escherichia coli NRIC 1023, Salmonella typhimurium IFO12529, Lactobacillus plantarum IAM 1041, Pediococcus acidilactici-M, Leuconostoc mesenteroides-M, Lactobacillus casei TISTR390, Saccharomyces cerevisiae OC-2, Hansenula anomala IFO 0140 (p), Pichia memb.IFO 0128, Penicillium funiclosum NBRC 6345 and Candida species. All the plant extracts exhibited selective antimicrobial activities on the test organisms. X. aethiopica extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity on the organisms with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50 ppm on Bacillus species and S. aureus. S. cerevisiae (MIC = 300 ppm), P. funiclosum NBRC 6345 and L. mesenteroides (MIC = 500 ppm) were also susceptible to X. aethiopica fruit extract but the MIC values for the other tested microorganisms were higher than 1000 ppm. This was followed by A. melegueta fruit extract with MIC of 100 ppm for B. cereus and S. aureus. Although P. guineense fruit extract inhibited the growth of B. cereus and S. aureus (MIC = 300 ppm); and B. subtilis (MIC = 1000), the MIC for the other microorganisms were higher than 5000 ppm. On the whole, all the plant extracts exhibited the least antimicrobial activities on Lactobacilli and fungi species. X. aethiopica fruit extract was used to preserve fresh orange juice. The ability of 100 and 1000 ppm extract to preserve the orange juice was significantly greater (p<0.05) than 50 ppm. The microbial concentration in orange juice containing 100 ppm of X. aethiopica extract was 4 cfu/mL after 28 days of storage at room temperature.
... Piper guineense (Piperaceae) P. guineense leaves are aperitifs, carminative, and eupeptic and are also used to treat cough, bronchitis, intestinal disorders, and rheumatism [61]. ...
Article
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Microbial infections till date remain a scourge of humanity due to lack of vaccine against some infections, emergence of drug resistant phenotypes, and the resurgence of infections amongst others. Continuous quest for novel therapeutic approaches remains imperative. Here we (i) assessed the effcts of extracts/hydrolates of some medicinal plants on pathogenic microorganisms and (ii) evaluated the inhibitory potential of the most active ones in combination with antibiotics. Extract E03 had the highest DZI (25 mm). Extracts E05 and E06 were active against all microorganisms tested. Th MICs and MBCs of the methanol extracts ranged from 16.667 × 103 𝜇/mL to 2 𝜇/mL and hydrolates from 0.028 to 333333 ppm. Extract E30 had the highest activity especially against S. saprophyticus (MIC of 6 ppm) and E. coli (MIC of 17 ppm). Combination with conventional antibiotics was shown to overcome resistance especially with E30. Analyses of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flvonoids, triterpenes, steroids, phenols, and saponins. Thse results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine and the practice of supplementing decoctions/concoctions with conventional antibiotics. Nauclea pobeguinii (E30), the most active and synergistic of all these extracts, and some hydrolates with antimicrobial activity need further exploration for the development of novel antimicrobials
... The major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons are β-elemene (7%) and β-cubebene (6%). The major monoterpene hydrocarbon is β-pinene (18%) [26]. However, we cannot conclude that our long chain hydrocarbons were an essential oil, because these were an unpurified fraction and need to be further purified to obtain the pure compound that has the anti-cancer activity. ...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a crude extract of Piper cubeba against normal and breast cancer cell lines. To prepare the extract, P. cubeba seeds were ground, soaked in methanol and dichloromethane and isolated by column chromatography. Fractions were tested for cytotoxicity effects on normal fibroblast (L929), normal breast (MCF-12A) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231). The most effective fraction was selected for DNA fragmentation assay to detect apoptotic activity. The results showed that the methanolic crude extract had a higher cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 than a dichloromethane crude extract. Then, the methanolic crude extract was separated into six fractions, designated A to F. Fraction C was highly active against breast cancer cell lines with an IC50 value less than 4 μg/mL. Therefore, Fraction C was further separated into seven fractions, CA to CG. The 1H-NMR profile showed that Fraction CE was long chain hydrocarbons. Moreover, Fraction CE demonstrated the highest activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 2.69 ± 0.09 μg/mL and lower cytotoxicity against normal fibroblast L929 cells with an IC50 value of 4.17 ± 0.77 μg/mL. Finally, DNA fragmentation with a ladder pattern characteristic of apoptosis was observed in MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231 and L929 cells, but not in MCF-12A cells.
... Other sesquiterpene hydrocarbons are αfarnesene, gamma -muurolene, β -elemene, β -caryophyllene and β -bisabolene. 15 ...
Article
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Medicinal plants are potential source of therapeutic aids and they have attained a significant role for both human and animals, not only in diseased conditions but also for maintaining health. The increasing interest in plants derived medicines is mainly due to the current widespread belief that "Green medicine" is safe while costly synthetic drugs have serious side effects. Various tropical and subtropical plant species had been used from ancient time and placed in the various system of medicine like Indian Ayurvedic system as a medicine. Piper attenuatum (B. Ham) an important Piper species mainly found in the southern regions of India. Caesalpinia crista (linn) of family Fabaceae is a moderately size deciduous tree, growing wild throughout the deciduous forest of India. They are popular in indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy. There are insufficient research about the mechanisms behind the medicinal action Piper attenuatum (B. Ham) & Caesalpinia crista (linn) but they have diverse pharmacological activities like antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant any many more are reported from various extracts of the plant. Piper attenuatum (B. Ham) contain alkaloids like Piperine and Piperlonguminine which are responsible for therapeutic efficacy while Caesalpinia crista (linn) has carbohydrates, alkaloids, Glycosides, tannins, flavonoids & Coumarins. The current article provides an updated review on recent advancement on Pharmacognosy, chemistry and pharmacological activities of Piper attenuatum (B. Ham) & Caesalpinia crista (linn).
... and gonorrhoea (Mensah et al., 2008;Sumathykutty et al., 1999), obstetrics and fertility enhancement in women (Mbongue et al., 2005;Udoh et al., 1999;Noumi et al., 1998), control of weight/obesity (Mba, 1994), the seeds as an aphrodisiac (Mbongue et al., 2005) and in the treatment of mental illness (Odugbemi, 2008). P. guineense found within the same species and geographical area has been reported to vary in their chemical composition, for example, Ekundayo et al. (1988) showed myristicin, safrole, sarisan and elemicin as main compounds; Oyedeji et al. (2005) reported β-pinene, α-pinene and germacrene-B as major components; Olonisakin et al. (2006) indicated β-pinene, D-Limonene, caryophyllene and car-3-ene as most abundant constituents, while Oboh et al. (2013) reported β-pinene, α-pinene, 1,8-cineole and γ-terpinene as the major components of the plant fruit essential oil from this Nigerian spp. ...
... The leaves are considered aperitive, carminative and eupeptic. They are also used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, intestinal diseases and rheumatism (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). ...
... The leaves are considered aperitive, carminative and eupeptic . They are also used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, intestinal diseases and rheumatism (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are organisms associated with the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals. ...
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The upsurge in the prevalence of side effects of many synthetic antimicrobial agents and incidence of multidrug resistant bacteria has spurred scientists on the research for plant based antimicrobial of therapeutic potentials. Ocimum gratissimum and Piper guineense present such potential of high medicinal value. These plants are used in Nigeria traditionally as condiments and for treatment of various ailments such as pyorrhea, dysentery and bronchitis. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of O. gratissimum and P. guineense leaves were screened for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts were found to exhibit selective inhibition against the isolates. The diameter zones of inhibition exhibited by the extracts were between 2 + 0.01 – 10 + 0.10 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined by the agar diffusion method was between 10.00 and 2.50 mg/ml-1. Ethanol extracts showed more inhibitory effect compared to the aqueous extracts. Results obtained show that the extracts of O. gratissimum and P. guineense possess some level of antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus.
... α-Pinene is an important component of Piper berry oil which was present only in P. sugandhi and P. longum. Sumathykutty et al. (1999) reported â-cubebene as the major constituent of P. attenuatum berry oil, which was present in P. chaba and P. hymenophyllum leaf oil. P. sugandhi and P. hymenophyllum were the two wild species of high altitude (e" 1000MSL) of Western Ghats. ...
Article
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Ten wild Piper species of Western Ghats were studied for leaf volatile oil constituents using GC/ MS. The total number of major components (≥ 1%) in different species varied from 5 to 10. The leaf oil was rich in sesquiterpenoids. The most abundant compounds in Piper leaf oil of Western Ghats were β - Caryophyllene, Nerolidol and β - Elemene. Different accessions of P. nigrum collected from different parts of Western Ghats were used to study the spatial diversity of aroma with the help of DIVA GIS. The results indicated that the latitudinal influence was strong in aroma diversity. Total number of components varied from 17 to 73, while the major components found were 10 in P. nigrum leaves. The diversity index of the total component was 2.87. Keywords: gas chromatography mass spectrum, geographic information system, Piper species, volatile oil
... The leaves are considered aperitive, carminative and eupeptic . They are also used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, intestinal diseases and rheumatism (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are organisms associated with the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals. ...
... The genus Piper has been an important source of secondary metabolites which have insecticidal activity (Boll et al. 1994). About 63 constituents could be identified from P. nigrum leaf oil (Sumathykutty et al. 1999). P. nigrum contains amides that have insecticidal potential, such as piperine, pipercide, guineensine, pellitorine, pipgulzarine and pipzorine (Siddique et al. 2004;2005;Park et al. 2002a). ...
Article
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The leaves of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) were evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the crude extracts contain 16 compounds. Thymol (20.77 %) and ç-elemene (10.42 %) were identified as the major constituents followed by cyclohexene, 4-ethenyl-4-methyl-3-(1-methylethenyl)-1-(1 methylethyl)-, (3R-trans) (7.58 %), 4,6-octadienoic acid, 2-acetyl-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (6.98), 2(3H)-furanone, 3,4-bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl) dihydro-, (3R-trans) (6.95 %), 1-naphthalenol, 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, [1R-(1à,4á,4aá,8aá)]-(Cedreanol) (5.30 %), trans-2-undecen-1-ol (4.48 %), phytol (4.22 %), 1,6-cyclodecadiene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-(1-methylethyl)-,[s-(E,E)] (3.78 %) and 2,6-dimethyl-3,5,7-octatriene-2-ol, Z,Z (2.39 %). Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The crude extract showed remarkable larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 34.97). The larvae of Ae. aegypti exposed to the P. nigrum, significantly reduced the activities of α- and β-carboxylesterases and superdioxide. Further, P. nigrum extract was severely affecting the mosquito gut cellular organelles. Based on the results, the chemical constituents of crude extracts of P. nigrum can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti.
... Many species of the genus Piper are used in traditional herbal medicine, arid have shown antifungal, insecticidal, anthelminthic and antitumor activities. They are also used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, intestinal diseases and rheumatism (3). A number of polyhydroxy cyclohexanes have been isolated from Piper cubeba and shown to display tumour inhibitory, antileukernic and antibiotic activities (4). ...
Article
The chemical composition of the essential oil of ripe berries (11.8% v/w) and leaves (0.9% v/w) of Piper cubeba L. fils. (Piperaceae) was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Sabinene (9.1%), β-elemene (9.4%), β-caryophyllene (3.1%), epi-cubebol (4.3%), and cubebol (5.6%) were the main components of the berry oil. trans-Sabinene hydrate (8.2%), β-caryophyllene (5.0%), epi-cubebol (4.2%), γ-cadinene (16.6%) and cubebol (4.8%) were the main components of the leaf oil. No large qualitative differences were found in the composition between berry and leaf oil, although the berries contained a considerable amount of constituents in traces (< 0.05%) that were not found in the leaves. The principal difference was of a quantitative nature.
... The leaves are considered aperitive, carminative and eupeptic . They are also used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, intestinal diseases and rheumatism (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are organisms associated with the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals. ...
Article
Full-text available
The upsurge in the prevalence of side effects of many synthetic antimicrobial agents and incidence of multidrug resistant bacteria has spurred scientists on the research for plant based antimicrobial of therapeutic potentials. Ocimum gratissimum and Piper guineense present such potential of high medicinal value. These plants are used in Nigeria traditionally as condiments and for treatment of various ailments such as pyorrhea, dysentery and bronchitis. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of O. gratissimum and P. guineense leaves were screened for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts were found to exhibit selective inhibition against the isolates. The diameter zones of inhibition exhibited by the extracts were between 2 + 0.01 – 10 + 0.10 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined by the agar diffusion method was between 10.00 and 2.50 mg/ml-1. Ethanol extracts showed more inhibitory effect compared to the aqueous extracts. Results obtained show that the extracts of O. gratissimum and P. guineense possess some level of antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus.
... Piper cubeba L. (Piperaceae), or tailed pepper, mostly grows in Java, Sumatra, and other islands of the Eastern India (Sumathykutty et al. 1999). This aromatic plant is cultivated for a number of different culinary purposes, having been used in the medicinal folk for the treatment of gonorrhea, dysentery, syphilis, abdominal pain, and asthma (Usia et al. 2005). ...
Article
In this paper, cercariae, schistosomula, and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms were incubated in vitro with the essential oil of Piper cubeba (PC-EO) at concentrations from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL, and the viability was evaluated using an inverted microscopy. The effects of PC-EO at 100 and 200 μg/mL on the stages of S. mansoni were similar to those of the positive control (PZQ at 12.5 μg/mL), with total absence of mobility after 120 h. However, at concentrations from 12.5 to 50 μg/mL, PC-EO caused a reduction in the viability of cercariae and schistosomula when compared with the negative control groups (RPMI 1640 or dechlorinated water) or (RPMI 1640 + 0.1% DMSO or dechlorinated water + 0.1% DMSO). On the other hand, adult S. mansoni worms remained normally active when incubated with PC-EO at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 μg/mL, and their viabilities were similar to those of the negative control groups. In addition, at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 μg/mL, separation of all the coupled adult worms was observed after 24 h of incubation, which is related to the fact of the reduction in egg production at this concentration. The main chemical constituents of PC-EO were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as being sabinene (19.99%), eucalyptol (11.87%), 4-terpineol (6.36%), β-pinene (5.81%), camphor (5.61%), and δ-3-carene (5.34%). The cytotoxicity of the PC-EO was determined, and a significant cytotoxicity was only obtained in the concentration of 200 μg/mL after 24 h treatment. The results suggest that PC-EO possesses an effect against cercariae, schistosomula, and adult worms of the S. mansoni.
... The genus Piper belongs to the family Piperaceae and comprises more than 700 species distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world [3]. Among this huge diversity, one species, Piper nigrum, represents the vast majority of the 435,000 t of pepper (Piper spp.) produced in the world in 2011 for a value of 900 M$ 1 . ...
Article
Introduction. A study on postharvest treatments of wild peppers was carried out in Madagascar with the aim of describing the local practices and measuring their impacts on the quality of the products. Materials and methods. Four distinct pepper production systems (PPS) were observed, described and compared in two separate areas in East Madagascar. Major quality characteristics (piperine and essential oil) of the peppercorns were assessed in samples collected in the four systems. Results and discussion. Two main postharvest processes (dry and wet) were identified. The wet process differed from the dry one in that it involved two specific operations, blanching and sweating. The processes influenced the color of the pepper. Piperine contents were not affected by any of the pepper production systems, whereas essential oil contents were reduced by up to 27% by the wet process. After processing, piperine contents were up to eight times lower, whereas essential oil contents were up to six times higher than the specifications of the standard ISO 959-1 for black pepper ready for commercialization. Conclusion. Two main processes (dry and wet) for treatment of peppercorns in Madagascar were identified and described. The dry process, with two steps less, appeared to be easier to implement and more respectful to the product. Improving maturity control and processing according to the quality expected by the markets will be necessary to promote Malagasy peppers.
... Studies have shown that apart from the use of these plants as spices and condiments, they have several other wide applications in the local treatment and management of many diseases. It provides oil used as aromatic in the drink industry and also medicinally (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). Okwu (2001) reported that phytochemical analyses of P. guineense showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, resins and essential oils. ...
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Chemical constituents of plants are influenced by environmental factors and fluctuations just as many other polygenic traits. Four different green leafy vegetables commonly used in the diets of South Eastern Nigeria were analyzed with a view to determine the phytochemicals, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of these ecotypes. The vegetables, of which three are spices, are scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum L.), fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis), amaranth globe (Gongronema latifolium Benth.) and ashanti pepper (Piper guineense Schumach. and Thonn.) leaves. The preliminary phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of the phytochemicals from trace amounts to strongly present. The quantitative tests showed that O. gratissimum had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) the highest tannin content of 1074.94±0.009 mg/100 g. Significant variations were observed in all the other phytochemicals except in alkaloid and phenol content. Proximate and antinutrient compositions showed significant variation in the different vegetables. T. occidentalis had highest values in ash (13.51%), crude fibre (33.52%), protein (25.49%) and phytate (8.58 mg/100 g) contents. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that the four leafy vegetables are readily available sources of nutrients and prove the extensive use of these vegetables in ethnomedicine; and their potential in drug formulation. Key words: Alkaloid, ethnomedicine, proximate, spice, vegetables.
... The genus Piper belongs to the family Piperaceae and comprises more than 700 species distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world [3]. Among this huge diversity, one species, Piper nigrum, represents the vast majority of the 435,000 t of pepper (Piper spp.) produced in the world in 2011 for a value of 900 M$ 1 . ...
... guineense leaves are aseptic in nature and have the ability to relieve flatulence. [32] They are also used for treating female infertility and low sperm count in male. [33] Vernonia amygdalina, commonly known as bitter leaf, is a shrub that grows up to 3 meters high in the African tropics and other parts of Africa, particularly, Nigeria, Cameroon and Zimbabwe. ...
... Ham) is an important Piper species which is much used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. [9] Piper attenuatum (B.Ham) known to contain phytochemical constituents like Alkaloids, Amides, Steroids which are responsible for its pharmacological activity. [10] Plant known to possess anti-microbial, anti-trypanosomal, anti-tumor activity. ...
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Diabetes mellitus is a common worldwide metabolic disorder due to decreased physical activity, increased stress, obesity and change in food consumption pattern. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weakness due to disturbance in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism and also associated with absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. In 2004, according to the world health organization reports, more than 150 million people throughout the world suffered from diabetes. Piper attenuatum (B. Ham.) can cure diabetes as mentioned in the literature survey of traditional Indian system of medicine but not proved scientifically so the aim of the present study is to determine the effect of Piper attenuatum (B.Ham.) on diabetes. In our study we induce diabetes in 2 days old rats by using streptozotocin. Ethanolic seed extract of plant was obtained by soxhlet extraction. The ethanolic extract contains active constituent like piperine, piperlonguminine etc. It may be possible that piperine and piperlonguminine causes anti-diabetic activity. Plant extract causes decrease in total serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides level, food and water intake and increase in body weight in different rat groups when compared to diabetic untreated groups. Histopathology is also carried out for pancreas. The ethanolic extract of Plant showed significant results in anti-diabetic model. A dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg was used. Values are expressed as mean±S.E.M. Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. The total time period of the study was 3 week.
... This plant of the family Piperaceae is widely consumed as spice in West Africa. It is used in popular culture to treat infertility in women, rheumatism, intestinal disorders, bronchitis, and febrile seizure [76,77]. Study results relate analgesic, anti-parasitic [78], hepatoprotective [79], molluscicide [80], sedative and anxiolytic activity [81]. ...
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Epilepsy is a most disabling neurological disorder affecting all age groups. Among the various mechanisms that may result in epilepsy, neuronal hyperexcitability and oxidative injury produced by an excessive formation of free radicals may play a role in the development of this pathology. Therefore, new treatment approaches are needed to address resistant conditions that do not respond fully to current antiepileptic drugs. This paper reviews studies on the anticonvulsant activities of essential oils and their chemical constituents. Data from studies published from January 2011 to December 2018 was selected from the PubMed database for examination. The bioactivity of 19 essential oils and 16 constituents is described. Apiaceae and Lamiaceae were the most promising botanical families due to the largest number of reports about plant species from these families that produce anticonvulsant essential oils. Among the evaluated compounds, β-caryophyllene, borneol, eugenol and nerolidol were the constituents that presented antioxidant properties related to anticonvulsant action. These data show the potential of these natural products as health promoting agents and use against various types of seizure disorders. Their properties on oxidative stress may contribute to the control of this neurological condition. However, further studies on the toxicological profile and mechanism of action of essential oils are needed.
... The leaves are considered aperitive (having a stimulating effect on the appetite), carminative (expelling gas from the body; relieving flatulence) and eupeptic (aiding good digestion). They are also used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, intestinal diseases and rheumatism (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). There is a growing demand on the African bush pepper owing to its being used for a variety of purposes (Amusa et al., 2014). ...
Research
The study, presents a framework for assessing predictions and projections of future climates which may have impact on the vulnerability of existing forest ecosystems and in the process, impede the achievement of sustainable forest management objectives in the basin. To estimate future climates in terms of mid-summer seasonal rainfall and maximum temperatures over the Zambezi River Basin, this study used the global climate model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM) to produce hindcasts (re-forecasts) of seasonal-to-interannual values and to produce multiple decades of climate change projections. Climate projections indicate the possibility for a switch in ecosystem type for this region with far lower likelihood of appreciable tree cover within the 2100 time horizon
... some of its constituents such as yatein, hinokinin, cubebin and dihydrocubebin have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. [11][12][13][14][15] A number of polyhydroxy cyclohexanes have been isolated from Piper cubeba and have shown to display tumor-inhibitory, anti-leukemic and antibiotic activities. 16 In view of the above, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate scientifically the nephroprotective activity of KC in albino rats. ...
Article
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Kabab chini (KC) (Piper cubeba) is an important drug in Unani Medicine, widely described to be effective in renal diseases, and physicians are using it as a protective and curative agent in various renal disorders from ancient times. The present study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of KC against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. This was studied in two different sets of tests, in which both the protective as well as the curative effects were evaluated in groups of albino rats. The powder of the test drug was administered orally in a dose of 810 mg/kg and 1220 mg/kg, in suspension form, in the pre- and post-treated models. The nephroprotective effect was assessed on the basis of biochemical estimation of serum urea and creatinine levels and histopathological examination of the treated kidney. The effect observed in the pre-treated and post-treated groups was compared with plain as well as negative control groups using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett's multiple pair comparison test. The findings of the two tests demonstrated that KC produced a significant nephroprotective effect in both pre-treated and post-treated groups. The results of our study indicate that KC possesses significant benefit against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity.
... The leaves are considered aperitive (having a stimulating effect on the appetite), carminative (expelling gas from the body; relieving flatulence) and eupeptic (aiding good digestion). They are also used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, intestinal diseases and rheumatism (Sumathykutty et al., 1999). There is a growing demand on the African bush pepper owing to its being used for a variety of purposes (Amusa et al., 2014). ...
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To study the evolution of the alimentary bolus in relation with the loss of forest cover in the Congo Basin, we conducted semi-structured surveys on the composition, origin and amount spent to prepare meals in three study sites with a contrasted forest cover gradient. At global level, the cost price of meals increases as the forest cover decreases. The share of the alimentary bolus in relation with the use of natural resources such as hunting, fishing and harvesting drops to the benefit of proteins from livestock and agricultural commodities. This leads to a translocation of the demand but also pressures on other anthropized ecosystems. The effects of deforestation are subsequently felt at local level but also in neighboring areas.
... Piper guineense, otherwise known as African black pepper is a West African spice plant which possesses some medicinal properties and is widely useful in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments (Balogun et al., 2016). Reports by researchers have also revealed that Piper guineense finds use in the treatment of intestinal diseases, bronchitis, cough and rheumatism, infertility in woman and low sperm count in men (Sumathykutty et al., 1999;Nwachukwu et al., 2010). This report therefore deals with the proximate as well as the phytochemical compositions of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves which is commonly used in South-eastern Nigeria as vegetable and in trado-medicine. ...
Article
Piper guineense is a West African species of Piper known by the Igbos in the Southeastern Nigeria as Uziza. The spice obtained from its dried fruit is ambiguously known as Guinea pepper or West African black pepper. The leaves of this plant have been shown to be useful as spices and in traditional medicine. This study presents the proximate analysis as well as the qualitative and quantitative screening of the phytochemical constituents extracted from the leaves of this indigenous plant by solvent extraction using 95% ethanol. The results of the proximate analysis showed that on dry weight basis, the moisture content is 11.04% (22.08 mg/g), ash content 14.14% (28.28 mg/g), crude protein 17.15% (21.44 mg/g), carbohydrate 36.94% (369.4 mg/g), fats/lipids content 1.74% (3.48 mg/g), while fibre content is 18.99% (37.98 mg/g). The calorific value was estimated at 0.489 mg/g which is equivalent to 378.305 kcal/100g.The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic leaf extracts showed strong or intense positivity (+++) for alkaloids, moderate positivity (++) for flavonoids, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and total phenols, and weak positivity (+) for saponins. The quantitative phytochemistry of the leaves showed that the major phytochemicals present are flavonoids (7.86 mg/g), alkaloids (4.48 mg/g), saponins (3.38 mg/g) and tannins (3.20 mg/g) which have therapeutic, pharmacological, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials. This study therefore reveals that the leaves of Piper guineense can be harnessed for medicinal purposes due to the presence in them of these phytochemicals.
... The leaves are used to treat respiratory infections, rheumatism, and syphilis [35]. In Nigeria, the leaves have been shown to have antibacterial activity [36]. P. guineense leaves are aseptic in nature and have the ability to relieve flatulence [37]. ...
Article
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Piper guineense (African black pepper) is a West African spice plant with medicinal property and widely used traditionally in the treatment of various ailments. The phytochemical studies of the plant revealed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. It also contains vitamins, minerals and fat. Various studies have been done on the plant to determine its pharmacological and therapeutic properties such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, fertility, aphrodisiac, anticonvulsant and larvicidal properties. This review provides detailed information on the phytochemical, nutritional and pharmacological properties of the Piper guineense.
... Piper species are important as a source of essential oils and among the different class of volatile chemicals reported in various Piper species, sesquiterpenoids are the most common (6,7). Sesquiterpenoids spathulenol, β-caryophyllene and (E,E)-farnesol along with the phenyl propanoid myristicin were reported as the major compounds in the leaf oil of P. sarmentosum from Malaysia (8), while P. sarmentosum from Vietnam showed the phenyl propanoids benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol and 2-hydroxy benzoic acid phenyl methyl ether as the major constituents (9). ...
Article
Chemical composition of essential oils from the leaves, fruits and roots of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (Piperaceae) growing wild in Andaman Islands, India was investigated by gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ¹³C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹³C-NMR). The phenyl propanoid myristicin was identified as the major compound comprising 83.4% in the leaf oil, 84.2% in the fruit oil and 81.2% in the root oil. The sesquiterpenoid β-caryophyllene was present in all the oils, 4.2% in the leaves, 5.7% in the fruits and 4.0% in the roots oil. The major constituent myristicin was isolated and structure was further confirmed by ¹³C-NMR analysis. The antimicrobial efficacy of myristicin was evaluated by both in vitro and in silico FtsZ inhibition studies. The in vitro assay showed 13.0% FtsZ inhibition by 200-μΜ myristicin and the molecular docking simulation supported the activity of myristicin.
... The medicinal properties of P. guineese exert bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal effects on some bacteria.The leaves are considered aperitive, carminative and eupeptic. They are also used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, intestinal disease and rheumatism (Okoye and Ebeledike, 2013;Sumathykutty et al., 1999).The leaves are also used for female infertility while, the fruits are used as an aphrodisiac (Echo et al., 2012). P. guineense has culinary, medicinal, cosmetic and insecticidal uses (Nwinyi et al., 2013;Okwute, 1992). ...
... Kabab chini (KC) was selected to study its diuretic effect in view of the various pharmacological actions that it has been described to possess by Unani physician such as Mudirre baul (diuretic), Mufattit wa Mukhrije Hasat (lithotriptic) Dafeye taffun (antiseptic), Muqawwiye Kulyah (Kidney tonic), Mohafize Kulyah (nephroprotective) etc. ( Ibn Sina, 1906; Razi, 1967; Ibn-e-Baitar, 2003; Ghani 1921; Dymock, 2005). It is reported to possess diuretic, anti-inflammatory, tonic, antileishmanial,, antimicrobial, antioxidant,, antileukemic , antimicrobial and nephroprotective activities (Sumathykutty et al., 1999; Choi et al., 2003; Yam J et al., 2008; Hardik et al., 2007; Silva et al., 2007; Aqil et al., 2006; Karthikeyan et al., 2003; Taneja et al., 1991 Taneja et al., zaid et al 2012). In view of the above, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate scientifically the diuretic activity of Kabab chini (Piper cubeba) in albino rats. ...
Article
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The present study was designed to evaluate the diuretic activity of Kabab chini (Piper cubeba) in albino rats. The powder of Kabab chini (Piper cubeba) were administered to the experimental rats orally at doses of 800 mg/kg/BW and 1200 mg/kg / BW / p.o. Furosamide (20 mg/kg) was used as standard drug in study. The diuretic effect of the test drug was evaluated by measuring urine volume, sodium, potassium and chloride content.Urine volume was significantly increased by the two doses of Kabab chini Piper cubeba in comparison to control group. Both the doses have exhibited dose dependent excretion of electrolytes when compared to control group. The elevated diuretic potential is statistically significant (P < 0.05) and comparable to that of standard diuretic agent. Keywords: Diuretic activity, Kabab chini, (Piper cubeba), Unani Medicine
... Piper species are important as a source of essential oils and among the different class of volatile chemicals reported in various Piper species, sesquiterpenoids are the most common (6,7). Sesquiterpenoids spathulenol, β-caryophyllene and (E,E)-farnesol along with the phenyl propanoid myristicin were reported as the major compounds in the leaf oil of P. sarmentosum from Malaysia (8), while P. sarmentosum from Vietnam showed the phenyl propanoids benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol and 2-hydroxy benzoic acid phenyl methyl ether as the major constituents (9). ...
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GC and GC-MS analysis of volatile oil obtained from Piper nigrum L resulted in the identification of 49 components accounting for 99.39% of the total amount, and the major components were β-caryophyllene (24.24%), limonene (16.88%), sabinene (13.01%), β-bisabolene (7.69%) and α-copaene (6.3%). The acetone extract of pepper showed the presence of 18 components accounting for 75.59% of the total amount. Piperine (33.53%), piperolein B (13.73%), piperamide (3.43%) and guineensine (3.23%) were the major components. The oil was found to be 100% effective in controlling the mycelial growth of Fusarium graminearum in inverted petriplate technique. The acetone extract retarded 100% mycelial growth of Penicillium viridcatum and Aspergillus ochraceus in food-poisoning technique. Volatile oil and acetone extract were identified as a better antioxidant for linseed oil, in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil from black, green, and white pepper was determined by using a simultaneous distillation and extraction micromethod for oil isolation and gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detection (FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analysis techniques. The most abundant compounds in pepper oils were (E)-beta-caryophyllene (1.4-70.4%), limonene (2.9-38.4%), beta-pinene (0.7-25.6%), Delta-3-carene (1.7-19.0%), sabinene (0-12.2%), alpha-pinene (0.3-10.4%), eugenol (0.1-41.0%), terpinen-4-ol (0-13.2%), hedycaryol (0-9.1%), beta-eudesmol (0-9.7%), and caryophyllene oxide (0.1-7.2%). Green pepper corn obtained by a sublimation drying method gave more oil (12.1 mg/g) and a much higher content of monoterpenes (84.2%) in the oil than air-dried green pepper corn (0.8 mg/g and 26.8%, respectively). The oil from ground black pepper contained more monoterpenes and less sesquiterprnes and oxygenated terpenoids as compared to green and white pepper oils. After 1 year of storage of pepper samples in a glass vessel at room temperature, the amount of the oils isolated decreased, the content of terpenes decreased, and the amount of oxygenated terpenoids increased. Differently from other pepper samples, 1 year storage of green pepper corn raised the oil amount more than twice of both drying methods.
Article
The investigation of aroma compounds of the essential oils of dried fruits of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and black and white "Ashanti pepper" (Piper guineense) from Cameroon by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was carried out for the first time to identify the odorous target components responsible for the characteristic odor of these valuable spices and food flavoring products. By means of GC-flame ionization detection (FID) and GC-MS (using different polar columns) the main compounds (concentration >3.0%, calculated as area of GC-FID analysis using a non-polar fused-silica open tubular RSL-200 column) of the SPME headspace samples of P. nigrum (black) and P. guineense (black and white) were found to be: P. nigrum (black)--germacrene D (11.01%), limonene (10.26%), beta-pinene (10.02%), alpha-phellandrene (8.56%), beta-caryophyllene (7.29%), alpha-pinene (6.40%) and cis-beta-ocimene (3.19%); P. guineense (black)--beta-caryophyllene (57.59%), beta-elemene (5.10%), bicyclogermacrene (5.05%) and alpha-humulene (4.86%); and P. guineense (white)--beta-caryophyllene (51.75%), cis-beta-ocimene (6.61%), limonene (5.88%), beta-pinene (4.56%), linalool (3.97%) and alpha-humulene (3.29%). The most intense odor impressions of the essential oils of the various dried pepper fruits were given byprofessional perfumers as follows: P nigrum (black)--fine, pleasant black pepper note; P. guineense (black)--black pepper top-note; and P. guineense (white)--pleasant white pepper note. These analytical results for the SPME headspace samples of three different pepper species from Cameroon are in accordance with the olfactoric data of the corresponding essential oils. A GC-sniffing technique was used to correlate the single odor impression of the identified SPME headspace volatiles of the three investigated pepper samples with the following results: themain compounds such as beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D, limonene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene and alpha-humulene, as well as minor constituents such as delta-carene, beta-phellandrene, isoborneol, alpha-guaiene, sarisan, elemicin, calamenene, caryophyllene alcohol, isoelemicin, T-muurolol, cubenol and bulnesol, are of greatest importance for the characteristic pepper odor notes of these three Piper samples. Further aroma impressions can be attributed to mono- and sesquiterpenes, hexane, octane and nonane derivatives.
Article
A socio-economic burden associated with cancers is reported in Africa. Ethnopharmacological usages such as immune and skin disorders, inflammatory, and others chould be considered when selecting plants used to treat cancer, since these reflect disease states bearing relevance to cancer or a cancer symptoms. Documented compounds of Cameroonian medicinal plants were used as keywords in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) database to establish a library of cytotoxic compounds. Cellular and pharmacogenomic profiling was then performed for the 10 most cytotoxic natural products. By COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses, candidate genes were identified whose mRNA expression significantly predicted sensitivity or resistance of cell lines to the two most cytotoxic compounds. Up to 974 compounds isolated from 148 medicinal plants were used as keywords in the NCI database to establish a library of 27 cytotoxic compounds. Two of the 10 most cytotoxic compounds, plumericin from Plumeria rubra and plumbagin from Diospyros crassiflora and Diospyros canaliculata, were analyzed in more detail. The IC(50) values for plumericin and plumbagin of 60 NCI cell lines were associated with the microarray-based transcriptome-wide mRNA expression. Genes products identified for plumericin activity are mainly involved in enzymatic activity, transcriptional processes or are structural constituents of ribosomes. Products identified for plumbagin activity are involved in several processes, but they are mostly the strucrural constituents of ribosomes or involved in enzymatic activity. The most significant progress of the present investigation, the first of its kind ever reported for investigated natural product in Sub-Saharan Africa, was the connection between traditionally used medicinal plants and the mechanistic analysis, such as pharmacogenomics.
Article
The study considered the proximate composition, pH, free acidity, MDA and peroxide values of a cured and ripened lard covered with spices and aromatic herbs, these latter parameters, due to lipolytic endoenzymatic phenomena, tended to increase until the end of the salting period. Throughout the production phases the bacterial load was very low. The final vacuum-packed product had a shelf-life of about 90 days and its fatty acid and cholesterol composition was typical of lard. A GC/MS study of the spices/herbs in the lard highlighted which components came from the spices/aromatic herbs and which came from phenomena due to lipolytic endoenzymatic processes.
Article
This paper reviews available research information on the medicinal value and health benefits of Piper guineense in relation to its composition and biologically active compounds. Piper guineense is an herbaceous vine found in the tropics and sub-tropical regions. It is used as a spice and as a medicinal plant in many traditional settings. Solvent extracts of P. guineense leaves and fruits contain different biologically active compounds. Some of the major biologically active compounds in P. guineense are dillapiole, linalool and myristicine. These compounds possess anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and antioxidant properties. It also contains piperine which is responsible for the hotness associated with the Piper species and other antimicrobial phytochemicals. Some of the peculiar potential attributes of P. guineense include promoting fertility and its anti-inflammatory effects. It is a good antimicrobial agent against food spoilage and pathogenic organisms. Many of the biologically active compounds found in the leaves (or their derivatives) are also found in the fruits. Scientific information about the health benefits of the, stem and roots is lacking. The potentials of this underutilized vine to boost human health is enormous and it deserves improved research attention in the areas of improved production, genetic identification of chemotypes and more research investigations into its composition and medicinal value.
Article
Piper attenuatum is a potent medicinal plant in the Indian systems of medicine. Piper attenuatum having Piperine, Piperlonguminine and other active constituents which are used as muscle relaxant, central nervous system depressant, in headache and as insecticide agent against Musca domestica. Piperine reduced the total body temperature and display analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of present study is to determine the Anti-Hyperlipidemic activity of Ethanolic seed extract of plant Piper attenuatum (Linn.) B. Ham. (Fam. Piperaceae). Piperine was the first amide to be isolated from Piper species. Ethanolic extracts of Piper attenuatum with a dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant Anti-Hyperlipidemic activity in Triton X-100 Induced Hyperlipidemia in rats (P<.05). It was found that Piperine & Piperlonguminine the active constituent of the plant was responsible for the Anti-Hyperlipidemic activity because this constituent have the ability to reduce the Total Cholesterol & Total Triglyceride level in rats. Fenofibrate was used as standard drug (65 mg/kg). The total time period of this study was one week.
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The hydrodistilled Piper cubeba (tailed pepper) essential oil and various oleoresins individually collected by soxhlet apparatus using methanol, ethanol, petroleum benzene, diethyl ether and chloroform as solvents were tested for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The essential oil and oleoresins were analyzed by GC and GC/MS techniques. The main component of the essential oil was ß-cubebene (18.94 %) followed by cubebol (13.32 %), sabinene (9.60 %), α-copaene (7.41%) and ß-caryophyllene (5.28%) with many other components in minor amounts. All the oleoresins showed the presence of 85 components. The major component in all the oleoresins was cubebol (stereoisomer). The percentage of cubebol in the diethyl ether extract was 32.38, in the ethanol extract 25.51, in the petroleum benzene extract 42.89, in the chloroform extract 28.00 and in methanol extract 19.03. The essential oil and oleoresins were tested using different in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil and oleoresins was tested in mustard oil and the antimicrobial results were compared to commercial antifungal and antibacterial agents. Moderate to strong antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were demonstrated in the studied assays. The essential oil and oleoresins may be used as substitutes for synthetic antioxidant and antimicrobial agents after appropriate clinical trials.
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The present study is the first investigation of the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the stem and leaf essential oils from Piper flaviflorum C.DC (SEOP and LEOP), a plant that has been consumed as a wild vegetable, and used as medicine, and spice by the ethnic groups in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Analyzed by GC-MS, 42 and 30 components were identified representing 90.1% and 95.3% of the SEOP and LEOP, with (E)-nerolidol (16.7% and 40.5%), beta-caryophyllene (26.6% and 14.6%) and elixene (5.3% and 12.3%) as their main constituents, respectively. Our results indicate that SEOP and LEOP have good anti-inflammatory activity by significantly inhibiting NO production induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells at 0.04 per thousand without effect on cell viability, and negligible antioxidant activity in both ABTS and FRAP assays. Moreover, the LEOP showed comparable activity with the positive control (tigecycline) against Aspergillus fumigatus, with MIC and MBC values ranging from 256 to 1024 microg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells is worthy of further investigation to discover the possible mechanisms of the NO production inhibition effect of these essential oils.
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Piper guineenseis a West African species of Piper known by the Igbos in the Southeastern Nigeria as Uziza. The spice obtained from its dried fruit is ambiguously known as Guinea pepper or West African black pepper. The leaves of this plant have been shown to be useful as spices and in traditional medicine. This study presents the proximate analysis as well as the qualitative and quantitative screening of the phytochemical constituents extracted from the leaves of this indigenous plant by solvent extraction using 95% ethanol. The results of the proximate analysis showed that on dry weight basis, the moisture content is 11.04% (22.08 mg/g), ash content 14.14% (28.28 mg/g), crude protein 17.15% (21.44 mg/g), carbohydrate 36.94% (369.4 mg/g), fats/lipids content 1.74% (3.48 mg/g), while fibre content is 18.99% (37.98 mg/g). The calorific value was estimated at 0.489 mg/g which is equivalent to 378.305 kcal/100g.The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic leaf extracts showed strong or intense positivity (+++) for alkaloids, moderate positivity (++) for flavonoids, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and total phenols, and weak positivity (+) for saponins. The quantitative phytochemistry of the leaves showed that the major phytochemicals present are flavonoids (7.86 mg/g), alkaloids (4.48 mg/g), saponins (3.38 mg/g) and tannins (3.20 mg/g) which have therapeutic, pharmacological, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials. This study therefore reveals that the leaves of Piper guineense can be harnessed for medicinal purposes due to the presence in them of these phytochemicals.
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Gas chromatographic retention indices were evaluated for 505 frequently reported plant essential oil components using a large retention index database. Retention data are presented for three types of commonly used stationary phases: dimethyl silicone (nonpolar), dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups (slightly polar), and polyethylene glycol (polar) stationary phases. The evaluations are based on the treatment of multiple measurements with the number of data records ranging from about 5 to 800 per compound. Data analysis was limited to temperature programmed conditions. The data reported include the average and median values of retention index with standard deviations and confidence intervals.
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The inhibitive action of acid extracts from Piper guineensis (PG) on mild steel corrosion in HCl and H 2 SO 4 solutions was investigated by gravimetric and gasometric techniques at 30 °C and 60 °C. The results show PG to be a good inhibitor in both acid solutions. PG exhibited better inhibition efficiency (IE) in HCl than in H 2 SO 4 solution and is attributed to the stronger adsorption of Cl-on the metal surface enabling better synergism between Cl-and the protonated inhibitor for improved protection. IE increased with temperature for PG extract in HCl solutions and decreased with temperature for PG extract in H 2 SO 4 solutions. The mechanism of adsorption proposed for PG extract is chemisorption in HCl and physisorption in H 2 SO 4 solutions. The adsorption of PG obeys Langmuir isotherm at low temperature.
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The headspace compositions of 13 pepper and peppercorn samples of different species, colloquially also referred to as pepper, were analyzed, and more than 300 compounds were tentatively characterized by means of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in tandem with flame ionization detection, quadrupole mass spectrometric detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-FID, GC × GC/qMS and GC × GC/TOFMS, respectively). The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was performed after solid-phase microextraction (SPME) using a 75-µm PDMS/DVB fibre. Fingerprint comparison between the three techniques permitted peaks to be assigned in the GC × GC-FID experiment based on the analogous MS analysis, taking into account retention shifts arising from method variations. When using GC × GC/TOFMS, about five times more peaks were identified than in GC × GC/qMS. Retention indices for all peaks were calculated in the bi-dimensional column set comprising of a 5% phenyl polysilphenylene-siloxane primary column and a polyethylene glycol second column. The spectra obtained by both mass detection techniques (qMS and TOFMS) give very similar results when spectral library searching was performed. The majority of the identified compounds eluted as pure components as a result of high-resolution GC × GC separations, which significantly reduces co-elution, and therefore increases the likelihood that pure spectra can be obtained. The differences between TOFMS and qMS (in fast scanning mode) spectra were generally small. Whilst spectral quality and relative ion ratios across a narrow peak (e.g. wb ∼ 100–150 ms) do vary more for the fast peaks obtained in GC × GC/qMS operation, than with TOFMS, in general adequate spectral matching with the library can be achieved. Copyright
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The secondary metabolites isolated from Piper species for the period 1907 to June 1996 have been reviewed. Nearly six hundred chemical constituents belonging to different classes of bioactive compounds are listed together with their source(s) and references. © 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd
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The structures assigned earlier to pipoxide and pipoxide chlorohydrin have been revised on the basis of 360 MHz PMR spectral evidence and decoupling experiments.
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The book is in two parts: first part Essential Oil includes compositae; labiatae; verbenaceae; oleaceae; umbelliferae; myrtaceae; euphorbiaceae; rutaceae; geraniaceae; rosaceae; lauraceae; myristicaceae; anonaceae; santalaceae; moraceae; piperaceae; zingiberaceae; araceae; gramineae; and cupressaceae written in English and Japanese. Part two includes essential oil; gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry written in Japanese. (DP)
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The composition of the volatile oil from the fruits (berries) of Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense) was investigated in detail by means of gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The phenylpropanoid-rich essential oil was comprised of myristicin, sarisan, safrole, and elemicin as the dominant components. Fifty-one mono- and sesquiterpenoids constituted a minor proportion of the oil. Considering the plants dietary and medicinal use in West Africa and given the relatively high concentration of benzodioxole derivatives, the potential toxicity of the volatile oil is briefly evaluated.
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Pipoxide chlorohydrin, (−)-galbelgin and a new aliphatic alcohol, 8-hentriacontanol have been isolated from the leaves of Piper attenuatum.
Pepper is the most important of the spices, with a long history. This article critically reviews our knowledge of the chemistry, processing, and quality evaluation of the product, with emphasis on the constituents contributing to the sensory properties of the spice for which it is valued in food. Other areas briefly summarized include its history, horticultural aspects, production and trade data, and physiological effects. Allied spices and aromatic members of the same family are also considered briefly.
Indian Medicinal Plants
  • K. R. Kirthikar
  • B. D. Basu
Host Plants Resistance to Pests
  • I. Kubo
  • K. Nakanishi